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  1. SUPERTANK Laboratory Data Collection Project. Volume 1. Main Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    located near (or even above) the wave 76 Chapter 4 SUPERTANK Swash Measurements cIE m0C -V c U 0 -Li MaA Wi Li -j - 0 0 M0 z L 0 u C=[ 0 N Li >1 Li cli...Florida. Mr. Norm Tyson of the Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory assisted with pre-SUPERTANK equipment preparation. Ms. Sarah Mouring of the

  2. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  3. Long-term fate and persistence of the spilled metula oil in a marine salt marsh environment degradation of petroleum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Z; Fingas, M; Owens, E H; Sigouin, L; Brown, C E

    2001-08-17

    Three coastal sites, heavily oiled from the 1974 Metula oil spill in the Strait of Magellan [two are salt marshes (East and West) and the third, an intertidal asphalt pavement], were examined during May 1998. Complete 'total oil analyses' were performed on the oil samples collected from these sites. Chemical fingerprinting data reveal, except for those samples from the East Marsh untreated plots which were only lightly to moderately weathered, that the spilled oil has undergone significant alteration in chemical composition after 24 years. There are no fundamental differences between the heavily weathered West Marsh and treated East Marsh samples. However, the effect of experimental filling action conducted in 1993 has been to substantially promote plant recolonization. The asphalt pavement samples indicate extremely high degradation of oil hydrocarbons, evidenced by a complete loss of n-alkanes from n-C8 to n-C41 and by depletion of greater than 98% of the alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues. Even the most refractory biomarker compounds showed some degree of biodegradation. The biomarkers were generally degraded in the declining order of importance as follows: diasteranes>C27 steranes>tricyclic terpanes>pentacyclic terpanes>norhapanes approximately C29-alphabetabeta-steranes.

  4. Tyr39 of ran preserves the Ran.GTP gradient by inhibiting GTP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sven; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2010-08-06

    Ran is a member of the superfamily of small GTPases, which cycle between a GTP-bound "on" and a GDP-bound "off" state. Ran regulates nuclear transport. In order to maintain a gradient of excess Ran.GTP within the nucleoplasm and excess Ran.GDP within the cytoplasm, the hydrolysis of Ran.GTP in the nucleoplasm should be prevented, whereas in the cytoplasm, hydrolysis is catalyzed by Ran.GAP (GTPase-activating protein). In this article, we investigate the GTPase reaction of Ran in complex with its binding protein Ran-binding protein 1 by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: We show that the slowdown of the intrinsic hydrolysis of RanGTP is accomplished by tyrosine 39, which is probably misplacing the attacking water. We monitored the interaction of Ran with RanGAP, which reveals two reactions steps. By isotopic labeling of Ran and RanGAP, we were able to assign the first step to a small conformational change within the catalytic site. The following bond breakage is the rate-limiting step of hydrolysis. An intermediate of protein-bound phosphate as found for Ras or Rap systems is kinetically unresolved. This demonstrates that despite the structural similarity among the G-domain of the GTPases, different reaction mechanisms are utilized.

  5. The Ran pathway in Drosophila melanogaster mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Wakefield

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance and regulation of the microtubule (MT-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs - a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that, far from being superfluous, it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation.

  6. Reducing RANS Model Error Using Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are still the work-horse tools in the turbulence modeling of industrial flows. However, the model discrepancy due to the inadequacy of modeled Reynolds stresses largely diminishes the reliability of simulation results. In this work we use a physics-informed machine learning approach to improve the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses and propagate them to obtain the mean velocity field. Specifically, the functional forms of Reynolds stress discrepancies with respect to mean flow features are trained based on an offline database of flows with similar characteristics. The random forest model is used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in new flows. Then the improved Reynolds stresses are propagated to the velocity field via RANS equations. The effects of expanding the feature space through the use of a complete basis of Galilean tensor invariants are also studied. The flow in a square duct, which is challenging for standard RANS models, is investigated to demonstrate the merit of the proposed approach. The results show that both the Reynolds stresses and the propagated velocity field are improved over the baseline RANS predictions. SAND Number: SAND2016-7437 A

  7. Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer: DNS and RANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-Lei; MA Hui-Yang

    2007-01-01

    We assess the performance of a few turbulence models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of supersonic boundary layers, compared to the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, carried out by Gao et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1709] and Huang et al. [Sci.Chin. 48 (2005) 614], as well as some available experimental data. The assessment is made for two test cases, with incoming Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers M = 2.25, Re = 365, 000/in, and M = 4.5, Re - 1.7 × 107/m,respectively. It is found that in the first case the prediction of RANS models agrees well with the DNS and the experimental data, while for the second case the agreement of the DNS models with experiment is less satisfactory.The compressibility effect on the RANS models is discussed.

  8. RAN translation-What makes it run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katelyn M; Linsalata, Alexander E; Todd, Peter K

    2016-09-15

    Nucleotide-repeat expansions underlie a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders for which there are currently no effective therapies. Recently, it was discovered that such repetitive RNA motifs can support translation initiation in the absence of an AUG start codon across a wide variety of sequence contexts, and that the products of these atypical translation initiation events contribute to neuronal toxicity. This review examines what we currently know and do not know about repeat associated non-AUG (RAN) translation in the context of established canonical and non-canonical mechanisms of translation initiation. We highlight recent findings related to RAN translation in three repeat expansion disorders: CGG repeats in fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), GGGGCC repeats in C9orf72 associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and CAG repeats in Huntington disease. These studies suggest that mechanistic differences may exist for RAN translation dependent on repeat type, repeat reading frame, and the surrounding sequence context, but that for at least some repeats, RAN translation retains a dependence on some of the canonical translational initiation machinery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease.

  9. A DG Implementation of a Novel Hybrid RANS/LES Technique With RANS Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Abbà, Antonella; Nini, Michele; Restelli, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid RANS/LES technique, based on the hybrid filter proposed by Germano in 2004, has been studied. The novelty herein introduced is represented by the reconstruction of the Reynolds stress tensor. As a consequence, no explicit RANS model is needed. The RANS and LES terms are merged using a constant blending factor. The model is implemented in a numerical code based on a high order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element formulation. The test case considered for numerical simulations is the turbulent tur- bulent channel flow at Mach = 0.2. The comparison with available DNS data shows a good agreement and, in general, an improvement with re- spect to pure LES results, confirming that the technique herein proposed represents a promising approach to the numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  10. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensors that detect Ran conformational changes and a Ran x GDP-importin-beta -RanBP1 complex in vitro and in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, Kendra; Macara, Ian G

    2002-08-16

    The Ran GTPase plays a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Association of Ran x GTP with transport carriers (karyopherins) triggers the loading/unloading of export or import cargo, respectively. The C-terminal tail of Ran x GTP is deployed in an extended conformation when associated with a Ran binding domain or importins. To monitor tail orientation, a Ran-GFP fusion was labeled with the fluorophore Alexa546. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) occurs efficiently between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Alexa546 for Ran x GDP and Ran x GTP, suggesting that the tail is tethered in both states. However, Ran x GTP complexes with importin-beta, RanBP1, and Crm1 all show reduced FRET consistent with tail extension. Displacement of the C-terminal tail of Ran by karyopherins may be a general mechanism to facilitate RanBP1 binding. A Ran x GDP-RanBP1-importin-beta complex also displayed a low FRET signal. To detect this complex in vivo, a bipartite biosensor consisting of Ran-Alexa546 plus GST-GFP-RanBP1, was co-injected into the cytoplasm of cells. The Ran redistributed predominantly to the nucleus, and RanBP1 remained cytoplasmic. Nonetheless, a robust cytoplasmic FRET signal was detectable, which suggests that a significant fraction of cytoplasmic Ran.GDP may exist in a ternary complex with RanBP1 and importins.

  11. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  12. Evaluation of energy and cost savings in mobile Cloud RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2013-01-01

    The load in mobile networks is subject to variations during the day, due to user mobility and varying network average usage. Therefore, the traditional or Distributed Radio Access Network (D-RAN) architecture, where the BaseBand processing Units (BBUs) are assigned statically to a number of cells......, is sub optimal, comparing to a novel, cloud based architecture called Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN). In C-RAN a group of cells shares processing resources, and hence benefit from statistical multiplexing gain is expected. In this paper, the energy and cost savings in C-RAN are evaluated numerically...

  13. Role of Ran GTPase in cell cycle regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qing; LU Zhigang; ZHANG Chuanmao

    2004-01-01

    Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase superfamily,is a multifunctional protein and abundant in the nucleus.Many evidences suggest that Ran and its interacting proteins are involved in multiple aspects of the cell cycle regulation.So far it has been conformed that Ran and its interacting proteins control the nucleocytoplasmic transport, the nuclear envelope (NE) assembly, the DNA replication and the spindle assembly, although many details of the mechanisms are waiting for elucidation. It has also been implicated that Ran and its interacting proteins are involved in regulating the integrity of the nuclear structure, the mRNA transcription and splicing, and the RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In this review we mainly discuss the mechanisms by which Ran and its interacting proteins regulate NE assembly, DNA replication and spindle assembly.

  14. VLCC ’METULA’ Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    Wonhom and Mr. Venegas were dropped west of Punta Remo at a point 28 kilometers 49 from Manantiales . They proceeded eastward for...comply with the curfew, we returned to Manantiales for the evening. Tuesday, September 3 Left Manantiales and proceeded to Punta Espora. The

  15. A framework for resources allocation in virtualised C-RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Samman, Imad; Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    the performance gains of different resource allocation schemes in legacy LTE air interface virtualization. Moreover Cloud — based mobile networks are anticipated to play a significant role for next generation mobile networks. This paper investigates the potential deployment benefits of a novel resource...... virtualization algorithm (Traffic Aware Joint Scheduling) in Cloud-RANs (C-RAN). Air interface resources are coordinated and allocated dynamically by a hypervisor among different virtual operators (VOs). Three distinctive schemes are proposed and evaluated against standard Round Robin (RR) C-RAN scheduling...

  16. 5th Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Werner; Peng, Shia-Hui; Schwamborn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on Hybrid RANS-LES Methods, which was held on March 19-21 in College Station, Texas, USA. The different chapters, written by leading experts, reports on the most recent developments in flow physics modelling, and gives a special emphasis to industrially relevant applications of hybrid RANS-LES methods and other turbulence-resolving modelling approaches. The book addresses academic researchers, graduate students, industrial engineers, as well as industrial R&D managers and consultants dealing with turbulence modelling, simulation and measurement, and with multidisciplinary applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), such as flow control, aero-acoustics, aero-elasticity and CFD-based multidisciplinary optimization. It discusses in particular advanced hybrid RANS-LES methods. Further topics include wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES) methods, embedded LES, and a comparison of the LES methods with both hybrid RANS-LES and URANS methods. ...

  17. Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Thomas; Görlich, Dirk

    2011-08-31

    Nuclear export is an essential eukaryotic activity. It proceeds through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and is mediated by soluble receptors that shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. RanGTPase-dependent export mediators (exportins) constitute the largest class of these carriers and are functionally highly versatile. All of these exportins load their substrates in response to RanGTP binding in the nucleus and traverse NPCs as ternary RanGTP-exportin-cargo complexes to the cytoplasm, where GTP hydrolysis leads to export complex disassembly. The different exportins vary greatly in their substrate range. Recent structural studies of both protein- and RNA-specific exporters have illuminated how exportins bind their cargoes, how Ran triggers cargo loading and how export complexes are disassembled in the cytoplasm. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and highlight emerging principles as well as prevailing questions.

  18. Coupling Turbulence in Hybrid LES-RANS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A formulation is proposed for hybrid LES-RANS computations that permits accurate computations during resolution changes, so that resolution may be changed at will in order to employ only as much resolution in each subdomain as is required by the physics. The two components of this formulation, establishing the accuracy of a hybrid model at constant resolutions throughout the RANS-to-LES range and maintaining that accuracy when resolution is varied, are demonstrated for decaying, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence.

  19. Positioning via Direct Localization in C-RAN Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Seongah; Simeone, Osvaldo; Haimovich, Alexander; Kang, Joonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is a prominent architecture for 5G wireless cellular system that is based on the centralization of baseband processing for multiple distributed radio units (RUs) at a control unit (CU). In this work, it is proposed to leverage the C-RAN architecture to enable the implementation of direct localization of the position of mobile devices from the received signals at distributed RUs. With ideal connections between the CU and the RUs, direct localization is known ...

  20. Are Discrepancies in RANS Modeled Reynolds Stresses Random?

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Heng; Wang, Jian-xun; Paterson, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    In the turbulence modeling community, significant efforts have been made to quantify the uncertainties in the Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models and to improve their predictive capabilities. Of crucial importance in these efforts is the understanding of the discrepancies in the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. However, to what extent these discrepancies can be predicted or whether they are completely random remains a fundamental open question. In this work we used a machine learning algorithm based on random forest regression to predict the discrepancies. The success of the regression--prediction procedure indicates that, to a large extent, the discrepancies in the modeled Reynolds stresses can be explained by the mean flow feature, and thus they are universal quantities that can be extrapolated from one flow to another, at least among different flows sharing the same characteristics such as separation. This finding has profound implications to the future development of RANS models, opening up new ...

  1. Cloud RAN for Mobile Networks - a Technology Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Yan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Pool for statistical multiplexing gain, while shifting the burden to the high-speed wireline transmission of In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) data. C-RAN enables energy efficient network operation and possible cost savings on base- band resources. Furthermore, it improves network capacity by performing...

  2. The contribution of lexical access speed to RAN and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    development once a certain level of phonological recoding proficiency has been reached. Method: Forty Danish students without reading difficulties were administered tests of reading speed and accuracy, phoneme awareness, RAN-objects, timed confrontation picture naming, and visio-motor reaction time...

  3. Eye-Movement Control in RAN and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Henry, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the "visual scanning hypothesis", which suggests that fluent oculomotor control is an important component underlying the predictive relationship between Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks and reading ability. Our approach was to isolate components of saccadic planning, articulation, and lexical retrieval in 3…

  4. DNS and RANS Simulation of Dispersion Downstream of an Obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    DNS AND RANS SIMULATION OF DISPERSION DOWNSTREAM OF AN OBSTACLE Riccardo Rossi*, Gianluca Iaccarino** * Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Laboratorio di Termofluidodinamica Computazionale, Seconda Facolt‘a di Ingegneria di Forl‘ý Universit‘a di Bologna

  5. On the accuracy of RANS simulations with DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Colmenares F., Juan D.; Murman, Scott M.

    2016-11-01

    Simulation results conducted for incompressible planar wall-bounded turbulent flows with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with no modeling involved are presented. Instead, all terms but the molecular diffusion are represented by the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS). In simulations, the transport equations for velocity moments through the second order (and the fourth order where the data are available) are solved in a zero-pressure gradient boundary layer over a flat plate and in a fully developed channel flow in a wide range of Reynolds numbers using DNS data from Sillero et al., Lee and Moser, and Jeyapaul et al. The results obtained demonstrate that DNS data are the significant and dominant source of uncertainty in such simulations (hereafter, RANS-DNS simulations). Effects of the Reynolds number, flow geometry, and the velocity moment order as well as an uncertainty quantification technique used to collect the DNS data on the results of RANS-DNS simulations are analyzed. New criteria for uncertainty quantification in statistical data collected from DNS are proposed to guarantee the data accuracy sufficient for their use in RANS equations and for the turbulence model validation.

  6. Hybrid RANS/LES applied to complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    aspect ratio in the RANS layer and thereby resolve the mean near-wall velocity profile. The method is applicable to complex terrain and the benefits of traditional LES are kept intact. Using the hybrid method, simulations of the wind over a natural complex terrain near Wellington in New Zealand......Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wind in complex terrain is limited by computational cost. The number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-ground turbulent structures (eddies) are very high. The traditional solution to the problem has been to apply a wall function...... that accounts for the whole near-wall region. Recently, a hybrid method was proposed in which the eddies close to the ground were modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense (RANS) and the eddies above this region were simulated using LES. The advantage of the approach is the ability to use shallow cells of high...

  7. Uncertainty Quantification and Validation for RANS Turbulence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Uncertainty quantification and validation procedures for RANS turbulence models are developed and applied. The procedures used here rely on a Bayesian view of probability. In particular, the uncertainty quantification methodology requires stochastic model development, model calibration, and model comparison, all of which are pursued using tools from Bayesian statistics. Model validation is also pursued in a probabilistic framework. The ideas and processes are demonstrated on a channel flow example. Specifically, a set of RANS models--including Baldwin-Lomax, Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, k- ω, and v2- f--and uncertainty representations are analyzed using DNS data for fully-developed channel flow. Predictions of various quantities of interest and the validity (or invalidity) of the various models for making those predictions will be examined. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  8. RanBP2 modulates Cox11 and hexokinase I activities and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 causes deficits in glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamat Aslanukov

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2 is a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein. Several molecular partners with distinct functions interacting specifically with selective modules of RanBP2 have been identified. Yet, the significance of these interactions with RanBP2 and the genetic and physiological role(s of RanBP2 in a whole-animal model remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two novel partners of RanBP2 and a novel physiological role of RanBP2 in a mouse model. RanBP2 associates in vitro and in vivo and colocalizes with the mitochondrial metallochaperone, Cox11, and the pacemaker of glycolysis, hexokinase type I (HKI via its leucine-rich domain. The leucine-rich domain of RanBP2 also exhibits strong chaperone activity toward intermediate and mature folding species of Cox11 supporting a chaperone role of RanBP2 in the cytosol during Cox11 biogenesis. Cox11 partially colocalizes with HKI, thus supporting additional and distinct roles in cell function. Cox11 is a strong inhibitor of HKI, and RanBP2 suppresses the inhibitory activity of Cox11 over HKI. To probe the physiological role of RanBP2 and its role in HKI function, a mouse model harboring a genetically disrupted RanBP2 locus was generated. RanBP2(-/- are embryonically lethal, and haploinsufficiency of RanBP2 in an inbred strain causes a pronounced decrease of HKI and ATP levels selectively in the central nervous system. Inbred RanBP2(+/- mice also exhibit deficits in growth rates and glucose catabolism without impairment of glucose uptake and gluconeogenesis. These phenotypes are accompanied by a decrease in the electrophysiological responses of photosensory and postreceptoral neurons. Hence, RanBP2 and its partners emerge as critical modulators of neuronal HKI, glucose catabolism, energy homeostasis, and targets for metabolic, aging disorders and allied neuropathies.

  9. AVHRR GAC SST Reanalysis Version 1 (RAN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ignatov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to its users’ needs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA initiated reanalysis (RAN of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC; 4 km sea surface temperature (SST data employing its Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO retrieval system. Initially, AVHRR/3 data from five NOAA and two Metop satellites from 2002 to 2015 have been reprocessed. The derived SSTs have been matched up with two reference SSTs—the quality controlled in situ SSTs from the NOAA in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam and the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC L4 SST analysis—and analyzed in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM online system. The corresponding clear-sky ocean brightness temperatures (BT in AVHRR bands 3b, 4 and 5 (centered at 3.7, 11, and 12 µm, respectively have been compared with the Community Radiative Transfer Model simulations in another NOAA online system, Monitoring of Infrared Clear-sky Radiances over Ocean for SST (MICROS. For some AVHRRs, the time series of “AVHRR minus reference” SSTs and “observed minus model” BTs are unstable and inconsistent, with artifacts in the SSTs and BTs strongly correlated. In the official “Reanalysis version 1” (RAN1, data from only five platforms—two midmorning (NOAA-17 and Metop-A and three afternoon (NOAA-16, -18 and -19—were included during the most stable periods of their operations. The stability of the SST time series was further improved using variable regression SST coefficients, similarly to how it was done in the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder version 5.2 (PFV5.2 dataset. For data assimilation applications, especially those blending satellite and in situ SSTs, we recommend bias-correcting the RAN1 SSTs using the newly developed sensor-specific error statistics (SSES, which are reported in the product files. Relative performance of RAN1 and PFV5.2 SSTs is discussed. Work is underway to improve the calibration of AVHRR/3s and

  10. A pathway linking oxidative stress and the Ran GTPase system in progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2014-04-01

    Maintaining the Ran GTPase at a proper concentration in the nucleus is important for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Previously we found that nuclear levels of Ran are reduced in cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a disease caused by constitutive attachment of a mutant form of lamin A (termed progerin) to the nuclear membrane. Here we explore the relationship between progerin, the Ran GTPase, and oxidative stress. Stable attachment of progerin to the nuclear membrane disrupts the Ran gradient and results in cytoplasmic localization of Ubc9, a Ran-dependent import cargo. Ran and Ubc9 disruption can be induced reversibly with H2O2. CHO cells preadapted to oxidative stress resist the effects of progerin on Ran and Ubc9. Given that HGPS-patient fibroblasts display elevated ROS, these data suggest that progerin inhibits nuclear transport via oxidative stress. A drug that inhibits pre-lamin A cleavage mimics the effects of progerin by disrupting the Ran gradient, but the effects on Ran are observed before a substantial ROS increase. Moreover, reducing the nuclear concentration of Ran is sufficient to induce ROS irrespective of progerin. We speculate that oxidative stress caused by progerin may occur upstream or downstream of Ran, depending on the cell type and physiological setting.

  11. Measurement of neutron diffraction with compact neutron source RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y.; Takamura, M.; Taketani, A.; Sunaga, H.; Otake, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, M.; Oba, Y.; Hama, T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffraction is used as a measurement technique for crystal structure. X-rays or electron beam with wavelength that is close to the lattice constant of the crystal is often used for the measurement. They have sensitivity in surface (0.01mm) of heavy metals due to the mean free path for heavy ions. Neutron diffraction has the probe of the internal structure of the heavy metals because it has a longer mean free path than that of the X-rays or the electrons. However, the neutron diffraction measurement is not widely used because large facilities are required in the many neutron sources. RANS (Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source) is developed as a neutron source which is usable easily in laboratories and factories. In RANS, fast neutrons are generated by 7MeV protons colliding on a Be target. Some fast neutrons are moderated with polyethylene to thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons of 10meV which have wavelength of 10nm can be used for the diffraction measurement. In this study, the texture evolution in steels was measured with RANS and the validity of the compact neutron source was proved. The texture of IF steel sheets with the thickness of 1.0mm was measured with 10minutes run. The resolution is 2% and is enough to analyze a evolution in texture due to compression/tensile deformation or a volume fraction of two phases in the steel sample. These results have proven the possibility to use compact neutron source for the analysis of mesoscopic structure of metallic materials.

  12. The Drosophila gene RanBPM functions in the mushroom body to regulate larval behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Scantlebury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, Ran-Binding Protein in the Microtubule Organizing Center (RanBPM appears to function as a scaffolding protein in a variety of signal transduction pathways. In Drosophila, RanBPM is implicated in the regulation of germ line stem cell (GSC niche organization in the ovary. Here, we addressed the role of RanBPM in nervous system function in the context of Drosophila larval behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that in Drosophila, RanBPM is required for larval feeding, light-induced changes in locomotion, and viability. RanBPM is highly expressed in the Kenyon cells of the larval mushroom body (MB, a structure well studied for its role in associative learning in Drosophila and other insects. RanBPM mutants do not display major disruption in nervous system morphology besides reduced proliferation. Expression of the RanBPM gene in the Kenyon cells is sufficient to rescue all behavioral phenotypes. Through genetic epistasis experiments, we demonstrate that RanBPM participates with the Drosophila orthologue of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP in the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that the RanBPM gene functions in the MB neurons for larval behavior. Our results suggest a role for this gene in an FMRP-dependent process. Taken together our findings point to a novel role for the MB in larval behavior.

  13. Aggresome formation is regulated by RanBPM through an interaction with HDAC6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa M. Salemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of proteasomal impairment, the build-up of damaged or misfolded proteins activates a cellular response leading to the recruitment of damaged proteins into perinuclear aggregates called aggresomes. Aggresome formation involves the retrograde transport of cargo proteins along the microtubule network and is dependent on the histone deacetylase HDAC6. Here we show that ionizing radiation (IR promotes Ran-Binding Protein M (RanBPM relocalization into discrete perinuclear foci where it co-localizes with aggresome components ubiquitin, dynein and HDAC6, suggesting that the RanBPM perinuclear clusters correspond to aggresomes. RanBPM was also recruited to aggresomes following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the DNA-damaging agent etoposide. Strikingly, aggresome formation by HDAC6 was markedly impaired in RanBPM shRNA cells, but was restored by re-expression of RanBPM. RanBPM was found to interact with HDAC6 and to inhibit its deacetylase activity. This interaction was abrogated by a RanBPM deletion of its LisH/CTLH domain, which also prevented aggresome formation, suggesting that RanBPM promotes aggresome formation through an association with HDAC6. Our results suggest that RanBPM regulates HDAC6 activity and is a central regulator of aggresome formation.

  14. Importin-beta is a GDP-to-GTP exchange factor of Ran: implications for the mechanism of nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonhienne, Thierry G; Forwood, Jade K; Marfori, Mary; Robin, Gautier; Kobe, Bostjan; Carroll, Bernard J

    2009-08-21

    Ran-GTP interacts strongly with importin-beta, and this interaction promotes the release of the importin-alpha-nuclear localization signal cargo from importin-beta. Ran-GDP also interacts with importin-beta, but this interaction is 4 orders of magnitude weaker than the Ran-GTP.importin-beta interaction. Here we use the yeast complement of nuclear import proteins to show that the interaction between Ran-GDP and importin-beta promotes the dissociation of GDP from Ran. The release of GDP from the Ran-GDP-importin-beta complex stabilizes the complex, which cannot be dissociated by importin-alpha. Although Ran has a higher affinity for GDP compared with GTP, Ran in complex with importin-beta has a higher affinity for GTP. This feature is responsible for the generation of Ran-GTP from Ran-GDP by importin-beta. Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) activates this reaction by forming a trimeric complex with Ran-GDP and importin-beta. Importin-alpha inhibits the GDP exchange reaction by sequestering importin-beta, whereas RanBP1 restores the GDP nucleotide exchange by importin-beta by forming a tetrameric complex with importin-beta, Ran, and importin-alpha. The exchange is also inhibited by nuclear-transport factor-2 (NTF2). We suggest a mechanism for nuclear import, additional to the established RCC1 (Ran-guanine exchange factor)-dependent pathway that incorporates these results.

  15. Crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and Ran-mediated nuclear transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steward Ruth

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus is a highly regulated process. The RanGTP/RanGDP gradient controls the trafficking of molecules exceeding the diffusion limit of the nuclear pore across the nuclear envelope. Results We found genetic interaction between genes establishing the Ran gradient, nuclear transport factor 2 (ntf-2, Ran GTPase activating protein (Sd, and the gene encoding Drosophila Profilin, chickadee (chic. The severe eye phenotype caused by reduction of NTF2 is suppressed by loss of function mutations in chic and gain of function mutations in Sd (RanGAP. We show that in chic mutants, as in Sd-RanGAP, nuclear export is impaired. Conclusion Our data suggest that Profilin and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton play an important role in nuclear trafficking.

  16. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: Stellar systems that ran away

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts.

  17. Does ability to establish sound-symbol pairings mediate the RAN reading relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    -items, so it is unclear whether it is the experience or the ability to take advantage of the experience that is responsible for the correlation between RAN and reading. Paired associate learning tasks have been shown to differentiate dyslexics from controls, and to correlate with reading in unselected...... samples. We tested whether the ability to learn and/or established letter knowledge mediated the correlation between RAN and reading in a sample of preschool beginning readers. Method 105 preschoolers were administered traditional reading, letter knowledge, and RAN tests, and taught novel names...... to learn sound-symbol associations is responsible for the RAN-reading relationship in early reading development....

  18. Francis-99 turbine numerical flow simulation of steady state operation using RANS and RANS/LES turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakov, A.; Platonov, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Gavrilov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of flow in a laboratory model of a Francis hydroturbine at three regimes, using two eddy-viscosity- (EVM) and a Reynolds stress (RSM) RANS models (realizable k-ɛ, k-ω SST, LRR) and detached-eddy-simulations (DES), as well as large-eddy simulations (LES). Comparison of calculation results with the experimental data was carried out. Unlike the linear EVMs, the RSM, DES, and LES reproduced well the mean velocity components, and pressure pulsations in the diffusor draft tube. Despite relatively coarse meshes and insufficient resolution of the near-wall region, LES, DES also reproduced well the intrinsic flow unsteadiness and the dominant flow structures and the associated pressure pulsations in the draft tube.

  19. Examining the Cross-Lagged Relationships between RAN and Word Reading in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Georgiou, George K.; Deng, Ciping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this 4-year longitudinal study was to specify the direction of the relationship between RAN and word reading (accuracy and fluency) in Chinese. This is important in light of arguments that the developmental relationships between RAN and reading can disclose changes in the reading processes underlying reading as development proceeds.…

  20. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  1. Different RAN Components Relate to Reading at Different Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kaizer, Eleni L.

    2014-01-01

    The present 10-year longitudinal study examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--relate to reading fluency. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 10 and were assessed five times (in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10) on RAN (digits and objects) and reading fluency (word…

  2. Measures of Information Processing in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Their Relation To Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Graham; Foorman, Barbara R.; Francis, David J.; Carlson, Coleen D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined articulation and interarticulation (pause) times on Rapid Automatized Naming Tests for first- and second-graders. Found that pause and articulation times for RAN letters and objects were not reliably related, compared to RAN numbers articulation and pause durations. Subtest pause durations were differentially related to reading. RAN…

  3. Developmental changes in the relations between RAN, phonological awareness, and reading in Spanish children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, G.; van den Boer, M.; Jiménez, J.E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) with reading in a cross-sectional study with 874 Spanish children from Grades 2 to 6. Our main prediction was that the RAN-reading relationship would decrease due to a gradual change in reading

  4. Mesh Resolution Effect on 3D RANS Turbomachinery Flow Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the study of the effect of a mesh refinement on numerical results of 3D RANS computations of turbomachinery flows. The CFD solver F, which based on the second-order accurate ENO scheme, is used in this study. The simplified multigrid algorithm and local time stepping permit decreasing computational time. The flow computations are performed for a number of turbine and compressor cascades and stages. In all flow cases, the successively refined meshes of H-type with an approximate orthogonalization near the solid walls were generated. The results obtained are compared in order to estimate their both mesh convergence and ability to resolve the transonic flow pattern. It is concluded that for thorough studying the fine phenomena of the 3D turbomachinery flows, it makes sense to use the computational meshes with the number of cells from several millions up to several hundred millions per a single turbomachinery blade channel, while for industrial computations, a mesh of about or less than one mil...

  5. Data-driven RANS for prediction of wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Viola, Francesco; Ciri, Umberto; Camarri, Simone; Rotea, Mario A.; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Wind turbine wakes are highly turbulent flows resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and wake vorticity structures. Measurement technologies, such as wind LiDARs, are currently available to perform velocity measurements in a set of locations of wakes past utility-scale wind turbines; however, computational methods are still needed to predict wake downstream evolution. In this work, a low-computational cost and accurate algorithm is proposed for prediction of the spatial evolution of wind turbine wakes. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) are formulated in cylindrical coordinates and simplified by using a boundary layer type approximation. Turbulence effects are taken into account with a mixing length model calibrated on the available observations. In this study, observations of wind turbine wakes consist in LES data of wakes produced by a wind turbine operating with different incoming wind and loading conditions. The mixing length calibrated on the LES data is constant in the near wake and only affected by the incoming turbulence, whereas further downstream it increases roughly linearly with the downstream position and with increased slope for increasing rotational speed of the turbine.

  6. Assessment of RANS to predict flows with large streamline curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. L.; Wang, D. Z.; Cheng, H.; Gu, W. G.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide a guideline for choosing turbulence models in computation of complex flows with large streamline curvature, this paper presents a comprehensive comparison investigation of different RANS models widely used in engineering to check each model's sensibility on the streamline curvature. First, different models including standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, Renormalization-group (RNG) k-ε model, Shear-stress transport k-ω model and non-linear eddy-viscosity model v2-f model are tested to simulated the flow in a 2D U-bend which has the standard bench mark available. The comparisons in terms of non-dimensional velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show that large differences exist among the results calculated by various models. To further validate the capability to predict flows with secondary flows, the involved models are tested in a 3D 90° bend flow. Also, the velocities are compared. As a summary, the advantages and disadvantages of each model are analysed and guidelines for choice of turbulence model are presented.

  7. Unsteady RANS and Large Eddy simulations of multiphase diesel injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Jenna; Green, Melissa; Akih-Kumgeh, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of two-phase flow and evaporation of high pressure diesel injection into a quiescent, high temperature environment is investigated. Unsteady RANS and LES are turbulent flow simulation approaches used to determine complex flow fields. The latter allows for more accurate predictions of complex phenomena such as turbulent mixing and physio-chemical processes associated with diesel combustion. In this work we investigate a high pressure diesel injection using the Euler-Lagrange method for multiphase flows as implemented in the Star-CCM+ CFD code. A dispersed liquid phase is represented by Lagrangian particles while the multi-component gas phase is solved using an Eulerian method. Results obtained from the two approaches are compared with respect to spray penetration depth and air entrainment. They are also compared with experimental data taken from the Sandia Engine Combustion Network for ``Spray A''. Characteristics of primary and secondary atomization are qualitatively evaluated for all simulation modes.

  8. General and Specific Contributions of RAN to Reading and Arithmetic Fluency in First Graders: A Longitudinal Latent Variable Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hornung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we opted for a longitudinal design and examined rapid automatized naming (RAN performance from two perspectives. In a first step, we examined the structure of RAN performance from a general cognitive perspective. We investigated whether rapid naming measures (e.g., digit RAN and color RAN reflect a mainly domain-general factor or domain-specific factors. In a second step, we examined how the best fitting RAN model was related to reading and arithmetic outcomes, assessed several months later. Finally in a third step we took a clinical perspective and investigated specific contributions of RAN measures to reading and arithmetic outcomes. While RAN has emerged as a promising predictor of reading, the relationship between RAN and arithmetic has been less examined in the past. Hundred and twenty-two first graders completed seven RAN tasks, each comprising visually familiar stimuli such as digits, vowels, consonants, dice, finger-numeral configurations, objects, and colors. Four months later the same children completed a range of reading and arithmetic tasks. From a general descriptive perspective, structural equation modeling supports a one-dimensional RAN factor in 6- to -7-year-old children. However, from a clinical perspective, our findings emphasize the specific contributions of RANs. Interestingly, alphanumeric RANs (i.e., vowel RAN were most promising when predicting reading skills and number-specific RANs (i.e., finger-numeral configuration RAN were most promising when predicting arithmetic fluency. The implications for clinical and educational practices will be discussed.

  9. Incorporating Prior Knowledge for Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainty in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Simulations based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models have been used to support high-consequence decisions related to turbulent flows. Apart from the deterministic model predictions, the decision makers are often equally concerned about the predictions confidence. Among the uncertainties in RANS simulations, the model-form uncertainty is an important or even a dominant source. Therefore, quantifying and reducing the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations are of critical importance to make risk-informed decisions. Researchers in statistics communities have made efforts on this issue by considering numerical models as black boxes. However, this physics-neutral approach is not a most efficient use of data, and is not practical for most engineering problems. Recently, we proposed an open-box, Bayesian framework for quantifying and reducing model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by incorporating observation data and physics-prior knowledge. It can incorporate the information from the vast...

  10. Effect of Engine Installation on Jet Noise using a Hybrid LES/RANS Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Installation effects arising from propulsion airframe interaction are known to produce substantial variations in the in-situ jet noise. A hybrid LES/RANS...

  11. Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal offers to provide NASA with an automatic mesh generator for the simulation of aerodynamic flows using Reynolds-Averages Navier-Stokes (RANS) models....

  12. RanBPM is an acetylcholinesterase-interacting protein that translocates into the nucleus during apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowen Gong; Weiyuan Ye; Haibo Zhou; Xiaohui Ren; Zhigang Li; Weiyin Zhou; Jun Wu; Yicheng Gong; Qi Ouyang; Xiaolin Zhao; Xuejun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) expression may be induced during apoptosis in various cell types. Here, we used the C-terminal of AChE to screen the human fetal brain library and found that it interacted with Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM). This interaction was further con-firmed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In HEK293T cells, RanBPM and AChE were hetero-geneously expressed in the cisplatin-untreated cyto-plasmic extracts and in the cisplatin-treated cytoplasmic or nuclear extracts. Our previous studies performed using morphologic methods have shown that AChE translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that RanBPM is an AChE-interacting protein that is translocated from the cytoplasm into the nucleus during apoptosis, similar to the trans-location observed in case of ACHE.

  13. RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathria, Gaurav; Garg, Bhavuk; Wagner, Christine; Garg, Kanika; Gschaider, Melanie; Jalili, Ahmad; Wagner, Stephan N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

  14. Tuning a RANS k-e model for jet-in-crossflow simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefantzi, Sophia; Ray, Jaideep; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin

    2013-09-01

    We develop a novel calibration approach to address the problem of predictive ke RANS simulations of jet-incrossflow. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that predictive ke parameters can be obtained by estimating them from a strongly vortical flow, specifically, flow over a square cylinder. In this study, we estimate three ke parameters, C%CE%BC, Ce2 and Ce1 by fitting 2D RANS simulations to experimental data. We use polynomial surrogates of 2D RANS for this purpose. We conduct an ensemble of 2D RANS runs using samples of (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1) and regress Reynolds stresses to the samples using a simple polynomial. We then use this surrogate of the 2D RANS model to infer a joint distribution for the ke parameters by solving a Bayesian inverse problem, conditioned on the experimental data. The calibrated (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1) distribution is used to seed an ensemble of 3D jet-in-crossflow simulations. We compare the ensemble's predictions of the flowfield, at two planes, to PIV measurements and estimate the predictive skill of the calibrated 3D RANS model. We also compare it against 3D RANS predictions using the nominal (uncalibrated) values of (C%CE%BC;Ce2;Ce1), and find that calibration delivers a significant improvement to the predictive skill of the 3D RANS model. We repeat the calibration using surrogate models based on kriging and find that the calibration, based on these more accurate models, is not much better that those obtained with simple polynomial surrogates. We discuss the reasons for this rather surprising outcome.

  15. An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Safety Network (PSN is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU. However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively.

  16. A Physics-Informed Machine Learning Framework for RANS-based Predictive Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Heng; Wu, Jinlong; Wang, Jianxun; Ling, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Numerical models based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are widely used in turbulent flow simulations in support of engineering design and optimization. In these models, turbulence modeling introduces significant uncertainties in the predictions. In light of the decades-long stagnation encountered by the traditional approach of turbulence model development, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative. We will present a data-driven, physics-informed machine-learning framework for predictive turbulence modeling based on RANS models. The framework consists of three components: (1) prediction of discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses based on machine learning algorithms, (2) propagation of improved Reynolds stresses to quantities of interests with a modified RANS solver, and (3) quantitative, a priori assessment of predictive confidence based on distance metrics in the mean flow feature space. Merits of the proposed framework are demonstrated in a class of flows featuring massive separations. Significant improvements over the baseline RANS predictions are observed. The favorable results suggest that the proposed framework is a promising path toward RANS-based predictive turbulence in the era of big data. (SAND2016-7435 A).

  17. Encephalomyocarditis virus Leader protein hinge domain is responsible for interactions with Ran GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacot-Davis, Valjean R; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2013-08-15

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a Cardiovirus, initiates its polyprotein with a short 67 amino acid Leader (L) sequence. The protein acts as a unique pathogenicity factor, with anti-host activities which include the triggering of nuclear pore complex hyperphosphorylation and direct binding inhibition of the active cellular transport protein, Ran GTPase. Chemical modifications and protein mutagenesis now map the Ran binding domain to the L hinge-linker region, and in particular, to amino acids 35-40. Large deletions affecting this region were shown previously to diminish Ran binding. New point mutations, especially K35Q, D37A and W40A, preserve the intact L structure, abolish Ran binding and are deficient for nucleoporin (Nup) hyperphosphorylation. Ran itself morphs through multiple configurations, but reacts most effectively with L when in the GDP format, preferably with an empty nucleotide binding pocket. Therefore, L:Ran binding, mediated by the linker-hinge, is a required step in L-induced nuclear transport inhibition.

  18. RAN1基因过表达抑制嗜热四膜虫大核无丝分裂%Overexpression of RAN1 Inhibits Macronuclear Amitosis in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海霞; 许静; 王伟

    2013-01-01

    Ran is an evolutionary conserved GTPase and involved in the regulation of cell proliferation during mitosis and meiosis through RanGTP/RanGDP cycle. Knockdown of RAN1 may cause abnormal organization of intramacronuclear microtubule and inhibit macronuclear amitosis in Tetrahymena thermophila. To analyze the roles of Ranl in amitosis, we overexpressed Rani mutants and investigated the GTP-bound Ranl-mimetic ( Ran1Q70L ) and GDP-bound Ranl-mimetic ( Ran1T25N ) on macronuclear amitosis in T. thermophila. The results showed that Rani mutant overexpression decreased the cell proliferation rate and lead to abnormal macronuclear amitosis. The percentage of abnormal amitotic cells positively correlated with the Ranl overexpression levels. Immuno-fluorescence analysis showed that the overexpressed HA-Ranl was distributed throughout the cell during amitosis which disrupted the Ran gradient with high concentrations in the nucleus. The overexpressed HA-RanlQ70L was localized in both the macronuclear envelope and the cytoplasm; whereas the overexpressed HA-RanlT25N predominantly in the macronucleus and micronucleus. The localization of the Ranl mutants was the same with where the regulatory proteins of Ranl GTP/Ran1 GDP cycle localized. Our results suggested that the overexpression of Rani and its mutants inhibited the macronuclear amitotic progress by disrupting the Rani GTP/Ranl GDP cycle in T. thermophila.%Ran GTPase通过RanGTP/RanGDP循环的形式,参与调控多种细胞增殖方式:包括有丝分裂和减数分裂.敲减RAN1基因可导致嗜热四膜虫大核内微管组装紊乱,从而抑制大核无丝分裂.为进一步分析Ran1在无丝分裂中的功能,本研究将野生型Ran1以及模拟GTP( Ran1Q70L)和GDP( Ran1T25N)锁定形式的Ran1突变体在嗜热四膜虫中过量表达,均导致四膜虫细胞增殖速率下降,并引起大核无丝分裂异常,且这种核异常细胞比率与Ran1过表达量呈正相关.免疫荧光定位

  19. Dynamic unified RANS-LES simulations of high Reynolds number separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpoor, Reza; Heinz, Stefan; Stoellinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The development of hybrid RANS-LES methods is seen to be a very promising approach to enable efficient simulations of high Reynolds number turbulent flows involving flow separation. To contribute to further advances, we present a new, theoretically well based, dynamic hybrid RANS-LES method, referred to as DLUM. It is applied to a high Reynolds number flow involving both attached and separated flow regimes: a periodic hill flow is simulated at a Reynolds number of 37 000. Its performance is compared to pure LES, pure RANS, other hybrid RANS-LES (given by DLUM modifications), and experimental observations. It is shown that the use of this computational method offers huge cost reductions (which scale with Re/200, Re refers to the Reynolds number) of very high Reynolds number flow simulations compared to LES, it is much more accurate than RANS, and more accurate than LES, which is not fully resolved. In particular, this conclusion does also apply to the comparison of DLUM and pure LES simulations on rather coarse grids, which are often simply required to deal with simulations of very high Reynolds number flows: the DLUM provides mean velocity fields which are hardly affected by the grid, whereas LES velocity fields reveal significant shortcomings. We identified the reason for the superior performance of our new dynamic hybrid RANS-LES method compared to LES: it is the model's ability to respond to a changing resolution with adequate turbulent viscosity changes by ensuring simultaneously a physically correct turbulence length scale specification under the presence of interacting RANS and LES modes.

  20. Crystal structure of importin-α3 bound to the nuclear localization signal of Ran-binding protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masako; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-09-23

    Ran-binding protein 3 (RanBP3) is a primarily nuclear Ran-binding protein that functions as an accessory factor in the Ran GTPase system. RanBP3 associates with Ran-specific nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 and enhances its catalytic activity towards Ran. RanBP3 also promotes CRM1-mediated nuclear export as well as CRM1-independent nuclear export of β-catenin, Smad2, and Smad3. Nuclear import of RanBP3 is dependent on the nuclear import adaptor protein importin-α and, RanBP3 is imported more efficiently by importin-α3 than by other members of the importin-α family. Protein kinase signaling pathways control nucleocytoplasmic transport through phosphorylation of RanBP3 at Ser58, immediately C-terminal to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal region of RanBP3. Here we report the crystal structure of human importin-α3 bound to an N-terminal fragment of human RanBP3 containing the NLS sequence that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear import. The structure reveals that RanBP3 binds to importin-α3 residues that are strictly conserved in all seven isoforms of human importin-α at the major NLS-binding site, indicating that the region of importin-α outside the NLS-binding site, possibly the autoinhibotory importin-β1-binding domain, may be the key determinant for the preferential binding of RanBP3 to importin-α3. Computational docking simulation indicates that phosphorylation of RanBP3 at Ser58 could potentially stabilize the association of RanBP3 with importin-α through interactions between the phosphate moiety of phospho-Ser58 of RanBP3 and a cluster of basic residues (Arg96 and Lys97 in importin-α3) on armadillo repeat 1 of importin-α. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Chelsi J; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Paschal, Bryce M

    2013-05-13

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria.

  2. Quantifying Model Form Uncertainty in RANS Simulation of Wing-Body Junction Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Wing-body junction flows occur when a boundary layer encounters an airfoil mounted on the surface. The corner flow near the trailing edge is challenging for the linear eddy viscosity Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, due to the interaction of two perpendicular boundary layers which leads to highly anisotropic Reynolds stress at the near wall region. Recently, Xiao et al. proposed a physics-informed Bayesian framework to quantify and reduce the model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by utilizing sparse observation data. In this work, we extend this framework to incorporate the use of wall function in RANS simulations, and apply the extended framework to the RANS simulation of wing-body junction flow. Standard RANS simulations are performed on a 3:2 elliptic nose and NACA0020 tail cylinder joined at their maximum thickness location. Current results show that both the posterior mean velocity and the Reynolds stress anisotropy show better agreement with the experimental data at the corner regio...

  3. The Contribution of Statistical Errors in DNS Data Quantified with RANS-DNS Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Jeyapaul, Elbert; Murman, Scott M.; Colmenares F., Juan D.

    2016-11-01

    In RANS-DNS simulations, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are solved, with all terms but molecular diffusion being represented by the data from direct numerical simulations (DNS). No turbulence modeling is involved in such simulations. Recently, we demonstrated the use of RANS-DNS simulations as a framework for uncertainty quantification in statistical data collected from DNS. In the current study, contribution of the statistical error in the DNS data uncertainty is investigated using RANS-DNS simulations. Simulations of the Reynolds stress transport were conducted in a planar fully-developed turbulent channel flow at Re = 392 (based on the friction velocity) using DNS data collected at seven averaging times. The open-source CFD software OpenFOAM was used in RANS simulations. Budgets for the Reynolds stresses were obtained from DNS performed using a pseudo-spectral (Fourier/Chebyshev-tau) method. The material is in part based upon work supported by NASA under Award NNX12AJ61A.

  4. Middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiomonas sp. RAN5 strain for hydrogen sulfide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryoki; Hirooka, Kayako; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the most toxic and offensively odorous gases and is generated in anaerobic bioreactors. A middle-thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB), Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5, was isolated and applied for H2S removal from both artificial and anaerobically digested gas. When a bioreactor containing medium inoculated with RAN5 was aerated continuously with artificial gas (containing 100 ppm H2S) at 45 degrees C for 156 hr, the H2S concentration in the vented gas was reduced by 99%. This was not affected by the presence of other microbes in the bioreactor The H2S removal efficiency of the RAN5 bioreactor for anaerobically digested gas was greater than 99% at influent H2S concentrations ranging from 2 to 1800 ppm; the efficiency decreased to 90% at influent H2S concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 cannot survive at room temperature, and thus its leakage from a wastewater treatment plant would not damage sewage systems. These data suggest that Thiomonas sp. strain RAN5 may be a useful microorganism for H2S removal.

  5. Ran GTPase protein promotes human pancreatic cancer proliferation by deregulating the expression of Survivin and cell cycle proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Department of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710038 (China); Lu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaodi; Sun, Yi; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Hongwei; Liu, Changhao; Zhou, Jinfeng; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Fan, Daiming, E-mail: daimingfan@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Guo, Xuegang, E-mail: xuegangguo@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Overexpression of Ran in pancreatic cancer was correlated with histological grade. •Downregulation of Ran could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. •The effects were mediated by cell cycle proteins, Survivin and cleaved Caspase-3. -- Abstract: Ran, a member of the Ras GTPase family, has important roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Herein, we detected Ran expression in pancreatic cancer and explored its potential role on tumour progression. Overexpressed Ran in pancreatic cancer tissues was found highly correlated with the histological grade. Downregulation of Ran led to significant suppression of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and induction of apoptosis. In vivo studies also validated that result. Further studies revealed that those effects were at least partly mediated by the downregulation of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, phospho-Rb and Survivin proteins and up regulation of cleaved Caspase-3.

  6. Hybrid RANS/LES method for wind flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable...... for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES, a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls, the flow is treated with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations (unsteady RANS......), and this layer acts as wall model for the outer flow handled by LES. The well-known high Reynolds number two-equation k - turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - subgrid scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over...

  7. Comparison Between LES and RANS Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows and Swirling Diffusion Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瓅元; 周力行; 张健

    2005-01-01

    Turbulent swirling flows and methane-air swirling diffusion combustion are simulated by both large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Smagorinsky-Lilly subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model, a second-order moment (SOM) subgrid-scale combustion model and an eddy break up (EBU) combustion model and Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes (RANS) modeling using the Reynolds stress equation model and a second-order moment (SOM) combustion model. For swirling flows, the LES statistical results give better agreement with the experimental results than the RANS modeling, indicating that the adopted subgrid-scale turbulence model is suitable for swirling flows. For swirling combustion, both the proposed SOM SGS combustion model and the RANS-SOM model give the results in good agreement with the experimental results, but the LES-EBU modeling results are not in agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Assessment of unsteady-RANS approach against steady-RANS approach for predicting twin impinging jets in a cross-flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyin Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A complex flow field is created when a vertical/short take-off and landing aircraft is operating near ground. One major concern for this kind of aircraft in ground effect is the possibility of ingestion of hot gases from the jet engine exhausts back into the engine, known as hot gas ingestion, which can increase the intake air temperature and also reduce the oxygen content in the intake air, potentially leading to compressor stall, low combustion efficiency and causing a dramatic loss of lift. This flow field can be represented by the configuration of twin impinging jets in a cross-flow. Accurate prediction of this complicated flow field under the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS approach (current practise in industry is a great challenge as previous studies suggest that some important flow features cannot be captured by the Steady-RANS (SRANS approach even with a second-order Reynolds stress model (RSM. This paper presents a numerical study of this flow using the Unsteady-RANS (URANS approach with a RSM and the results clearly indicate that the URANS approach is superior than the SRANS approach but still the predictions of Reynolds stress are not accurate enough.

  9. E324 Simulation of Turbulent Channel Flow Using a RANS/LES Hybrid Model

    OpenAIRE

    半場, 藤弘; Fujihiro, Hamba; 東大生研; Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo

    2004-01-01

    A RANS/LES hybrid simulation of a channel flow at Reτ=5000 was carried out using the Smagorinsky model. It is known that some hybrid simulations including the detached eddy simulation have a common defect: the mean velocity profile has a mismatch between the RANS and LES regions due to a steep gradient near the interface. New filtering for the velocity was introduced to improve the mean velocity profile. It was shown that this method increases the intensity of the normal velocity component in...

  10. CFD-RANS analysis of the rotational effects on the boundary layer of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carcangiu, Carlo Enrico; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Cambuli, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The flow field past the rotating blade of a horizontal axis wind turbine has been modeled with a full 3-D steady-RANS approach. Flow computations have been performed using the commercial finite-volume solver Fluent. A number of blade sections from the 3-D rotating geometry were chosen and the cor......The flow field past the rotating blade of a horizontal axis wind turbine has been modeled with a full 3-D steady-RANS approach. Flow computations have been performed using the commercial finite-volume solver Fluent. A number of blade sections from the 3-D rotating geometry were chosen...

  11. Evaluating C-RAN Fronthaul Functional Splits in Terms of Network Level Energy and Cost Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2016-01-01

    The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional...... on designing an efficient fronthaul network.Based on the obtained results, we derive a principle for fronthaul dimensioning based on the traffic profile. This principle allows for efficient radio access network with respect to multiplexing gains while achieving the expected users' quality of service....

  12. Optimizing Cloud-RAN Deployments in Real-life Scenarios Using Microwave Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-obaidi, Rami; Checko, Aleksandra; Holm, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    derive engineering guidelines for minimizing the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) of C-RAN deployment. We show for which population density and span of BBU Pool coverage usage of Microwave Radio (MWR) links is viable. For larger scale deployment we recommend to divide the area into multiple BBU Pools....

  13. Non-canonical RAN Translation of CGG Repeats Has Canonical Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Diana C; Cooper, Thomas A

    2016-04-21

    Repeat expansions cause dominantly inherited neurological disorders. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kearse et al. (2016) examine the requirements for RAN translation of the CGG repeats that cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, revealing similarities and differences with canonical translation.

  14. Ardo Ran Varres elustab härra Tartüffi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    2.-9. septembrini Pärnus, Haapsalus, Tallinnas, Viljandis ja Tartus toimuvast tummfilmi ühe olulisema lavastaja F. W. Murnau "Tartüff" filmikontserdist "Tartüff live", esitaja Varrese ansambel ARV Ensemble. Ardo Ran Varrese töödest

  15. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only minor changes in plot and emphasis, in…

  16. The nuclear import of the constitutive androstane receptor by importin/Ran-GTP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Miyazaki, Yukari; Inouye, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The CAR is normally located in the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated liver cells and translocates to the nucleus after exposure to phenobarbital (PB) or PB-like chemicals. Previously, we identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the rat constitutive androstane/active receptor (CAR), NLS1, which is located in the hinge region, and NLS2, which overlaps with the ligand-binding domain. However, the nuclear import mechanism of CAR is unclear. In this study, we show that nuclear import of CAR is regulated by importin/Ran-GTP systems. The regulation of CAR nuclear import by a Ran-GTP concentration gradient was confirmed using the dominant negative, GTPase-deficient form of Ran (RanQ69L), suggesting the involvement of transport receptors of the importinbeta family. IPO13 was shown to be involved in the PB-mediated nuclear translocation of CAR, which was found to be susceptible to inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of IPO13 in primary hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Eulerian–Lagrangian RANS Model Simulations of the NIST Turbulent Methanol Spray Flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Shanglong; Roekaerts, Dirk; Pozarlik, Artur; Meer, van der Theo

    2015-01-01

    A methanol spray flame in a combustion chamber of the NIST was simulated using an Eulerian–Lagrangian RANS model. Experimental data and previous numerical investigations by other researchers on this flame were analyzed to develop methods for more comprehensive model validation. The inlet boundary co

  18. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  19. Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...

  20. Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Troldborg, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental ...

  1. Modelling of sand transport under wave-generated sheet flows with a RANS diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Wael; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2010-01-01

    A 1DV-RANS diffusion model is used to study sand transport processes in oscillatory flat-bed/sheet flow conditions. The central aim is the verification of the model with laboratory data and to identify processes controlling the magnitude and direction (‘onshore’/‘offshore’) of the net time-averaged

  2. Western Culture in Japanese Film: Kurosawa's "Throne of Blood" and "Ran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E.

    Akira Kurosawa, the most popular Asian film maker with audiences in the United States, has found in William Shakespeare's plays themes and plots that resonate within Japanese culture. While the translations of "Macbeth" into "Throne of Blood" and "King Lear" into "Ran" are quite direct and literal with only…

  3. beta-catenin can be transported into the nucleus in a Ran-unassisted manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoya, F; Imamoto, N; Tachibana, T; Yoneda, Y

    1999-04-01

    The nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin plays an important role in the Wingless/Wnt signaling pathway. This study describes an examination of the nuclear import of beta-catenin in living mammalian cells and in vitro semi-intact cells. When injected into the cell cytoplasm, beta-catenin rapidly migrated into the nucleus in a temperature-dependent and wheat germ agglutinin-sensitive manner. In the cell-free import assay, beta-catenin rapidly migrates into the nucleus without the exogenous addition of cytosol, Ran, or ATP/GTP. Cytoplasmic injection of mutant Ran defective in its GTP hydrolysis did not prevent beta-catenin import. Studies using tsBN2, a temperature-sensitive mutant cell line that possesses a point mutation in the RCC1 gene, showed that the import of beta-catenin is insensitive to nuclear Ran-GTP depletion. These results show that beta-catenin possesses the ability to constitutively translocate through the nuclear pores in a manner similar to importin beta in a Ran-unassisted manner. We further showed that beta-catenin also rapidly exits the nucleus in homokaryons, suggesting that the regulation of nuclear levels of beta-catenin involves both nuclear import and export of this molecule.

  4. Mechanistic Insights from Structural Analyses of Ran-GTPase-Driven Nuclear Export of Proteins and RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-22

    Understanding how macromolecules are rapidly exchanged between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes is a fundamental problem in biology. Exportins are Ran-GTPase-dependent nuclear transport factors that belong to the karyopherin-β family and mediate nuclear export of a plethora of proteins and RNAs, except for bulk mRNA nuclear export. Exportins bind cargo macromolecules in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner in the nucleus, forming exportin-cargo-Ran-GTP complexes (nuclear export complexes). Transient weak interactions between exportins and nucleoporins containing characteristic FG (phenylalanine-glycine) repeat motifs facilitate nuclear pore complex passage of nuclear export complexes. In the cytoplasm, nuclear export complexes are disassembled, thereby releasing the cargo. GTP hydrolysis by Ran promoted in the cytoplasm makes the disassembly reaction virtually irreversible and provides thermodynamic driving force for the overall export reaction. In the past decade, X-ray crystallography of some of the exportins in various functional states coupled with functional analyses, single-particle electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations, and small-angle solution X-ray scattering has provided rich insights into the mechanism of cargo binding and release and also begins to elucidate how exportins interact with the FG repeat motifs. The knowledge gained from structural analyses of nuclear export is being translated into development of clinically useful inhibitors of nuclear export to treat human diseases such as cancer and influenza.

  5. SCA31 Flies Perform in a Balancing Act between RAN Translation and RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George R

    2017-04-05

    In this issue of Neuron, Ishiguro et al. (2017) explore the toxicity of RAN translation in spinocerebellar ataxia 31. Using a Drosophila model, the authors demonstrate that TDP-43 and other RNA-binding proteins act as chaperones to regulate the formation of toxic RNA aggregates.

  6. Optimal Assignment of Cells in C-RAN Deployments with Multiple BBU Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik; Checko, Aleksandra; Al-obaidi, Rami;

    2015-01-01

    recommend to divide the area into multiple BBU Pools. In this paper we show how to optimally assign cells to different BBU Pools in such a scenario. By using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method we derive engineering guidelines for minimizing the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) of C-RAN deployment....

  7. Hybrid turbulence models for atmospheric flow: A proper comparison with RANS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compromise between the required accuracy and the need for affordable simulations for the wind industry might be achieved with the use of hybrid turbulence models. Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES [1] is a hybrid technique that yields accurate results only if it is used according to its original formulation [2]. Due to its particular characteristics (i.e., the type of mesh required, the modeling of the atmospheric flow might always fall outside the original scope of DES. An enhanced version of DES called Simplify Improved Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation (SIDDES [3] can overcome this and other disadvantages of DES. In this work the neutrally stratified atmospheric flow over a flat terrain with homogeneous roughness will be analyzed using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model called k – ω SST (shear stress transport [4], and the hybrids k – ω SST-DES and k – ω SST-SIDDES models. An obvious test is to validate these hybrid approaches and asses their advantages and disadvantages over the pure RANS model. However, for several reasons the technique to drive the atmospheric flow is generally different for RANS and LES or hybrid models. The flow in a RANS simulation is usually driven by a constant shear stress imposed at the top boundary [5], therefore modeling only the atmospheric surface layer. On the contrary the LES and hybrid simulations are usually driven by a constant pressure gradient, thus a whole atmospheric boundary layer is simulated. Rigorously, this represents two different simulated cases making the model comparison not trivial. Nevertheless, both atmospheric flow cases are studied with the mentioned models. The results prove that a simple comparison of the time average turbulent quantities obtained by RANS and hybrid simulations is not easily achieved. The RANS simulations yield consistent results for the atmospheric surface layer case, while the hybrid model results are not correct. As for the atmospheric boundary

  8. HURP is a Ran-importin beta-regulated protein that stabilizes kinetochore microtubules in the vicinity of chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silljé, Herman H W; Nagel, Susanna; Körner, Roman; Nigg, Erich A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle in somatic cells requires the cooperation of two assembly pathways, one based on kinetochore capture by centrosomal microtubules, the other on RanGTP-mediated microtubule organization in the vicinity of chromosomes. How RanGTP regulates kinetochore-

  9. ran Bonde - landsköpman och bondeseglare på 1500-talet / Bengt Eriksson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eriksson, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Üle Soome lahe kaubandusest 16. sajandil. Helsingi kihelkonnas tegutsenud kaupmehest Göran Bondest, kes käis aastas 5-6 korda kaubareisil Tallinnas. Tihedamad suhted sidusid Göran Bondet Tallinna kaupmehe Hemlich Fickega. "Läänemere valitsejast" Sören Norrbyst. Helsingi rajamisest Gustav I Vasa poolt vastukaaluks Tallinnale

  10. Identification of a PTC-containing DlRan transcript and its differential expression during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi-Zhen; Lai, Cheng-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Lin, Yu-Ling; Lai, Zhong-Xiong

    2013-10-15

    RAN (Ras-related nuclear protein) plays crucial roles in multiple cellular processes in yeast, animals and plants. Here we present a DlRan gene and its alternative splicing transcripts containing premature terminator codons (PTCs), identified from embryogenic cultures in longan. Multiple alignment and splicing pattern analyses indicated that DlRan-1 transcript harboring PTC was the consequence of alternative splicing. The accumulation of DlRan PTC-containing transcripts increased significantly when the embryogenic calli were treated with the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide, indicating that DlRan-1 may be targeted by NMD. The analysis of expression profiles of DlRan transcripts revealed that differential expression levels of the alternative spliced DlRan transcripts occurred during the development of embryogenic callus, globular-shaped embryos, and cotyledon-shaped embryos, respectively, in the longan somatic embryogenesis, and were in consistent with the embryo development in corresponding wild-type transcripts. The present work offers evidence to speculate that the alternatively spliced PTC-containing transcripts can be functional and may shed light on expression regulation of DlRan during development of the longan somatic embryos. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Canoe binds RanGTP to promote Pins(TPR)/Mud-mediated spindle orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Brett; Johnston, Christopher A; Prehoda, Kenneth E; Doe, Chris Q

    2011-10-31

    Regulated spindle orientation maintains epithelial tissue integrity and stem cell asymmetric cell division. In Drosophila melanogaster neural stem cells (neuroblasts), the scaffolding protein Canoe (Afadin/Af-6 in mammals) regulates spindle orientation, but its protein interaction partners and mechanism of action are unknown. In this paper, we use our recently developed induced cell polarity system to dissect the molecular mechanism of Canoe-mediated spindle orientation. We show that a previously uncharacterized portion of Canoe directly binds the Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. The Canoe-Pins(TPR) interaction recruits Canoe to the cell cortex and is required for activation of the Pins(TPR)-Mud (nuclear mitotic apparatus in mammals) spindle orientation pathway. We show that the Canoe Ras-association (RA) domains directly bind RanGTP and that both the Canoe(RA) domains and RanGTP are required to recruit Mud to the cortex and activate the Pins/Mud/dynein spindle orientation pathway.

  12. Assessment of 3D-RANS models for the simulation of topographically forced shallow flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safarzadeh Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the performance of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS simulations to predict the flow structure developed by the presence of a sidewall obstacle in a uniform open-channel shallow flow is discussed. The tested geometry was selected due to its important role in several fluvial applications, such as the control of riverbank erosion and the creation of improved ecological conditions in river restoration applications. The results are compared against experimental laboratory velocity fields obtained after Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV measurements. It is shown that the length of reattachment of the separated shear layer generated by the obstacle is well predicted by a Reynolds Stress Model, while classical two-equation models show important limitations. All the performed RANS simulations are unable to properly predict the formation of a secondary gyre region, which develops immediately downstream the obstacle.

  13. An hybrid RANS/LES model for simulation of complex turbulent flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏群; 陈红勋; 马峥

    2016-01-01

    A non-linear eddy viscosity model (NLEVM) and a scalable hybrid Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes/ large eddy simula- tion (RANS/LES) strategy are developed to improve the capability of the eddy viscosity model (EVM) to simulate complex flows featuring separations and unsteady motions. To study the performance of the NLEVM, numerical simulations around S809 airfoil are carried out and the results show that the NLEVM performs much better when a large separation occurs. Calculated results of the flow around a triangular cylinder show that the NLEVM can improve the precision of the flow fields to some extents, but the error is still considerable, and the small turbulence structures can not be clearly captured as the EVM. Whereas the scalable hybrid RANS/LES model based on the NLEVM is fairly effective on resolving the turbulent structures and can give more satisfactory predictions of the flow fields.

  14. The Calculations of Propeller Induced Velocity by RANS and Momentum Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuxin Gao; Wei Jin; Dracos Vassalos

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide instructions for the calculation of the propeller induced velocity in the study of the hull-propeller interaction using the body force approach,three methods were used to calculate the propeller induced velocity:1) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of the self-propulsion test,2)RANS simulation of the propeller open water test,and 3) momentum theory of the propeller.The results from the first two methods were validated against experimental data to assess the accuracy of the computed flow field.The thrust identity method was adopted to obtain the advance velocity,which was then used to derive the propeller induced velocity from the total velocity field.The results computed by the first two approaches were close,while those from the momentum theory were significantly overestimated.The presented results could prove to be useful for further calculations of self-propulsion using the body force approach.

  15. Prediction of Boundary Layer Transition Based on Modeling of Laminar Fluctuations Using RANS Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; Taghavi; Z.; Mahmood; Salary; Amir; Kolaei

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a linear eddy-viscosity turbulence model for predicting bypass and natural transition in boundary layers by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The model includes three transport equations, separately, to compute laminar kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and dissipation rate in a flow field. It needs neither correlations of intermittency factors nor knowledge of the transition onset. Two transition tests are carried out: flat plate boundary layer under zero ...

  16. Tandem cylinder flow and noise predictions using a hybrid RANS/LES approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Weinmann; Sandberg, R.D.; Doolan, C.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a novel hybrid RANS/LES methodology for accurate flow and noise predictions of the NASA Tandem Cylinder Experiment is investigated. The proposed approach, the modified Flow Simulation Methodology (FSM), is based on scaling the turbulence viscosity and the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate with a damping function. This damping function consists of three individual components, a function based on the Kolmogorov length-scale ensuring correct behaviour in the direct nu...

  17. Application of Les, Pans and Rans to a Case of Intake Channel Steady Flow Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítek Oldřich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of intake channel flow properties (discharge coefficient, tumble and swirl ratio using both 3-D CFD simulation and measurement. Sensitivity of different calculation parameters was tested. The most important ones are mesh parameters and applied turbulence models (considered models: LES, PANS and RANS. Concerning the mesh, the critical parameter is a mesh configuration near a wall - a thickness of mesh boundary layer and an amount of these layers have significant impact on mass flow rate while tumble/swirl ratio is unaffected by that. Based on that, these mesh parameters can be considered as tuning constants for fine-tuning the CFD model. Regarding the mesh cell size, 2 different values were tested (0.6 and 0.3 mm. It was found out that neither mesh is fine enough to perform proper LES. Hence, PANS performance is close to RANS. Concerning the turbulence models, PANS seems to be the best one as it combines advantages of both LES and RANS. Generally speaking, mass flow rate prediction is relatively good while swirl/tumble one is more problematic as only qualitative agreement can be achieved.

  18. Hydraulic Modeling of A Curtain-Walled Dissipater by the Coupling of RANS and Boussinesq Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐鹏; 王永学

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid numerical method for the hydraulic modeling of a curtain-walled dissipater of reflected waves from breakwa-ters is presented. In this method, a zonal approach that combines a nonlinear weakly dispersive wave (Boussinesq-typeequation) method and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is used. The Boussinesq-type equation issolved in the far field to describe wave transformation in shallow water. The RANS method is used in the near field to re-solve the turbulent boundary layer and vortex flows around the structure. Suitable matching conditions are enforced at theinterface between the viscous and the Boussinesq region. The Coupled RANS and Boussinesq method successfully resolvesthe vortex characteristics of flow in the vicinity of the structure, while unexpected phenomena like wave re-reflection areeffectively controlled by lengthening the Boussinesq region. Extensive results on hydraulic performance of a curtain-walleddissipater and the mechanism of dissipation of reflected waves are presented, providing a reference for minimization of thebreadth of the water chamber and for determination of the submerged depth of the curtain wall.

  19. Accurate load prediction by BEM with airfoil data from 3D RANS simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marc S.; Nitzsche, Jens; Hennings, Holger

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two methods for the extraction of airfoil coefficients from 3D CFD simulations of a wind turbine rotor are investigated, and these coefficients are used to improve the load prediction of a BEM code. The coefficients are extracted from a number of steady RANS simulations, using either averaging of velocities in annular sections, or an inverse BEM approach for determination of the induction factors in the rotor plane. It is shown that these 3D rotor polars are able to capture the rotational augmentation at the inner part of the blade as well as the load reduction by 3D effects close to the blade tip. They are used as input to a simple BEM code and the results of this BEM with 3D rotor polars are compared to the predictions of BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients plus common empirical corrections for stall delay and tip loss. While BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients produces a very different radial distribution of loads than the RANS simulation, the BEM with 3D rotor polars manages to reproduce the loads from RANS very accurately for a variety of load cases, as long as the blade pitch angle is not too different from the cases from which the polars were extracted.

  20. Unsteady Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Shear Coaxial GO2/GH2 Rocket Injector with RANS and Hybrid-RAN-LES/DES Using Flamelet Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Doug G.; West, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the analysis and design of liquid rocket engines (LREs) has relied on full-scale testing and one-dimensional empirical tools. The testing is extremely expensive and the one-dimensional tools are not designed to capture the highly complex, and multi-dimensional features that are inherent to LREs. Recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools have made it possible to predict liquid rocket engine performance, stability, to assess the effect of complex flow features, and to evaluate injector-driven thermal environments, to mitigate the cost of testing. Extensive efforts to verify and validate these CFD tools have been conducted, to provide confidence for using them during the design cycle. Previous validation efforts have documented comparisons of predicted heat flux thermal environments with test data for a single element gaseous oxygen (GO2) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) injector. The most notable validation effort was a comprehensive validation effort conducted by Tucker et al. [1], in which a number of different groups modeled a GO2/GH2 single element configuration by Pal et al [2]. The tools used for this validation comparison employed a range of algorithms, from both steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (U/RANS) calculations, large-eddy simulations (LES), detached eddy simulations (DES), and various combinations. A more recent effort by Thakur et al. [3] focused on using a state-of-the-art CFD simulation tool, Loci/STREAM, on a two-dimensional grid. Loci/STREAM was chosen because it has a unique, very efficient flamelet parameterization of combustion reactions that are too computationally expensive to simulate with conventional finite-rate chemistry calculations. The current effort focuses on further advancement of validation efforts, again using the Loci/STREAM tool with the flamelet parameterization, but this time with a three-dimensional grid. Comparisons to the Pal et al. heat flux data will be made for both RANS and

  1. Persson : Rootsi on iseseisev, ent kasutab ELi jõudu / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Göran Persson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti endise välisministri Toomas Hendrik Ilvese televestlus Rootsi peaministri Göran Perssoniga Rootsi referendumist Euroopa valuutaliiduga liitumiseks, Euroopa keskkonnaküsimustest, Venemaa ja EL-i suhetest, Euroopa Liidu majandusarengust, Rootsi välispoliitikast

  2. Beyond Rab GTPases Legionella activates the small GTPase Ran to promote microtubule polymerization, pathogen vacuole motility, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbi, Hubert; Rothmeier, Eva; Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Legionella spp. are amoebae-resistant environmental bacteria that replicate in free-living protozoa in a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Upon transmission of Legionella pneumophila to the lung, the pathogens employ an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to grow in LCVs within alveolar macrophages, thus triggering a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. LCV formation is a complex and robust process, which requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and involves the amazing number of 300 different translocated effector proteins. LCVs interact with the host cell's endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway. Accordingly, in a proteomics approach as many as 12 small Rab GTPases implicated in endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking were identified and validated as LCV components. Moreover, the small GTPase Ran and its effector protein RanBP1 have been found to decorate the pathogen vacuole. Ran regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, spindle assembly, and cytokinesis, as well as the organization of non-centrosomal microtubules. In L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages, Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs, and the small GTPase is activated by the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1. Ran activation by LegG1 leads to microtubule stabilization and promotes intracellular pathogen vacuole motility and bacterial growth, as well as chemotaxis and migration of Legionella-infected cells.

  3. RANS modeling for particle transport and deposition in turbulent duct flows: Near wall model uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraju, S.T., E-mail: jayaraju@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sathiah, P.; Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dehbi, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Near-wall modeling uncertainties in the RANS particle transport and deposition are addressed in a turbulent duct flow. • Discrete Random Walk (DRW) model and Continuous Random Walk (CRW) model performances are tested. • Several near-wall anisotropic model accuracy is assessed. • Numerous sensitivity studies are performed to recommend a robust, well-validated near-wall model for accurate particle deposition predictions. - Abstract: Dust accumulation in the primary system of a (V)HTR is identified as one of the foremost concerns during a potential accident. Several numerical efforts have focused on the use of RANS methodology to better understand the complex phenomena of fluid–particle interaction at various flow conditions. In the present work, several uncertainties relating to the near-wall modeling of particle transport and deposition are addressed for the RANS approach. The validation analyses are performed in a fully developed turbulent duct flow setup. A standard k − ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment is used for modeling the turbulence. For the Lagrangian phase, the performance of a continuous random walk (CRW) model and a discrete random walk (DRW) model for the particle transport and deposition are assessed. For wall bounded flows, it is generally seen that accounting for near wall anisotropy is important to accurately predict particle deposition. The various near-wall correlations available in the literature are either derived from the DNS data or from the experimental data. A thorough investigation into various near-wall correlations and their applicability for accurate particle deposition predictions are assessed. The main outcome of the present work is a well validated turbulence model with optimal near-wall modeling which provides realistic particle deposition predictions.

  4. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Long; Wan, Pin-Jun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  5. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  6. Synchronization challenges in packet-based Cloud-RAN fronthaul for mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Juul, Anders Christian; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at reusing existing packet-based network (e.g. Ethernet) to possibly decrease deployment costs of fronthaul Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) network and cost of Baseband Unit (BBU) resources. The challenge of this solution is that it requires mobile traffic (until now...... bridge the gap between Ethernet and mobile network domains creating a comprehensive architectural analysis....... transmitted over synchronous protocols) to traverse the asynchronous Ethernet without losing synchronization. We analyze synchronization requirements of mobile networks and present an overview of solutions that fulfill them in traditional mobile networks. Then we elaborate on challenges that packet...

  7. Modeling of Fuel Film Cooling Using Steady State RANS and Unsteady DES Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21 July 2016 – 31 August 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling of Fuel Film Cooling Using Steady State RANS...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 1 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA# 16391. Modeling of  Fuel  Film Cooling Using...Distribution Unlimited. PA# 16391. 3 Introduction • Fuel  film cooling is critical for high performing boost engines  using the Oxygen Rich Staged

  8. Enhancing LTE with Cloud-RAN and Load-Controlled Parasitic Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Boviz, Dora; Checko, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    design and distribution of data and control traffic for coordinated communications, and conception of a flexible and elastic architecture supporting dynamic allocation of both the densely distributed RRHs and the centralized processing resources in the cloud to create virtual base stations. More...... presented for the fronthaul enables flexibility and elasticity in resource allocation to support BS virtualization. A layered design of information control for the proposed end-to-end solution is presented. The feasibility and effectiveness of such an LCPAA-enabled C-RAN system setup has been validated...

  9. Statistical Multiplexing of Computations in C-RAN with Tradeoffs in Latency and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalør, Anders Ellersgaard; Agurto Agurto, Mauricio Ignacio; Pratas, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    In the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture, the baseband signals from multiple remote radio heads are processed in a centralized baseband unit (BBU) pool. This architecture allows network operators to adapt the BBU’s computational resources to the aggregate access load experienced...... frame duration, then this may result in additional access latency and limit the energy savings. In this paper we investigate the tradeoff by considering two extreme time-scales for the resource multiplexing: (i) long-term, where the computational resources are adapted over periods much larger than...

  10. Caratteristiche geologiche e classificazione di sito delle stazioni accelerometriche della RAN ubicate a L'Aquila

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    L’evento sismico del 6 aprile 2009 è stato registrato da 57 stazioni accelerometriche delle RAN (Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale, gestita dal Dipartimento della Protezione Civile), alcune delle quali ubicate nella città di L’Aquila (stazione AQK) o nella porzione della Valle dell’Aterno a NW della città (AQA, AQF, AQG, AQM, AQP, AQV). Uno degli obiettivi del Progetto S4, finanziato nell’ambito della Convenzione 2007‐ 2009 tra l’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e il Dipartiment...

  11. Validation of Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Capabilities of the 3-D RANS Code TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The capabilities of the 3-D unsteady RANS code TURBO have been extended to include heat transfer and film cooling applications. The results of simulations performed with the modified code are compared to experiment and to theory, where applicable. Wilcox s k-turbulence model has been implemented to close the RANS equations. Two simulations are conducted: (1) flow over a flat plate and (2) flow over an adiabatic flat plate cooled by one hole inclined at 35 to the free stream. For (1) agreement with theory is found to be excellent for heat transfer, represented by local Nusselt number, and quite good for momentum, as represented by the local skin friction coefficient. This report compares the local skin friction coefficients and Nusselt numbers on a flat plate obtained using Wilcox's k-model with the theory of Blasius. The study looks at laminar and turbulent flows over an adiabatic flat plate and over an isothermal flat plate for two different wall temperatures. It is shown that TURBO is able to accurately predict heat transfer on a flat plate. For (2) TURBO shows good qualitative agreement with film cooling experiments performed on a flat plate with one cooling hole. Quantitatively, film effectiveness is under predicted downstream of the hole.

  12. Evaluation of a general hybrid RANS/LES model in smooth wall reattachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES modeling approaches often exhibit deficiencies when used for common problems of engineering interest containing flow features such as unsteady smooth-wall separation and reattachment with non-trivial domains and discretization. Often, problem specific modifications and tuning must be employed rendering these models ineffective as generally predictive tools. A new broadly applicable hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach that is being developed to specifically address challenges associated with complex geometries and flows is presented. In general, the approach seeks to a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy provided information from the underlying turbulence model, the resolved turbulence, and the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. Here, we examine model performance with the case of a wall-mounted smooth hump of Greenblatt et al.. Excellent agreement with experimental results is attained while significantly outperforming delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) for nearly the same computational expense and without any problem-specific modifications.

  13. Quantifying the Discrepancy in RANS Modeling of Reynolds Stress Eigenvectors System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlong; Thompson, Roney; Wang, Jianxun; Sampaio, Luiz; Xiao, Heng

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are the dominant tool for engineering design and analysis applications involving wall bounded turbulent flows. However, the modeled Reynolds stress tensor is known to be a main source of uncertainty, comparing to other sources like geometry, boundary conditions, etc. Recently, several works have been conducted with the aim to quantify the uncertainty of RANS simulation by studying the discrepancy of anisotropy and turbulence kinetic energy of the Reynolds stress tensor with respect to a reference database obtained from DNS. On the other hand, the eigenvectors system of Reynolds stress tensor is less investigated. In this work, a general metric is proposed to visualize the discrepancy between two eigenvectors systems. More detailed metrics based on the Euler angle and the direction cosine are also proposed to quantify the discrepancy of eigenvectors systems. The results show that even a small discrepancy of the eigenvectors of the Reynolds stress can lead to a drastically different mean velocity field, demonstrating the importance of quantifying this kind of uncertainty/error. Furthermore, the Euler angle and the direction cosine are compared for the purpose of uncertainty quantification and machine learning, respectively.

  14. A comparison study of convective schemes in hybrid RANS-LES calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basara, Branislav; Pavlovic, Zoran

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays it is commonly accepted to report on convections schemes in the case of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) calculations. However, in the case of hybrid RANS-LES calculations, the same discussion seems not to be relevant assuming that calculations are anyway performed on the coarser computational meshes and that the amount of unresolved and modelled turbulence impairs the calculation accuracy more than the error of convection schemes used in calculations. Therefore, we want to tackle this issue by using the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model as the representative hybrid RANS-LES method but the conclusions derived in this work are equally applicable to other models. We will present results by using the central differencing (CD), MINMOD and SMART schemes but also using CD scheme only locally in the area of low unresolved-to-total ratios of kinetic energy (fk) . The paper will also show the performance of a step blending function, which depends on the prescribed constant value of the ratio fk and the performance of a smooth function which directly uses the ratio fk as the blending value. The results will be presented for the flow around the square cylinder.

  15. Comparative study of hybrid RANS-LES models for separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G.; Lakshmanan, S. K.; Gopalan, H.; De, A.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid RANS-LES models are proven to be capable of predicting massively separated flows with reasonable computation cost. In this paper, Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) based detached eddy simulation (DES) model and three SST based hybrid models with different RANS to LES switching criteriaare investigated. The flow over periodic hill at Re = 10,595 is chosen as the benchmark for comparing the performance of the different models due to the complex flow physics and reasonablecomputational cost. The model performances are evaluated based on their prediction capabilities of velocity and stress profiles, and separation and reattachment point. The simulated results are validatedagainst experimental and numerical results available in literature. The S-A DES model predicted separation bubble accurately at the top of the hill, as reported earlier in experiments and other numerical results. This model also correctly predicted velocity and stress profiles in recirculation region. However, the performance of this model was poor in the post reattachment region. On the other hand, the k-ω SST based hybrid models performed poorly in recirculation region, but it fairly predicted stress profiles in post reattachment region.

  16. Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 is a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Chao Chang

    Full Text Available Lymphoma-specific biomarkers contribute to therapeutic strategies and the study of tumorigenesis. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of malignant lymphoma. However, only 50% of patients experience long-term survival after current treatment; therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies is warranted. Comparative proteomic analysis of two DLBCL lines with a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL showed differential expression of Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1 between them, which was confirmed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining showed that the majority of DLBCLs (92%, 46/50 were RanGAP1(+, while reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 12 was RanGAP1(+ predominantly in germinal centers. RanGAP1 was also highly expressed in other B-cell lymphomas (BCL, n = 180 with brisk mitotic activity (B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia: 93%, and Burkitt lymphoma: 95% or cell-cycle dysregulation (mantle cell lymphoma: 83%, and Hodgkin's lymphoma 91%. Interestingly, serum RanGAP1 level was higher in patients with high-grade BCL (1.71 ± 2.28 ng/mL, n = 62 than in low-grade BCL (0.75 ± 2.12 ng/mL, n = 52 and healthy controls (0.55 ± 1.58 ng/mL, n = 75 (high-grade BCL vs. low-grade BCL, p = 0.002; high-grade BCL vs. control, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test. In vitro, RNA interference of RanGAP1 showed no effect on LCL but enhanced DLBCL cell death (41% vs. 60%; p = 0.035 and cell-cycle arrest (G0/G1: 39% vs. 49%, G2/M: 19.0% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.030 along with decreased expression of TPX2 and Aurora kinases, the central regulators of mitotic cell division. Furthermore, ON 01910.Na (Estybon, a multikinase inhibitor induced cell death, mitotic cell arrest, and hyperphosphorylation of RanGAP1 in DLBCL cell lines but no effects in normal B and T cells. Therefore, RanGAP1 is a promising marker and therapeutic target for aggressive B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL.

  17. A Bayesian Calibration-Prediction Method for Reducing Model-Form Uncertainties with Application in RANS Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J -L; Xiao, H

    2015-01-01

    Model-form uncertainties in complex mechanics systems are a major obstacle for predictive simulations. Reducing these uncertainties is critical for stake-holders to make risk-informed decisions based on numerical simulations. For example, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are increasingly used in mission-critical systems involving turbulent flows. However, for many practical flows the RANS predictions have large model-form uncertainties originating from the uncertainty in the modeled Reynolds stresses. Recently, a physics-informed Bayesian framework has been proposed to quantify and reduce model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations by utilizing sparse observation data. However, in the design stage of engineering systems, measurement data are usually not available. In the present work we extend the original framework to scenarios where there are no available data on the flow to be predicted. In the proposed method, we first calibrate the model discrepancy on a related flow with available dat...

  18. Physics-Informed Machine Learning for Predictive Turbulence Modeling: Using Data to Improve RANS Modeled Reynolds Stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Xiao, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence modeling is a critical component in numerical simulations of industrial flows based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. However, after decades of efforts in the turbulence modeling community, universally applicable RANS models with predictive capabilities are still lacking. Recently, data-driven methods have been proposed as a promising alternative to the traditional approaches of turbulence model development. In this work we propose a data-driven, physics-informed machine learning approach for predicting discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. The discrepancies are formulated as functions of the mean flow features. By using a modern machine learning technique based on random forests, the discrepancy functions are first trained with benchmark flow data and then used to predict Reynolds stresses discrepancies in new flows. The method is used to predict the Reynolds stresses in the flow over periodic hills by using two training flow scenarios of increasing difficulties: (1) ...

  19. A RANS/DES Numerical Procedure for Axisymmetric Flows with and without Strong Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Andrew Jacob [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A RANS/DES numerical procedure with an extended Lax-Wendroff control-volume scheme and turbulence model is described for the accurate simulation of internal/external axisymmetric flow with and without strong rotation. This new procedure is an extension, from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, of (1) a second order accurate multi-grid, control-volume integration scheme, and (2) a k-ω turbulence model. This paper outlines both the axisymmetric corrections to the mentioned numerical schemes and the developments of techniques pertaining to numerical dissipation, multi-block connectivity, parallelization, etc. Furthermore, analytical and experimental case studies are presented to demonstrate accuracy and computational efficiency. Notes are also made toward numerical stability of highly rotational flows.

  20. Optimizing small cell deployment by the use of C-RANs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Holm, Henrik Laumand; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    the conditions that impact the statistical multiplexing gain in the Baseband Unit (BBU) Pool. We conclude on the set of parameters that maximize the statistical multiplexing gain, leading to the highest potential cost savings. We then propose a packet based architecture that can adapt to changing traffic......A Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is a novel mobile network architecture that has the potential to support extremely dense mobile network deployments enhancing the network capacity while offering cost savings on baseband resources. In this work we analyze cell traffic profiles and evaluate...... conditions. Furthermore, based on theoretical calculations and Network simulations we present considerations on deployment scenarios to optimize green field deployments in terms of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). This involves optimizing the mix of cells with different traffic profiles and the BBU Pool...

  1. Flow field analysis of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck by unsteady RANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Naimul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-span cable-stayed bridges are susceptible to dynamic wind effects due to their inherent flexibility. The fluid flow around the bridge deck should be well understood for the efficient design of an aerodynamically stable long-span bridge system. In this work, the aerodynamic features of a pentagonal-shaped bridge deck are explored numerically. The analytical results are compared with past experimental work to assess the capability of two-dimensional unsteady RANS simulation for predicting the aerodynamic features of this type of deck. The influence of the bottom plate slope on aerodynamic response and flow features was investigated. By varying the Reynolds number (2 × 104 to 20 × 104 the aerodynamic behavior at high wind speeds is clarified.

  2. A Synthesis of Hybrid RANS/LES CFD Results for F-16XL Aircraft Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.; Park, Michael A.; Hitzel, Stephan M.; Jirasek, Adam; Lofthouse, Andrew J.; Morton, Scott A.; McDaniel, David R.; Rizzi, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis is presented of recent numerical predictions for the F-16XL aircraft flow fields and aerodynamics. The computational results were all performed with hybrid RANS/LES formulations, with an emphasis on unsteady flows and subsequent aerodynamics, and results from five computational methods are included. The work was focused on one particular low-speed, high angle-of-attack flight test condition, and comparisons against flight-test data are included. This work represents the third coordinated effort using the F-16XL aircraft, and a unique flight-test data set, to advance our knowledge of slender airframe aerodynamics as well as our capability for predicting these aerodynamics with advanced CFD formulations. The prior efforts were identified as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International, with the acronyms CAWAPI and CAWAPI-2. All information in this paper is in the public domain.

  3. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  4. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  5. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Kwang-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  6. A RANS modelling approach for predicting powering performance of ships in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windén Björn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modelling technique for simulating self-propelled ships in waves is presented. The flow is modelled using a RANS solver coupled with an actuator disk model for the propeller. The motion of the ship is taken into consideration in the definition of the actuator disk region as well as the advance ratio of the propeller. The RPM of the propeller is controlled using a PID-controller with constraints added on the maximum permissible RPM increase rate. Results are presented for a freely surging model in regular waves with different constraints put on the PID-controller. The described method shows promising results and allows for the studying of several factors relating to selfpropulsion. However, more validation data is needed to judge the accuracy of the model.

  7. Galaxy evolution. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: stellar systems that ran away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-04-24

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts.

  8. RANS based CFD methodology for a real scale 217-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of KAERI PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Ho, E-mail: jhjeong@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Seop [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, 559 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwi-Lim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseoung-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents a suitable way for a practical RANS based CFD methodology which is applicable to real scale 217-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of KAERI PGSFR. • A key point of differentiation of the RANS based CFD methodology in this study is adapting an innovative grid generation method using a fortran based in-house code with a GGI function in a general-purpose commercial CFD code, CFX. • The RANS based CFD methodology is implemented with high resolution scheme and SST turbulence model in the 7-pin 37-pin, and 127-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of PNC and JNC. Furthermore, the RANS based CFD methodology can be successfully extended to the real scale 217-pin wire-wrapped fuel bundles of KAERI PGSFR. • Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic characteristics have been also investigated briefly. - Abstract: This paper presents a suitable way for a practical RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation) based CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) methodology which is applicable to real scale 217-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor). The main purpose of the current study is to support license issue for the KAERI PGSFR core safety and to elucidate thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a 217-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of KAERI PGSFR. A key point of differentiation of the RANS based CFD methodology in this study is adapting an innovative grid generation method using a fortran based in-house code with a GGI (General Grid Interface) function in a general-purpose commercial CFD code, CFX. The innovative grid generation method with GGI function can achieve to simulate a real wire shape with minimizing cell skewness. The RANS based CFD methodology is implemented with high resolution scheme in convection term and SST (Shear Stress Transport) turbulence model in the 7-pin 37-pin, and 127-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly of PNC (Power reactor and Nuclear fuel

  9. A hybrid RANS-LES approach with delayed-DES and wall-modelled LES capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shur, Mikhail L. [New Technologies and Services, 14, Dobrolyubov Avenue, 197198 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Spalart, Philippe R. [Boeing Commercial Airplanes, P.O. Box 3707, Seattle, WA 98124 (United States); Strelets, Mikhail Kh. [New Technologies and Services, 14, Dobrolyubov Avenue, 197198 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: strelets@mail.rcom.ru; Travin, Andrey K. [New Technologies and Services, 14, Dobrolyubov Avenue, 197198 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    A CFD strategy is proposed that combines delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) with an improved RANS-LES hybrid model aimed at wall modelling in LES (WMLES). The system ensures a different response depending on whether the simulation does or does not have inflow turbulent content. In the first case, it reduces to WMLES: most of the turbulence is resolved except near the wall. Empirical improvements to this model relative to the pure DES equations provide a great increase of the resolved turbulence activity near the wall and adjust the resolved logarithmic layer to the modelled one, thus resolving the issue of 'log layer mismatch' which is common in DES and other WMLES methods. An essential new element here is a definition of the subgrid length-scale which depends not only on the grid spacings, but also on the wall distance. In the case without inflow turbulent content, the proposed model performs as DDES, i.e., it gives a pure RANS solution for attached flows and a DES-like solution for massively separated flows. The coordination of the two branches is carried out by a blending function. The promise of the model is supported by its satisfactory performance in all the three modes it was designed for, namely, in pure WMLES applications (channel flow in a wide Reynolds-number range and flow over a hydrofoil with trailing-edge separation), in a natural DDES application (an airfoil in deep stall), and in a flow where both branches of the model are active in different flow regions (a backward-facing-step flow)

  10. Performance evaluation of RANS-based turbulence models in simulating a honeycomb heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Abdussamet; Ozsipahi, Mustafa; Sahin, Bayram; Gunes, Hasan

    2017-07-01

    As well-known, there is not a universal turbulence model that can be used to model all engineering problems. There are specific applications for each turbulence model that make it appropriate to use, and it is vital to select an appropriate model and wall function combination that matches the physics of the problem considered. Therefore, in this study, performance of six well-known Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes ( RANS) based turbulence models which are the Standard k {{-}} ɛ, the Renormalized Group k- ɛ, the Realizable k- ɛ, the Reynolds Stress Model, the k- ω and the Shear Stress Transport k- ω and accompanying wall functions which are the standard, the non-equilibrium and the enhanced are evaluated via 3D simulation of a honeycomb heat sink. The CutCell method is used to generate grid for the part including heat sink called test section while a hexahedral mesh is employed to discretize to inlet and outlet sections. A grid convergence study is conducted for verification process while experimental data and well-known correlations are used to validate the numerical results. Prediction of pressure drop along the test section, mean base plate temperature of the heat sink and temperature at the test section outlet are regarded as a measure of the performance of employed models and wall functions. The results indicate that selection of turbulence models and wall functions has a great influence on the results and, therefore, need to be selected carefully. Hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the honeycomb heat sink can be determined in a reasonable accuracy using RANS- based turbulence models provided that a suitable turbulence model and wall function combination is selected.

  11. Performance evaluation of RANS-based turbulence models in simulating a honeycomb heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Abdussamet; Ozsipahi, Mustafa; Sahin, Bayram; Gunes, Hasan

    2017-02-01

    As well-known, there is not a universal turbulence model that can be used to model all engineering problems. There are specific applications for each turbulence model that make it appropriate to use, and it is vital to select an appropriate model and wall function combination that matches the physics of the problem considered. Therefore, in this study, performance of six well-known Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based turbulence models which are the Standard k - ɛ, the Renormalized Group k - ɛ, the Realizable k - ɛ, the Reynolds Stress Model, the k - ω and the Shear Stress Transport k - ω and accompanying wall functions which are the standard, the non-equilibrium and the enhanced are evaluated via 3D simulation of a honeycomb heat sink. The CutCell method is used to generate grid for the part including heat sink called test section while a hexahedral mesh is employed to discretize to inlet and outlet sections. A grid convergence study is conducted for verification process while experimental data and well-known correlations are used to validate the numerical results. Prediction of pressure drop along the test section, mean base plate temperature of the heat sink and temperature at the test section outlet are regarded as a measure of the performance of employed models and wall functions. The results indicate that selection of turbulence models and wall functions has a great influence on the results and, therefore, need to be selected carefully. Hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the honeycomb heat sink can be determined in a reasonable accuracy using RANS-based turbulence models provided that a suitable turbulence model and wall function combination is selected.

  12. RANS / LES coupling applied to high Reynolds number turbulent flows of the nuclear industry; Application du couplage RANS / LES aux ecoulements turbulents a haut nombre de Reynolds de l'industrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarafa, Y

    2005-12-15

    The main issue to perform a computational study of high Reynolds numbered turbulent flows consists on predicting their unsteadiness without implying a tremendous computational cost. First, the main drawbacks of large-eddy simulation with standard wall model on a coarse mesh for a plane channel flow are highlighted. To correct these drawbacks two coupling RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The first one relies on a sophisticated wall model (TBLE) which consists on solving Thin Boundary Layer Equations with a RANS type turbulent closure in the near wall region. The second one consists on a RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The second one consists on a RANS/LES coupling method using a forcing term approach. These various approaches have been implemented in the TRIO-U code developed at CEA (French Atomic Center) at Grenoble, France. The studied flow configurations are the fully developed plane channel flow and a flow around a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow unsteady simulations for a low computational cost. (author)

  13. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of luciferase gene mRNA requires CRM1/Exportin1 and RanGTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tominori; Hashimoto, Iwao; Nishikawa, Masao; Yamada, Hisao

    2009-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev (regulator of the expression of the virion) protein was shown to reduce the expression level of the co-transfected luciferase reporter gene (luc+) introduced to monitor transfection efficiency. We studied the mechanism of the inhibitory Rev effect. The effect, caused by nuclear retention of luc+ mRNA, was reversed if rev had a point mutation that makes its nuclear export signal (NES) unable to associate with cellular transport factors. The Rev NES receptor CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-specific inhibitor, leptomycin B, blocked luc+ mRNA export. This finding was also supported by the overexpression of delta CAN, another specific CRM1 inhibitor that caused inhibition of luciferase gene expression. Experiments involving tsBN2 cells, which have a temperature-sensitive RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation 1) allele, demonstrated that luc+ expression required generation of the GTP-bound form of RanGTPase (RanGTP) by RCC1. The constitutive transport element (CTE)-mediated nuclear export of luc+ mRNA was found to also depend upon RanGTP. Nuclear export of luc+ mRNA is thus suggested to involve CRM1 and RanGTP, which Rev employs to transport viral mRNA. The Rev effect is therefore considered to involve competition between two molecules for common transport factors.

  14. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. FME requests... Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 30- Year Period...

  15. Investigation of RANS Model Deficiencies for Flow and Heat Transfer Simulations in a Pin-Fin Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengrong; Gorle, Catherine; Civil; Environmental Engineering Department Team

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying turbulence model-form uncertainties of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models is a challenging topic, largely because model inaccuracies can vary greatly across flow regions. The objective of the present study is to gain knowledge on where and how RANS models violate reality in representative heat exchanger geometries, such that a UQ method for use in optimization studies can be developed. To achieve this objective we performed a large-eddy simulation (LES) of the flow and heat transfer for a pin-fin array, and analyzed where RANS fails to predict the key features. The LES results are validated against experimental data available from Ames et al. (J. Turbo., 2005) and Ames and Dvorak (J. Turbo., 2006). The RANS simulations showed significant deviations from the LES for mean velocity profiles downstream of certain pins and for the Nusselt number distribution on the fins. A detailed comparison of the turbulent quantities illustrates a general underestimation of the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes in near-fin regions, and incorrect trends in some pin-wake regions near the channel center plane. Based on this analysis, we draw conclusions that will support the development of a turbulence model UQ method for heat exchangers. This work is supported by IWT SBO project EUFORIA.

  16. 3-D hybrid LES-RANS model for simulation of open-channel T-diversion flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Cheng ZENG

    2009-01-01

    The study of flow diversions in open channels plays an important practical role in the design and management of open-channel networks for irrigation or drainage.To accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence characteristics of open-channel dividing flows,a hybrid LES-RANS model,which combines the large eddy simulation (LES) model with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model,is proposed in the present study.The unsteady RANS model was used to simulate the upstream and downstream regions of a main channel,as well as the downstream region of a branch channel.The LES model was used to simulate the channel diversion region,where turbulent flow characteristics ate complicated.Isotropic velocity fluctuations were added at the inflow interface of the LES region to trigger the generation of resolved turbulence.A method based on the virtual body force is proposed to impose Reynolds-averaged velocity fields near the outlet of the LES region in order to take downstream flow effects computed by the RANS model into account and dissipate the excessive turbulent fluctuations.This hybrid approach saves computational effort and makes it easier to properly specify inlet and outlet boundary conditions.Comparison between computational results and experimental data indicates that this relatively new modeling approach can accurately predict open-channel T-diversion flows.

  17. Integral Method for the Assessment of U-RANS Effectiveness in Non-Equilibrium Flows and Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Ian; Edabi, Alireza; Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling has established itself as a critical design tool in many engineering applications, thanks to its superior computational efficiency. The drawbacks of RANS models are well known, but not necessarily well understood: poor prediction of transition, non equilibrium flows, mixing and heat transfer, to name the ones relevant to our study. In the present study, we use a DNS of a reciprocating channel flow driven by an oscillating pressure gradient to test several low- and high-Reynolds RANS models. Temperature is introduced as a passive scalar to study heat transfer modeling. Low-Reynolds models manage to capture the overall physics of wall shear and heat flux well, yet with some phase discrepancies, whereas high Reynolds models fail. Under the microscope of the integral method for wall shear and wall heat flux, the qualitative agreement appears more serendipitous than driven by the ability of the models to capture the correct physics. The integral method is shown to be more insightful in the benchmarking of RANS models than the typical comparisons of statistical quantities. The authors acknowledges the support of NSF and DOE under grant NSF/DOE 1258697 (VT) and 1258702 (NH).

  18. Prediction of separation flows around a 6:1 prolate spheroid using RANS/LES hybrid approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiang Xiao; Yufei Zhang; Jingbo Huang; Haixin Chen; Song Fu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy-simulation (LES) methods for the separated flows at high angles of attack around a 6:1 prolate spheroid. The RANS/LES hybrid meth-ods studied in this work include the detached eddy simula-tion (DES) based on Spalart-Allmaras (S-A), Menter's k-w shear-stress-transport (SST) and k-ω with weakly nonlinear eddy viscosity formulation (Wilcox-Durbin+, WD+) mod-els and the zonaI-RANS/LES methods based on the SST and WD+ models. The switch from RANS near the wall to LES in the core flow region is smooth through the implementation of a flow-dependent blending function for the zonal hybrid method. All the hybrid methods are designed to have a RANS mode for the attached flows and have a LES behavior for the separated flows. The main objective of this paper is to apply the hybrid methods for the high Reynolds number separated flows around prolate spheroid at high-incidences.A fourth-order central scheme with fourth-order artificial viscosity is applied for spatial differencing. The fully implicit lower-upper symmetric-Gauss-Seidel with pseudo time sub-iteration is taken as the temporal differentiation. Com-parisons with available measurements are carried out for pressure distribution, skin friction, and profiles of velocity,etc. Reasonable agreement with the experiments, accounting for the effect on grids and fundamental turbulence models,is obtained for the separation flows.

  19. RAN网络及其应用的研究%Study on RAN Network and it's Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武星军; 朱世强; 金波

    2001-01-01

    RAN(Resource Allocating Network) is a single hidden layer network, its hidden units are Gaussian radial basis function. RAN starts with no hidden units and grows by allocating hidden units based on novel criterion. First, we arrive at a initial network by RAN. Second, we tuned the parameters of the neural network by EKF(Extended Kalman Filter) algorithm. The advantages of RAN include quick learning, high accuracy and compact forms. It also can be applied in real time system.%RAN(Resource Allocating Network)是一种基于径向基函数的单隐含层神经网络,开始时无隐含节点,可根据新颖性准则来决定是否增加隐含节点,故有效避免了网络结构(隐含节点个数)和初始网络参数难以选取的缺点。本文首先利用RAN得到网络的初始结构及参数,然后利用扩展的卡尔曼滤波器EKF(Extended Kalman Filter)算法对网络参数进行调整,这相当于在粗调的基础上对网络参数进行细调。该网络具有学习速度快、精确度高、结构紧凑的优点,并可进一步应用于实时系统中。

  20. Repeat Associated Non-AUG Translation (RAN Translation Dependent on Sequence Downstream of the ATXN2 CAG Repeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Scoles

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is a progressive autosomal dominant disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG tract in the ATXN2 gene. The SCA2 disease phenotype is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, gait ataxia, and slow saccades. ATXN2 mutation causes gains of toxic and normal functions of the ATXN2 gene product, ataxin-2, and abnormally slow Purkinje cell firing frequency. Previously we investigated features of ATXN2 controlling expression and noted expression differences for ATXN2 constructs with varying CAG lengths, suggestive of repeat associated non-AUG translation (RAN translation. To determine whether RAN translation occurs for ATXN2 we assembled various ATXN2 constructs with ATXN2 tagged by luciferase, HA or FLAG tags, driven by the CMV promoter or the ATXN2 promoter. Luciferase expression from ATXN2-luciferase constructs lacking the ATXN2 start codon was weak vs AUG translation, regardless of promoter type, and did not increase with longer CAG repeat lengths. RAN translation was detected on western blots by the anti-polyglutamine antibody 1C2 for constructs driven by the CMV promoter but not the ATXN2 promoter, and was weaker than AUG translation. Strong RAN translation was also observed when driving the ATXN2 sequence with the CMV promoter with ATXN2 sequence downstream of the CAG repeat truncated to 18 bp in the polyglutamine frame but not in the polyserine or polyalanine frames. Our data demonstrate that ATXN2 RAN translation is weak compared to AUG translation and is dependent on ATXN2 sequences flanking the CAG repeat.

  1. The C terminus of fragile X mental retardation protein interacts with the multi-domain Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organising centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rajesh P; Gibson, Toby J; Pastore, Annalisa

    2004-10-01

    Absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes fragile X syndrome, the most common form of hereditary mental retardation. FMRP is a mainly cytoplasmic protein thought to be involved in repression of translation, through a complex network of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. Most of the currently known protein partners of FMRP recognise the conserved N terminus of the protein. No interaction has yet been mapped to the highly charged, poorly conserved C terminus, so far thought to be involved in RNA recognition through an RGG motif. In the present study, we show that a two-hybrid bait containing residues 419-632 of human FMRP fishes out a protein that spans the sequence of the Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organising centre (RanBPM/RanBP9). Specific interaction of RanBPM with FMRP was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro assays. In brain tissue sections, RanBPM is highly expressed in the neurons of cerebral cortex and the cerebellar purkinje cells, in a pattern similar to that described for FMRP. Sequence analysis shows that RanBPM is a multi-domain protein. The interaction with FMRP was mapped in a newly identified CRA motif present in the RanBPM C terminus. Our results suggest that the functional role of RanBPM binding is modulation of the RNA-binding properties of FMRP.

  2. RANS SIMULATION OF HYDROFOIL EFFECTS ON HYDRODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS OF A PLANING CATAMARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Najafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of high-speed crafts’ hydrodynamic coefficients will help to analyze the dynamics of these kinds of vessels and the factors affecting their dynamic stabilities. Also, it can be useful and effective in controlling the vessel instabilities. The main purpose of this study is to determine the coefficients of longitudinal motions of a planing catamaran with and without a hydrofoil using RANS method to evaluate the foil effects on them. Determination of hydrodynamic coefficients by experimental approach is costly, and requires meticulous laboratory equipment; therefore, utilizing numerical methods and developing a virtual laboratory seems highly efficient. In the present study, the numerical results for hydrodynamic coefficients of a high-speed craft are verified against Troesch’s (1992 experimental results. In the following, after determination of hydrodynamic coefficients of a planing catamaran with and without foil, the foil effects on its hydrodynamic coefficients are evaluated. The results indicate that most of the coefficients are frequency independent especially at high frequencies.

  3. RANS Simulation of the Heave Response of a Two-Body Floating Point Wave Absorber: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study on a two-body floating wave absorbers is presented in this paper. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational method is applied for analyzing the hydrodynamic heave response of the absorber in operational wave conditions. The two-body floating wave absorber contains a float section and a submerged reaction section. For validation purposes, our model is first assumed to be locked. The two sections are forced to move together with each other. The locked single body model is used in a heave decay test, where the RANS result is validated with the experimental measurement. For the two-body floating point absorber simulation, the two sections are connected through a mass-spring-damper system, which is applied to simulate the power take-off mechanism under design wave conditions. Overall, the details of the flow around the absorber and its nonlinear interaction with waves are investigated, and the power absorption efficiency of the two-body floating wave absorber in waves with a constant value spring-damper system is examined.

  4. Chromatids segregate without centrosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans mitosis in a Ran- and CLASP-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahaboo, Wallis; Zouak, Melissa; Askjaer, Peter; Delattre, Marie

    2015-06-01

    During mitosis, chromosomes are connected to a microtubule-based spindle. Current models propose that displacement of the spindle poles and/or the activity of kinetochore microtubules generate mechanical forces that segregate sister chromatids. Using laser destruction of the centrosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans mitosis, we show that neither of these mechanisms is necessary to achieve proper chromatid segregation. Our results strongly suggest that an outward force generated by the spindle midzone, independently of centrosomes, is sufficient to segregate chromosomes in mitotic cells. Using mutant and RNAi analysis, we show that the microtubule-bundling protein SPD-1/MAP-65 and BMK-1/kinesin-5 act as a brake opposing the force generated by the spindle midzone. Conversely, we identify a novel role for two microtubule-growth and nucleation agents, Ran and CLASP, in the establishment of the centrosome-independent force during anaphase. Their involvement raises the interesting possibility that microtubule polymerization of midzone microtubules is continuously required to sustain chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  5. A Case Study on Ip Based Cdma Ran by Controlling Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sravan Abhilash

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As communication plays an important role in day to day life, the effective and efficient data transmission is to be maintained. This paper mainly deals with implements a congestion control mechanism using Router control method for IP-RAN on CDMA cellular network. The Router control mechanism uses the features of CDMA networks using active Queue Management technique to reduce delay and to minimize the correlated losses. When utilizing these new personal tools and services to enrich our lives, while being mobile, we are using Mobile Multimedia applications. As new handsets, new technologies and new business models are introduced on the marketplace, new attractive multimedia services can and will be launched, fulfilling the demands. Because the number of multimedia services and even more so, the context in which the services are used is numerous, the following model is introduced in order to simplify and clarify how different services will evolve, enrich our lives and fulfill our desires.The proposed paper work is to be realized using Matlab platform.

  6. Hybrid RANS/LES of turbulent flow in a rotating rib-roughened channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Qian-Qiu; Wang, Bing-Chen

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the Coriolis force on the flow field in a rib-roughened channel subjected to either clockwise or counter-clockwise system rotation using hybrid RANS/LES based on wall modelling. A simplified dynamic forcing scheme incorporating backscatter is proposed for the hybrid simulation approach. The flow is characterized by a Reynolds number of Re = 1.5 × 104 and a rotation number Ro ranging from -0.6 to 0.6. The mean flow speed and turbulence level near the roughened wall are enhanced under counter-clockwise rotation and suppressed under clockwise rotation. The Coriolis force significantly influences the stability of the wall shear layer and the free shear layers generated by the ribs. Consequently, it is interesting to observe that the classification of the roughness type relies not only on the pitch ratio, but also on the rotation number in the context of rotating rib-roughened flows. In order to validate the present hybrid approach, the first- and second-order statistical moments of the velocity field obtained from the simulations are thoroughly compared with the available laboratory measurement data.

  7. Towards a Comprehensive Model of Jet Noise Using an Acoustic Analogy and Steady RANS Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed to predict the noise from jet flows. It contains two source models that independently predict the noise from turbulence and shock wave shear layer interactions. The acoustic analogy is based on the Euler equations and separates the sources from propagation. Propagation effects are taken into account by calculating the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations. The sources are modeled following the work of Tam and Auriault, Morris and Boluriaan, and Morris and Miller. A statistical model of the two-point cross-correlation of the velocity fluctuations is used to describe the turbulence. The acoustic analogy attempts to take into account the correct scaling of the sources for a wide range of nozzle pressure and temperature ratios. It does not make assumptions regarding fine- or large-scale turbulent noise sources, self- or shear-noise, or convective amplification. The acoustic analogy is partially informed by three-dimensional steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions that include the nozzle geometry. The predictions are compared with experiments of jets operating subsonically through supersonically and at unheated and heated temperatures. Predictions generally capture the scaling of both mixing noise and BBSAN for the conditions examined, but some discrepancies remain that are due to the accuracy of the steady RANS turbulence model closure, the equivalent sources, and the use of a simplified vector Green's function solver of the linearized Euler equations.

  8. RANS-VOF Solver for Solitary Wave Run-up on A Circular Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洪建; 万德成

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k-wturbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.

  9. CFD modelling approaches against single wind turbine wake measurements using RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiannis, N.; Lacor, C.; Beeck, J. V.; Donnelly, R.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical simulations of two wind turbine generators including the exact geometry of their blades and hub are compared against a simplified actuator disk model (ADM). The wake expansion of the upstream rotor is investigated and compared with measurements. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed using the open-source platform OpenFOAM [1]. The multiple reference frame (MRF) approach was used to model the inner rotating reference frames in a stationary computational mesh and outer reference frame for the full wind turbine rotor simulations. The standard k — ε and k — ω turbulence closure schemes have been used to solve the steady state, three dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) equations. Results of near and far wake regions are compared with wind tunnel measurements along three horizontal lines downstream. The ADM under-predicted the velocity deficit at the wake for both turbulence models. Full wind turbine rotor simulations showed good agreement against the experimental data at the near wake, amplifying the differences between the simplified models.

  10. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solutions of wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Daniel Evandro; Horn, Diego Anderson; Petry, Adriane Prisco [Thermal and Energy Study Group, Mechanical Engeneering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianep@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the influence of three different turbulence models in the study of a wind turbine wake. Numerical Simulation is used as working tool to characterize the flow through the wind turbines, it is used the numeric simulation. The numerical analysis is based on the finite volume method and the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Three turbulence models are used to represent the total effects of turbulence in the flow: the two equations k-classical and the RNG k- models, based on the turbulent viscosity; and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, based on the transport of the Reynolds tensor. The results of the 'u' velocity profiles are compared to experimental data from Vermeer (2003) at distances equivalent to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 16 diameters downstream from the turbine. Results shows that the SST model gives better results until 6 diameters, beyond this distance there is no significant differences between the compared models. (author)

  11. A Game-Theoretical Approach for Spectrum Efficiency Improvement in Cloud-RAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tremendous mobile devices access to the Internet in the future, the cells which can provide high data rate and more capacity are expected to be deployed. Specifically, in the next generation of mobile communication 5G, cloud computing is supposed to be applied to radio access network. In cloud radio access network (Cloud-RAN, the traditional base station is divided into two parts, that is, remote radio heads (RRHs and base band units (BBUs. RRHs are geographically distributed and densely deployed, so as to achieve high data rate and low latency. However, the ultradense deployment inevitably deteriorates spectrum efficiency due to the severer intercell interference among RRHs. In this paper, the downlink spectrum efficiency can be improved through the cooperative transmission based on forming the coalitions of RRHs. We formulate the problem as a coalition formation game in partition form. In the process of coalition formation, each RRH can join or leave one coalition to maximize its own individual utility while taking into account the coalition utility at the same time. Moreover, the convergence and stability of the resulting coalition structure are studied. The numeric simulation result demonstrates that the proposed approach based on coalition formation game is superior to the noncooperative method in terms of the aggregate coalition utility.

  12. Testing of RANS Turbulence Models for Stratified Flows Based on DNS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venayagamoorthy, S. K.; Koseff, J. R.; Ferziger, J. H.; Shih, L. H.

    2003-01-01

    In most geophysical flows, turbulence occurs at the smallest scales and one of the two most important additional physical phenomena to account for is strati cation (the other being rotation). In this paper, the main objective is to investigate proposed changes to RANS turbulence models which include the effects of stratifi- cation more explicitly. These proposed changes were developed using a DNS database on strati ed and sheared homogenous turbulence developed by Shih et al. (2000) and are described more fully in Ferziger et al. (2003). The data generated by Shih, et al. (2000) (hereinafter referred to as SKFR) are used to study the parameters in the k- model as a function of the turbulent Froude number, Frk. A modified version of the standard k- model based on the local turbulent Froude number is proposed. The proposed model is applied to a stratified open channel flow, a test case that differs significantly from the flows from which the modified parameters were derived. The turbulence modeling and results are discussed in the next two sections followed by suggestions for future work.

  13. Aurora A phosphorylates MCAK to control ran-dependent spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ems-McClung, Stephanie C; Walczak, Claire E

    2008-07-01

    During mitosis, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) localizes to chromatin/kinetochores, a cytoplasmic pool, and spindle poles. Its localization and activity in the chromatin region are regulated by Aurora B kinase; however, how the cytoplasmic- and pole-localized MCAK are regulated is currently not clear. In this study, we used Xenopus egg extracts to form spindles in the absence of chromatin and centrosomes and found that MCAK localization and activity are tightly regulated by Aurora A. This regulation is important to focus microtubules at aster centers and to facilitate the transition from asters to bipolar spindles. In particular, we found that MCAK colocalized with NuMA and XMAP215 at the center of Ran asters where its activity is regulated by Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of S196, which contributes to proper pole focusing. In addition, we found that MCAK localization at spindle poles was regulated through another Aurora A phosphorylation site (S719), which positively enhances bipolar spindle formation. This is the first study that clearly defines a role for MCAK at the spindle poles as well as identifies another key Aurora A substrate that contributes to spindle bipolarity.

  14. Bayesian Calibration and Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models for Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

    2010-11-01

    A set of RANS turbulence models---including Baldwin-Lomax, Spalart-Allmaras, k-ɛ, and v^2-f---are calibrated and compared in the context of fully-developed channel flow. Specifically, a Bayesian calibration procedure is applied to infer the parameter values for each turbulence model from channel flow DNS data. In this process, uncertainty arises both from uncertainty in the data and inadequacies in the turbulence models. Various stochastic models of the turbulence model inadequacy are formulated, and the impacts of different uncertainty modeling choices are examined. The calibrated turbulence models are compared in terms of two items: posterior plausibility and predictions of quantities of interest such as centerline velocity and the location of the maximum Reynolds shear stress. The posterior plausibility indicates which model is preferred by the data according to Bayes' theorem, while the predictions allow assessment of how strongly the model differences impact the quantities of interest. The implications of these comparisons for turbulence model validation will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  15. Selective impairment of a subset of Ran-GTP-binding domains of ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) suffices to recapitulate the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) triggered by Ranbp2 ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemangi; Saha, Arjun; Senda, Eugene; Cho, Kyoung-in; Haque, MdEmdadul; Yu, Minzhong; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Ying; Peachey, Neal S; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2014-10-24

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration underpins diseases triggered by disparate genetic lesions, noxious insults, or both. The pleiotropic Ranbp2 controls the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic pathological stressors impinging on cellular viability. However, the physiological targets and mechanisms controlled by Ranbp2 in tissue homeostasis, such as RPE, are ill defined. We show that mice, RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-), with selective Ranbp2 ablation in RPE develop pigmentary changes, syncytia, hypoplasia, age-dependent centrifugal and non-apoptotic degeneration of the RPE, and secondary leakage of choriocapillaris. These manifestations are accompanied by the development of F-actin clouds, metalloproteinase-11 activation, deregulation of expression or subcellular localization of critical RPE proteins, atrophic cell extrusions into the subretinal space, and compensatory proliferation of peripheral RPE. To gain mechanistic insights into what Ranbp2 activities are vital to the RPE, we performed genetic complementation analyses of transgenic lines of bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 harboring loss of function of selective Ranbp2 domains expressed in a Ranbp2(-/-) background. Among the transgenic lines produced, only Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-)-expressing mutations, which selectively impair binding of RBD2/3 (Ran-binding domains 2 and 3) of Ranbp2 to Ran-GTP, recapitulate RPE degeneration, as observed with RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-). By contrast, Tg(RBD2/3*-HA) expression rescues the degeneration of cone photoreceptors lacking Ranbp2. The RPE of RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) and Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) share proteostatic deregulation of Ran GTPase, serotransferrin, and γ-tubulin and suppression of light-evoked electrophysiological responses. These studies unravel selective roles of Ranbp2 and its RBD2 and RBD3 in RPE survival and functions. We posit that the control of Ran GTPase by Ranbp2 emerges as a novel therapeutic target in diseases promoting

  16. Numerical evaluation of cavitation shedding structure around 3D Hydrofoil: Comparison of PANS, LES and RANS results with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, B.; Peng, X. X.; Long, X. P.; Luo, X. W.; Wu, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Results of cavitating turbulent flow simulation around a twisted hydrofoil were presented in the paper using the Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method (Ji et al. 2013a), Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) (Ji et al. 2013b) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). The results are compared with available experimental data (Foeth 2008). The PANS and LES reasonably reproduce the cavitation shedding patterns around the twisted hydrofoil with primary and secondary shedding, while the RANS model fails to simulate the unsteady cavitation shedding phenomenon and yields an almost steady flow with a constant cavity shape and vapor volume. Besides, it is noted that the predicted shedding vapor cavity by PANS is more turbulent and the shedding vortex is stronger than that by LES, which is more consistent with experimental photos.

  17. Reduced RAN expression and disrupted transport between cytoplasm and nucleus; a key event in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    Full Text Available Transcription of DNA is essential for cell maintenance and survival; inappropriate localization of proteins that are involved in transcription would be catastrophic. In Alzheimer's disease brains, and in vitro studies, we have found qualitative and quantitative deficits in transport into the nucleus of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II, accompanied by their abnormal sequestration in the cytoplasm. RAN (RAs-related Nuclear protein knockdown, by siRNA and oligomeric Aβ42 treatment in neurons, replicate human data which indicate that transport disruption in AD may be mechanistically linked to reduced expression of RAN, a pivotal molecule in nucleocytoplasmic transport. In vitro studies also indicate a significant role for oligomeric Aβ42 in the observed phenomena. We propose a model in which reduced transcription regulators in the nucleus and their increased presence in the cytoplasm may lead to many of the cellular manifestations of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Identification of RAN1 orthologue associated with sex determination through whole genome sequencing analysis in fig (Ficus carica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nogata, Hitoshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Sangwan; Himeno, Shuichi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ikegami, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-25

    With the aim of identifying sex determinants of fig, we generated the first draft genome sequence of fig and conducted the subsequent analyses. Linkage analysis with a high-density genetic map established by a restriction-site associated sequencing technique, and genome-wide association study followed by whole-genome resequencing analysis identified two missense mutations in RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) orthologue encoding copper-transporting ATPase completely associated with sex phenotypes of investigated figs. This result suggests that RAN1 is a possible sex determinant candidate in the fig genome. The genomic resources and genetic findings obtained in this study can contribute to general understanding of Ficus species and provide an insight into fig's and plant's sex determination system.

  19. 陈染研究述评%Review:Studies on Chen Ran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩

    2011-01-01

    Chen Ran is regarded as the leader of "personal writing",who adheres to the marginal writing attitude and persists in expressing the female-specific survival experience as the way to human spiritual home.Her unique writing style and alternative artistic exploration is of great significance in literary history.Studies on this are numerous,but not yet reviewed in an orderly manner.This paper,therefore,attempts to systemize the academic dialogues on Chen Ran′s practice in literary field,to provide a brief account of the studies on her,by discussing some core issues on her writing such as individualized writing,lonely consciousness,and gender consciousness.%被称为"个人化写作"领军人物的陈染,坚持边缘性的写作姿态,执著于表达女性特有的生存体验,以此抵达人类的精神家园。其独特的写作风格和另类的艺术探索都具有重要的文学史意义,目前已有不少研究文章,但尚未得到及时的梳理。本文试图从个人化写作、孤独意识、性别意识等陈染写作核心问题归纳,以期展现学界关于陈染的文本实践的对话,勾勒出陈染研究的脉络。

  20. RAN translation at CGG repeats induces ubiquitin proteasome system impairment in models of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seok Yoon; He, Fang; Krans, Amy; Frazer, Michelle; Taylor, J. Paul; Paulson, Henry L.; Todd, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the 5′ UTR of the Fragile X gene, FMR1. FXTAS is thought to arise primarily from an RNA gain-of-function toxicity mechanism. However, recent studies demonstrate that the repeat also elicits production of a toxic polyglycine protein, FMRpolyG, via repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN)-initiated translation. Pathologically, FXTAS is characterized by ubiquitin-positive ...

  1. RanBP2/Nup358 potentiates the translation of a subset of mRNAs encoding secretory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohila Mahadevan

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, most mRNAs that encode secreted or membrane-bound proteins contain elements that promote an alternative mRNA nuclear export (ALREX pathway. Here we report that ALREX-promoting elements also potentiate translation in the presence of upstream nuclear factors. These RNA elements interact directly with, and likely co-evolved with, the zinc finger repeats of RanBP2/Nup358, which is present on the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore. Finally we show that RanBP2/Nup358 is not only required for the stimulation of translation by ALREX-promoting elements, but is also required for the efficient global synthesis of proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and likely the mitochondria. Thus upon the completion of export, mRNAs containing ALREX-elements likely interact with RanBP2/Nup358, and this step is required for the efficient translation of these mRNAs in the cytoplasm. ALREX-elements thus act as nucleotide platforms to coordinate various steps of post-transcriptional regulation for the majority of mRNAs that encode secreted proteins.

  2. A Priori Analysis of a Compressible Flamelet Model using RANS Data for a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Drozda, Tomasz G.; McDaniel, James C.; Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to make large eddy simulation of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors more computationally accessible using realistic chemical reaction mechanisms, a compressible flamelet/progress variable (FPV) model was proposed that extends current FPV model formulations to high-speed, compressible flows. Development of this model relied on observations garnered from an a priori analysis of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) data obtained for the Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation (HI-FiRE) dual-mode scramjet combustor. The RANS data were obtained using a reduced chemical mechanism for the combustion of a JP-7 surrogate and were validated using avail- able experimental data. These RANS data were then post-processed to obtain, in an a priori fashion, the scalar fields corresponding to an FPV-based modeling approach. In the current work, in addition to the proposed compressible flamelet model, a standard incompressible FPV model was also considered. Several candidate progress variables were investigated for their ability to recover static temperature and major and minor product species. The effects of pressure and temperature on the tabulated progress variable source term were characterized, and model coupling terms embedded in the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations were studied. Finally, results for the novel compressible flamelet/progress variable model were presented to demonstrate the improvement attained by modeling the effects of pressure and flamelet boundary conditions on the combustion.

  3. Critical role of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of Small Heterodimer Partner in maintaining bile acid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Sanghoon; Byun, Sangwon; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Sean; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2016-07-14

    Bile acids (BAs) are recently recognized signalling molecules that profoundly affect metabolism. Because of detergent-like toxicity, BA levels must be tightly regulated. An orphan nuclear receptor, Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), plays a key role in this regulation, but how SHP senses the BA signal for feedback transcriptional responses is not clearly understood. We show an unexpected function of a nucleoporin, RanBP2, in maintaining BA homoeostasis through SUMOylation of SHP. Upon BA signalling, RanBP2 co-localizes with SHP at the nuclear envelope region and mediates SUMO2 modification at K68, which facilitates nuclear transport of SHP and its interaction with repressive histone modifiers to inhibit BA synthetic genes. Mice expressing a SUMO-defective K68R SHP mutant have increased liver BA levels, and upon BA- or drug-induced biliary insults, these mice exhibit exacerbated cholestatic pathologies. These results demonstrate a function of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of SHP in maintaining BA homoeostasis and protecting from the BA hepatotoxicity.

  4. Critical role of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of Small Heterodimer Partner in maintaining bile acid homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Sanghoon; Byun, Sangwon; Xiao, Zhen; Park, Sean; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are recently recognized signalling molecules that profoundly affect metabolism. Because of detergent-like toxicity, BA levels must be tightly regulated. An orphan nuclear receptor, Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), plays a key role in this regulation, but how SHP senses the BA signal for feedback transcriptional responses is not clearly understood. We show an unexpected function of a nucleoporin, RanBP2, in maintaining BA homoeostasis through SUMOylation of SHP. Upon BA signalling, RanBP2 co-localizes with SHP at the nuclear envelope region and mediates SUMO2 modification at K68, which facilitates nuclear transport of SHP and its interaction with repressive histone modifiers to inhibit BA synthetic genes. Mice expressing a SUMO-defective K68R SHP mutant have increased liver BA levels, and upon BA- or drug-induced biliary insults, these mice exhibit exacerbated cholestatic pathologies. These results demonstrate a function of RanBP2-mediated SUMOylation of SHP in maintaining BA homoeostasis and protecting from the BA hepatotoxicity. PMID:27412403

  5. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Glenn; Bowman, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES) for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  6. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hauk

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  7. OsRAN2, essential for mitosis, enhances cold tolerance in rice by promoting export of intranuclear tubulin and maintaining cell division under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Xu, Yunyuan; Wang, Xin; DU, Cheng; DU, Jizhou; Yuan, Ming; Xu, Zhihong; Chong, Kang

    2011-01-01

    With global climate change, abnormally low temperatures have affected the world's rice production. Many genes have been shown to be essential for molecular improvement of rice cold-tolerance traits. However, less is known about the molecular cellular mechanism of their response to cold stress. Here, we investigated OsRAN2 involved in regulation of cell division during cold stress in rice. Expression of OsRAN2 was increased under cold treatment, but not during salt and drought stress. The mean root mitotic index was closely related to the expression level of OsRAN2. Knockdown transgenic rice lines showed an aberrant organization of spindles during mitosis and stunted growth during development. Overexpression of OsRAN2 enhanced cold tolerance in rice. The transgenic rice overexpressing OsRAN2 showed maintained cell division, decreased proportion of cells with intranuclear tubulin and formation of a normal nuclear envelope under the cold condition. Our study suggests a mechanism for OsRAN2 in regulating cold resistance in rice by maintaining cell division through promoting the normal export of intranuclear tubulin at the end of mitosis. This insight could help improve the cold-tolerance trait in rice.

  8. Volvo ja Ikea endine tegevjuht Göran Carstedt : Tänapäevane (personali)juhtimine peab sisaldama eeskätt looduslähedast mõtteviisi / Göran Carstedt ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carstedt, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Juhtimiskonsultant ning Organisatsioonilise Õppimise Ühingu eestvedaja ja arendaja Göran Carsedt vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte tegevust personali tööle pühendumise parendamiseks, ettevõtte jätkusuutlikku juhtimist ja tootlikkust, majanduslanguse mõju ettevõtete personalipoliitikale, talendijuhtimist, väikeste ettevõttete ellujäämist majanduslanguse ajal, IKEA kui hea tööandja mainet ning jätkusuutlikku personaliarendajat. Lisa: Jätkusuutlik juhtimine Rootsi moodi

  9. Volvo ja Ikea endine tegevjuht Göran Carstedt : Tänapäevane (personali)juhtimine peab sisaldama eeskätt looduslähedast mõtteviisi / Göran Carstedt ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carstedt, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Juhtimiskonsultant ning Organisatsioonilise Õppimise Ühingu eestvedaja ja arendaja Göran Carsedt vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte tegevust personali tööle pühendumise parendamiseks, ettevõtte jätkusuutlikku juhtimist ja tootlikkust, majanduslanguse mõju ettevõtete personalipoliitikale, talendijuhtimist, väikeste ettevõttete ellujäämist majanduslanguse ajal, IKEA kui hea tööandja mainet ning jätkusuutlikku personaliarendajat. Lisa: Jätkusuutlik juhtimine Rootsi moodi

  10. Analysis of the Similarities and Dissimilarities of "Ju Ran" and "Jing Ran" in Chinese%浅析“居然”和“竟然”的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姗姗

    2012-01-01

    "Ju Ran" and "Jing Ran" are two commonly used evaluative adverbs in modern Chinese.In most cases,these two words can be used interchangeably,to express the meaning of exceeding one's expectations.However,in a specific context,they have a little bit different,and they cannot be used interch-angeably in some situations,or it may change the meaning you want to express.Therefore this paper discusses on the writer's view on the rules of the use of the two adverbs from several aspects.%"居然"和"竟然"是现代汉语中常用的两个评价副词,在大多数情况下,这两个词语可以相互替换使用,来表达出乎意料的意思。但是,在特定的语境下,两者还是有区别的,有的情况两个词不能相互替换使用,可能所要表达的词的含义不同,可能词的语义会有所改变。因此,本文将从几个方面简单谈谈我对这两个副词使用规律的看法。

  11. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon [Purdue

    2016-02-01

    Air–water interfacial monolayers of poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA–PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure–area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air–water monolayers formed by a PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL–PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA–PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA–PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the “n-cluster” effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the “n-cluster” effects.

  12. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-12-29

    Air-water interfacial monolayers of poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure-area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air-water monolayers formed by a PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA-PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA-PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the "n-cluster" effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the "n-cluster" effects.

  13. A gene delivery system containing nuclear localization signal: Increased nucleus import and transfection efficiency with the assistance of RanGAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Jiulong; Chen, Qing; Wang, Kuanglei; Li, Chenxi; Li, Weinan; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei

    2017-01-15

    In the present report, a degradable gene delivery system (PAMS/DNA/10NLS) containing nucleus location signal peptide (NLS) was prepared. The agarose gel electrophoresis, particle size and zeta potential of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were similar to those of PAMS/DNA, which proved that NLS did not affect the interaction between PAMS and DNA. PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited marked extracellular and intracellular degradation under acidic conditions. The degradation was believed to allow NLS to come into contact with importins easily, which was able to mediate the nucleus import. With the help of NLS, PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited a higher transfection capability than PAMS/DNA. Moreover, the transfection of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was less dependent on the breakdown of the nucleus envelope than PAMS/DNA. Considering that GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) was able to activate the endogenous GTPase, which was necessary for NLS-mediated nucleus import, RanGAP1 overexpressed cells (RanGAP1 cells) were produced. This result showed that RanGAP1 cells had higher GTPase activities than normal cells. Both the nucleus import and transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were markedly higher in RanGAP1 cells than that in normal cells. The in vivo transfection results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was higher in RanGAP1 pre-treated mice than that in normal mice. These findings showed that PAMS/DNA/10NLS is a promising gene delivery system with the assistance of RanGAP1.

  14. Potential involvement of drought-induced Ran GTPase CLRan1 in root growth enhancement in a xerophyte wild watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Kajikawa, Masataka; Hanada, Kouhei; Kosaka, Rina; Kato, Atsushi; Katoh, Akira; Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Yokota, Akiho

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced root growth is known as the survival strategy of plants under drought. Previous proteome analysis in drought-resistant wild watermelon has shown that Ran GTPase, an essential regulator of cell division and proliferation, was induced in the roots under drought. In this study, two cDNAs were isolated from wild watermelon, CLRan1 and CLRan2, which showed a high degree of structural similarity with those of other plant Ran GTPases. Quantitative RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays suggested that CLRan1 was expressed mainly in the root apex and lateral root primordia, whereas CLRan2 was more broadly expressed in other part of the roots. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed that the abundance of CLRan proteins was elevated in the root apex region under drought stress. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing CLRan1 showed enhanced primary root growth, and the growth was maintained under osmotic stress, indicating that CLRan1 functions as a positive factor for maintaining root growth under stress conditions.

  15. The Use of the Reynolds Stress Transport Equation to Constrain Eigenvectors Perturbations on Model Form UQ of RANS Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Luiz; Thompson, Roney; Edeling, Wouter; Mishra, Aashwin; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recent developments in LES and DNS approaches for turbulent flow simulations, RANS modeling is still vastly used by industry, due to its inherent low cost. Since accuracy is a concern in RANS modeling, model-form UQ is an essential tool for assessing the impacts of this uncertainty on quantities of interest. Bounding values for the eigenvalues of the dimensionless deviatoric part of the Reynolds Stress tensor (RST) can be obtained from realizability constraints, and therefore can be used as a first step towards a general perturbation approach. In this connection, decoupling the perturbation into an intensity (kinetic energy), a shape (eigenvalues), and an orientation (eigenvectors) parts constitutes a natural methodology to evaluate the model form UQ associated to the RST modeling. In this work, we show that ignoring eigenvectors perturbations can lead to significant impacts on the results from the UQ analysis. Besides that, we use the RST Equation as a constraint to impose some consistency between eigenvectors and eigenvalues perturbations, where the latter can be obtained from a more standard technique. We applied this methodology on the convex channel flow, and show the benefits of including the eigenvectors perturbations predicted by this methodology.

  16. Unsteady RANS and detached eddy simulation of the multiphase flow in a co-current spray drying☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jolius Gimbun; Noor Intan Shafinas Muhammad; Woon Phui Law

    2015-01-01

    A detached eddy simulation (DES) and a k-ε-based Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) calculation on the co-current spray drying chamber is presented. The DES used here is based on the Spalart–Al maras (SA) turbu-lence model, whereas the standard k-ε(SKE) was considered here for comparison purposes. Predictions of the mean axial velocity, temperature and humidity profile have been evaluated and compared with experimental measurements. The effects of the turbulence model on the predictions of the mean axial velocity, temperature and the humidity profile are most noticeable in the (highly anisotropic) spraying region. The findings suggest that DES provide a more accurate prediction (with error less than 5%) of the flow field in a spray drying chamber compared with RANS-based k-εmodels. The DES simulation also confirmed the presence of anisotropic turbulent flow in the spray dryer from the analysis of the velocity component fluctuations and turbulent structure as il us-trated by the Q-criterion.

  17. The Defective Nuclear Lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Disrupts the Nucleocytoplasmic Ran Gradient and Inhibits Nuclear Localization of Ubc9▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B.; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J.; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J.; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2011-01-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways. PMID:21670151

  18. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways.

  19. Assessment of RANS Based CFD Methodology using JAEA Experiment with a Wire-wrapped 127-pin Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J. H.; Yoo, J.; Lee, K. L.; Ha, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we assess the RANS based CFD methodology with JAEA experimental data. The JAEA experiment study with the 127-pin wire-wrapped fuel assembly was implemented using water for validating pressure drop formulas in ASFRE code. Complicated and vortical flow phenomena in the wire-wrapped fuel bundles were captured by vortex structure identification technique based on the critical point theory. The SFR system is one of the nuclear reactors in which a recycling of transuranics (TRUs) by reusing spent nuclear fuel sustains the fission chain reaction. This situation strongly motivated the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to start a prototype Gen-4 Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) design project under the national nuclear R and D program. Generally, the SFR system has a tight package of the fuel bundle and a high power density. The sodium material has a high thermal conductivity and boiling temperature than the water. That can make core design to be more compact than Light Water Reactor (LWR) through narrower sub-channels. The fuel assembly of the SFR system consists of long and thin wire-wrapped fuel bundles and a hexagonal duct, in which wire-wrapped fuel bundles in the hexagonal tube has triangular loose array. The main purpose of a wire spacer is to avoid collisions between adjacent rods. Furthermore, a wire spacer can mitigate a vortex induced vibration, and enhance convective heat transfer due to the secondary flow by helical type wire spacers. Most of numerical studies in the nuclear fields was widely conducted based on the simplified sub-channel analysis codes such as COBRA (Rowe), SABRE (Macdougall and Lillington), ASFRE (Ninokata), and MATRA-LMR (Kim et al.). The relationship between complex flow phenomena and helically wrapped-wire spacers will be discussed. The RANS based CFD methodology is evaluated with JAEA experimental data of the 127-pin wirewrapped fuel assembly. Complicated and vortical flow phenomena in the wire-wrapped fuel

  20. In vivo FRET imaging revealed a regulatory role of RanGTP in kinetochore-microtubule attachments via Aurora B kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoke-Peng; Wong, Chi-Hang; Chan, Kheng-Sze; Lai, Soak-Kuan; Koh, Cheng-Gee; Li, Hoi-Yeung

    2012-01-01

    Under the fluctuating circumstances provided by the innate dynamics of microtubules and opposing tensions resulted from microtubule-associated motors, it is vital to ensure stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments for accurate segregation. However, a comprehensive understanding of how this regulation is mechanistically achieved remains elusive. Using our newly designed live cell FRET time-lapse imaging, we found that post-metaphase RanGTP is crucial in the maintenance of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments by regulating Aurora B kinase via the NES-bearing Mst1. More importantly, our study demonstrates that by ensuring stable alignment of metaphase chromosomes prior to segregation, RanGTP is indispensible in governing the genomic integrity and the fidelity of cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest an additional role of RanGTP beyond its known function in mitotic spindle assembly during the prometaphase-metaphase transition.

  1. In vivo FRET imaging revealed a regulatory role of RanGTP in kinetochore-microtubule attachments via Aurora B kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke-Peng Lee

    Full Text Available Under the fluctuating circumstances provided by the innate dynamics of microtubules and opposing tensions resulted from microtubule-associated motors, it is vital to ensure stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments for accurate segregation. However, a comprehensive understanding of how this regulation is mechanistically achieved remains elusive. Using our newly designed live cell FRET time-lapse imaging, we found that post-metaphase RanGTP is crucial in the maintenance of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments by regulating Aurora B kinase via the NES-bearing Mst1. More importantly, our study demonstrates that by ensuring stable alignment of metaphase chromosomes prior to segregation, RanGTP is indispensible in governing the genomic integrity and the fidelity of cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest an additional role of RanGTP beyond its known function in mitotic spindle assembly during the prometaphase-metaphase transition.

  2. Overexpression of Ran GTPase Components Regulating Nuclear Export, but not Mitotic Spindle Assembly, Marks Chromosome Instability and Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Thangavelu, Pulari U; Duijf, Pascal H G

    2016-10-01

    Ran GTPase regulates nuclear import, nuclear export, and mitotic spindle assembly. The multifunctional involvement of seventeen Ran GTPase components in these processes has complicated research into how each contributes to cancer development. To assess whether individual and process-specific misexpression of Ran GTPase components contribute to chromosome instability (CIN) and worsen breast cancer patient prognosis. Using publicly available datasets, we studied the degree of misexpression of all Ran GTPase signaling components in breast cancer, assessed their involvement in CIN and used four clinical tests to evaluate whether their misregulation may constitute independent prognostic predictors. A significant majority of Ran GTPase signaling components is overexpressed in breast cancer. Strikingly, spindle assembly components are overexpressed and associated with CIN with only marginal significance and four independent tests indicate that this does not worsen patient outcome. Overexpression of nuclear import components is neither CIN-associated nor clinically significant. In sharp contrast, overexpression of nuclear export components constitutes a strong independent marker for both CIN and poor patient prognosis. We identify Exportin 2/CSE1L, Exportin 3/XPOT, Exportin 5/XPO5, and RANBP1 as novel potential targets. We find that overexpression of Ran GTPase components involved in nuclear export, but not nuclear import or mitotic spindle assembly, is a strong CIN-associated marker for poor breast cancer prognosis. This could mean that increased nuclear export (of, for instance, pRb, p53, p73, BRCA1, p21, p27, E2F4, IκB, survivin), rather than spindle defects, mainly drives CIN and tumorigenesis. Hence, selective inhibitors of nuclear export may be effective for treating the most aggressive and chromosomally unstable breast cancers.

  3. 3'-UTR Polymorphisms in the MiRNA Machinery Genes DROSHA, DICER1, RAN, and XPO5 Are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Jung Oh; Jeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Jung Ki; Oh, Jisu; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Nam Keun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes are associated with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and T allele carriers (CT + TT) genotypes had lower risk of CRC, while the DICER1 rs3742330, DROSHA rs10719, and XPO5 rs11077 polymorphisms were not associated with CRC in the full study sample. Specifically, male RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and XPO5 rs11077 AA genotype (CT/AA) carriers experienced reduced CRC susceptibility (both colon and rectal). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the combined RAN rs14035 CT + TT genotype was associated with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. In addition, the DICER1 rs3742330 AG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer. Stratified analysis revealed the RAN rs14035 combined CT+TT genotype was associated with decreased CRC risk in male patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) and in patients with rectal cancer. In addition, we found the RAN rs14035 CC genotype was related to a decreased risk of CRC with respect to tumor size and metabolism of homocysteine and folate. Furthermore, patients diagnosed with hypertension or DM who carried the DROSHA rs10719 CC genotype showed increased CRC risk, while the XPO5 rs11077 AC+CC genotype led to increased CRC risk in patients with hypertension only. Our results indicate variations in RAN rs14035, DICER1 rs3742330, XPO5 rs11077, and DROSHA rs10719 of Korean patients are significantly associated with their risk of CRC.

  4. Wall modeling via function enrichment within a high-order DG method for RANS simulations of incompressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Krank, Benjamin; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to wall modeling for RANS within the discontinuous Galerkin method. Wall functions are not used to prescribe boundary conditions as usual but they are built into the function space of the numerical method as a local enrichment, in addition to the standard polynomial component. The Galerkin method then automatically finds the optimal solution among all shape functions available. This idea is fully consistent and gives the wall model vast flexibility in separated boundary layers or high adverse pressure gradients. The wall model is implemented in a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver for incompressible flow complemented by the Spalart-Allmaras closure model. As benchmark examples we present turbulent channel flow starting from $Re_{\\tau}=180$ and up to $Re_{\\tau}=100{,}000$ as well as flow past periodic hills at Reynolds numbers based on the hill height of $Re_H=10{,}595$ and $Re_{H}=19{,}000$.

  5. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  6. Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna: "When the Danube Ran Red"; Mandel, Eva Marika: "Le Livre de Mana"; Roth, Marika: "All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine Spirit".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Blaikie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna. When the Danube Ran Red. Syracuse University Press, 2010,171 pp., Illus.Mandel, Eva Marika. Le Livre de Mana. Paris, Glyphe 2009, 231 pp., Illus.Roth, Marika. All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine SpiritWyatt McKenzy 2010, 254 pp., Illus.Reviewed by Evi Blaikie, Freelance Writer.

  7. Comprehensive Approaches to Multiphase Flows in Geophysics - Application to nonisothermal, nonhomogenous, unsteady, large-scale, turbulent dusty clouds I. Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic RANS and LES Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dartevelle

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this manuscript is to fully derive a geophysical multiphase model able to ''accommodate'' different multiphase turbulence approaches; viz., the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), or hybrid RANSLES. This manuscript is the first part of a larger geophysical multiphase project--lead by LANL--that aims to develop comprehensive modeling tools for large-scale, atmospheric, transient-buoyancy dusty jets and plume (e.g., plinian clouds, nuclear ''mushrooms'', ''supercell'' forest fire plumes) and for boundary-dominated geophysical multiphase gravity currents (e.g., dusty surges, diluted pyroclastic flows, dusty gravity currents in street canyons). LES is a partially deterministic approach constructed on either a spatial- or a temporal-separation between the large and small scales of the flow, whereas RANS is an entirely probabilistic approach constructed on a statistical separation between an ensemble-averaged mean and higher-order statistical moments (the so-called ''fluctuating parts''). Within this specific multiphase context, both turbulence approaches are built up upon the same phasic binary-valued ''function of presence''. This function of presence formally describes the occurrence--or not--of any phase at a given position and time and, therefore, allows to derive the same basic multiphase Navier-Stokes model for either the RANS or the LES frameworks. The only differences between these turbulence frameworks are the closures for the various ''turbulence'' terms involving the unknown variables from the fluctuating (RANS) or from the subgrid (LES) parts. Even though the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic models for RANS and LES have the same set of Partial Differential Equations, the physical interpretations of these PDEs cannot be the same, i.e., RANS models an averaged field, while LES simulates a

  8. A lentiviral sponge for miR-101 regulates RanBP9 expression and amyloid precursor protein metabolism in hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eBarbato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration associated with amyloid β (Aβ peptide accumulation, synaptic loss, and memory impairment are pathophysiological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Numerous microRNAs regulate amyloid precursor protein (APP expression and metabolism. We previously reported that miR-101 is a negative regulator of APP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. In this study, a search for predicted APP metabolism-associated miR-101 targets led to the identification of a conserved miR-101 binding site within the 3’ untranslated region (UTR of the mRNA encoding Ran-binding protein 9 (RanBP9. RanBP9 increases APP processing by β-amyloid converting enzyme 1 (BACE1, secretion of soluble APPβ (sAPPβ, and generation of Aβ. MiR-101 significantly reduced reporter gene expression when co-transfected with a RanBP9 3'-UTR reporter construct, while site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted miR-101 target site eliminated the reporter response. To investigate the effect of stable inhibition of miR-101 both in vitro and in vivo, a microRNA sponge was developed to bind miR-101 and derepress its targets. Four tandem bulged miR-101 responsive elements (REs, located downstream of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP open reading frame and driven by the synapsin promoter, were placed in a lentiviral vector to create the pLSyn-miR-101 sponge. Delivery of the sponge to primary hippocampal neurons significantly increased both APP and RanBP9 expression, as well as sAPPβ levels in the conditioned medium. Importantly, silencing of endogenous RanBP9 reduced sAPPβ levels in miR-101 sponge-containing hippocampal cultures, indicating that miR-101 inhibition may increase amyloidogenic processing of APP by RanBP9. Lastly, the impact of miR-101 on its targets was demonstrated in vivo by intrahippocampal injection of the pLSyn-miR-101 sponge into C57BL6 mice. This study thus provides the basis for studying the consequences of long-term miR-101 inhibition on

  9. Investigation of Synthetic Jets Efficiency to Control Cavity Flotation with Subsonic External Flow by High-Resolution RANS / ILES Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lyubimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavities often found in airplanes: a niche for the landing gear, various weapons, etc. Reducing fluctuations of pressure and temperature in the cavity is a relevant practical problem. The article presents simulation results of external subsonic flow around the cavity (M = 0.85, T = 300K. . Calculations were performed using the high-resolution RANS/ILES (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES method. To control flow the authors propose to use synthetic jets. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from a slot induced by the movement of a diaphragm (generator of synthetic jets inside a cavity. They are compact and efficient and do not require a special working body and the ways for its supply. Instead of calculating the flow in the synthetic jet generator was used the modified boundary condition on the wall where the output slots was positioned. Under consideration there were two variants of slots for synthetic jets output: in front of the cavity and inside the cavity on the front wall. The frequency and amplitude values of the synthetic jet specified a mode of each jet. For a jet inside the cavity two modes have been reviewed, namely: 100 Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. For jet in front of the cavity three modes have been reviewed, specifically: 20Hz and 20m/s, 100Hz and 50m/s, 200Hz and 50m/s. Analysis of calculation results showed that for all modes under examination, the synthetic jets reduced fluctuation of static pressure and temperature on the bottom and back walls of the cavity. The mode with parameters 200Hz, 50 m/s and synthetic jet located in front of the cavity was the most efficient. Furthermore, we compared the results of calculations for two-and three-dimensional cavities, which have the same length and depth. Research has shown that the simplified quasi-two-dimensional calculations cannot be used to evaluate the pressure and temperature fluctuations. This is due to

  10. LES and Hybrid LES/RANS Study of Flow and Heat Transfer around a Wall-Bounded Short Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borello, D.; Delibra, G.; Hanjalić, K.; Rispoli, F.

    The flow in plate-fin-and-tube heat exchangers is featured by interesting dynamics of vortical structures, which, due to close proximity of bounding walls that suppress instabilities, differs significantly from the better-known patterns around long cylinders. Typically, several distinct vortex systems can be identified both in front and behind the pin. Their signature on the pin and end-walls reflects directly in the local heat transfer. The Reynolds numbers is usually moderate and the incoming flow is non-turbulent, transiting to turbulence on or just behind the first or few subsequent pin/tube rows. Upstream from the first pin a sequence of several horseshoe vortices attached to the boundingwall is created, while the unsteady wake contains also multiple vortical systems which control the entrainment of fresh fluid and its mixing with the hot fluid that was in contact with the heated surfaces [1]. The conventional CFD using standard turbulence models, as practiced by heat exchangers industries, falls short in capturing the subtle details of the complex vortex systems. A fine-grid LES can provide accurate solutions, but for more complex configurations and higher Re numbers a hybrid RANS/LES using a coarser grid seems a more rational option, provided it can capture all important flow and vortical features.

  11. On the accuracy of simulations of a 2D boundary layer with RANS models implemented in OpenFoam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Benjamin J.; Gomez, Sebastian; Poroseva, Svetlana V.

    2013-11-01

    The OpenFoam software is an attractive Computational Fluid Dynamics solver for evaluating new turbulence models due to the open-source nature, and the suite of existing standard model implementations. Before interpreting results obtained with a new model, a baseline for performance of the OpenFoam solver and existing models is required. In the current study we analyze the RANS models in the OpenFoam incompressible solver for two planar (two-dimensional mean flow) benchmark cases generated by the AIAA Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group (TMBWG): a zero-pressure-gradient flat plate and a bump-in-channel. The OpenFoam results are compared against both experimental data and simulation results obtained with the NASA CFD codes CFL3D and FUN3D. Sensitivity of simulation results to the grid resolution and model implementation are analyzed. Testing is conducted using the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, Wilcox's two-equation k-omega model, and the Launder-Reece-Rodi Reynolds-stress model. Simulations using both wall functions and wall-resolved (low Reynolds number) formulations are considered. The material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A.

  12. Proactive monitoring of an onshore wind farm through lidar measurements, SCADA data and a data-driven RANS solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Camarri, Simone; Ciri, Umberto; El-Asha, Said; Leonardi, Stefano; Rotea, Mario A.; Santhanagopalan, Vignesh; Viola, Francesco; Zhan, Lu

    2016-11-01

    Site conditions, such as topography and local climate, as well as wind farm layout strongly affect performance of a wind power plant. Therefore, predictions of wake interactions and their effects on power production still remain a great challenge in wind energy. For this study, an onshore wind turbine array was monitored through lidar measurements, SCADA and met-tower data. Power losses due to wake interactions were estimated to be approximately 4% and 2% of the total power production under stable and convective conditions, respectively. This dataset was then leveraged for the calibration of a data driven RANS (DDRANS) solver, which is a compelling tool for prediction of wind turbine wakes and power production. DDRANS is characterized by a computational cost as low as that for engineering wake models, and adequate accuracy achieved through data-driven tuning of the turbulence closure model. DDRANS is based on a parabolic formulation, axisymmetry and boundary layer approximations, which allow achieving low computational costs. The turbulence closure model consists in a mixing length model, which is optimally calibrated with the experimental dataset. Assessment of DDRANS is then performed through lidar and SCADA data for different atmospheric conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under the I/UCRC WindSTAR, NSF Award IIP 1362033.

  13. Characterization of partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thin films for spectroelectrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Nebojsa; Andria, Sara E; Heineman, William R; Seliskar, Carl J

    2009-08-15

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor uses thin, solid polyelectrolyte films as an essential element in its operation. In this work we explored the potential of partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS) thin polymer films for chemical sensing. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure optical and surface properties of the air-dried and hydrated material. SSEBS incorporates a relatively small amount of water (overall change of 25%) mainly determined by the complex dynamics of the film. The decrease in the refractive index after complete hydration of the film can be predicted based on the magnitude of swelling using effective medium approximation models. Adhesion of the material on various surfaces (glass, indium tin oxide, gold) was evaluated with the tape peel-off method. The ability of the SSEBS material to preconcentrate cations was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, absorbance, and luminescence measurements using model analytes (Ru(bpy)(3)(2+), phenosafranine, and rhodamine 6G). The detection limits of the sensor for Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) under unoptimized conditions can be significantly improved if luminescence is used as the detection modality (DL = 5 x 10(-10) M) instead of absorbance (DL = 5 x 10(-7) M). Overall, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SSEBS material for spectroelectrochemical sensing.

  14. 程然:沃特威尔茨·霍%CHENG RAN:WHAT WHY HOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐凌洁

    2012-01-01

    “天使”缓缓跌入油亮的水面,一道似来自天堂的光撕破了无限延展的黑暗。他的身体被四溅的泡沫缠绕,时而潜入底部,时而于上空盘旋,发出如子宫回声般尖锐的巨响,又好似痛苦的嘶鸣。看到这里,你或许会以为这是艺术家程然对比尔·维奥拉某件经典录像作品的又一次致敬.但随之,两名身着潜水服的救生员闯入画面,打破了原本唯美的冥想空间,将人拉拽回现实中。%The "angel" falls slowly, breaking the wa- ter's shiny surface. Brilliant light, as if from heaven, tears open the infinite stretch of dark- ness. His body is shrouded in seafoam and bubbles, at once completely submerged in the depths of the water, then hovering in the air, with loud, penetrating cries echoing as if from within the womb. Up until this point, one might assume that Cheng Ran is paying homage to Bill Viola. Suddenly, though, two people in swim- suits, lifeguards, burst in, breaking tile medita- tive atmosphere as they haul him back to reality.

  15. Origin of the nucleus and Ran-dependent transport to safeguard ribosome biogenesis in a chimeric cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jékely, Gáspár

    2008-07-24

    The origin of the nucleus is a central problem about the origin of eukaryotes. The common ancestry of nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and vesicle coating complexes indicates that the nucleus evolved via the modification of a pre-existing endomembrane system. Such an autogenous scenario is cell biologically feasible, but it is not clear what were the selective or neutral mechanisms that had led to the origin of the nuclear compartment. A key selective force during the autogenous origin of the nucleus could have been the need to segregate ribosome factories from the cytoplasm where ribosomal proteins (RPs) of the protomitochondrium were synthesized. After its uptake by an anuclear cell the protomitochondrium transferred several of its RP genes to the host genome. Alphaproteobacterial RPs and archaebacterial-type host ribosomes were consequently synthesized in the same cytoplasm. This could have led to the formation of chimeric ribosomes. I propose that the nucleus evolved when the host cell compartmentalised its ribosome factories and the tightly linked genome to reduce ribosome chimerism. This was achieved in successive stages by first evolving karyopherin and RanGTP dependent chaperoning of RPs, followed by the evolution of a membrane network to serve as a diffusion barrier, and finally a hydrogel sieve to ensure selective permeability at nuclear pores. Computer simulations show that a gradual segregation of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm via these steps can progressively reduce ribosome chimerism. Ribosome chimerism can provide a direct link between the selective forces for and the mechanisms of evolving nuclear transport and compartmentalisation. The detailed molecular scenario presented here provides a solution to the gradual evolution of nuclear compartmentalization from an anuclear stage. This article was reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre.

  16. Origin of the nucleus and Ran-dependent transport to safeguard ribosome biogenesis in a chimeric cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jékely Gáspár

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of the nucleus is a central problem about the origin of eukaryotes. The common ancestry of nuclear pore complexes (NPC and vesicle coating complexes indicates that the nucleus evolved via the modification of a pre-existing endomembrane system. Such an autogenous scenario is cell biologically feasible, but it is not clear what were the selective or neutral mechanisms that had led to the origin of the nuclear compartment. Results A key selective force during the autogenous origin of the nucleus could have been the need to segregate ribosome factories from the cytoplasm where ribosomal proteins (RPs of the protomitochondrium were synthesized. After its uptake by an anuclear cell the protomitochondrium transferred several of its RP genes to the host genome. Alphaproteobacterial RPs and archaebacterial-type host ribosomes were consequently synthesized in the same cytoplasm. This could have led to the formation of chimeric ribosomes. I propose that the nucleus evolved when the host cell compartmentalised its ribosome factories and the tightly linked genome to reduce ribosome chimerism. This was achieved in successive stages by first evolving karyopherin and RanGTP dependent chaperoning of RPs, followed by the evolution of a membrane network to serve as a diffusion barrier, and finally a hydrogel sieve to ensure selective permeability at nuclear pores. Computer simulations show that a gradual segregation of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm via these steps can progressively reduce ribosome chimerism. Conclusion Ribosome chimerism can provide a direct link between the selective forces for and the mechanisms of evolving nuclear transport and compartmentalisation. The detailed molecular scenario presented here provides a solution to the gradual evolution of nuclear compartmentalization from an anuclear stage. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V Koonin, Martijn Huynen, Anthony M. Poole and Patrick Forterre.

  17. Geology of the Çaldıran Fault, Eastern Turkey: Age, slip rate and implications on the characteristic slip behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Erturaç, M. Korhan; Nomade, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    The Çaldıran Fault is a strike slip fault with a dextral slip in East Anatolia. The activity on this fault was marked by the November, 24 1976 earthquake (Mw: 7.1) which produced an ~ 50 km long surface rupture and caused 3840 fatalities, which was close to half of the population living along the fault at that time. Together with the North Tabriz Fault in Iran, it is regarded as the southern boundary of the Caucasus Block. The fault has an average annual slip rate of 8.1 from 10.8 mm yr- 1, as derived from elastic block modelling. We present results from a detailed morphotectonic survey along the fault. The Çaldıran Fault is comprised of three segments, each of which is eparated by bend structures that bend towards the SW with a total change in strike of 20° from east to west. The offsets of lithological contact markers show that the long-term geological slip rate for the Çaldıran fault is approximately 3.27 ± 0.17 mm yr- 1for a duration of approximately 290 ka. The cumulative offset of the fault was determined from an analysis of a dome-shaped rhyolitic volcano which constrained the age of the fault to the Middle-Late Pleistocene. An analysis of small-scale morphological offset markers indicates a characteristic slip behaviour of the Çaldıran Fault for the last 3 events with an average offset of 2.6 m.

  18. Surface modification of TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine as a co-delivery system of TRAIL and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Chen, Hongbo; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhigang; Xiao, Xiaojun; Zhu, Yongqiang; Gu, Dayong; Mei, Lin

    2013-04-01

    The efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of interest is a critical challenge to broad application of non-viral vector systems. In this research, a novel TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticle modified with polyethyleneimine was applied to be a vector of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and endostatin for cervical cancer gene therapy. Firstly, a novel biodegradable copolymer, TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA), was synthesized and characterized. The nanoparticles were fabricated by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method and then further modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) carrying TRAIL and/or endostatin genes. The uptake of pIRES2-EGFP and/or pDsRED nanoparticles by HeLa cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cell viability of TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles in HeLa cells was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2 H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Severe combined immunodeficient mice carrying HeLa tumor xenografts were treated in groups of six including phosphate-buffered saline control, blank TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) nanoparticles, blank TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI nanoparticles, and three types of gene nanoparticles. The activity was assessed using average increase in survival time, body weight, and solid tumor volume. All the specimens were then prepared as formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections for hematoxylin-eosin staining. The data showed that the nanoparticles could efficiently deliver plasmids into HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of the HeLa cells was significantly increased by TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles when compared with control groups. The use of TPGS in combination with TRAIL and endostatin had synergistic antitumor effects. In conclusion, the TRAIL/endostatin-loaded nanoparticles offer considerable potential as an ideal candidate for in vivo cancer gene delivery.

  19. Fission yeast Mog1p homologue, which interacts with the small GTPase Ran, is required for mitosis-to-interphase transition and poly(A)(+) RNA metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebayashi, K; Tani, T; Ikeda, H

    2001-04-01

    We have cloned and characterized the Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene mog1(+), which encodes a protein with homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mog1p participating in the Ran-GTPase system. The S. pombe Mog1p is predominantly localized in the nucleus. In contrast to the S. cerevisiae MOG1 gene, the S. pombe mog1(+) gene is essential for cell viability. mog1(+) is required for the mitosis-to-interphase transition, as the mog1-1 mutant arrests at restrictive temperatures as septated, binucleated cells with highly condensed chromosomes and an aberrant nuclear envelope. FACS analysis showed that these cells do not undergo a subsequent round of DNA replication. Surprisingly, also unlike the Delta mog1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, the mog1-1 mutation causes nucleolar accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA at the restrictive temperature in S. pombe, but the signals do not overlap with the fibrillarin-rich region of the nucleolus. Thus, we found that mog1(+) is required for the mitosis-to-interphase transition and a class of RNA metabolism. In our attempt to identify suppressors of mog1-1, we isolated the spi1(+) gene, which encodes the fission yeast homologue of Ran. We found that overexpression of Spi1p rescues the S. pombe Delta mog1 cells from death. On the basis of these results, we conclude that mog1(+) is involved in the Ran-GTPase system.

  20. Enhanced antifungal effects of amphotericin B-TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang X

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiaolong Tang,1,2,* He Zhu,3,* Ledong Sun,4,* Wei Hou,2 Shuyu Cai,1 Rongbo Zhang,1 Feng Liu5 1Stem Cell Engineering Research Center, School of Medicine, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Virology, Life Sciences College, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Skin Damage and Repair, General Hospital of Beijing Military Command, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Dermatology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Anesthesiology, Children’s Hospital, Chongqing Medical University; Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Amphotericin B (AMB is a polyene antibiotic with broad spectrum antifungal activity, but its clinical toxicities and poor solubility limit the wide application of AMB in clinical practice. Recently, new drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs – diblock copolymer D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(ε-caprolactone-ran-glycolide (PLGA-TPGS – have received special attention for their reduced toxicity, and increased effectiveness of drug has also been reported. This study aimed to develop AMB-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (AMB-NPs and evaluate their antifungal effects in vitro and in vivo.Methods: AMB-NPs were prepared with a modified nanoprecipitation method and then characterized in terms of physical characteristics, in vitro drug release, stability, drug-encapsulation efficiency, and toxicity. Finally, the antifungal activity of AMB-NPs was investigated in vitro and in vivo.Results: AMB-NPs were stable and spherical, with an average size of around 110 nm; the entrapment efficacy was closed to 85%, and their release exhibited a typically biphasic pattern. The actual

  1. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hanif Mahboobi

    Full Text Available Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV's reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA, computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  2. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-01-01

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV's reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  3. La scission et le développement dans la tradition de l ’écriture féminine de Chen Ran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yueguang fr

    2014-01-01

    Le roman de Chen Ran陈染Siren shenghuo 私人生活 (La vie privée) constitue la vie d'une jeune femme, Ni Ni-uniu, qui vivait dans une métropole chinoise dans une époque de grands changements. Chen Ran a dévoilé la propre expérience de sa vie intime pour concrétiser son image de soi et d’autrui, son style de narration de la vie avec sa volonté et sa logique, pour établir les paroles féminines.   Chen Ran est une écrivaine singulière et importante dans la littérature contemporaine, elle nous a fourni une ressource spiri-tuelle riche pour le développement de la littérature féminine du XXe siècle par ses nombreuses écritures d’exploration des expéri-ences psychologiques spécifiques, féminines, qui représentent le modernisme.   Pendant ces dernières années, son œuvre s’est orientée de plus en plus vers le psychologique et le philosophique en ex-plorant la solitude, l'amour sexuel et la vie humaine. Chen Ran exprime la solitude et la tristesse des personnages par son écriture parfaite qui rend toute la beauté de la tristesse profonde. La trist-esse qu’elle a exprimée n’est pas de simples expériences ou émo-tions personnelles, mais de la recherche et de l’interrogation pro-fonde vers l’identité du « je » et de l’« autre ».

  4. An Evaluation of Recently Developed RANS-Based Turbulence Models for Flow Over a Two-Dimensional Block Subjected to Different Mesh Structures and Grid Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan, Farshid; Cheng, Wai-Chi; Baverel, Olivier; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Understanding, analyzing and predicting meteorological phenomena related to urban planning and built environment are becoming more essential than ever to architectural and urban projects. Recently, various version of RANS models have been established but more validation cases are required to confirm their capability for wind flows. In the present study, the performance of recently developed RANS models, including the RNG k-ɛ , SST BSL k-ω and SST ⪆mma-Reθ , have been evaluated for the flow past a single block (which represent the idealized architecture scale). For validation purposes, the velocity streamlines and the vertical profiles of the mean velocities and variances were compared with published LES and wind tunnel experiment results. Furthermore, other additional CFD simulations were performed to analyze the impact of regular/irregular mesh structures and grid resolutions based on selected turbulence model in order to analyze the grid independency. Three different grid resolutions (coarse, medium and fine) of Nx × Ny × Nz = 320 × 80 × 320, 160 × 40 × 160 and 80 × 20 × 80 for the computational domain and nx × nz = 26 × 32, 13 × 16 and 6 × 8, which correspond to number of grid points on the block edges, were chosen and tested. It can be concluded that among all simulated RANS models, the SST ⪆mma-Reθ model performed best and agreed fairly well to the LES simulation and experimental results. It can also be concluded that the SST ⪆mma-Reθ model provides a very satisfactory results in terms of grid dependency in the fine and medium grid resolutions in both regular and irregular structure meshes. On the other hand, despite a very good performance of the RNG k-ɛ model in the fine resolution and in the regular structure grids, a disappointing performance of this model in the coarse and medium grid resolutions indicates that the RNG k-ɛ model is highly dependent on grid structure and grid resolution. These quantitative validations are essential

  5. Prediction of dosage-based parameters from the puff dispersion of airborne materials in urban environments using the CFD-RANS methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, G. C.; Andronopoulos, S.; Bartzis, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key issues of recent research on the dispersion inside complex urban environments is the ability to predict dosage-based parameters from the puff release of an airborne material from a point source in the atmospheric boundary layer inside the built-up area. The present work addresses the question of whether the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology can be used to predict ensemble-average dosage-based parameters that are related with the puff dispersion. RANS simulations with the ADREA-HF code were, therefore, performed, where a single puff was released in each case. The present method is validated against the data sets from two wind-tunnel experiments. In each experiment, more than 200 puffs were released from which ensemble-averaged dosage-based parameters were calculated and compared to the model's predictions. The performance of the model was evaluated using scatter plots and three validation metrics: fractional bias, normalized mean square error, and factor of two. The model presented a better performance for the temporal parameters (i.e., ensemble-average times of puff arrival, peak, leaving, duration, ascent, and descent) than for the ensemble-average dosage and peak concentration. The majority of the obtained values of validation metrics were inside established acceptance limits. Based on the obtained model performance indices, the CFD-RANS methodology as implemented in the code ADREA-HF is able to predict the ensemble-average temporal quantities related to transient emissions of airborne material in urban areas within the range of the model performance acceptance criteria established in the literature. The CFD-RANS methodology as implemented in the code ADREA-HF is also able to predict the ensemble-average dosage, but the dosage results should be treated with some caution; as in one case, the observed ensemble-average dosage was under-estimated slightly more than the acceptance criteria. Ensemble

  6. Investigation of Inlet Condition Effect on Flow and Turbulence Characteristics in Subsonic Jets from Conical and Chevron Nozzles Using RANS/ILES High Resolutions Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Benderskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Mach number and temperature on subsonic jets flow with a combined highresolution RANS/ILES method (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes - RANS, Implicit Large Eddy Simulation - ILES was investigated. Cold Mj=0.985 T0=300К and hot Mj=0.548 T0=858.6К jets were considered (Mj – Mach number at the nozzle exit and T0 – total temperature at the nozzle inlet. Conical and two chevron nozzles with angle of chevrons to the nozzle axis α=5° and α=18.2° were investigated. The jet flow calculations were carried out together with flow calculation in nozzles. Computation grids were Meshes for simulations (2.8-3.2×106 cells. Investigated cases were compared by average velocity and velocity fluctuations at the jet axis and at the mixing layer. The magnitude of velocity fluctuations at the jet axis and at the mixing layer for hot jets is higher than for cold jets. It leads to increasing expansion angle of the mixing layer inward the jet axis. This is why the initial part length of hot jets becomes shorter than in cold jets. Comparison of simulations with the experimental data of other authors showed a good agreement by flow and turbulences characteristics.

  7. The glycine brace: a component of Rab, Rho, and Ran GTPases associated with hinge regions of guanine- and phosphate-binding loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwald Andrew F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ras-like GTPases function as on-off switches in intracellular signalling pathways and include the Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran, Ras, Arf, Sar and Gα families. How these families have evolutionarily diverged from each other at the sequence level provides clues to underlying mechanisms associated with their functional specialization. Results Bayesian analysis of divergent patterns within a multiple alignment of Ras-like GTPase sequences identifies a structural component, termed here the glycine brace, as the feature that most distinguishes Rab, Rho/Rac, Ran and (to some degree Ras family GTPases from other Ras-like GTPases. The glycine brace consists of four residues: An aromatic residue that forms a stabilizing CH-π interaction with a conserved glycine at the start of the guanine-binding loop; a second aromatic residue, which is nearly always a tryptophan, that likewise forms stabilizing CH-π and NH-π interactions with a glycine at the start of the phosphate-binding P-loop; and two other residues (typically an aspartate and a serine or threonine that, together with a conserved buried water molecule, form a network of interactions connecting the two aromatic residues. Conclusion It is proposed that the two glycine residues function as hinges and that the glycine brace influences guanine nucleotide binding and release by interacting with these hinges.

  8. Modeling the near-wake of a vertical-axis cross-flow turbine with 2-D and 3-D RANS

    CERN Document Server

    Bachant, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The near-wake of a vertical-axis cross-flow turbine (CFT) was modeled numerically via blade-resolved $k$-$\\omega$ SST and Spalart-Allmaras RANS models in two and three dimensions. Results for each case are compared with experimental measurements of the turbine shaft power, overall drag, mean velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, and momentum transport terms in the near-wake at one diameter downstream. It was shown that 2-D simulations overpredict turbine loading and do not resolve mean vertical momentum transport, which plays an important role in the near-wake's momentum balance. The 3-D simulations fared better at predicting performance, with the Spalart-Allmaras model predictions being closest to the experiments. The SST model more accurately predicted the turbulence kinetic energy while the Spalart-Allmaras model more closely matched the momentum transport terms in the near-wake. These results show the potential of blade-resolved RANS as a design tool and a way to "interpolate" experimental flow field measu...

  9. High proton-conducting organic/inorganic nanocomposite films based on sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethyl-ran-propylene)-block-polystyrene and silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Suk-Yong; Han, Sien-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethyl-ran-propylene)-block-polystyrene (S-polySEPS) was prepared by sulfonation at the phenyl groups of the polystyrene-block-poly(ethyl-ran-propylene)-block-polystyrene (polySEPS) containing 65% styrene groups for proton exchange membrane. High proton-conducting S-polySEPS/silica nanocomposite films were produced by direct-mixing of nanosilica particles with the S-polySEPS copolymer. The TEM image of the S-polySEPS/silica nanocomposite films showed that the silica particles were very-well dispersed within the S-polySEPS matrix. Also, the XRD patterns showed the presence of the nano-scaled silica particles. Moreover, the nano-scaled silica particles played an important role in the prepared organic/inorganic nanocomposite properties such as proton conductivity, thermal stability, water content and ion exchange capacity (IEC). The S-polySEPS/silica 1 wt% (1.41 x 10(-1) S/cm) and 2 wt% (9.9 x 10(-2) S/cm) nanocomposite films had higher proton conductivity than Nafion 117 (9.8 x 10(-2) S/cm) at the temperature of 90 degrees C. The FT-IR analysis was used to verify the sulfonation of the S-polySEPS copolymer. The TGA analysis was carried out to investigate the thermal stability of the S-polySEPS/silica nanocomposite films.

  10. Application of RANS and LES Based CFD to Predict the Short and Long Term Distribution and Mixing of Hydrogen in a Large Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K Sharma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents CFD simulations from Reynolds Average Navier Stroke(RANS and Large Edyy Simulation(LES based approach of hydrogen release and dispersion inside the large enclosure and comparison with experimental data. The experiment was reported by HySafe Network of Excellence partners, consisting of a 1 g/s vertical hydrogen release for 240 s from an orifice of 20 mm diameter into a rectangular room of dimensions 7.2X2.88X3.78 m in length, height and width respectively. Two small openings were provided at the front and bottom side of the room. During the test hydrogen concentration time histories were measured at few positions in the room, for a period up to 5160 s after the end of release, covering both the release and the subsequent diffusion phases The CFD simulations were performed using a a 3D transient in-house developed RANS CFD code b LES based Fire Dynamics Simulator(FDS. Initially when the jet is injected the turbulence intensity is high, but later on the problem is diffusion dominated. Therefore suitable approaches were used to simulate the problem. Initially k-ε High Re number model with standard wall function and buoyancy modification was used and subsequently the transport was modeled as laminar in RANS based approach. The default LES based scheme adopted for LES based computations. The gas mixture was treated as weakly compressible and gravity force was also considered. The results obtained by computations have a good agreement with experiment particularly for LES based calculation. The performed simulation provides useful insight regarding performance of CFD code to simulate hydrogen transport problem and this capability can be further utilized to simulate the hydrogen transport in the real containment geometries.

    Nano-encapsulation of a novel anti-Ran-GTPase peptide for blockade of regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Yusuf A; Matchett, Kyle B; Dakir, El-Habib; Buchanan, Paul; Osman, Mohammed A; Elgizawy, Sanaa A; El-Tanani, Mohamed; Faheem, Ahmed M; McCarron, Paul A

    2017-02-02

    Ran is a small ras-related GTPase and is highly expressed in aggressive breast carcinoma. Overexpression induces malignant transformation and drives metastatic growth. We have designed a novel series of anti-Ran-GTPase peptides, which prevents Ran hydrolysis and activation, and although they display effectiveness in silico, peptide activity is suboptimal in vitro due to reduced bioavailability and poor delivery. To overcome this drawback, we delivered an anti-Ran-GTPase peptide using encapsulation in PLGA-based nanoparticles (NP). Formulation variables within a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique were controlled to optimise physicochemical properties. NP were spherical and negatively charged with a mean diameter of 182-277nm. Peptide integrity and stability were maintained after encapsulation and release kinetics followed a sustained profile. We were interested in the relationship between cellular uptake and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the NP matrix, with results showing enhanced in vitro uptake with increasing PEG content. Peptide-loaded, pegylated (10% PEG)-PLGA NP induced significant cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, with no evidence of similar effects in cells pulsed with free peptide. Western blot analysis showed that encapsulated peptide interfered with the proposed signal transduction pathway of the Ran gene. Our novel blockade peptide prevented Ran activation by blockage of regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) following peptide release directly in the cytoplasm once endocytosis of the peptide-loaded nanoparticle has occurred. RCC1 blockage was effective only when a nanoparticulate delivery approach was adopted.

  11. 基于IPRAN技术的综合业务接入网建设探讨%The Construction of Integrated Access Network Based on IP RAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆培隽

    2012-01-01

    Construction of integrated access network is the inevitable trend of network development. The necessity and feature of IAN are described, several technical programs are discussed. Finally, some suggestions on the construction of IAN based on IP RAN are given.%建设综合业务接入网是网络发展的必然趋势。描述了综合业务接入网的必要性和特点,并就其中的几种技术方案进行了讨论。最后,对基于IPRAN技术的综合业务接入网建设提出了自己的建议。

  12. Effect of RANS-Type Turbulence Models on Adiabatic Film Cooling Effectiveness over a Scaled Up Gas Turbine Blade Leading Edge Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepuri, Giridhara Babu; Talanki Puttarangasetty, Ashok Babu; Kolke, Deepak Kumar; Jesuraj, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature is one of the key technologies in raising gas turbine engine power output. Film cooling is one of the efficient cooling techniques to cool the hot section components of a gas turbine engines in turn the turbine inlet temperature can be increased. This study aims at investigating the effect of RANS-type turbulence models on adiabatic film cooling effectiveness over a scaled up gas turbine blade leading edge surfaces. For the evaluation, five different two equation RANS-type turbulent models have been taken in consideration, which are available in the ANSYS-Fluent. For this analysis, the gas turbine blade leading edge configuration is generated using Solid Works. The meshing is done using ANSYS-Workbench Mesh and ANSYS-Fluent is used as a solver to solve the flow field. The considered gas turbine blade leading edge model is having five rows of film cooling circular holes, one at stagnation line and the two each on either side of stagnation line at 30° and 60° respectively. Each row has the five holes with the hole diameter of 4 mm, pitch of 21 mm arranged in staggered manner and has the hole injection angle of 30° in span wise direction. The experiments are carried in a subsonic cascade tunnel facility at heat transfer lab of CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratory with a Reynolds number of 1,00,000 based on leading edge diameter. From the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation it is found that K-ɛ Realizable model gives more acceptable results with the experimental values, compared to the other considered turbulence models for this type of geometries. Further the CFD evaluated results, using K-ɛ Realizable model at different blowing ratios are compared with the experimental results.

  13. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 2: Turbulence and mean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Field-scale modeling of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is still challenging. Although Boussinesq-type models have been successfully used to study field-scale wave transformation and wave-breaking-driven circulation, they cannot provide turbulence or the vertical structure of the velocity field. In addition, the applicability of such models is limited to shallow water. In Part 1 (Derakhti et al., 2016b) of this study, we showed that the non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE, as described by Derakhti et al. (2016a), accurately predicts organized wave motions and total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation from deep-water up to the swash zone using a few vertical σ-layers. In this paper, our goal is to examine what level of detail of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation, both in depth- and steepness-limited breaking waves, can be reproduced by NHWAVE. Further, effects of modeled turbulent eddy viscosity on the predicted time-averaged velocity distribution is discussed. We establish that NHWAVE is capable of predicting the structure of the mean velocity and vorticity fields including large-scale breaking-induced coherent vortices in deep-water breaking events; where the absence of turbulence-induced eddy viscosity results in the overprediction of the velocity and vorticity field in the breaking region. We show that NHWAVE reduces the required CPU time up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with a comparable VOF-based simulation.

  14. Structure of the exportin Xpo4 in complex with RanGTP and the hypusine-containing translation factor eIF5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Metin; Trakhanov, Sergei; Görlich, Dirk

    2016-06-16

    Xpo4 is a bidirectional nuclear transport receptor that mediates nuclear export of eIF5A and Smad3 as well as import of Sox2 and SRY. How Xpo4 recognizes such a variety of cargoes is as yet unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of the RanGTP·Xpo4·eIF5A export complex at 3.2 Å resolution. Xpo4 has a similar structure as CRM1, but the NES-binding site is occluded, and a new interaction site evolved that recognizes both globular domains of eIF5A. eIF5A contains hypusine, a unique amino acid with two positive charges, which is essential for cell viability and eIF5A function in translation. The hypusine docks into a deep, acidic pocket of Xpo4 and is thus a critical element of eIF5A's complex export signature. This further suggests that Xpo4 recognizes other cargoes differently, and illustrates how Xpo4 suppresses - in a chaperone-like manner - undesired interactions of eIF5A inside nuclei.

  15. Short-time QiBaoMeiRan Formula Treatment Exerts Estrogenic Activities without Side Effects on Reproductive Tissues in Immature Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; An, Jin-na; Zhang, Zi-jia; Ding, Jie; Qu, Ya-kun; Liu, Zhen-li; Lin, Na

    2015-12-08

    The Chinese herbal preparation QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR) displayed estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats after long-term administration in a previous study. The uterus and vagina are negatively influenced by estrogens in hormone therapy. While QBMR is known to be a phytoestrogen, its estrogenic effects and safety on reproductive tissues after short-term administration and its mechanism via estrogen receptor (ER) pathway haven't been studied. Here, we characterized its estrogenic effects using immature mice together with in vitro studies for further molecular characterization. Immature mice were treated with QBMR at doses of 1.125, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg for 7 days. 1.125 and 2.25 g/kg QBMR promoted the growth and development of uterus and vagina, and upregulated ERα and ERβ expression in reproductive tissues. QBMR had a stimulatory effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vagina but not in uterus, and was without any influence on ki-67 antigen in uterus and vagina. QBMR significantly induced luciferase expression from the ERα/β-estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter and upregulated ERα and ERβ expressions in MCF-7 cells, which were significantly inhibited by estrogen antagonist ICI182,780. This study demonstrated QBMR exerts estrogenic effects on reproductive tissues without side effects and through ER-ERE-dependent pathway.

  16. CFD simulation of near-field pollutant dispersion on a high-resolution grid: A case study by LES and RANS for a building group in downtown Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousseau, P.; Blocken, B.; Stathopoulos, T.; van Heijst, G. J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Turbulence modeling and validation by experiments are key issues in the simulation of micro-scale atmospheric dispersion. This study evaluates the performance of two different modeling approaches (RANS standard k-ɛ and LES) applied to pollutant dispersion in an actual urban environment: downtown Montreal. The focus of the study is on near-field dispersion, i.e. both on the prediction of pollutant concentrations in the surrounding streets (for pedestrian outdoor air quality) and on building surfaces (for ventilation system inlets and indoor air quality). The high-resolution CFD simulations are performed for neutral atmospheric conditions and are validated by detailed wind-tunnel experiments. A suitable resolution of the computational grid is determined by grid-sensitivity analysis. It is shown that the performance of the standard k-ɛ model strongly depends on the turbulent Schmidt number, whose optimum value is case-dependent and a priori unknown. In contrast, LES with the dynamic subgrid-scale model shows a better performance without requiring any parameter input to solve the dispersion equation.

  17. SUFFIX OF -(yAn IN IRAN (AZERBAIJAN TURKISH DIALECTS İRAN (AZERBAYCAN TÜRK AĞIZLARINDA -(yAn EKİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talip DOĞAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available -(GAn suffix has a wide function field by using it as a relative clause in both old and modern Turkish dialects and accents, as a adverbial clause within the morphological and lexical elements and as the formation of past tense.Today, as in the past, Iran is one of the regions that represents the south-west branch of Turkish and that Oghuz Turkish has been widely used. In this study, -(yAn suffix has been examined for the dialects in Azerbaijan region of Iran according to its usage characteristics and functions with a diachronic and simultaneous examination -(GAn ekinin, Türkçenin hem tarihî hem de modern lehçe ve ağızlarında sıfat-fiil, yanına aldığı bazı morfolojik ve leksik unsurlarla birlikte zarf-fiil ve geçmiş zaman kipi teşkilinde kullanılmak suretiyle geniş bir işlev sahasına sahip olduğu görülür.İran, tarihte olduğu gibi bugün de Türkçenin güney-batı kolunu temsil eden Oğuzcanın yaygın bir şekilde kullanıldığı bölgelerden biridir. Bu çalışmada -(yAn eki İran’ın Azerbaycan bölgesi ağızlarında, art ve eş zamanlı bir incelemeyle, kullanılma özellikleri ve taşıdığı işlevler açısından ele alınmıştır.

  18. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 1: Organized wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.

  19. Experience on Xu Li-ran Application Tlumbricus Treatment of Pulmonary System Disease%徐立然应用地龙治疗肺系疾病经验举隅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东旭; 孟鹏飞; 马秀霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical experience of Henan province doctor of traditional Chinese medicine professor Xu Li-ran application Earthworm treatment of lung disease. Methods :To summarize the study with teacher Xu Li-ran outpatient clinic experience.Results: Found that professor Xu Li-ran application of TCM Earthworm clear heat, smooth wheezing, dredging and promoting blood flow. In the treatment of lung disease, Especially of pulmonary intersitital fibrosis, bronchial asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by sputum, virtual, blood stasis, has unexpectod curative effect. Conclusion: The idea and experience of Xu Li-ran application Earthworm treatment of lung disease have a high clinical value and deserve to inherit and carry forward.%目的:探讨河南省名中医徐立然教授应用地龙治疗肺系疾病的临床经验.方法:门诊跟师学习总结徐立然教授临床经验.结果:发现徐立然教授应用中药地龙的清热、平喘、通络和活血作用,在治疗肺系疾病,尤其是由痰、虚、瘀引起的肺间质纤维化、支气管哮喘、急慢性支气管炎、慢性阻塞性肺疾病等起到出乎意料的疗效.结论:徐立然教授应用地龙治疗肺系疾病的思路及验方有很高的临床价值.值得继承和发扬.

  1. SGK1 affects RAN/RANBP1/RANGAP1 via SP1 to play a critical role in pre-miRNA nuclear export: a new route of epigenomic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Vincenzo; D’Antona, Lucia; Talarico, Cristina; Capula, Mjriam; Catalogna, Giada; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Schenone, Silvia; Roperto, Sante; Bianco, Cataldo; Perrotti, Nicola; Amato, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1) controls cell transformation and tumor progression. SGK1 affects mitotic stability by regulating the expression of RANBP1/RAN. Here, we demonstrate that SGK1 fluctuations indirectly modify the maturation of pre-miRNAs, by modulating the equilibrium of the RAN/RANBP1/RANGAP1 axis, the main regulator of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. The levels of pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs were assessed by qRT-PCR, in total extracts and after differential nuclear/cytoplasmic extraction. RANBP1 expression is the limiting step in the regulation of SGK1-SP1 dependent nuclear export. These results were validated in unrelated tumor models and primary human fibroblasts and corroborated in tumor-engrafted nude mice. The levels of pri-miRNAs, DROSHA, DICER and the compartmental distribution of XPO5 were documented. Experiments using RANGTP conformational antibodies confirmed that SGK1, through RANBP1, decreases the level of the GTP-bound state of RAN. This novel mechanism may play a role in the epigenomic regulation of cell physiology and fate. PMID:28358001

  2. Vingt ans de recherches à Saint-Véran, Hautes Alpes: état des connaissances de l’activité de production de cuivre à l’âge du Bronze ancien

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Not available

    Durante la Edad del Bronce en Europa occidental, el aumento drástico de la producción de cobre apenas está documentado en las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas de transformación. En este contexto, el yacimiento minero y metalúrgico de Saint-Véran, Hautes-Alpes constituye un testimonio privilegiado de la producción en masa a fines del III milenio, ya que las obras mineras dan cuenta de una explotación a gran escala, con una producción de casi 7 t de cobre al a...

  3. The Iranian Branch of the Silkroad and the Prevention of the Sılk Trade by Iran / İpek Yolu’nun İran Güzergâhı ve İpek Yolu Ticaretine İran Engellemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEZCAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available History of studies on the Silkroad begins with Zhang Qian, a famous Chinese ambassador in the East, in the second half of the 2nd century BC in the East, and with Maes Titianus, a Greek trader in the West in the early years of the 1st century AD. In the Antiquity and Early Middle Ages, the Silkroad began to its journey from Antiochia in the West through the territories of Northern Mesopotamia and Iran and then the Western and Eastern Turkestan in Central Asia and finished in Chang’an and Loyang, the two capitals of China in the East. The course of this route through Iranian territory generally stayed closed during the times of the states founded in Iran, such as Parthians and Sasanians because they liked to getting more profits from the silk trade and other products. At the end, the Roman trade with the East through the Red Sea was prevented by the Sasanians towards 570s, and Justinus II, the Byzantine Emperor had to pass the route through the northern regions of the Aral Lake and the Black Sea, negotiating with the rulers of the 1st Turkic Kaganate. İpek Yolu’nun araştırılma tarihi, Doğuda M.Ö. II. yy.ın ikinci yarısında Çin elçisi Zhang Qian ile, Batıda ise M.S. I. yy. başlarında Grek tüccarı Maes Titianus ile başlatılmaktadır. Antik dönemde ve Ortaçağ başlarında, Batıdan Doğuya karayoluyla Antakya bölgesinden başlayarak Kuzey Mezopotamya ve İran içerisinden geçmek zorunda olan İpek Yolu güzergâhı, daha sonra Batı ve Doğu Türkistan bölgelerinden geçmek suretiyle Çin başkentleri Chang’an ve Loyang’a kadar uzanmaktaydı. Fakat İran’da kurulan devletlerin, ipekten ve bu yoldan geçen ticaretten daha fazla kâr etme arzuları sebebiyle İran güzergâhı Parthlar ve Sasaniler döneminde genellikle kapalı kalmıştır. Roma döneminden beri Kızıl Deniz aracılığıyla Doğu ile yapılan deniz ticareti de 570 tarihlerinde Sasaniler tarafından engellenince, Bizans Devleti, Orta Asya’da yeni

  4. Tendency towards the Self-Citation among Journals in Iran and Turkey / İran ve Türkiye Dergilerinde Kendine Atıf Yapma Eğilimleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Biglu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the trends of Impact Factors and self-citation rates of journals indexed in the JCR by two neighbouring countries Iran and Turkey for a period of five years (2000- 2005. All data extracted from the Journal Citation Reports – Science Edition (2000-2005. The study showed that the portion of Turkish journals entering data to the JCR data bank is two times higher than the portion of Iranian journals. From a total number of 6,088 journals in the JCR in 2005, 3 (0.05% were published in Iran and the same number of journals published in Turkey. The 6,088 journals in the JCR produced 847,114 articles, 159 (0.02% appeared in the Iranian journals and 352 (0.04% in the Turkish journals. Of the 22,353,992 citations in 2005, 214 (0.001% came from Iranian journals and 911 (0.004% came from Turkish journals.The self-citation tendency by Iranian journals has increased dramatically throughout the period of study, it reached from 8% self-citation rate in 2000 to 18% in 2005, an increase of 2.25 times, whereas the self-citation rate by Turkish journals showed a negative trend, its self-citation rate fell from 22% in 2002 to 15% in 2005. The Impact Factors of Turkish journals showed faster growth than the Iranian journals, the mean value of Impact Factor for Turkish journals in 2000 was 0.49 under than the mean value of Impact Factor for Iranian journals, but in 2005 the mean value of Impact Factor for Turkish journals stayed 0.14 higher than the mean value of Impact Factor for Iranian journalsÖzBu makale, iki komşu ülke, İran ve Türkiye tarafından 5 yıl (2000-2005 içinde üretilen yayınlardan JCR’de dizinlenen dergilerdeki kendine atıfları ve etki faktöründeki eğilimleri incelemektedir. Bütün veriler JCR-Science Edition (2000-2005’den alınmıştır. Çalışma, Türk dergilerinin İran dergilerinden iki kat fazla miktarda JCR’ye girdiğini göstermektedir. 2005 yılında JCR’de yer alan toplam 6

  5. Avaliação de modelos RANS de turbulência para o problema de jato livre circular axissimétrico - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8312 Assessment of turbulence RANS models for axysimmetric round free jet problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisely Luzia Ströher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, o problema de jato livre circular axissimétrico foi resolvido numericamente. A equação da conservação de massa, momento, energia e da modelagem da turbulência foram discretizadas aplicando o método de volumes finitos. Três modelos RANS de turbulência sem modificações foram testados, k-ε padrão, k- ε realizável e v2-f para determinar quais modelos proveem a melhor previsão do campo de escoamento de um jato livre turbulento nos seguintes regimes de escoamento: incompressível, subsônico e supersônico sobrexpandido. Os resultados numéricos para cada caso simulado foram comparados com dados experimentais disponíveis na literatura. Nenhum modelo de turbulência testado previu satisfatoriamente os três regimes de escoamentos, e o modelo k-ε realizável mostrou melhor concordância frente aos dados experimentais para o regime incompressível e supersônico, enquanto o modelo v2-f mostrou melhor previsão do escoamento para o regime subsônico.In the present study, the problem of axisymmetric round free jet was numerically solved. The governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy and turbulence were discretized using the finite volume method. In order to determine which models provide the best prediction for the flow field of a turbulent free jet, three models (standard k-ε, realizable k-ε and v2-f were tested on the following flow regimes: incompressible, subsonic and over-expanded supersonic. The numerical results from each simulated case were compared with experimental available data in the literature. None of the turbulence models tested predicted adequately the three flow regimes. Nevertheless, according to results, the k-ε realizable model presented better agreement to the experimental data for the incompressible and supersonic regimes, whereas the v2-f model better predicted the flow for subsonic regime.

  6. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air–water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon (KUS); (UC); (Purdue)

    2015-08-26

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air–water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA)show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air–water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods.

  7. Numerical simulation of the tip leakage flow in a ducted propulsor based on the RANS method%基于RANS方法的导管推进器梢隙流动数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮华; 张志荣; 辛公正

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a ducted propulsor is taken as the object of the research, where the RANS simulation method is used to study the tip leakage flow of the propulsor. Through the applicability study of the numerical grid type and the turbulence model, and by analyzing the flow field at the tip region, preliminary numerical methods based on RANS for tip leakage flow are finally proposed, and the corresponding results agree well with the experimental data. Through the comparison of unstructured and structured mesh's results, it is ob-served that structured mesh can capture more flowing detail (for example, the boundary flow). Therefore, the structured mesh is more appropriate for the numerical simulation of tip leakage flow. Meanwhile, three turbulence models, SST k-ω, RNG k-ε, and RSM are used, and their numerical results are essentially similar, which suggests that all three can be applied in the tip leakage flow simulation. Through the analysis of tip clearance region's flow field, it is found that tip leakage flow's driving power is primary the pressure dif-ference between the front and back side of the rotor, and the flow is affected by the wall boundary flow. When the flow enters the tip gap, flow separation is occurred, and a gap separation vortex is formed. The tip clearance flow goes across the gap and interacts with the passage flow, finally developing into Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV). TLV's inception position is about 37.5% cord length and attaches to the rotor wall, and then sheds from the rotor wall at approximately 75%cord length into the wake flied. The numerical results clear-ly demonstrate the changing process of the tip leakage vortex inception, development, and shedding.%以导管推进器为研究对象,采用雷诺时均纳维斯托克斯(RANS)方法对其梢隙流动进行数值模拟研究.通过对网格类型、湍流模型的适用性研究以及对梢部流场的研究探讨,初步建立了基于RANS梢隙流动的数值模拟方法;数值计

  8. Avaliação de modelos RANS de turbulência para o problema de jato livre circular axissimétrico - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8312

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylles Ricardo Ströher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, o problema de jato livre circular axissimétrico foi resolvido numericamente. A equação da conservação de massa, momento, energia e da modelagem da turbulência foram discretizadas aplicando o método de volumes finitos. Três modelos RANS de turbulência sem modificações foram testados, k-ε padrão, k- ε realizável e v2-f para determinar quais modelos proveem a melhor previsão do campo de escoamento de um jato livre turbulento nos seguintes regimes de escoamento: incompressível, subsônico e supersônico sobrexpandido. Os resultados numéricos para cada caso simulado foram comparados com dados experimentais disponíveis na literatura. Nenhum modelo de turbulência testado previu satisfatoriamente os três regimes de escoamentos, e o modelo k-ε realizável mostrou melhor concordância frente aos dados experimentais para o regime incompressível e supersônico, enquanto o modelo v2-f mostrou melhor previsão do escoamento para o regime subsônico.

  9. Prediction of Roll Hydrodynamics of Cylinders Fitted with Bilge Keels with RANS%带舭龙骨柱体的横摇阻尼的粘性流计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢楠; Dracos VASSALOS; B.S.LEE

    2007-01-01

    文章用RANSE求解器计算在自由面上带舭龙骨二维柱体的横摇水动力系数(附加惯量和阻尼).采用有限体积法(VOF)和两相流技术在时间域内求解柱体横摇强迫振荡所扰动的带自由面粘性流场.由柱体所受到的横摇水动力矩的时间历程导出横摇水动力系数.文中所给算例与已公开发表的试验结果吻合令人满意.%An RANS solver is used to predict roll hydrodynamic coefficients (added inertia moment and damping) of a two-dimensional section with/without bilge keels on the free surface. The viscous flow field disturbed by the forced roll motion is solved in time domain with VOF and two-phases flow approach. The roll hydrodynamic coefficients are derived from time histories of the roll hydrodynamic moments. The results are compared with published model test measurements and a fairly good agreement was found.

  10. The bladder ran dry: bilateral ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami; Drahy, Yosef; Dubin, Ina

    2017-08-07

    A relatively young healthy man (barring obesity and distant gouty arthritis) was admitted with severe acute kidney injury (serum creatinine, 15.9 mg/dL) following acute gastroenteritis and occasional use of diclofenac. Abdominal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis due to staghorn stone and normal right kidney. Soon after, complete anuria necessitating haemodialysis developed without pain or evidence of infection. CT imaging revealed stones obstructing the right ureter. Following urological surgery, postobstructive diuresis developed and the serum creatinine came down to near normal. The stones were identified as uric acid stones.Anuria has a relatively narrow differential and painless (partially non-dilated) bilateral ureteral obstruction is a distinctly unusual cause. A review of the literature to cover all reported causes of bilateral ureteral obstruction is presented. Only a minority of cases were not associated with an underlying malignant disease or its treatment. The multifactorial aetiology of the patient's acute kidney injury (volume depletion, diclofenac and obstructive uropathy) is presented and discussed. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. RAN and Double-Deficit Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Virginia S.

    2013-01-01

    Lervag and Hulme’s neuro-developmental theory and Wolf and Bowers’s double-deficit hypothesis were examined in this longitudinal study. A total of 130 children were tested in preschool and followed through fifth grade, when 84 remained in the study. During preschool and kindergarten the participants were given tests of end-sound discrimination…

  12. Numerical CFD Comparison of Lillgrund Employing RANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simisiroglou, N.; Breton, S.-P.; Crasto, G.

    2014-01-01

    The following article will validate the results obtained using the actuator disc method in the state of the art numerical Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) tool WindSim using on-site measurements from the offshore wind farm Lillgrund. WindSim solves the mass, momentum and energy conservation...

  13. RANS Simulations using OpenFOAM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    processor if the cluster is composed of processors providing unequal performance. If the cluster consists of a number of identical processors then the list...of weighting coefficients can be neglected and the user only has to specify the total number of processors in the cluster . The decomposition method

  14. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 21. Selective chemical sensing using sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)block-polystyrene thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andria, Sara E; Seliskar, Carl J; Heineman, William R

    2009-12-01

    Spectroelectrochemical sensors combine three modes of selectivity in a single device (electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning). A thin polymer film is coated onto the sensing platform in order to facilitate chemically selective transport to the electrode. The film is an essential part of the sensor because it provides an increase in selectivity and sensitivity by selectively preconcentrating the analyte. Here, we report the next step in the characterization of partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)block-polystyrene (SSEBS) films for the purpose of chemical sensing by examining the selectivity of the sensor fabricated with this novel thin film material. Binary mixtures using model analytes were used to demonstrate the sensor's ability to detect an analyte in the presence of a direct interference. The binary mixtures consisted of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Fe(CN)(6)(3-), Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Fe(bpy)(3)(2+), and Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Cu(bpy)(2)(2+). Demonstration of the selective partitioning mode using the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Fe(CN)(6)(3-) mixture and absorption detection showed the SSEBS film's preference for Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) over Fe(CN)(6)(3-), and therefore, Fe(CN)(6)(3-) did not interfere with the sensor's response to Ru(bpy)(3)(2+). Furthermore, the importance of the use of three modes together was demonstrated by analysis of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Fe(bpy)(3)(2+) and the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Cu(bpy)(2)(2+) test mixtures, where both selection of a specific wavelength for absorption and selection of a specific potential window were required to reduce or eliminate the signal from the interference. Finally, analysis of the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)/Fe(bpy)(3)(2+) test mixture was also demonstrated using fluorescence detection.

  15. RANS simulation of viscous flow over full appended submarine and field variables validation and vorticity analysis%全附体潜艇粘性流场的RANS模拟及场量和涡量的校验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼方; 王永生; 张志宏

    2012-01-01

    After RANS simulation of full appended SUBOFF submarine's viscous flow with four groups of grids of the same mesh block topology and close mesh quality and five turbulent models, effects of mesh density and nodes distribution and turbulent models on calculation precision were analyzed, and detailed validation of force integral variables and velocity field variables and vorticity of viscous flow were completed at last. Results show that G4 (1.4 million) with the most mesh density can get the high- est precision,which calculated total drag just differ by 0. 723% to the experiment. As for the G4 mesh, choosing the SST model in the calculation is the best. Using G4, the predicted pressure coefficient and wall shear stress coefficient distribution both fit very well with the experiment; The numerical precision of the velocity profiles on propeller disk plane is near to the reference,and the calculated radial position for dimensional axial velocity over 0.9 is a little bigger than the experiment,while the rest is good agree- ment with the data; The precision of the three velocity components at r/R=0. 25 is higher than refer- ence too as a whole, and its axial component fits well with the experiment, the radial components' peak is a little lower while its circumferential position is coincident with the measure. What's more important, RANS simulation of the G4 successfully captures the complexity vorticity structures,including counter- rotating vortex induced by flow over fairwater cap and stern fin's tip surface, necklace-shaped vortex pair downstream of the appendages' root section,shoe-shaped vortex attached upwards of stern fin's tip sur- face trailing edge, horse-shoe vortex system induced by the flow around the appendages, vortex induced by flow extrusion within the passages of stern appendages, and the vortex concentration phenomenon on propeller disk plane,even the phenomenon of counter-rotating vortex induced by flow over fairwater cap being stable

  16. Vingt ans de recherches à Saint-Véran, Hautes Alpes: état des connaissances de l’activité de production de cuivre à l’âge du Bronze ancien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgarit, David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Durante la Edad del Bronce en Europa occidental, el aumento drástico de la producción de cobre apenas está documentado en las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas de transformación. En este contexto, el yacimiento minero y metalúrgico de Saint-Véran, Hautes-Alpes constituye un testimonio privilegiado de la producción en masa a fines del III milenio, ya que las obras mineras dan cuenta de una explotación a gran escala, con una producción de casi 7 t de cobre al año. Numerosos sitios de metalurgia extractiva puede haber estado asociados con ella. Desde hace 20 años, diversos equipos, como en el que participan los autores, han emprendido o emprenden investigaciones para intentar documentar el sitio y su actividad. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el estado actual de la cuestión sobre el yacimiento. Los resultados principales son la puesta en evidencia de la actividad de producción en masa y su cuantificación. Además se ha descrito por primera vez la organización de la producción, poniendo en evidencia la sucesión de fases entre la actividad minera y metalúrgica, así como las técnicas metalúrgicas innovadoras puestas en práctica. El yacimiento revela un estallido muy marcado de la actividad metalúrgica en el espacio que no deja de plantear interrogantes. Igualmente, la cuestión del destino de la producción sigue abierta por completo. Por otro lado, los motores para una implantación semejante en un territorio de alta montaña han comenzado a identificarse. Así se invocan determinismos naturales ya se trate de la mineralización particular de un yacimiento como de la evolución del clima. [fr] A l’âge du Bronze ancien en Europe occidentale, l’augmentation drastique de la production de cuivre est très peu documentée au niveau des activités minières et métallurgiques de transformation. Dans ce contexte, le gisement minier et métallurgique de Saint-Véran, Hautes- Alpes constitue un

  17. Creating the Spiritual Utopia for Females in the Confusing world——on the Plight of Contemporary Intellectual Females from Chen Ran's Private Life%在迷乱的尘世构建女性精神乌托邦——从陈染的《私人生活》看当代知识女性的生存困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶少芳

    2009-01-01

    陈染在长篇小说里,为倪拗拗构建了一个精神乌托邦,但接连的现实悲剧让内心深处的精神乌托邦幻灭后,她只能寻求另一种自我拯救的方式——在自我圈定的世界里达到超然.文本所蕴涵的象征性的剖析是具现实性的,陈染在深刻反思生命、本源、意识和人性等重大的前沿问题时,也让更多的人来关注和探求当代知识女性的精神出路问题.%Chen Ran created a utopia for Ni Niuniuin in his novel Private Life, but with the succession of the tragedies Ni is disillusioned with the spiritual utopia at he bottom of her heart, and has no choices but to find her own way of self-rescue, that is, to be transcendent in her own defined world. The symbolic analysis of the novel is realistic. Apart from his profound self-examination of the forefront major issues such as life, origin, consciousness and human nature, Chen Ran urges more and more people to concern and explore the inner world of contemporary intellectual females.

  18. Encapsulated development, spawning and early veliger of the ranellid snail Fusitriton magellanicus (Roding, 1798 in the cold waters of the Magellan Strait, Chile Desarrollo intracapsular, oviposturas y velígeras tempranas del caracol ranélido Fusitriton magellanicus (Roding, 1798 en aguas frías del estrecho de Magallanes, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory study of egg masses, encapsulated development stages and early-hatched veliger larvae of the sub-Antarctic observations Fusitriton magellanicus (Roding, 1798 are described from samples collected in the Magellan Strait (Santa Ana Point: 53°38'15"S, 70°54'38"W, Chile, between 2005 and 2006. We aimed to determined if: i if these gastropod shows a reproductive pattern development similar to low-latitude ranellids, and with respect to other sub-Antarctic locations within the Gondwanian distributional range (Australia, New Zealand, South America; ii if F. magellanicus exhibit similar patterns as other Chilean ranellids; and iii if F. magellanicus exhibit developmental attributes that define as long-distance broadcasters from cold water. F. magellanicus laid around 125 capsules/egg mass. Each contained an average of 2,789 ± 481 embryos, grouped in one circular arrangement. Mean eggs size was 180 μπι. Encapsulated period lasted between 55 and 67 days at 10°C, and hatched larvae of 245 to 349 μm in shell length. Spawning occur during spring (October to November; 8°C associated to an increment of freshwater discharge of San Juan River. A comparison of eggs/embryos/larvae abundance between temperate and tropical Ranellidae allow us to predict that Fusitriton magellanicus shows developmental attributes that indicate higher fecundity in relation to Chilean ranellids and that define it as a long-distance broadcaster.Antecedentes de terreno y laboratorio fueron utilizados para describir las oviposturas, los estadios del desarrollo intracapsular y las larvas velígeras recién eclosionadas del gasterópodo subantártico Fusitriton magellanicus (Roding, 1798, recolectado en el estrecho de Magallanes, sector Punta Santa Ana (53°38'15"S, 70°54'38"W, Chile, entre el 2005 y 2006 para determinar: i si este gasterópodo ranélido muestra un patrón reproductivo similar a aquellos ranélidos de bajas latitudes como en aquellas especies

  19. HANDOVER OF IRAN’S INDEPENDENCE TO CURZON: 1919 ENGLAND-IRAN TREATY AND HASAN VUSUK (VUSUKUDDAVLA İRAN’IN BAĞIMSIZLIĞININ CURZON’A TESLİM EDİLMESİ: 1919 İNGİLTERE-İRAN ANLAŞMASI VE SADRAZAM HASAN VUSÛK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KARADENİZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Iran declared its neutrality before the First World War, but went into war due to England‟s and some of governors‟‟ efforts who belonged to England. During the war Iran whose lands invaded by England and Russia, lost most of its young population, and weaken politically and economically. English diplomacy which prevented Iran to enter the peace treaty agreement meeting prevented it revealing its right to other countries which caused in long term Iran, dependent on England. Curzon, who wanted Iran‟s groundwater resources and petroleum for England only, bribed grand vizier Vusukuddavla and some ministers and made a treaty with Iran. Generous offers included in treaty were not given to Iran but caused to take control over Iran‟s treasury. Inexperienced shah who got bribe and debt from England was not good on taking interventions. İran, Birinci Dünya Savaşı öncesinde tarafsız kalacağını ilan ettiği halde, İngiltere ve onun elde ettiği bir grup devlet adamı tarafından savaşın içerisine çekilmiştir. Savaş sırasında toprakları İngiltere ve Rusya‟nın işgaline uğramış, genç nüfusunun büyük bir kısmını kaybetmiş, siyasi ve ekonomik olarak yıpratılmıştır. Savaştan sonra devreye giren İngiliz diplomasisi, İran‟ın sulh konferansına dâhil olmasını ve diğer devletlere derdini anlatmasını engelleyerek kendilerine mahkûm olmasını sağlamıştır. İran‟ın petrolleri ve yer altı zenginliklerini başkalarına kaptırmak istemeyen Curzon, sadrazam Vusukuddevle ve bazı bakanları rüşvet ile elde ederek istediği şekilde bir anlaşmayı imzalatmıştır. Anlaşma ile cömertçe vaat edilen mali yardımları vermemiş, aksine İran maliyesinin tamamını kontrol altına almıştır. İngiltere‟den istediği rüşveti ve borç parayı alan tecrübesiz şah ise olaylara müdahale etmekte aciz kalmıştır.

  20. Adjoint optimal control problems for the RANS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attavino, A.; Cerroni, D.; Da Vià, R.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.

    2017-01-01

    Adjoint optimal control in computational fluid dynamics has become increasingly popular recently because of its use in several engineering and research studies. However the optimal control of turbulent flows without the use of Direct Numerical Simulation is still an open problem and various methods have been proposed based on different approaches. In this work we study optimal control problems for a turbulent flow modeled with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes system. The adjoint system is obtained through the use of a Lagrangian multiplier method by setting as objective of the control a velocity matching profile or an increase or decrease in the turbulent kinetic energy. The optimality system is solved with an in-house finite element code and numerical results are reported in order to show the validity of this approach.

  1. Quantifying inflow uncertainties in RANS simulations of urban pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, C.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Gorlé, C.

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulations of flow and pollutant dispersion in urban environments have the potential to support design and policy decisions that could reduce the population's exposure to air pollution. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are a common modeling technique for urban flow and dispersion, but several sources of uncertainty in the simulations can affect the accuracy of the results. The present study proposes a method to quantify the uncertainty related to variability in the inflow boundary conditions. The method is applied to predict flow and pollutant dispersion in downtown Oklahoma City and the results are compared to field measurements available from the Joint Urban 2003 measurement campaign. Three uncertain parameters that define the inflow profiles for velocity, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation are defined: the velocity magnitude and direction, and the terrain roughness length. The uncertain parameter space is defined based on the available measurement data, and a non-intrusive propagation approach that employs 729 simulations is used to quantify the uncertainty in the simulation output. A variance based sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influential uncertain parameters, and it is shown that the predicted tracer concentrations are influenced by all three uncertain variables. Subsequently, we specify different probability distributions for the uncertain inflow variables based on the available measurement data and calculate the corresponding means and 95% confidence intervals for comparison with the field measurements at 35 locations in downtown Oklahoma City.

  2. Atmospheric Flow over Terrain using Hybrid RANS/LES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, A.; Sørensen, Niels; Johansen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to years of growth in installed wind power, new sites for wind turbines are in constant demand. With increased use of ever more complex sites, local wind phenomena can be expected to greatly increase the load on wind turbines. This work describes how Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) can be used...

  3. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  4. Atmospheric Flow over Terrain using Hybrid RANS/LES

    OpenAIRE

    Bechmann, A.; Sørensen, Niels; Johansen, J

    2007-01-01

    Due to years of growth in installed wind power, new sites for wind turbines are in constant demand. With increased use of ever more complex sites, local wind phenomena can be expected to greatly increase the load on wind turbines. This work describes how Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) can be used to estimate the wind in complex terrain. A newly developed LES-model is presented and is validated by predicting the wind over the Askervein hill. We believe, that the ability of LES to capture load gen...

  5. RANS Calculations of the Evolution of Vortices on Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Gerber Dept. of Mechanical Engineering University of New Brunswick P.O. Box 4400 Fredericton , New Brunswick E3B 5A3 1 Prof. Gordon Holloway Dept. of...Mechanical Engineering University of New Brunswick P.O. Box 4400 Fredericton , New Brunswick E3B 5A3 1 Library and Archives Canada 395 Wellington Street

  6. RANS Simulations of Aerodynamic Performance of NACA 0015 Flapped Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Obeid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 2D subsonic flow over an NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% trailing edge flap at a constant Reynolds number of 106 for various incidence angles and a range of flap deflections is presented. The steady-state governing equations of continuity and momentum conservation are solved combined with the realizable k-ε turbulence model using the ANSYS-Fluent code (Version 13.7, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA. The primary objective of the study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of flow characteristics around the NACA 0015 airfoil as a function of the angle of attack and flap deflection at Re = 106 using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The results are validated through comparison of the predictions with the free field experimental measurements. Consistent with the experimental observations, the numerical results show that increased flap deflections increase the maximum lift coefficient, move the zero-lift angle of attack (AoA to a more negative value, decrease the stall AoA, while the slope of the lift curve remains unchanged and the curve just shifts upwards. In addition, the numerical simulations provide limits for lift increment Δ C l and Cl, max values to be 1.1 and 2.2, respectively, obtained at a flap deflection of 50°. This investigation demonstrates that the realizable k-ε turbulence model is capable of predicting flow features over an airfoil with and without flap deflections with reasonable accuracy.

  7. RANS-VOF modelling of the Wavestar point absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ransley, E. J.; Greaves, D. M.; Raby, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A fully nonlinear, coupled model of the Wavestar WEC has been created using open-source CFD software, OpenFOAM®. •The response of the Wavestar WEC is simulated in regular waves with different steepness. •Predictions of body motion, surface elevation, fluid velocity, pressure and load...... are compared with physical measurements. •Model stability is shown under extreme motions, green water and break-up of the free surface....

  8. Valged raamatud korrastavad Eesti ajalugu / Carl Göran Andrae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Andrae, Carl Göran

    2008-01-01

    rets. rmt.: Estonia 1940-1945. Reports of the Estonian International Commision for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn : Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Eesti Sihtasutus, 2006. XXX+1337 sidor med 10 kartor. Valge raamat. Eesti rahva kaotustest okupatsioonide läbi 1940-1991. Tallinn, 2006. 192 lk.

  9. Raná tvorba architekta Otakara Novotného

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrádková, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Klíčová slova (anglicky): Otakar Novotný, Czech modern architecture, Architecture of Modern style, family villas, Štenc building, Sokol houses Abstract (in English): This bachelor's thesis focuses on the Czech architect Otakar Novotný and his early working period begins with studies in the studio of the leading figure of the rising Czech modern architecture Jan Kotěra and ends with the last projects before the First World War. Generally speaking, it is period between years 1900 and 1914. In t...

  10. RANS turbulence model form uncertainty quantification for wind engineering flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorle, Catherine; Zeoli, Stephanie; Bricteux, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations with linear eddy-viscosity turbulence models are commonly used for modeling wind engineering flows, but the use of the results for critical design decisions is hindered by the limited capability of the models to correctly predict bluff body flows. A turbulence model form uncertainty quantification (UQ) method to define confidence intervals for the results could remove this limitation, and promising results were obtained in a previous study of the flow in downtown Oklahoma City. The objective of the present study is to further investigate the validity of these results by considering the simplified test case of the flow around a wall-mounted cube. DNS data is used to determine: 1. whether the marker, which identifies regions that deviate from parallel shear flow, is a good indicator for the regions where the turbulence model fails, and 2. which Reynolds stress perturbations, in terms of the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor, can capture the uncertainty in the flow field. A comparison of confidence intervals obtained with the UQ method and the DNS solution indicates that the uncertainty in the velocity field can be captured correctly in a large portion of the flow field.

  11. Envisioning Spectrum Management in Virtualised C-RAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Samman, Imad; Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2017-01-01

    the virtual operators (VOs) dynamically, based on either joint scheduling or per cell schemes. The objective is to improve the resource allocation mechanism based on traffic conditions and a database of pre-defined services priorities. Two distinctive scenarios are considered and evaluated against standard...

  12. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeling, W. N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R. P.

    2014-10-01

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  13. Three-Dimensional Turbulent RANS Adjoint-Based Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering problems commonly require functional outputs of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with specified accuracy. These simulations are performed with limited computational resources. Computable error estimates offer the possibility of quantifying accuracy on a given mesh and predicting a fine grid functional on a coarser mesh. Such an estimate can be computed by solving the flow equations and the associated adjoint problem for the functional of interest. An adjoint-based error correction procedure is demonstrated for transonic inviscid and subsonic laminar and turbulent flow. A mesh adaptation procedure is formulated to target uncertainty in the corrected functional and terminate when error remaining in the calculation is less than a user-specified error tolerance. This adaptation scheme is shown to yield anisotropic meshes with corrected functionals that are more accurate for a given number of grid points then isotropic adapted and uniformly refined grids.

  14. Simulating tidal turbines with mesh optimisation and RANS turbulence models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abolghasemi, A.; Piggott, M.D.; Spinneken, J.; Vire, A.; Cotter, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile numerical model for the simulation of flow past horizontal axis tidal turbines has been developed. Currently most large-scale marine models employed to study marine energy use the shallow water equations and therefore can fail to account for important turbulent physics. The model present

  15. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeling, W.N., E-mail: W.N.Edeling@tudelft.nl [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid laboratory, 151 Boulevard de l' Hospital, 75013 Paris (France); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Kluyverweg 2, Delft (Netherlands); Cinnella, P., E-mail: P.Cinnella@ensam.eu [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid laboratory, 151 Boulevard de l' Hospital, 75013 Paris (France); Dwight, R.P., E-mail: R.P.Dwight@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Kluyverweg 2, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  16. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios mu...

  17. Intervjuu õnneliku kolleegiga / Jöran Lindvall ; interv. Karin Hallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindvall, Jöran

    1998-01-01

    12. veebr. avas Rootsi kuningas moodsa kunsti muuseumi ja arhitektuurimuuseumi uue hoone (arhitekt Rafael Moneo). Rootsi Arhitektuurimuuseumi direktor uuest hoonest, kavas olevatest näitustest, arhitektuurimuuseumi positsioonist, riikliku arhitektuuripoliitika kehtestamisest Rootsis.

  18. RANS Simulation of Podded Propulsor Performances in Straight Forward Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is adopted to study the steady and unsteady performances of the podded propulsor by the Fluent software package. While the interactions of the propeller blades with the pod and strut are time-dependent by nature, the mixing plane model is employed firstly to predict the steady performance, where the interactions are time-averaged. Numerical experiments are carried out with systematically varied mesh sizes to investigate the dependence of the predicted force values on the mesh sizes. Furthermore, the sliding mesh model is employed to simulate the unsteady interactions between the blades, pod and strut. Based on the numerical results, the characteristics of unsteady hydrodynamic forces are discussed, and the applicability of the mixing plane model is investigated for puller-type podded propulsor.

  19. RANS Simulation of Turbulent Diffusive Combustion using Open Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schemes to write the flow equations in discreet form, solution solvers, pre and post data processing utilitiesprovidedbyOpenFoamlibraries, areusedtobuildafinitevolumeexecutableforsimulatinga low speed, turbulent and rate controlled diffusive CH4-Air combustion. Unsteady Favre’s averaged turbulent conservation equations (total mass, momentum, energy and species mass fractions, are used to describe the combustion gas dynamics, and to handle turbulence a modified k- ε model is applied. Several global kinetic mechanisms, one step, two and four steps have been considered to describe the oxidation process of CH4 in a free jet type flame. The interaction between chemistry and turbulence, is modeled according to the partially stirred reactor (PaSR concept. To improve convergence and accuracy in solving low speed fluid dynamic equations, a pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO technique extended to cover high temperature flows, is utilized. The exponential dependence of the chemical kinetics from temperature, makes stiffs the ODE’s needed to determine source average values with which the species conservation equations are solved. To deal with the stiffness issue, OpenFoam provides numerical schemes that guaranties the stability of the computation. Comparisons between results of numerical simulations and experimental data obtained with the benchmark known as flame “D”, are presented.

  20. RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!

  1. RANS modeling of RTI and HVDT with BHR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettel, Ben [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-15

    The BHR3 turbulence model was improved to include two different scales as suggested by Livescu et al. [Liv+09, {section}4.4.6]: one for turbulent transport and the other for turbulent dissipation. Additionally, destruction terms modeled analogously to production terms were added to the turbulent mass-weighted velocity equation. New model coefficients were developed for this model. The first change was to use C{sub 2} = 1.77 for the isotropic turbulence decay coefficient rather than the k-e model's 1.92, which is outside of the experimentally measured values [ML90; KF09]. The new model coefficients were developed to accurately model a wide range of experimental and numerical results: constant and variable density Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and homogeneous variable density turbulence (HVDT) [LR07]. My work focused on the buoyancy-driven flows: Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and HVDT.

  2. 2005, the year CERN ran for Open Access

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne

    2006-01-01

    CERN has always actively supported the principles of Open Access, for example in its convention, by the creation of its document repository, and by signing the Berlin Declaration in 2003. But in 2005 the activity increased significantly. Signature of a new publication policy has taken place, creation of a dedicated website, financial support has been given to an open access journal, and some major events promoting Open Access have been organised... All these milestones are described in this article.

  3. 音乐治疗对于残疾人康复的疗效研究--以北京市陶然亭街道“快乐音乐吧”为例%A Research on Effectiveness Evaluation of Music Therapy for Intellectual and Mental Disabilities --Takes"Happy Music Club"in TaoRanTing Community of Beijing as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 李华; 刘丽彬

    2014-01-01

    智力残疾及精神残疾者往往呈现出社会适应行为障碍,严重者失去生活自理能力,影响生活质量。但国内对其有效的干预研究还很薄弱,北京市陶然亭街道“快乐音乐吧”音乐治疗项目针对残疾人制定的奥尔夫流派的音乐治疗康复模式,采用个性化团体音乐治疗的方式,在改善残疾人生活自理能力及社会功能方面有一定疗效,促进了其社会能力、发展人际关系和交流能力的提高,改善了个人生活质量和认知功能,在恢复生理功能及促进心理健康方面均具有康复作用。研究结果可为音乐治疗法的改进与推广以及残疾人康复研究提供有益的建议及参考。%The intellectual disabilities and mental disabilities, who often show adaptive behavior disorder and may lose self-care ability in daily life, are special vulnerable groups in society. Unfortunately, there are rare positive intervention studies on adults with intellectual disabilities in China. 18 adults with intellectual disabilities or mental disorder who are members of music therapy group"Happy Music Club"in TaoRanTing community of Beijing were selected for this study;and they were divided into two groups for the focus-group-interview. The purpose was to evaluate effectiveness of the music therapy. The results showed that singing, dancing, signing lyrics, finger gymnastics are effectiveness for the disabled and their mood, which improves their communication skills, self-care ability and coordinate ability. Therefore, music therapy in the forms of groups and individuals combination, which applies the methods of Orff music therapy, can improve social adaptive behavior and their social ability and develop interpersonal and communication skills development. It influences both the physiological function and the psychological health. The results also will become useful references for future sequential treatment.

  4. RANS-based simulation of wave-induced sheet-flow transport of graded sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calistan, Ugur; Fuhrman, David R.

    2017-01-01

    for each grain fraction, includingeffects associated with increased exposure of larger particles within a mixture. The suspended sedimenttransport model also makes use of modified reference concentration approach, wherein reference concentrationscomputed individually for each fraction are translated....... The sediment transport model is validated against sheet-flow experimentaloscillatory tunnel measurements beneath velocity-skewed wave signals, and demonstrates similar accuracy(transport rates generally within a factor of two) for both graded and uniform sands. The model is likewisevalidated against...

  5. Predicting wind farm wake interaction with RANS: an investigation of the Coriolis force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2015-01-01

    A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code is used to simulate the interaction of two neighboring wind farms. The influence of the Coriolis force is investigated by modeling the atmospheric surface/boundary layer with three different methodologies. The results show that the Coriolis force is negligible...

  6. Development of an AD/RANS model for predicting wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong;

    2013-01-01

    methods together. The simulations are performed by using the in-house flow solver EllipSys3D coupled with the actuator disc (AD) methodology. The main objective of the proposed model is to control the turbulence decay caused by the intrinsic property of the two-equation turbu-lence model and further...

  7. Kvenhetjur Quentin Tarantino: Birtingarmyndir kvenna í kvikmyndum leikstjórans

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Elísabet Haynes 1987

    2014-01-01

    Í meginstraumsmyndum eru kvenpersónur gjarnan hlutgerðar eða þeim gefin einhæf hlutverk en í ritgerðinni verða kvenpersónur Quentin Tarantino í brennidepli. Leikstjórinn er þekktur fyrir að brjóta upp hefðbundin kvikmyndaform en hann ögrar engu að síður hefðbundnum kynjahlutverkum. Þrátt fyrir að kvikmyndir hans skarti konum í umfangsmiklum hlutverkum eru ekki allir á einu máli um ágæti þeirra. Því er vert að rannsaka þær nánar með áherslu á myndir sem hafa konur í aðalhlutverki en það eru my...

  8. Lessons Learned from RANS Simulations of Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    N6F1�n pCq ��(�>�M�(� � z2R9�+)B>/M+r+)B%�’)%[2;Z$+!J* � E’)9F=;>GI+)!$9<* ’)/Y+%����!J2?6>/K2!QG(/YZJZJ1�;*7/M#&%[GI+)%[=e6F1�+B%����"��GD9

  9. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro

    module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate that data integrity and clocking performance at the radio node still meets the strict standard...... requirements after CPRI and OBSAI transport over an OTN....

  10. Validation of 3D RANS-SA Calculations on Strand/Cartesian Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-07

    and scalability are presented in Section IV. With more complex 3D geometries the traditional strand grid generation approach used today can break down...from a from a solid model, such as geometry from a modern CAD system, around geometric nodes and edges. The new multi-strand strand mesh generation...rely on a reconstruction upwind formula for the numerical flux based on the approximate Riemann solver of Roe,16 F̂ = 1 2 (F(QR) + F(QL))− 1 2 |A(QR

  11. Simulation of a Periodic Jet in a Crossflow with a RANS Solver Using an Unstructured Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    A second-order unstructured-grid code, developed and used primarily for steady aerodynamic simulations, is applied to the synthetic jet in a cross flow. The code, FUN3D, is a vertex-centered finite-volume method originally developed by Anderson[1, 2], and is currently supported by members of the Fast Adaptive Aerospace Tools team at NASA Langley. Used primarily for design[3] and analysis[4] of steady aerodynamic configurations, FUN3D incorporates a discrete adjoint capability, and supports parallel computations using MPI. A detailed description of the FUN3D code can be found in the references given above. The code is under continuous development and contains a variety of flux splitting algorithms for the inviscid terms, two methods for computing gradients, several turbulence models, and several solution methodologies; all in varying states of development. Only the most robust and reliable components, based on experiences with steady aerodynamic simulations, were employed in this work. As applied in this work, FUN3D solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the one equation turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras[5]. The spatial discretization is formed on unstructured meshes using a vertex-centered approach. The inviscid terms are evaluated by a flux-difference splitting formulation using least-squares reconstruction and Roe-type approximate Riemann fluxes. Green-Gauss gradient evaluations are used for viscous and turbulence modeling terms. The discrete spatial operator is combined with a backward time operator which is then solved iteratively using point or line Gauss-Seidel and local time stepping in a pseudo time. For steady flows, the physical time step is set to infinity and the pseudo time step is ramped up with the iteration count. A second-order backward in time operator is used for time accurate flows with 20 to 50 steps in the pseudo time applied at each physical time step. For this effort, FUN3D was modified to support spatially varying boundary and initial conditions, and unsteady boundary conditions. Also, a specialized in/out flow boundary condition was implemented to model the action of the diaphragm. This boundary condition is described below in more detail. The grids were generated using the internally developed codes GridEX[6] for meshing the surfaces and inviscid regions of the domain, and for CAD access; and MesherX[7] for meshing the viscous regions. Grid spacing in on the surfaces and in the inviscid regions are indirectly controlled by specifying sources. The viscous layers are generated using an advancing layer technique. MeshersX allows the user to control the spatial variation of the first step off the surface, growth rates, and the termination criterion by providing small problem dependent subroutines.

  12. Approach to Modeling Boundary Layer Ingestion using a Fully Coupled Propulsion-RANS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Justin; Martins, Joaquim R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Although boundary layer ingestion (BLI), or wake ingestion, is commonly applied in marine propulsion applications, it has not yet seen wide-spread adoption in aircraft applications. However, recent studies have predicted that BLI offers a potential for a 10 reduction in aircraft fuel burn, even on a fairly traditional aircraft configuration. This dramatic reduction in fuel burn is achieved via tight integration of the propulsion system and airframe aerodynamics, but actually realizing such large performance gains will require modifying the aircraft design process to account for this integration. Traditionally, in aircraft design, the airframe and the propulsion system are designed separately and then the engine sizing is managed with a rubber-engine approach. This works when the propulsion system is placed in the free-stream air, away from the aerodynamic influence of the airframe, and it is reasonable to assume that small changes to either system won't have a strong impact on the other.

  13. Fronthaul dimensioning in C-RAN with web traffic for coordinated multipoint joint transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2015-01-01

    The use of centralized signal processing for dense urban mobile networks is gaining interest both in research and in industry. Gathering most of the base station functionalities in a processing pool would enable capacity sharing and the implementation of advanced techniques such as coordinated mu....... We model the full protocol stack for the network end-to-end in order to use realistic application-layer traffic and user behavior models. Our results show that the fronthaul latency should be kept below 0.6 ms in order to ensure optimal performances for the application...

  14. Writing Beyond the Wall: Translation, Cross-cultural Exchange, and Chen Ran's 'A Private Life'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Schaffer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented rise in the global flow of knowledge, nowhere more apparent in the exchange of ideas between China and modern western democracies. Our interest concerns one aspect of this global flow— the translation of Chinese women’s autobiographical writing into English. Taking Chen Ran’s A Private Life (English edition, 2004 as a point of departure, the paper explores issues of translingual practice and cross-cultural exchange. It considers what escapes or is lost in translation as well as the additive potential of the host text. It is sometimes the case that the translation can deliberately make certain ambiguities visible—whether from pragmatic, market-driven motivations or from more complex political, historical and cultural considerations. These negotiations of meaning that occur in the translation process can reverberate on the critical reception of texts in both the ‘guest’ and ‘host’ languages (Liu 1995, with open-ended, incomplete and indeterminate effects. The paper examines the effects of the omission of a brief parenthetical section of three paragraphs from one chapter of the Chinese edition of A Private Life. Yet, even that small emendation changes the original text as a cultural object and alters potential modes of its reception. In this case, the translation results in a loss of ambiguity, irony, philosophic and rhetorical sophistication while also offering additive potentials that enhance the generation of new meanings in the translingual exchange, here with reference Tiananmen and contemporary feminism in China. The translation process provides new channels for readers, writers and theorists to dialogue and communicate across gaps of difference, despite inhibiting factors like the imposition of local restraints, the universalising pressures of western modernity, and asymmetrical relations of power between guest and host language contexts.

  15. Hybrid RANS/LES method for high Reynolds numbers, applied to atmospheric flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

      The use of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable for...

  16. A Study of Supersonic Compression-Corner Interactions using Hybrid LES/RANS Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-20

    properties, a specified wall thermal condition, and a value for the boundary layer thickness) from Coles’ Law 6 of the Wall / Wake along with the...approximately five flow-through times. The Favre-averaged TKE equation reads as follows: { { { 321321 43421 434214434421 dilatation pressure i i work...pressure dilatation were then evaluated as described above and used to solve for the turbulent dissipation rate. Figure 10.1.2 shows the

  17. A novel evolutionary algorithm applied to algebraic modifications of the RANS stress-strain relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatheritt, Jack; Sandberg, Richard

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel and promising approach to turbulence model formulation, rather than putting forward a particular new model. Evolutionary computation has brought symbolic regression of scalar fields into the domain of algorithms and this paper describes a novel expansion of Gene Expression Programming for the purpose of tensor modeling. By utilizing high-fidelity data and uncertainty measures, mathematical models for tensors are created. The philosophy behind the framework is to give freedom to the algorithm to produce a constraint-free model; its own functional form that was not previously imposed. Turbulence modeling is the target application, specifically the improvement of separated flow prediction. Models are created by considering the anisotropy of the turbulent stress tensor and formulating non-linear constitutive stress-strain relationships. A previously unseen flow field is computed and compared to the baseline linear model and an established non-linear model of comparable complexity. The results are highly encouraging.

  18. Empirical source strength correlations for rans-based acoustic analogy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube-McDowell, Matthew Tyndall

    JeNo is a jet noise prediction code based on an acoustic analogy method developed by Mani, Gliebe, Balsa, and Khavaran. Using the flow predictions from a standard Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, JeNo predicts the overall sound pressure level and angular spectra for high-speed hot jets over a range of observer angles, with a processing time suitable for rapid design purposes. JeNo models the noise from hot jets as a combination of two types of noise sources; quadrupole sources dependent on velocity fluctuations, which represent the major noise of turbulent mixing, and dipole sources dependent on enthalpy fluctuations, which represent the effects of thermal variation. These two sources are modeled by JeNo as propagating independently into the far-field, with no cross-correlation at the observer location. However, high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics solutions demonstrate that this assumption is false. In this thesis, the theory, assumptions, and limitations of the JeNo code are briefly discussed, and a modification to the acoustic analogy method is proposed in which the cross-correlation of the two primary noise sources is allowed to vary with the speed of the jet and the observer location. As a proof-of-concept implementation, an empirical correlation correction function is derived from comparisons between JeNo's noise predictions and a set of experimental measurements taken for the Air Force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory. The empirical correlation correction is then applied to JeNo's predictions of a separate data set of hot jets tested at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Metrics are derived to measure the qualitative and quantitative performance of JeNo's acoustic predictions, and the empirical correction is shown to provide a quantitative improvement in the noise prediction at low observer angles with no freestream flow, and a qualitative improvement in the presence of freestream flow. However, the results also demonstrate that there are underlying flaws in JeNo's ability to predict the behavior of a hot jet's acoustic signature at certain rear observer angles, and that this correlation correction is not able to correct these flaws.

  19. RANS solver for microscale pollution dispersion problems in areas with vegetation: Development and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Šíp, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We present a description and validation of a finite volume solver aimed at solving the problems of microscale urban flows where vegetation is present. The solver is based on the five equation system of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for atmospheric boundary layer flows, which are complemented by the k-epsilon turbulence model. The vegetation is modelled as a porous zone, and the effects of the vegetation are included in the momentum and turbulence equations. A detailed dry deposition model is incorporated in the pollutant transport equation, allowing the investigation of the filtering properties of urban vegetation. The solver is validated on four test cases to assess the components of the model: the flow and pollutant dispersion around the 2D hill, the temporal evolution of the rising thermal bubble, the flow through and around the forest canopy, and a hedgerow filtering the particle-laden flow. Generally good agreement with the measured values or previously computed numerical solution is observed...

  20. RANS simulation of a radial compressor for supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si Woo [Jinsol Turbo, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    S-CO{sub 2} cycle has a small footprint due to the compact turbomachine and heat exchanger. It was found that the S-CO{sub 2} compressor consumes small compression work if the operating conditions approach to the critical point (7.38MPa, 31.1℃). Therefore, this reduced compression work contributes to high cycle efficiency. Due to the above mentioned advantages, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be applied to various heat sources such as coal power, bottoming cycle of fuel cells, and the next generation nuclear systems. To demonstrate the S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance, an integral test facility is necessary. Therefore, the joint research team of KAERI, KAIST, POSTECH designed a supercritical CO{sub 2} integral experiment loop (SCIEL). The experimental data from this loop are accumulating in various conditions, rotational speed. The design of a S-CO{sub 2} compressor operating near the critical point is one of the major technical challenges in the development of cycle components. A radial compressor geometry designed for supercritical CO{sub 2} loop was utilized for CFD analysis. The preliminary results were compared to the experimental data. In this study, the authors present a CFD approach with accurate CSV type property table. Compared results showed reasonable difference between CFD and experiment except for efficiency curve at 35,000rpm. In future works, the loss models used for the design of S-CO{sub 2} compressor will be validated, and established with CFD results.

  1. Non-Indigenous Marine Species (NIMS) in Biofouling on RAN Vessels: Threat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    While this species is not regarded as a biosecurity threat overseas, this highlights the affinity and ease with which certain species are able to...China (Chan, 2011; Otani et al., 2007). It had previously been recorded in Japan in 1997, 2001 and Indonesia in 2001 (Puspasari et al., 2002). At the...been recorded in South China Sea and regions around the Tropical East Indonesia (Prabowo, 2011) making Singapore a likely point of infestation for

  2. A Cognitive Metaphorical Analysis of Selected Verses in the Glorius Qu’ran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf Eldin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor has been generally contemplated and broke down inside the schema of verbal and written discourse, scholarly works and artistic studies. It has been identified with metaphorical language and has been viewed as quite recently a sort of aesthetic frivolity (Murray & Moon, 2006. In addition, conventional instructing of metaphors presents language as an abnormal or different method for using it (Goatly, 1997. Likewise, as Goatly has put it, scholars have needed figures of speech strictly limited to writing, talk and craftsmanship. Moreover, metaphor is viewed as something that fits in with abstract structures which is more concerned with novel or intriguing uses of words. Lakoff & Johnson (1980 presented an alternate idea and perspective of metaphor which is known as reasonable metaphorical dissection. The theory underlying this new approach is that the reasonable metaphors enter our understanding of our general surroundings and they shape our demeanor. Appropriately, as pointed out by Lakoff & Johnson (1980, metaphor is available in ordinary discourse, in every language, and is to a certain degree, has gotten to be culturally specific. Besides both contend that metaphors affect our way of viewing the meanings and are discovered widely in a significant number of our languages, contemplations and activities.

  3. Mesh Generation and Adaption for High Reynolds Number RANS Computations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of our Phase II STTR program is to develop and provide to NASA automatic mesh generation software for the simulation of fluid flows using...

  4. The concept of text in cultural semiotics / Göran Sonesson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sonesson, Göran, 1951-

    1998-01-01

    "Tekstist" Tartu koolkonna kirjutistes ning Roland Posnerþi rekonstrueeritud teoorias. Tekstuaalsuse sellisest hierarhiast, mis nõuab interpretatsiooni ning mis on seejärel omakorda allutatud interpretatsioonile

  5. High Performance Hybrid RANS-LES Simulation Framework for Turbulent Combusting Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a computational framework for high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to enable accurate, fast and robust...

  6. 27 HAZİRAN 1988 CEYHAN DEPREMİ VE DEPREME DAYANIKLI YAPI TASARIMI

    OpenAIRE

    KAPLAN, Hasan; BINICI, Hanifi; Ün, Hayri

    1998-01-01

    Our country is under risk of earthquake, and it has lost extensive economical goods. In addition to this, the reality of buildings those had not been constructed earthquake resisting on seismic regions have come out. It is true that those kind of building have been constructed all over the country. In this paper the design of earthquake resisting buildings have been taken up. It is dwelled upon the buildings had damages in Adana-Ceyhan earthquake at 27th July 1998 and reasons of damages. The ...

  7. ran Greider, Ingen kommer undan Olof Palme (Stockholm: Ordfront, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 within the Swedish labour movement many activists dissatisfied with the Social Democratic Party (SAP – who in 2010 suffered from the second electoral defeat in succession and fell into a never-ending crisis – turned to the legacy of Olof Palme (whose XXV death anniversary was celebrated on February, 28 as a flag of the true Social Democratic tradition, to which it is urgent to come back before the centre-right government achieves a full “paradigm shift”, deregulating further the labour market and privatizing the Welfare State.

  8. Approach to Modeling Boundary Layer Ingestion Using a Fully Coupled Propulsion-RANS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Justin; Mader, Charles A.; Kenway, Gaetan K. W.; Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Although boundary layer ingestion (BLI), or wake ingestion, is commonly applied in marine propulsion applications, it has not yet seen wide-spread adoption in aircraft applications. However, recent studies have predicted that BLI offers a potential for a 10 reduction in aircraft fuel burn, even on a fairly traditional aircraft configuration. This dramatic reduction in fuel burn is achieved via tight integration of the propulsion system and airframe aerodynamics, but actually realizing such large performance gains will require modifying the aircraft design process to account for this integration. Traditionally, in aircraft design, the airframe and the propulsion system are designed separately and then the engine sizing is managed with a rubber-engine approach. This works when the propulsion system is placed in the free-stream air, away from the aerodynamic influence of the airframe, and it is reasonable to assume that small changes to either system won't have a strong impact on the other.

  9. İran-Osmanlı ticari ilişkileri (1900–1923)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

          19.yy başlarında kapitalist ve endüstri devletleri kendi ürün ve üretimlerini Doğu’ya ulaştırmak ve aynı zamanda Doğu’dan Batı’ya ham maddelerini aktarmak için birbirleri ile rekabete kalkışmışlardı. Bu devletler Karadeniz’in doğu limanlarından İran’a uzanan ticari transit yoluna özel önlem vererek bu işi gerçekleştirmeye çalışmışlardır. 19.yy başlarında Karadeniz ticaretinin aktifleşmesi ve diğer taraftan 1869 yılında Süveyş kanalının açılma...

  10. Application of RANS Simulations for Contact Time Predictions in Turbulent Reactor Tanks for Water Purification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Cassandra; Goodman, Matthew; Saez, Jose; Issakhanian, Emin

    2016-11-01

    California's current drought has renewed public interest in recycled water from Water Reclamation Plants (WRPs). It is critical that the recycled water meets public health standards. This project consists of simulating the transport of an instantaneous conservative tracer through the WRP chlorine contact tanks. Local recycled water regulations stipulate a minimum 90-minute modal contact time during disinfection at peak dry weather design flow. In-situ testing is extremely difficult given flowrate dependence on real world sewage line supply and recycled water demand. Given as-built drawings and operation parameters, the chlorine contact tanks are modeled to simulate extreme situations, which may not meet regulatory standards. The turbulent flow solutions are used as the basis to model the transport of a turbulently diffusing conservative tracer added instantaneously to the inlet of the reactors. This tracer simulates the transport through advection and dispersion of chlorine in the WRPs. Previous work validated the models against experimental data. The current work shows the predictive value of the simulations.

  11. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise from Dualstream and Rectangular Jets Using RANS CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven A.; Morris, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic jets operating off-design produce broadband shock-associated noise. Broadband shock-associated noise is characterized by multiple broadband peaks in the far-field and is often the dominant source of noise towards the sideline and upstream direction relative to the jet axis. It is due to large scale coherent turbulence structures in the jet shear layers interacting with the shock cell structure. A broadband shock-associated noise model recently developed by the authors predicts this noise component from solutions to the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a two-equation turbulence model. The broadband shock-associated noise model is applied to dualstream and rectangular nozzles operating supersonically, heated, and off-design. The dualstream jet broadband shock-associated noise predictions are conducted for cases when the core jet is supersonic and the fan jet is subsonic, the core jet is subsonic and the fan jet is supersonic, and when both jet streams operate supersonically. Rectangular jet predictions are shown for a convergent-divergent nozzle operating both over- and under-expanded for cold and heated conditions. The original model implementation has been heavily modified to make accurate predictions for the dualstream jets. It is also argued that for over-expanded jets the oblique shock wave attached to the nozzle lip contributes little to broadband shock-associated noise. All predictions are compared with experiments.

  12. Fronthaul dimensioning in C-RAN with web traffic for coordinated multipoint joint transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2015-01-01

    The use of centralized signal processing for dense urban mobile networks is gaining interest both in research and in industry. Gathering most of the base station functionalities in a processing pool would enable capacity sharing and the implementation of advanced techniques such as coordinated....... We model the full protocol stack for the network end-to-end in order to use realistic application-layer traffic and user behavior models. Our results show that the fronthaul latency should be kept below 0.6 ms in order to ensure optimal performances for the application...

  13. Oscillatory Gene Expression by the microRAN Mediating Delayed Negative Feedback Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng-pan; LU Jin-rui; LIU Zhi-guang

    2013-01-01

    More and more experiments show that microRNAs can regulate gene expression by stimulating degradation of mRNA or repression of translation of mRNA.In this paper,we incorporate the microRNA into a previous mathematical model of gene expression through forming a microRNA-induced silencing complex(RISC).Our findings demonstrate the dynamical behavior of the constructed system.By Hopf theories,we derive the theoretical results of globally asymptotical stability and provide the sufficient conditions for the oscillation of the simple gene regulatory system,and by numerical simulation further demonstrate how the amplitudes against the change of delay in the gene regulatory network.

  14. The concept of text in cultural semiotics / Göran Sonesson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sonesson, Göran, 1951-

    1998-01-01

    "Tekstist" Tartu koolkonna kirjutistes ning Roland Posnerþi rekonstrueeritud teoorias. Tekstuaalsuse sellisest hierarhiast, mis nõuab interpretatsiooni ning mis on seejärel omakorda allutatud interpretatsioonile

  15. RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    suspended sediment concentrations, (2) turbulence suppression due to density gradients in the water–sand mixture, (3) boundary layer streaming due to convective terms, and (4) converging–diverging effects due to a sloping bed. The present model therefore provides a framework for simultaneous inclusion...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... to investigate the importance of boundary layer streaming effects on sediment transport in selected velocity-skewed conditions. For the medium sand grain conditions considered, the model results suggest that streaming effects can enhance onshore sediment transport rates by asmuch as a factor of two...

  16. A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-19

    Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

  17. LES, RANS and combined simulation of impinging flows and heat transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziabdic, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports on a numerical study of a round, isothermal turbulent jet of incompressible fluid, impinging normally on a flat wall at a different temperature. The aim was to generate detailed information about the ime-dependent three-dimensional velocity and temperature field, and, based on

  18. PENJERNIHAN NIRA TEBU MENGGUNAKAN MEMBRAN UL TRAFIL TRASI DENGAN SISTEM ALI RAN SILANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane ultrafiltration is one alternative technology to produce a high quality cane sugar with reasonable cost, because its ability to produce a brighter color and lower impurities as well as sulphur free of product. This technology can reduce process steps, chemical and energy demand, so that the production cost is potentially reduced significantly. This research work was aimed to study the performance of various membrane filtrations in the application for clarifying sugar cane juice, covering the achievable flux, membrane rejection againstimpurities, and quality of the filtered juice. The experiments were conducted according to the principle of cross flow using three different transmembrane pressures of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 bar and cross flow rate of 0.42 m/s. Various membranes were studied in this experiments both commercial ultrafiltration membrane and ultrafiltration membrane prepared in our laboratory. Sugar cane juice before and after clarification were characterized by measuring the parameters of brix, sucrose concentration, solution color, clarity, and pH. Thepolisulfone membrane, which was prepared in our laboratory, produced fluxes in the range of 25-30 L/m2.h at the transmembrane pressures of 0.7-2.1 bar. The membranes increased clarity of the juice from app. 10 to 60% of transmition and reduced color up to 80-90%, comparable with the results of the commercial ultrafiltration membrane

  19. LES, DNS, and RANS for the Analysis of High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, P. J.; Jaberi, F. A.; Givi, P.

    1996-01-01

    A filtered density function (FDF) method suitable for chemically reactive flows is developed in the context of large eddy simulation. The advantage of the FDF methodology is its inherent ability to resolve subgrid scales (SGS) scalar correlations that otherwise have to be modeled. Because of the lack of robust models to accurately predict these correlations in turbulent reactive flows, simulations involving turbulent combustion are often met with a degree of skepticism. The FDF methodology avoids the closure problem associated with these terms and treats the reaction in an exact manner. The scalar FDF approach is particularly attractive since it can be coupled with existing hydrodynamic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes.

  20. LES/RANS Modeling of Aero-Optical Effects in a Supersonic Cavity Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    disturbances create eddy shocklets that propagate into the free-stream and create additional optical path disturbances. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY ...Proceedings of the third AFOSR International Conference on DNS /LES, 2000 [19] Sirovich, L. “Turbulence and the dynamics of coherent structures.” I—III

  1. Thermal Stress in RAN (Royal Australian Navy) Sea King Helicopter Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Aero-Space Technologies Australia, MahkotYer/Librarian (2 copies) Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of Australia...part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Copyright is the responsibility of the Director Publishing and Marketing , AGPS...was selected from the range available. For this experiment, the video game ’River Raid’ ( marketed by the Atari Company) was played by subjects using a

  2. Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang

    2013-04-01

    A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.

  3. The GTPase activating Rap/RanGAP domain-like 1 gene is associated with chicken reproductive traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abundant evidence indicates that chicken reproduction is strictly regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG axis, and the genes included in the HPG axis have been studied extensively. However, the question remains as to whether any other genes outside of the HPG system are involved in regulating chicken reproduction. The present study was aimed to identify, on a genome-wide level, novel genes associated with chicken reproductive traits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH, genome-wide association study (GWAS, and gene-centric GWAS were used to identify novel genes underlying chicken reproduction. Single marker-trait association analysis with a large population and allelic frequency spectrum analysis were used to confirm the effects of candidate genes. Using two full-sib Ningdu Sanhuang (NDH chickens, GARNL1 was identified as a candidate gene involved in chicken broodiness by SSH analysis. Its expression levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly higher in brooding chickens than in non-brooding chickens. GWAS analysis with a NDH two tail sample showed that 2802 SNPs were significantly associated with egg number at 300 d of age (EN300. Among the 2802 SNPs, 2 SNPs composed a block overlapping the GARNL1 gene. The gene-centric GWAS analysis with another two tail sample of NDH showed that GARNL1 was strongly associated with EN300 and age at first egg (AFE. Single marker-trait association analysis in 1301 female NDH chickens confirmed that variation in this gene was related to EN300 and AFE. The allelic frequency spectrum of the SNP rs15700989 among 5 different populations supported the above associations. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and qPCR were used to analyze alternative splicing of the GARNL1 gene. RT-PCR detected 5 transcripts and revealed that the transcript, which has a 141 bp insertion, was expressed in a tissue-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that the GARNL1 gene contributes to chicken reproductive traits.

  4. Ran domized controlled clinical tria l on the efficacy of team play football on schizophrenic patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Vinci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The physical activity is an important aspect of good health for everyone; it is even more important for psychiatric patients who usually live an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of football practice on the self-reported health quality of life (SRHQL and Wellbeing in schizophrenic subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Program performed by Daily Center Mazzacurati, Department of Mental Health Roma/D , for psychotic subjects that included weekly football activities for a period of 9 months. The results show that the model proved effective in the experimental group (SG as regards the psychopathological dimensions, which are significantly improved (Median(IQR: 31(16 versus 53(18; p=0.001; in particular the negative symptomatology has been reduced, and this result is hardly achieved with the drug therapy (17(7 versus 25(15; p=0.003. This study increases the awareness of following this ap proach and improving the extension and the confirmation of the results achieved.

  5. Computations of Separated High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows: Development of RANS and Variable-Resolution PANS Approaches Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a high fidelity computational approach for unsteady calculations of strongly separated non-equilibrium high-enthalpy hypersonic flows....

  6. The GTPase Activating Rap/RanGAP Domain-Like 1 Gene Is Associated with Chicken Reproductive Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xu; Zeng, Hua; Xie, Liang; He, Jun; Li, Jian; Xie, Xiujuan; Luo, Chenglong; Xu, Haiping; Zhou, Min; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Abundant evidence indicates that chicken reproduction is strictly regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and the genes included in the HPG axis have been studied extensively. However, the question remains as to whether any other genes outside of the HPG system are involved in regulating chicken reproduction. The present study was aimed to identify, on a genome-wide level, novel genes associated with chicken reproductive traits. Methodology/Principal Finding Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH), genome-wide association study (GWAS), and gene-centric GWAS were used to identify novel genes underlying chicken reproduction. Single marker-trait association analysis with a large population and allelic frequency spectrum analysis were used to confirm the effects of candidate genes. Using two full-sib Ningdu Sanhuang (NDH) chickens, GARNL1 was identified as a candidate gene involved in chicken broodiness by SSH analysis. Its expression levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly higher in brooding chickens than in non-brooding chickens. GWAS analysis with a NDH two tail sample showed that 2802 SNPs were significantly associated with egg number at 300 d of age (EN300). Among the 2802 SNPs, 2 SNPs composed a block overlapping the GARNL1 gene. The gene-centric GWAS analysis with another two tail sample of NDH showed that GARNL1 was strongly associated with EN300 and age at first egg (AFE). Single marker-trait association analysis in 1301 female NDH chickens confirmed that variation in this gene was related to EN300 and AFE. The allelic frequency spectrum of the SNP rs15700989 among 5 different populations supported the above associations. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and qPCR were used to analyze alternative splicing of the GARNL1 gene. RT-PCR detected 5 transcripts and revealed that the transcript, which has a 141 bp insertion, was expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that the GARNL1 gene contributes to chicken reproductive traits. PMID:22496769

  7. RANS computations for identification of 1-D cavitation model parameters: application to full load cavitation vortex rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Decaix, J.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.

    2016-11-01

    Due to the massive penetration of alternative renewable energies, hydropower is a key energy conversion technology for stabilizing the electrical power network by using hydraulic machines at off design operating conditions. At full load, the axisymmetric cavitation vortex rope developing in Francis turbines acts as an internal source of energy, leading to an instability commonly referred to as selfexcited surge. 1-D models are developed to predict this phenomenon and to define the range of safe operating points for a hydropower plant. These models involve several parameters that have to be calibrated using experimental and numerical data. The present work aims to identify these parameters with URANS computations with a particular focus on the fluid damping rising when the cavitation volume oscillates. Two test cases have been investigated: a cavitation flow in a Venturi geometry without inlet swirl and a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine operating at full load conditions. The cavitation volume oscillation is forced by imposing an unsteady outlet pressure conditions. By varying the frequency of the outlet pressure, the resonance frequency is determined. Then, the pressure amplitude and the resonance frequency are used as two objectives functions for the optimization process aiming to derive the 1-D model parameters.

  8. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  9. Evaluating hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of a full-scale ozone contactor using a RANS-based modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martínez, Andrés E; Zhang, Qiong; Lei, Hongxia

    2014-04-01

    The capability of predicting hydraulic and disinfection efficiencies of ozone disinfection contactors is essential for evaluating existing contactors and improving future designs. Previous attempts based on ideal and non-ideal models for the hydraulics and simplified mechanisms for chemical reaction modeling have resulted in low accuracy and are restricted to contactors with simple geometries. This manuscript develops a modeling framework for the ozonation process by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with a kinetics-based reaction modeling for the first time. This computational framework has been applied to the full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department. Flow fields, residence time distribution, ozone concentration distribution, and concentration-contact time (CT) distribution within the contactor have been predicted via the computational framework. The predictions of ozone and bromate concentrations at sample points agree well with physical experimental data measured in the contactor. The predicted CT values at the contactor outlet demonstrate that the disinfection performance of the ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department is sufficient to meet regulation requirements. The impact of seasonal flow rate change on disinfection performance is found to be significant and deserves attention during the management and operation of a water treatment plant.

  10. RANS simulations of the U and V grooves effect in the subcritical flow over four rotated circular cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALONZO-GARCA A; GUTIRREZ-TORRES C del C; JIMNEZ BERNAL J A; MOLLINEDO-PONCE de LEN H R; MARTINEZ-DELGADILLO S A; BARBOSA-SALDAA J G

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a CFD study about the effect of the V and U grooves in the flow over four cylinders in diamond shape configuration at subcritical flow conditions(Re=41000). Thek-ε Realizable turbulence model was implemented to fully structured hexahedral grids with near-wall refinements. Results showed that the numerical model was able to reproduce the impinging flow pattern and the repulsive forces present in the lateral cylinders of the smooth cylinder array. As a consequence of the flow alignment induced by the grooves, a jet-flow is formed between the lateral cylinders, which could cause an important vortex induced vibration effect especially in the rear cylinder. The magnitudes of the shear stresses at the valleys and peaks for the V grooved cylinders were lower than those of the U grooved cylinders, but the separation points were delayed due the U grooves presence. It is discussed the presence of a blowing effect caused by counter-rotating eddies located near the grooves peaks that cause a decrease of the shear stresses in the valleys, and promote them at the peaks.

  11. [RAN: A computer program to estimate random response patterns in objective tests Computar program for random response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Soto, César; López Pina, José

    2010-05-01

    In the psychological measurement, especially in personality, the paper-pencil method is the usual device between the psychologist and allied professions. The score obtained by a person examined can have questionable validity if the responses were random. To identify this problem, different methods have been used. The random response is a challenging situation for the measurement research and diagnosis in cognitive performance and personality, when they have been measured by test of dichotomous type. In this study a computer program that implements the Charter's method of point estimate and confidence intervals is presented in order to identify if the score obtained can be considered random. We analyze and discuss this program uses in the research and professional practice.

  12. Assessment of RANS at low Prandtl number and simulation of sodium boiling flows with a CMFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of boiling sodium flows in a multiphase flow solver. • Rod heated with a constant heat flux in a pipe liquid metal flow. • Sodium boiling flow around a rod heated with a constant heat. • Computations in progress in an assembly constituted of 19 pins equipped with a wrapped wire. - Abstract: In France, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have recently received a renewed interest. In 2006, the decision was taken by the French Government to initiate research in order to build a first Generation IV prototype (called ASTRID) by 2020. The improvement in the safety of SFR is one of the key points in their conception. Accidental sequences may lead to a significant increase of reactivity. This is for instance the case when the sodium coolant is boiling within the fissile zone. As a consequence, incipient boiling superheat of sodium is an important parameter, as it can influence boiling process which may appear during some postulated accidents as the unexpected loss of flow (ULOF). The problem is that despite the reduction in core power, when boiling conditions are reached, the flow decreases progressively and vapour expands into the heating zone. A crucial investigating way is to optimize the design of the fissile assemblies of the core in order to lead to stable boiling during a ULOF accident, without voiding of the fissile zone. Moreover, in order to evaluate nuclear plant design and safety, a CFD tool has been developed at EDF in the framework of the nuclear industry. Advanced models dedicated to boiling flows have been implemented and validated against experimental data for ten years now including a wall law for boiling flows, wall transfer for nucleate boiling, turbulence and polydispersion model. This paper aims at evaluating the generalization of these models to SFR. At least two main issues are encountered. Firstly, at low Prandtl numbers such as those of liquid metal, classical approaches derived for unity or close to unity fail to accurately predict the heat transfer. In order to evaluate the wall law implemented in the CFD tool, computations have been compared with KALLA experimental results obtained in the case of a rod heated with a constant heat flux which is concentrically embedded in a pipe liquid metal flow (single-phase flow). Secondly, the incipient boiling superheat of sodium is quite different from that of conventional fluids. As a consequence, the nucleate boiling model has been improved and validated against the Charlety’s experiment where a rod heated with a constant heat flux is concentrically embedded in a pipe sodium flow. For different values of the heat flux, the pressure is measured at different locations as function of the mass flow rate. A reasonable agreement has been reached which is very encouraging for further applications. Finally, preliminary computations have been carried out in an assembly constituted of 19 pins equipped with a wrapped wire where partial experimental results are available. Computations have shown a pressure drop at the end of the heated length due to the sudden increase of the hydraulic diameter. Thus, the pressure can drop below the vapour pressure leading to liquid vaporization. This first result supports the assumption of boiling in the upper subassembly zone which could possibly lead to a sodium boiling stabilization.

  13. RANS computations for identification of 1-D cavitation model parameters: application to full load cavitation vortex rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Decaix, J.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.

    2017-04-01

    Due to the massive penetration of alternative renewable energies, hydropower is a key energy conversion technology for stabilizing the electrical power network by using hydraulic machines at off design operating conditions. At full load, the axisymmetric cavitation vortex rope developing in Francis turbines acts as an internal source of energy, leading to an instability commonly referred to as self-excited surge. 1-D models are developed to predict this phenomenon and to define the range of safe operating points for a hydropower plant. These models require a calibration of several parameters. The present work aims at identifying these parameters by using CFD results as objective functions for an optimization process. A 2-D Venturi and 3-D Francis turbine are considered.

  14. I just ran a thousand analyses: benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera E Heininga

    Full Text Available In psychiatric genetics research, the volume of ambivalent findings on gene-environment interactions (G x E is growing at an accelerating pace. In response to the surging suspicions of systematic distortion, we challenge the notion of chance capitalization as a possible contributor. Beyond qualifying multiple testing as a mere methodological issue that, if uncorrected, leads to chance capitalization, we advance towards illustrating the potential benefits of multiple tests in understanding equivocal evidence in genetics literature.We focused on the interaction between the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR and childhood adversities with regard to depression. After testing 2160 interactions with all relevant measures available within the Dutch population study of adolescents TRAILS, we calculated percentages of significant (p < .05 effects for several subsets of regressions. Using chance capitalization (i.e. overall significance rate of 5% alpha and randomly distributed findings as a competing hypothesis, we expected more significant effects in the subsets of regressions involving: 1 interview-based instead of questionnaire-based measures; 2 abuse instead of milder childhood adversities; and 3 early instead of later adversities. Furthermore, we expected equal significance percentages across 4 male and female subsamples, and 5 various genotypic models of 5-HTTLPR.We found differences in the percentages of significant interactions among the subsets of analyses, including those regarding sex-specific subsamples and genetic modeling, but often in unexpected directions. Overall, the percentage of significant interactions was 7.9% which is only slightly above the 5% that might be expected based on chance.Taken together, multiple testing provides a novel approach to better understand equivocal evidence on G x E, showing that methodological differences across studies are a likely reason for heterogeneity in findings - but chance capitalization is at least equally plausible.

  15. ChinaNet向SDN演进的方法探索%Study on IP RAN Technique Evolution and Network Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素彬; 郭亮

    2013-01-01

    中国电信的ChinaNet是全球最大的Internet之一,承载着全球最大的流量,并且长期呈高速增长,今后也将继续保持高增长态势.超大流量的Internet可持续发展和网络每比特承载成本的降低,是两个关键的问题.从这两个方面出发,利用集中控制的技术优势,探索如何将ChinaNet逐步迁移到SDN,并利用集中控制技术解决ChinaNet面临的问题.%China Telecom's ChinaNet is one of the largest networks in the world,carrying the world's largest traffic.The network's traffic has increased dramatically for several years by about 50% per year,and will continually increase in the future.How to deal with the sustainable development of the network and cut down expansion cost are key issues.Gradual evolution of ChinaNet to SDN was focused on.Thanks to centralized control technology,some of the issues faced by ChinaNet would be solved at the same time.

  16. Unsteady rans simulation of the off-design operation of a high expansion ratio ORC radial turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, E.; Pecnik, R.; Colonna di Paliano, P.

    2015-01-01

    The design of Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbines is a challenging task due to the complex thermodynamic behavior of the working fluid, the typical high expansion ratio which leads to a highly supersonic flow, the flow unsteadiness, and the continuous shift of operation between on- and off-design

  17. The Cyst Nematode SPRYSEC Protein RBP-1 Elicits Gpa2- and RanGAP2-Dependent Plant Cell Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacco, M.A.; Koropacka, K.B.; Grenier, E.; Jaubert, M.J.; Blanchard, A.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.; Moffett, P.

    2009-01-01

    Plant NB-LRR proteins confer robust protection against microbes and metazoan parasites by recognizing pathogen-derived avirulence (Avr) proteins that are delivered to the host cytoplasm. Microbial Avr proteins usually function as virulence factors in compatible interactions; however, little is known

  18. CFD RANS Simulations on a Generic Conventional Scale Model Submarine: Comparison between Fluent and OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    functions have such a small effect on the simulated value for the drag coefficient as the switch to the laminar behaviour at y+ ~ 11 would be...to explain the source of these differences. The modification to the wall functions in OpenFOAM described in Section 6 partially explains the...model currently implemented in Fluent incorporates modifications for low Reynolds number effects, compressibility and shear flow spreading [11]. The

  19. Research on Chen Ran's Writing about Transgender Issues%论陈染的“超性别”写作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学勇

    2016-01-01

    在中国当代女性作家中,陈染的“超性别意识”小说理念是在弗吉尼亚·伍尔夫“双性同体”概念的影响下提出的,是对西方女性主义文学理论的继承和发展.在陈染的小说中,“超性别意识”涵盖了超越性别的纯粹情感、创作状态与人格理想等精神层面,代表着陈染对自身情感、创作和人格的完美追求及文本实践,其意义在于作家不能局限于对自身性别的书写和创作,不应摒弃异性的世界和视域,应该摆脱偏激单一的性别视角来观察世界,最终抵达对人类整体命运的终极关怀.“超性别意识”内蕴着温暖的人性关怀,它不仅是一种文学理念,更是一种人性化的追求,在其创作中,陈染避免自身性别局限,努力追求精神世界的双性融合,为男女两性的和谐共融进行了富有意义的文学实践.

  20. Adoption a Proper Tool For E-Readiness Assessment in Developing Countries (Case Studies: İran, Turkey and Malaysia)

    OpenAIRE

    Beig, Leila; Montazer, Assist Prof.Gholam Ali; Ghavamifar, Atefeh

    2007-01-01

    Digital integration, with its Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, and its applications of e-government, e-commerce, e-learning, and other e-applications, is becoming of increasing importance, as a vital tool for development, both nationally and internationally. During the last decade, many leaders in government, business, and social organizations around the globe have considered how best to harness the power of IT for development. E-readiness assessments are meant to guide develop...

  1. Investigation of Francis Turbine Part Load Instabilities using Flow Simulations with a Hybrid RANS-LES Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappel, Timo; Ruprecht, Albert; Riedelbauch, Stefan; Jester-Zuerker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The operation of Francis turbines in part load condition causes high pressure fluctuations and dynamic loads in the turbine as well as high flow losses in the draft tube. Owing to the co-rotating velocity distribution at the runner blade trailing edge a low pressure zone arises in the hub region finally leading to a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube. A better understanding and a more accurate prediction of this phenomenon can help in the design process of a Francis turbine. The goal of this study is to reach a quantitatively better numerical prediction of the flow at part load and to evaluate the necessary numerical depth with respect to effort and benefit. As standard practice, simulation results are obtained for the steady state approach with SST turbulence modelling. Those results are contrasted with transient simulations applying a SST as well as a SAS (Scale Adaptive Simulation) turbulence model. The structure of the SAS model is such, that it is able to resolve the turbulent flow behaviour in more detail. The investigations contain a comparison of the flow losses in different turbine components. A detailed flow evaluation is done in the cone and the diffuser of the draft tube. The different numerical approaches show a different representation of the vortex rope phenomenon indicating differences in pressure pulsations at different geometric positions in the entire turbine. Finally, the turbulent flow structures in the draft tube are illustrated with several evaluation methods, such as turbulent eddy viscosity, velocity invariant and turbulent kinetic energy spectra.

  2. Devrim Sonrası İran Ortaokul Tarih Ders Kitaplarında Türklere İlişkin Söylemlerin Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya ÇELİK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish-Iranian relations have come back to ancient period. In the Iranian sources it is stated that the first Turkish-Iranian relations came into being in the time of the Scythians. As being in the Ghaznavid, Seljukid and the Ottoman era in the past, today these relations continue in various dimensions in the Republic of Turkey as well. It is known that, in terms of not only from the political aspects of the peoples of the two countries but also the social and cultural aspects, the Turkish-Iranian relations are also affected. One of the most important implications of these effects is experienced in the field of education. Especially the handled forms of relationships which are experienced from the past to the present in the textbooks, affects the people of the two countries against each other directly. In this study, the current history textbooks taught at the middle school level in Iran is examined in order to determine how the expressions related to the Turks in the history textbooks of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The history textbooks of secondary level which published in 1384 hş. (2007 are composed of the subject of this study. In this study, a descriptive model was applied. In the study, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of the obtained data, qualitative research methods were used. Document review was conducted for data collection. As a result of document analysis the following conclusions were reached: While the Turks outside the boundaries of Iran are otherized the ruling Turkish dynasties are mentioned proudly. However especially against the Shiite and Shia beliefs the Ottomans were regarded as threat. Some parts of the explanations related to Turks are determined to not coincide with historical research findings

  3. Raný Sartre a problematika sociálních rolí (Early Sartre and The Problems of Social Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Ješko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article wants to point out the importance and influence which early Sartre’s philosophy has on the development of the theory of social roles, which is perceived mostly as a problem of sociology and social psychology. The philosophy of early Sartre clarifies on metaphysical ground why humans have to realize themselves in society through social roles and that these roles are not fundamentally different from theatre roles. This article also points out an affinity which Sartre’s philosophy has with the view of social and cultural anthropology on social roles and their influence on this view. It points out the danger which arises from uncritical fulfillment of social roles and shows that Sartre’s early philosophy can lead to free and critical distance from realization of social roles, which prevents individuals from dogmatic fulfillment.

  4. Specific reading difficulties in Chinese, English, or both: longitudinal markers of phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and RAN in Hong Kong Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Phil D; Wong, Terry; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    What are the longitudinal cognitive profiles of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific reading difficulties in Chinese only, in English only, or both? A total of 16 poor readers each of Chinese (PC) and English (PE) and 8 poor readers of both orthographies (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 16 children; all were drawn from a statistically representative sample of 154 Hong Kong Chinese children tested at ages 5 to 9 years. PE and PB children's mothers had lower education levels than did the other groups. With children's ages and mothers' education levels statistically controlled, the PE, PC, and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phonological awareness. The PB and PE groups also scored significantly lower than the others on English vocabulary across years, whereas the PC and PB groups were significantly poorer than the C and PE groups on morphological awareness across years. Finally, the PB group was significantly slower than the other groups on speed naming at every age tested, underscoring the potential importance of automaticity in reading across orthographies. Findings highlight the need to consider the issue of how to identify reading difficulties in a second language.

  5. Modelling NOX concentrations through CFD-RANS in an urban hot-spot using high resolution traffic emissions and meteorology from a mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Beatriz; Santiago, Jose Luis; Martilli, Alberto; Martin, Fernando; Borge, Rafael; Quaassdorff, Christina; de la Paz, David

    2017-08-01

    Air quality management requires more detailed studies about air pollution at urban and local scale over long periods of time. This work focuses on obtaining the spatial distribution of NOx concentration averaged over several days in a heavily trafficked urban area in Madrid (Spain) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A methodology based on weighted average of CFD simulations is applied computing the time evolution of NOx dispersion as a sequence of steady-state scenarios taking into account the actual atmospheric conditions. The inputs of emissions are estimated from the traffic emission model and the meteorological information used is derived from a mesoscale model. Finally, the computed concentration map correlates well with 72 passive samplers deployed in the research area. This work reveals the potential of using urban mesoscale simulations together with detailed traffic emissions so as to provide accurate maps of pollutant concentration at microscale using CFD simulations.

  6. THE BUDGET OF CYPRUS STAT EFOR 18 MARCH – 14 JUNE 1608 18 MART - 14 HAZİRAN 1608 YILI KIBRIS EYALETİ BÜTÇESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep DÜNDAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The three-month budget of the Cyprus state for 18 March-14 June 1608 is present on the 2-5 pages of the account book with TT code and 0708 item no classified as Title Deed Written Books in the Prime Ministry’s Ottoman Archives. This budget which was prepared by Mustafa Pasha, Cyprus governor, and Ali Efendi, Cyprus Treasury official, gives information about the incomes and expenses of Cyprus State.According to the budget, the incomes of Cyprus Budget is 4.544.320 mites. The expenses from this budget is 2.016.092 mites with a residual of 2.473.146 mites. That means there was a surplus in the budget. It was reported by the treasury official that 2.302.316 mites of this surplus was sent to Istanbul, and 170.830 mites of it was appropriated to the salaries of various military officials working in Cyprus state. Kıbrıs Eyaleti’nin 18 Mart 1608 - 14 Haziran 1608 tarihli üç aylık bütçesi Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi’nde Tapu Tahrir Defterleri tasnifinde TT kodlu ve 0708 sıra nolu defterin 2-5. sayfalarında bulunmaktadır. Kıbrıs Beylerbeyi Mustafa Paşa ve Kıbrıs Hazine Defterdarı Ali Efendi tarafından hazırlanan bütçe adıgeçen tarihler arasında Kıbrıs Eyaletinin gelir ve giderleri hakkında bilgi vermektedir. Bütçeye göre Kıbrıs Eyaleti’nin gelirleri 4.544.320 akçedir. Bu gelirden yapılan harcamalar ise 2.016.092 akçe olup geriye 2.473.146 akçe bakiye kalmıştır. Yani bütçe fazlalık vermiştir. Bu fazlalığın 2.302.316 akçesinin İstanbul’a gönderildiği, geri kalan 170.830 akçenin ise Kıbrıs Eyaleti’nde görev yapan değişik askeri görevlilerin maaşlarına mahsup edildiği defterdar tarafından merkeze bildirilmiştir.

  7. Hybrid secure beamforming and vehicle selection using hierarchical agglomerative clustering for C-RAN-based vehicle-to-infrastructure communications in vehicular cyber-physical systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Dongyang; Ren, Pinyi; Du, Qinghe; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    ...–enhancing mechanisms in the physical layer. In this article, we propose a hybrid beamforming and vehicle-selection framework for vehicle-to-infrastructure communications to broadcast high-speed confidential messages...

  8. An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeles, G.; Koukouvinis, P.; Gavaises, M.; Li, J; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution...

  9. Antisense Proline-Arginine RAN dipeptides linked to C9ORF72-ALS/FTD form toxic nuclear aggregates that initiate in vitro and in vivo neuronal death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xinmei; Tan, Wenzhi; Westergard, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; ShamamandriMarkandaiah, Shashirekha; Shi, Yingxiao; Lin, Shaoyu; Shneider, Neil A.; Monaghan, John; Pandey, Udai B.; Pasinelli, Piera; Ichida, Justin K.; Trotti, Davide

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Expanded GGGGCC nucleotide repeats within the C9ORF72 gene are the most common genetic mutation associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Sense and antisense transcripts of these expansions are translated to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs). We employed primary cortical and motor neuron cultures, live-cell imaging, and transgenic fly models and found that the arginine-rich dipeptides, in particular Proline-Arginine (PR), are potently neurotoxic. Factors that anticipated their neurotoxicity included aggregation in nucleoli, decreased number of processing bodies, and stress granules formation, implying global translational dysregulation as path accountable for toxicity. Nuclear PR aggregates were also found in human-induced motor neurons and postmortem spinal cord tissues from C9ORF72 ALS and ALS/FTD patients. Intronic G4C2 transcripts, but not loss of C9ORF72 protein, are also toxic to motor and cortical neurons. Interestingly, G4C2 transcript-mediated neurotoxicity synergizes with that of PR aggregates, suggesting convergence of mechanisms. PMID:25521377

  10. Basra Körfezi’nde Güç Mücadelesi: İran-Irak Savaşı’nın Yeniden Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Pirinççi, Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the power struggle in the Persian Gulf towards the end of the Cold War from a different perspective. The withdrawal of Britain from the region created a power vacuum and this caused a regional leadership struggle between countries such as Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Facing historical problems between each other, the Iran-Iraq rivalry came into prominence with this struggle. The fray between the two countries also caused the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988. This study ...

  11. Raný Sartre a problematika sociálních rolí (Early Sartre and The Problems of Social Roles)

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Ješko

    2012-01-01

    This article wants to point out the importance and influence which early Sartre’s philosophy has on the development of the theory of social roles, which is perceived mostly as a problem of sociology and social psychology. The philosophy of early Sartre clarifies on metaphysical ground why humans have to realize themselves in society through social roles and that these roles are not fundamentally different from theatre roles. This article also points out an affinity which Sartre’s philosophy h...

  12. Antisense proline-arginine RAN dipeptides linked to C9ORF72-ALS/FTD form toxic nuclear aggregates that initiate in vitro and in vivo neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xinmei; Tan, Wenzhi; Westergard, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Markandaiah, Shashirekha S; Shi, Yingxiao; Lin, Shaoyu; Shneider, Neil A; Monaghan, John; Pandey, Udai B; Pasinelli, Piera; Ichida, Justin K; Trotti, Davide

    2014-12-17

    Expanded GGGGCC (G4C2) nucleotide repeats within the C9ORF72 gene are the most common genetic mutation associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Sense and antisense transcripts of these expansions are translated to form five dipeptide repeat proteins (DRPs). We employed primary cortical and motor neuron cultures, live-cell imaging, and transgenic fly models and found that the arginine-rich dipeptides, in particular Proline-Arginine (PR), are potently neurotoxic. Factors that anticipated their neurotoxicity included aggregation in nucleoli, decreased number of processing bodies, and stress granule formation, implying global translational dysregulation as path accountable for toxicity. Nuclear PR aggregates were also found in human induced motor neurons and postmortem spinal cord tissues from C9ORF72 ALS and ALS/FTD patients. Intronic G4C2 transcripts, but not loss of C9ORF72 protein, are also toxic to motor and cortical neurons. Interestingly, G4C2 transcript-mediated neurotoxicity synergizes with that of PR aggregates, suggesting convergence of mechanisms.

  13. Gojenie się ran w pędach wiśni odm. Minister Podbielski [Wound healing in twigs of sour cherry cv. Minister Podbielski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Golisz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on anatomical changes in sour cherry twigs after pruning. Changes in the surface of wounds begin by the filling of cells and vessels with gum substances. At the same time drying and splitting of tissues was observed. Healing of the wounds starts from the layer of parenchyma cells from which callus develops. At the end of the growing season spring-made wounds were healed with a thick layer of callus tissue, while healing of summer-made wounds was hastened shortly after formation of the primary callus layer.

  14. Influence of a roughness length error on vertical wind speed extrapolation for 2D ideal hills using an OpenFOAM® RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav-Levy Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modelling wind flow over a flat and complex terrain, the choice of roughness-length-distribution is critical for accurate wind speed predications. This choice is often made based on the Davenport scale [1]. A satellite or aerial image of the location is used [2–4] and subjective or objective measures are used for translating the image into roughness length - z0 - based on the Davenport scale. The choice of a Davenport table value is generally regarded as within an error of plus or minus one table value, leading to a ±6% error in wind speed predictions for a flat terrain in neutral conditions [5]. In the paper this error is studied for a non-flat terrain, using a series of CFD simulations for 2D hills of various combinations of aspect ratio and steepness. Results show that the wind speed prediction error as a result of a “wrong” parameterization decreases with hill steepness until separation occurs. As a result of separation the error increases slightly, and then decreases again with a further increase in hill steepness.

  15. Sociogeneze přemyslovského knížectví: Teorie Norberta Eliase a raný český stát

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kalenda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with application of the Norbert Elias's theory of sociogenesis to the case of early Czech state formation. For this purpose we focus on the mechanisms of emergence and establishing of the state monopoly, as well as on the aspects of decentralization and privatization of state power during reign of first Premyslid dukes - from 860 to 1230 AD. In the second place, the article tries to compare the process of sociogenesis in the Western Europe with the dynamics of state formation that was typical for the contemporary Czech lands. In this context we claim that Elias made several mistakes, because he supposed that features and mechanisms of state formation were fairly unitary everywhere Europe. We try to challenge this notion show that the history of state making in the Central European region has many autonomous and unique aspects that differentiate it from social dynamics in other parts of the continent. From this critical pointof view, the article attempts a reformulation of Elias's theory for the Central European area.

  16. Boron subphthalocyanine polymers by facile coupling to poly(acrylic acid-ran-styrene) copolymers synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization and the associated problems with autoinitiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Benoît H; Bender, Timothy P

    2013-04-12

    Boron subphthalocyanines (BsubPcs) are macrocyclic aromatic small molecules containing a chelated boron atom. BsubPcs have interesting optoelectronic and physical properties, justifying their use in various organic electronic devices such as organic solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes. However, our group has only recently reported the first incorporation of a BsubPc moiety into a polymer using a two-step post-polymerization procedure. This communication outlines the use of acrylic acid as a method for obtaining carboxylic acid functional copolymers for the facile coupling to BsubPc post polymerization. In addition, the observations and the proposed mechanism of a side product unique to the copolymerization of acrylic acid and styrene due to autoinitiation are presented.

  17. Comparing Spray Characteristics from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) National Combustion Code (NCC) Calculations Against Experimental Data for a Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results

  18. Criteria for the Depths of Dredged Navigational Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    240,000 DWT supertanker Lepton sailing in the Eurooport channels. Extensive investigations were also made in the Chao Phraya River , Bangkok, and along...increasing the probability of grounding or striking bottom. The panel emphasizes that these results *Calcasieu River (inner and outer channels), Lower...Columbia River , Delaware River , Mobile Harbor, Norfolk Harbor, Oakland Harbor, San Francisco Bay, Thimble Shoal, and Galveston Channel 6L E-3 are more

  19. Modeling the behavior of the helmsman steering a ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuyzen, W.; Stassen, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    A supertanker is considered as a nonlinear system which responds very slowly to changes in the rudder position. Moreover this type of ship is often unstable in loaded condition. In order to model the helmsman's behavior, a number of tests were performed using a ship maneuvering simulator. The trained subjects had to steer a 200,000 tons tanker along a varying course. The results obtained from these trials are presented.

  20. Cytological characterization of an Aspergillus Nidulans mutant from a strain with chromosomic duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancoli, Agata Cristiane Huppert; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    A development mutant, named V103, was obtained spontaneously from the A strain of A. nidulans. The A strain contains a duplicated segment of chromosome I that has undergone translocation to chromosome II (I II). It is mitotically unstable and generates phenotypically deteriorated types, some with enhanced stability. The deteriorated variants of A. nidulans show abnormal development, exhibiting slower colony growth, variations in colony pigmentation and changes in conidiophore structure. The alterations observed in the conidiophore include fewer metulae and phialides, further elongation and ramification of these structures, delayed nuclear migration and the presence of secondary conidiophores.

  1. Cytological characterization of an Aspergillus nidulans mutant from a strain with chromosomic duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágata Cristiane Huppert Giancoli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A development mutant, named V103, was obtained spontaneously from the A strain of A. nidulans. The A strain contains a duplicated segment of chromosome I that has undergone translocation to chromosome II (I → II. It is mitotically unstable and generates phenotypically deteriorated types, some with enhanced stability. The deteriorated variants of A. nidulans show abnormal development, exhibiting slower colony growth, variations in colony pigmentation and changes in conidiophore structure. The alterations observed in the conidiophore include fewer metulae and phialides, further elongation and ramification of these structures, delayed nuclear migration and the presence of secondary conidiophores.

  2. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  3. Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Ray Kook and a future leader of Gush Emunim, to establish a small illegal presence in a hotel in the middle of Hebron during the spring festival of...countries, the beggars who live off the wealth of others will build, from Eilat to Metula (i.e within the Green Line--IL) a boutique for strictly European...several Gush Emunim figures have suggested that a carrot and stick policy toward selected Arab and non-Arab groups within the Middle East can produce

  4. Efficient resolution of (±)-rans-2,3-diphenylpiperazine using (1)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid and enrichment of enantiomeric purity of non-racemic 2,3-diphenylpiperazine using different achiral acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pothiappan Vairaprakash; Mariappan Periasamy

    2008-01-01

    Enantiomerically pure (,)-(+)-2,3-diphenylpiperazine with 98% was obtained by resolution of the corresponding racemic mixture using (1)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. The partially resolved enriched sample of (,)-(-)-2,3-diphenylpiperazine with 73% ee was purified to obtain samples of 97% ee using different achiral acids via the preparation of either homochiral or heterochiral hydrogen bonded aggregates.

  5. 抗-HCV、HCV-RNA、ALT在HCV感染病程中的分布%THEDEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-HCV、HCV-RAN AND ALT LEVEL IN HCV CLINICAL PATIENTS AND ITS EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓俭; 任志胜; 吴敏

    2003-01-01

    目的:了解抗-HCV、HCV-RNA、ALT在输血后HCV感染者病程中的动态变化.方法:运用ELISA法及PCR法对205例输血后肝炎进行检测,对105例输血后HCV感染病例进行追踪调查.结果:抗-HCV及HCV-RNA阳性率分别为57.1%和55.1%,抗-HCV阴性中HCV-RNA阳性率达30.2%.抗-HCV、HCV-RNA及ALT在急性及慢性病人临床病程中呈现不同的特点.结论:PCR法在HCV感染的确诊、血源筛选等方面具有一定的流行病学意义.

  6. 清末槟城副领事戴欣然与南洋华人方言群社会%Qing Consul Dai Xin-ran and Chinese Dialect Group Communities in Penang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贤强

    2004-01-01

    自19世纪以来,槟城的华人社会便以福建(闽南)人和广东(广府)人为主,尤其是前者.客家人的人数,一直都只占华人人口的10%左右.本文将讨论客家移民--戴欣然的奋斗和事业及其牵引出来的方言群关系.本文的一个讨论重点,是探讨戴欣然在槟城的慈善事业和领事任内的活动,进而讨论槟城华族方言群社会的互动关系.

  7. RANS analyses on erosion behavior of density stratification consisted of helium–air mixture gas by a low momentum vertical buoyant jet in the PANDA test facility, the third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Satoshi, E-mail: abe.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: . • The third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in the reactor containment vessel. • Two types turbulence model modification were applied in order to accurately simulate the turbulence helium transportation in the density stratification. • The analysis result in case with turbulence model modification is good agreement with the experimental data. • There is a major difference of turbulence helium–mass transportation between in case with and without the turbulence model modification. - Abstract: Density stratification in the reactor containment vessel is an important phenomenon on an issue of hydrogen safety. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project on containment thermal hydraulics. As a part of the activity, we participated in the third international CFD benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in containment vessel. This paper shows our approach for the IBE-3, focusing on the turbulence transport phenomena in eroding the density stratification and introducing modified turbulence models for improvement of the CFD analyses. For this analysis, we modified the CFD code OpenFOAM by using two turbulence models; the Kato and Launder modification to estimate turbulent kinetic energy production around a stagnation point, and the Katsuki model to consider turbulence damping in density stratification. As a result, the modified code predicted well the experimental data. The importance of turbulence transport modeling is also discussed using the calculation results.

  8. Narcissism in the " Personal Life" written by Chen Ran%孤芳自赏的美丽与哀愁——陈染《私人生活》中的自恋情结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢薇

    2013-01-01

    20世纪90年代女性小说创作热潮中,陈染以其独特的思维方式和生命体验坚持个人话语的言说,坚持个性化写作,塑造了一批反传统伦理常规的女性形象.其长篇小说《私人生活》讲述了主人公倪拗拗的身心成长历程,通过对主人公孤独自闭、同性恋倾向、异性恋中的主体意识等方面的分析,可以见出小说文本中的自恋情结.

  9. 重读红色:浩然小说主人公眼里的阉割与乱伦%Red Reread: Castration and Incest for the People in Hao Ran's Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓菲

    2010-01-01

    @@ 文学作品总要放到上下文里来读.语境对于意义生产至关重要,也能让作品中未曾被发现的内容浮出水面.对社会主义中国"红色经典"的故事新编向我们揭示出原作情节与人物塑造本身潜在的意义或可能性.本篇论文以浩然(1932-2008)的两个短篇小说为例,说明将红色经典置于一个不同语境下进行重读也能产生同样效果.浩然也许是文化大革命时期最受欢迎的作家.他的长篇小说堪称"中国特色社会主义"真正的史诗,销量已经过百万;他的短篇小说在批评界受到的关注虽然不及长篇,却充分表现了阅读模式的变化如何影响文本的意义.然而,变化的阅读模式并不总是"事后"发生.

  10. Investigation of Unsteady Flow in a Single Stage High Load Radial Turbine by 3D RANS Simulation%单级高负荷向心透平三维黏性非定常计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灿; 袁新

    2012-01-01

    The flow field in a single stage,high load radial turbine is investigated numerically using 3D viscous steady and unsteady simulations.The azimuthal averaged flow fields predicted by the simulations compare well with experimental results from open literature.The analysis of the results is focused on unsteady interaction between the vane and rotor.Due to the high rotating speed of the rotor and lack of downstream stator,the unsteady phenomena are obvious mainly around the vane-rotor interface and the inlet part of the rotor passage.The flow at the outlet part and downstream of the rotor does not show obvious unsteady fluctuations.The unsteady simulation shows that the stage efficiency has a variation with time up to 1.3%.%对一台单级高负荷向心透平进行了三维黏性定常和非定常计算,计算得到的动叶出口以及下游的周向平均流场与文献提供的实验结果符合良好。在此基础上对流动的非定常特性进行了分析,发现由于动叶转速较高,且动叶下游不存在下一级静叶的干涉,流动的非定常效应主要体现在叶片排之间的区域以及动叶通道进口,动叶出口以及下游流动的非定常特性并不明显。非定常计算结果透平的级效率随时间的波动幅度达到了1.3%。

  11. 林白、陈染等女性小说创作的个人视线探析%Probe in Personal View of Woman's Private Novel Creation of Lin Bai and Chen Ran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光华

    2008-01-01

    20世纪末,随着思想解放的深入和西方文化思潮的不断涌入,人们生存方式和社会生存环境发生变化,在新的文学创作的文化语境下,文学创作的视线发生潜移,出现了林白、陈染等女性文学创作和较为纯粹的私人化写作,其作品呈现出"个人记忆"特征,表现出明显的女性立场,其关注自身的创作倾向,个人化、内省式创作路向折射出女性独立意识的新的觉醒.

  12. Armazenamento da castanha do pará com e sem casca: efeito da temperatura na resistência ao ranço Whole and shelled Brazil nut storage: effect of the temperature on their resistance to rancidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Ribeiro

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou ao estudo do comportamento da fração lipídica de castanhas do Pará em casca e descascadas, conservadas por 4 meses em sacos de papel Kraft, nas seguintes condições: ao ambiente, a 2°C e -15°C. Nas castanhas em casca, mantidas ao ambiente, a formação de peróxidos somente ocorreu a partir do 2° mês, alcançando o valor de 0,16 meq O2/kg de óleo. Dentro do mesmo período, a 2°C e -15°C, isto ocorreu de forma mais lenta, chegando a 0,10 meq O2/kg, nos dois tratamentos. As castanhas descascadas apresentaram, no início, 9,18 meq O2/Kg de índice de peróxido e l mg KOH/g de óleo de índice de acidez. Após 4 meses ao ambiente, o índice de peróxido chegou a 23,3 meq O2/Kg e a acidez a 2 mg KOH/g, com redução do índice de iodo. Para as castanhas a 2°C, os índices se mantiveram estáveis, enquanto que, para aquelas a -15°C, ocorreu redução no índice de peróxido, no 1° mês para 7,5 meq O2/Kg de amostra, mantido até o final do experimento. Os índices de iodo e de acidez se mantiveram estáveis e o exame espectrofotométrico na faixa ultravioleta confirmaram estes dados. De uma maneira geral, observou-se que o abaixamento da temperatura de armazenamento contribuiu para aumentar o tempo de conservação das castanhas, que será ainda maior se forem armazenadas em casca.The objective of this study on whole and shelled Brazil nuts was to determine the changes in the lipid fraction when stored for four months in ordinary paper bags, at ambient temperature, 2°C and -15°C. Whole nuts kept at room temperature had an increase in peroxide formation in the second month of storage, reaching 0.16 meq O2/kg oil. The nuts kept at 2°C and -15°C, had a lower increase, reaching 0.10 meq O2/kg in both treatments, within the same period. Shelled nuts had an initial peroxide value of 9.18 meq O2/kg oil and 1 mg KOH/g oil of acid value. After four months at room temperature, the peroxide value reached 23.3 meq O2/kg and acidity, 2 mg KOH/g, with a reduction in iodine number. The nuts at 2°C showed minor changes. The nuts at -15° showed reduction in peroxide value to 7.5 meq O2/kg in the first month which was mantained until the end of the experiment. Iodine numbers and acid values were relatively stable as confirmed by spectrophotometric determinations. The conclusion is that the reduction in storage temperature contributed to the increase in time of conservation of the Brazil nuts, specially if they are not shelled.

  13. Role profesních standardů při kontrolních činnostech managementu ve středisku rané péče v Pardubicích

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The Association for Early Intervention in Pardubice – Early Intervention Centre in Pardubice (EIC) is a registered provider of services for the prevention of social exclusion in early intervention in the Pardubice region. The work of professional counsellors in early intervention is based on the knowledge of professional standards which fully comply with the Standards of the Quality of Social Services. These are introduced into “good practice” when implementing services for the...

  14. Linear ranK-1 preservers on Spaces of zero-trace matrices over fields%域上迹零矩阵空间上的线性秩1保持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳涛; 张显

    2009-01-01

    Suppose F is a field and m is a positive integer with m≥2.Let Mm(F) be the linearspace of all m×m matrices over F,and let slm(F) be the subspace of Mm(F) consisting of all zero-trace matrices.A linear map φ:slm(F)→slm(F) is termed a rank-1 preserver if φ(sl1m(F))(-C)sl1m(F),where sl1m(F) denotes the subset of slm(F) consisting of all rank-1 matrices.It is shown by using an inductive technique that φ:slm(F)→slm(F) is an invertible linear rank-1 preserver if and only if there exist c ∈F* and nonsingular M ∈Mm(F) such thatφ(X)=cMXM-1 for any X ∈slm(F) orφ(X)=cMXT M-1 for any X ∈slm(F).%设F是域,m≥2是正整数,Mn(F)表示域F上所有n×n矩阵构成的线性空间,sln(F)表示Mn(F)的包含所有迹零矩阵的子空间.若线性映射φ:slm(F)→slm(F) 满足φ(sl1m(F))(-C)sl1m(F),则称其为线性秩1保持,其中sl1m(F)定义slm(F)的包含所有秩1矩阵的子集.通过使用数学归纳法证明了:φ:slm(F)→slm(F)是可逆的线性秩l保持的充要条件是存在c ∈F* 和可逆的M ∈Mm(F)使得φ(X)=cMXM-1,(A)X∈slm(F)或φ(X)=cMXT M-1,(A)X ∈slm(F).

  15. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Institute of Investigation and Food Analysis, La Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S. [Area Nutrition and Bromatology, La Coruna (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. What discrete and serial rapid automatized naming can reveal about reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Serial rapid automized naming (RAN) has been often found to correlate more strongly with reading than discrete RAN. This study aimed to demonstrate that the strength of the RAN-reading fluency relationship is dependent on the format of both RAN and the reading task if the reading task consists of si

  17. AcEST: DK953605 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ADAM+RA+V D+DLQKQLRP ME MVPLPGIYDPDFIA+NQG RAN Sbjct: 150 ADAMARAKVFDIDLQKQLRPYMESMVPLPGIYDPDFIAANQGSRAN 195...+DLQKQLRP ME MVPLPGIYDPDFIA+NQG RAN Sbjct: 150 ADAMARAKVFDIDLQKQLRPYMESMVPLPGIYDP... D+DLQKQLRP ME MVPLPGIYDPDFIA+NQG RAN Sbjct: 150 ADAMARARVFDIDLQKQLRPYMESMVPLPGIYDPDFIAANQGSRAN 195 >sp|P428...RP ME MVPLPGIY+PDFIA+NQG RAN Sbjct: 150 ADAMGRAKVLDIDLQKQLRPYMESMVPLPGIYNPDFIAANQGSRAN 195 >sp|O64437|INO1_O...ME MVPLPGIYDPDFIA+NQG RAN Sbjct: 150 ADAMTRAKVLDIDLQKQLRPYMESMVPLPGIYDPDFIAANQGSR

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  19. Eupenicillium saturniforme, a new species discovered from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2009-06-01

    A new Eupenicillium species, E. saturniforme was isolated from soil in Jilin Province, northeast China. Morphologically, it resembled E. shearii and E. tropicum, but is distinguished from them by slowly maturing cleistothecia, lenticular ascospores with nearly smooth-walled convex surfaces, strictly velutinous colony texture with abundant conidiogenesis, robust biverticillate penicilli, apically vesiculate metulae and rough-walled stipes and conidia. The partial beta-tubulin gene sequence of the new species (EU644080) showed relationship with Penicillium glabrum in the BLAST search in GenBank. Further analyses of partial calmodulin and ribosomal DNA internally transcribed spacer 1-5.8S-internally transcribed spacer 2 (rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequence data confirmed that E. saturniforme fell in the clade with P. glabrum, P. lividum, P. purpurascens, P. spinulosum and P. thomii of Subgenus Aspergilloides. However, E. saturniforme is a distinctive species lacking close relatives among described species of penicillia.

  20. Antifungal activity of the basil (Ocimmum basilicum L. extract on Penicillium aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antifungal potential of basil (Ocimmum basilicum L. extract against toxin-producing Penicillium spp. (P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. chrysogenum, and P. brevicompactum isolated from food. The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method. The major component identified in the extract was estragole (86.72%. The determination of the antifungal activity of basil extract on Penicillium spp. was performed using the agar plate method. Basil extract reduced the growth of Penicillium spp. at all applied concentration levels (0.16, 0.35, 0.70, and 1.50 mL/100mL with the colony growth inhibition from 3.6 (for P. glabrum to 100% (for P. chrysogenum. The highest sensitivity showed P. chrysogenum, where the growth was completely inhibited at the basil extract concentration of 1.50 mL/100mL. The growth of other Penicillium spp. was partially inhibited with the colony growth inhibition of 63.4 % (P. brevicompactum, 67.5% (P. aurantiogriseum, and 71.7% (P. glabrum. Higher concentrations (0.70 and 1.50 mL/100mL reduced the growth of the aerial mycelium of all tested Penicillium species. In addition, at the same extract concentrations, the examination of microscopic preparation showed the deformation of hyphae with the frequent occurrence of fragmentations and thickenings, occurrence of irregular vesicle, frequently without metulae and phialides, enlarged metulae. The results obtained in this investigation point to the possibility of using basil extract for the antifungal food protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  1. Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security: Phase 0 Architecture Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-10

    in another sense it is well within the relative scale of other human accomplishments which at their  time also seemed astounding creations‐‐the  Eiffel ... Tower  is 8,045 Tons; the Sear’s  Tower  222,500 tons;  the Empire State Building 365,000 – 392,000 tons, the largest of our supertankers is 650,000MT

  2. Discovery of abundant, accessible hydrocarbons nearly everywhere in the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuppero, A.

    1996-05-01

    analysis of the data gathered during the Comet Halley encounter during 1987 resulted in a body of literature asserting that all comets contain substantial percentages of hydrocarbon solids. These solids appear to have a strong similarity to petrochemicals. Arguments are made that the amount of hydrocarbon material in the accessible comets of the inner Solar system can substantially exceed the known reserves of hydrocarbons on Earth. An example is given of at least one conceptually simple method to use comet material as feedstock for space transportation schemes that can move masses through the solar system comparable to the mass carried by oil supertankers. The presentation concludes we need to send prospecting and assay probes to a sampling of the accessible comets to determine the amount of hydrocarbons and the form and location of materials needed for space transportation systems.

  3. Modern weapons and military equipments for issue 1-2017 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 1-2017 / Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 1-2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan M. Vučković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovačka prikazuje borbeno vozilo pešadije Corsac; Super kavitaciona municija; Razvoj raketa vazduh-vazduh za borbu van vizuelnog dometa; Ratna iskustva francuskog tenka Leclerc; Kineski Flenkeri; Novi lovac tenkova Centauro II; Lynx vreba izvozno tržište; Daljinski upravljane kupole oklopnih vozila. / Slovakia unveils 8X8 Corsac IFV; DSG Technology begins production of supercavitating bullets; Wielding a bigger stick: Western advances i BVRAAM capabilities; France’s Leclerc Super-Tank: Better than American or Russian Armor?; China Stole This Fighter From Russia—and It's Coming to the South China Sea; Parting shot – Centauro II; Lynx IFV ready to stalk the export market; Remote controlled: The unmanned revolution turns to turrets.

  4. Imodco Inc. wins three major contracts offshore of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-15

    The latest of IMODCO's $9.5 million contracts, which were awarded by Petroleos Mexicanos in Aug.-Sept. 1978, is for a 112.5 m dia single-point mooring (SPM) terminal off Dos Bocas in the Gulf of Campeche to serve supertankers up to 250,000 dwt. Scheduled for delivery in spring 1979, the terminal will be able to withstand winds up to 100 knots and wave heights up to 28 ft. The other two contracts are for the engineering and construction of an 11 in. dia SPM with a three-grade multiple-product distribution unit (MPDU) 2 mi off Mazatlan for tankers up to 60,000 dwt, and a completed 12.5 m dia SPM with a two-grade MPDU off Rabon Grande for tankers up to 150,000 dwt.

  5. Engineering Bereitschaft as an enabler for Concurrent Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Kåre; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    will describe experience from a shipyard where an object oriented product model of a double hull supertanker and a product configurator prototype have been developed as part of an industrial Ph.D.-project. Configuration of the steel structures in a ship and the succeeding producability evaluation can......Industrial companies observe a general trend towards more customised products and shorter product life cycles. Furthermore, the market demands shorter lead-time and high-quality products at a competitive price. Concurrent Engineering address these challenges. Product modelling is a key aspect...... of the Concurrent Engineering literature. One problem with the product modelling literature is that it tends to assume that product development is revolutionary. Very often product development is evolutionary and it means that product modelling should have a major emphasis on reuse. In this paper it is suggested...

  6. Vente et rançonnement du butin humain des armées romaines à l’époque des conquêtes (264 av. J.-C. – 117 ap. J.-C.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Au plus fort de l’impérialisme romain, les victoires militaires ont rapporté plusieurs millions de captifs. Les chiffres disponibles permettent d’établir une augmentation des captures au cours de la seconde moitié du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. et jusqu’au premier siècle du Principat. Le chef d’armée avait le pouvoir de vendre les prisonniers comme esclaves. Tous les captifs ne l’étaient cependant pas et les asservissements effectifs se limitent aux cas les plus célèbres. Les prix pratiqués lors de...

  7. Elektronik Dergilerin Üniversite Kütüphanelerine Ekonomik Etkisi : İran Temel Bilimler İleri Araştırmalar Enstitüsü Kütüphanesi Örneği / The Economic Impact of the Electronic Journals on University Libraries : The Case of Iranian Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Afzali

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to answer the following conjecture: If Iranian Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS Library subscribed to the electronic versions of journals instead of their printed copies, its budget and space problems would be eased. To prove this hypothesis we compared various expenditures (subscriptions, mailing, control, binding and archiving of both printed and electronic versions of journals that IASBS Library subscribed to in 2002. We found that if IASBS Library had subscribed to the electronic versions of journals instead of their printed equivalents, the Library would have decreased the total expenditures in its overall material acquisition budget by 13%.

  8. Töölepingu seaduse § 37 : kas tööandja võimalus oma äranägemise järgi töötasu vähendada või turvalise paindlikkuse rakendamise positiivne näide? / Annika Rosin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosin, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Millistel tingimustel on võimalik tööandjal ühepoolselt töötasu vähendada, kas ja kuidas on vastav reeglistik võrreldes varasemaga muutunud ning kas sellise võimaluse andmine on kooskõlas turvalise paindlikkuse kontseptsiooniga

  9. "The Former Works Is Probably Imperfect, the Latter Turn Out Refinement "——A Review of Zhang Bing, Ran Yaobin New Book Selected Poems of Meng-yang Li%"前修或未密,后出当转精"——评张兵、冉耀斌新著《李梦阳诗选》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小恒

    2010-01-01

    张兵、冉耀斌以其填补空白的努力、回归理性的学术追求,着眼于明清诗歌研究领域的诸种偏颇,以诗选一体"浓缩"诗歌之整体状貌,还原一个本来意义的空同诗.选诗打破一隅之见,以求"展现其创作的整体面目";注诗力求精谨准确,在文献上尊重原著,斥伪返本;评诗涉及空同其人其诗之诸多方面,体系完整,严格从文本出发,客观反映其诗学成就,突破了对空同诗评价问题上传统成见.凡此种种,足以启发后学,使之"后出"而愈"精".

  10. İran ve Türkiye’nin Dünya Bilgibilim Literatürüne Katkıları: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Çalışma / Contributions of Iran and Turkey to the World Information Science Literature: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Afzali

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the contributions of Iran and Turkey to the world information science literature. In this context, the study examines Iran and Turkey addressed publications in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI. Total number of publications of two countries in the information science journals was 140; 85 from Turkey and the remaining 55 from Iran. When analyzed in tenyeartime periods, the number of Iran addressed publications shows a kind of instability with certain rise and decline whereas the number of Turkey addressed publications appears to rise steadily. The most preferred information science journal for Iran is International Information & Library Review while for Turkey it is Scientometrics. More collaborative work is preferred by Turkish scholars than their colleagues in Iran. The majority of Iranian publications come from authors with a librarianship background whereas Turkish publicationsinclude authors with different backgrounds such as statistics, industrial engineering and physics. It is pointed out in this article that the number of publications from both countries does not match their potentials. In this respect, both countries need to increase their contributions and thus have a better positionin the world of information science.

  11. William Wordsworth's 'Double Awareness' of Memory in Virginia Woolf's Mrs Dalloway = William Wordsworth'un 'Hatıranın Çift Yönlü Algılaması' Kavramının Virgina Woolf'un Mrs Dalloway Adlı Romanındaki Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÜNEŞ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Romanticism in modernist British writer Virginia Woolf's novel, Mrs Dalloway. Although her works are experimental and new, they are part of a wider and developing perspective in the historical process of literary tradition, so that they cannot be viewed as completely breaking away from literary tradition, but rather as a reworking and redevelopment in its evolution. In her reworking of the traditional novel, this paper may suggest that Woolf made it "new" by returning to the Romantics, particularly to Wordsworth. By this claim, this paper does not mean that Woolf copied Wordsworth exactly, but was profoundly and pervasively influenced by his aesthetic views, especially in relation to her understanding of life as "consciousness". By returning to the Romantics, Woolf develops her sense of "reality" as both fragmented and whole, and of the "self" as fragmented but desiring and imagining unity. Hence she not only strove to construct a poetical or lyrical novel to express that contradictory view but also used her fiction to explore the mystery of the subjective consciousness as the dominant modernist view. In order to express her perception of modernist identity, Woolf used memory as a device in Mrs Dalloway and thus developed a new way of narration as well as a new view of human identity. By means of this new method, she left the objective narration of the traditional novel, and thus meaning or the view of identity in Woolf's late fiction is not static but undecided, unfinished and mysterious.

  12. 嫘斯嫔情结与女性"乌托邦"的建构——陈染小说姐妹情谊解读%Lesbian complex and Reconceptualization of Feminist Utopia--An appreciation of friendly relations between sisters in Chen Ran's Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋艳丽; 金生翠

    2008-01-01

    在菲勒斯中心主义统治下的中国文学,导致了姐妹情谊书写的"空白之页".90年代的中国,女性主义写作高潮迭起,女作家们冲破了种种男权中心话语的压制,勇敢地正面抒写了确实存在的女性情谊.全文通过对陈染小说所蕴涵的姐妹情谊的论述,高度肯定了陈染为突破男权中心话语和建构女性话语所作出的努力和探索;同时分析了由于文化的禁忌,其姐妹情谊的书写带有拒绝社会认同的边缘人格色彩.

  13. 第一届"金显宅乳腺癌研究纪念奖"获奖专家吴蔚然教授简介%Introduction to WU Wei-ran, Winner of "The First JIN Xian-zhai Memorial Prize in Breast Cancer Research"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ 吴蔚然,男,汉族,1920年10月出生于江苏省常州市.1938年秋至1941年夏就读于北京燕京大学医预系.1941年秋进入北京协和医学院.1946年毕业于四川成都华西大学医学院,获医学博士学位.

  14. Töölepingu seaduse § 37 : kas tööandja võimalus oma äranägemise järgi töötasu vähendada või turvalise paindlikkuse rakendamise positiivne näide? / Annika Rosin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosin, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Millistel tingimustel on võimalik tööandjal ühepoolselt töötasu vähendada, kas ja kuidas on vastav reeglistik võrreldes varasemaga muutunud ning kas sellise võimaluse andmine on kooskõlas turvalise paindlikkuse kontseptsiooniga

  15. TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ODORRANA VERSABILIS IN CHINA I . TAXONOMIC STATUS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC POPULATIONS(AMPHIBIA: RAN IDAE)%竹叶臭蛙的分类学研究I.各地理居群的分类探讨(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2001-01-01

    采用形态特征比较,对7省13个居群的竹叶臭蛙Odorrana ve,rsabilis的标本进行了研究,结果表明:它们的形态特征差异明显,可以分为3个形态型;同时经数值性状标准判别分析和DNA指纹分析印证其结果与形态学研究结果相吻合.据此将3个形态型标本确定为3个种,其中包括2新种.本文重新界定了3个种的分布范围.

  16. The research of the express of swimming exercise towards the nNOSmRAN iNOS mRNA of the Diabetes Rats Brain%游泳训练对糖尿病大鼠脑nNOSmRNA,iNOS mRNA的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景旺; 王轲

    2011-01-01

    Aim To detect the effect of swimming exercise on the cognitive ability of rats with diabetics and the expression of iNOS mRNA and nNOS mRNA in brain. Methods The rat diabetes model was inducod by injecting streptozocin, and then the rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetes mellitus untreated group and swimming exercise group. After six weeks of swimming exercise treatment, memory was examined with the device of Morris water maze. The expression of iNOS mRNA and nNOS mRNA in brain was detected. Results The rats in swimming exercise group showed an increase of learning ability ( P < 0. 05 ) with more expression of nNOS mRNA ( P < 0. 05 ) and a weaker expression of iNOS mRNA ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Swimming exercise can decrease the expression of iNOS mRNA and increase the expression of nNOS mRNA, swimming exercise can improve diabetes rats' abilities of learning and memory.%目的 观察游泳训练对糖尿病大鼠学习记忆功能及iNOS,nNOS mRNA表达的影响.方法 选用雄性SD大鼠40只,随机分为正常对照组、模型对照组、游泳训练组.采用链脲佐菌素静脉注射复制糖尿病模型,游泳训练组运动6周后应用Morris水迷宫法观察游泳训练对糖尿病大鼠学习记忆的影响,并测定大鼠脑组织iNOS mRNA和nNOS mRNA的表达.结果 游泳训练组大鼠脑组织iNOS mRNA显著低于模型对照组,nNOS mRNA显著高于模型对照组.结论 游泳训练能增加糖尿病大鼠脑组织nNOS mRNA含量,降低iNOS mRNA.从而对糖尿病大鼠学习与记忆障碍有一定程度的改善.

  17. 米非司酮加米索前列醇不同用药方法对中期妊娠引产的效果观察%Observation on the Effect of Mifepristone Plus Misoprostol Medication on Mid-pregnancy Induction of Labor RAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉兰珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the best medication administration mode of mifepristone plus misoprostol used in the mid-pregnancy induction of labor. Methods 192 cases of pregnant women who voluntarily ask for termination of the pregnancy were divided into three groups, group I : lasting oral mifepristone 50 mg,2 times/d,foi 3 days,on the 4th day fasting misoprostol 600 μg;group Ⅱ : mifepristone use and dosage same as group I , on the 4th day misoprostol 400 μg placed at back vault of vaginal; group Ⅲ : mifepristone oi 200 mg for one take, misoprostol placed at back vault oi vaginal alter 36 hours as group Ⅱ . Contractions occurrence time, the total labor time, the rate of successful induction of the three groups after medication were observed. Results Successful induction rate, contraction occurrence time, delivery time and postpaitum hemorrhage of group I were statistically significantly different compared with group Ⅰ ,Ⅱ ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion One take of 200 mg mifepristone with placement of misoprostol in posterior vaginal vault has the highest success rate for the mid-pregnancy induction oi labor.%目的探讨米非司酮加米索前列醇应用于中期妊娠引产的最佳用药方式.方法将192例自愿要求终止妊娠的中期妊娠孕妇随机分为三组,Ⅰ组:空腹口服米非司酮50 mg,每日2次,共3 d,第4天空腹顿服米索前列醇600 μg;Ⅱ组:米非司酮用法及用量同Ⅰ组,第4天于阴道后穹隆处放置米索前列醇400 μg;Ⅲ组:顿服米非司酮200 mg,36 h后阴道后穹隆处置放米索前列醇,用法及用量同第Ⅱ组.观察用药后三组患者宫缩出现的时间、总产程时间、引产成功率等情况.结果 Ⅲ组的引产成功率、用药后开始出现宫缩的时间、用药后分娩时间及产后出血量方面,与Ⅰ、Ⅱ组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论顿服米非司酮配200 mg、阴道后穹隆处置放米索前列醇,对于中期妊娠引产成功率最高.

  18. Effects of Zhengqing Fengtongning Tablet and Methotrexate on the Serum OPG/RANKL and IL-17 of Collagen-induced Arthritis Rats%正清风痛宁片联合甲氨蝶呤对胶原诱导的关节炎大鼠血清OPG/RAN K L、 IL-17的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁从珠; 姚瑶; 方芸; 孙凌云; 汪悦

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨正清风痛宁片联合甲氨蝶呤(MTX)对胶原诱导的关节炎(CIA)大鼠血清骨保护素(OPG)、核周因子κB受体活化因子配体(RANKL)、白细胞介素17(IL-17)的作用,了解其联合治疗的骨保护作用.方法 于大鼠背部皮内、尾根注射Ⅱ型胶原乳剂建立CIA大鼠模型,选取造模成功且关节炎指数(Al)>2分的大鼠28只,随机分为模型组、中药组、MTX组、联合组,每组7只,另选取7只作为正常对照组.造模后7天开始灌胃给药,MTX组予MTX(3.8 mg/kg)每周1次;中药组予正清风痛宁片[130 mg/(kg·d)];联合组予正清风痛宁片[130 mg/(kg·d)]和MTX(3.8 mg/kg)每周1次;模型组与正常对照组予等体积生理盐水灌胃,各组均干预26天.采用X线摄片观察大鼠四肢关节破坏情况,记录大鼠Al评分,实验结束后检测各组大鼠血清OPG、RANKL、IL-17表达水平.结果 实验过程中,除模型组外,其余大鼠状态良好.造模第21天,各组大鼠Al评分均达到峰值,干预后各组Al评分均降低,与模型组比较,干预第26天中药组、MTX组、联合组Al评分降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与模型组比较,MTX组干预后OPG、RANKL降低,中药组OPG升高,OPG/RANKL升高,联合组OPG、RANKL及OPG/RANKL升高,IL-17降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与MTX及中药组比较,联合组OPG/RANKL升高(P<0.05),IL-17降低(P<0.05).结论 正清风痛宁片联合MTX能够协同提高CIA模型大鼠外周血OPG/RANKL,下调IL-17.%Objective To study the effects of Zhengqing Fengtongning Tablet (ZFT) and methotrexate (MTX) on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-ΚB ligand (RANKL), and interleukin 17 (IL-17) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats, thus addressing their bone protection. Methods The CIA rat model was established by intradermally injecting type Ⅱcollagen emulsion from the rats' back and tail. Totally 28 successfully modeled rats [with the arthritis index (Al) more than 2] were randomly divided into the model group, the Chinese medicine (CM) treatment group, the MTX group, and the ZFT + MTX treatment group, 7 rats in each group. Another 7 rats were recruited as the normal control group. Rats were administered from the 7th day of modeling. Rats in the MTX group were treated with MTX at 3.8 mg/kg once a week. Those in the CM group were treated with ZFT at the daily dose of 130 mg/kg, once a day. Those in the ZFT + MTX treatment group were treated with both MTX (at 3.8 mg/kg once a week) and ZFT (at the daily dose of 130 mg/kg, once a day).Those in the model group and the normal control group were administered with normal saline of the equal volume by gastrogavage. All the intervention lasted for 26 days. The destruction of joints in the four limbs were observed using X-ray. The Al was recorded. The expression levels of serum OPG, RANKL, and IL-17 were detected at the end of the experiment. Results During the whole process, all rats except those in the model group were in a good condition. On the 21st day of modeling the Al of all rats reached the peak, but it decreased after treatment. Compared with the model group, the Al decreased in the CM treatment group, the MTX group, and the ZFT + MTX treatment group with statistical difference (P <0.05). Compared with the model group, the OPG increased and RANKL decreased in the MTX group; the OPG and OPG/RANKL increased in the CM treatment group; the OPG, RANKL, and OPG/RANKL increased, and IL-17 decreased in the ZFT + MTX treatment group, all showing statistical difference (P<0.05). Compared with the MTX and the ZFT + MTX treatment group, OPG/RANKL increased and IL-17 decreased in the ZFT + MTX treatment group (both P <0.05). Conclusion ZFT + MTX could synergistically elevate peripheral OPG/RANKL and down-regulate IL-17 in CIA model rats.

  19. 女性生存与精神的双重困境——读鄢然的长篇小说《角色无界》%Probing into the Life and Spiritual Difficulties of Alternative Females: On the Novel An Uncertain Persona by Yan Ran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明艳

    2009-01-01

    四川作家郡然是一个对主流忽视的另类女性有着敏锐的洞察和深入思考的作家.向我们讲述了一个童年时期父母之爱不健全,长大后在异地以唱歌为生的女孩儿雪珠情感错位、角色异化的悲剧故事.本文试图结合儿童心理学和精神分析学的相关理论,通过具体分析和解割主人公童年生活的缺失,以及主人公长大后怪异的性格表现、异化的情感选择等方面,从而来探寻以女主人公为代表的另类女性的生存和精神困境.

  20. An examination of the rapid automatized naming-reading relationship using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, J; Chouinard, B; Szepesvari, E; Georgiou, G K

    2015-10-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been established to be a strong predictor of reading. Yet, the neural correlates underlying the RAN-reading relationship remain unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the extent to which RAN and reading activate similar brain regions (within subjects), (b) whether RAN and reading are directly related in the shared activity network outlined in (a), and (c) to what extent RAN neural activation predicts behavioral reading performance. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), university students (N=15; Mean age=20.6 years) were assessed on RAN (letters and digits) and single-word reading (words and non-words). The results revealed a common RAN-reading network that included regions associated with motor planning (cerebellum), semantic access (middle temporal gyrus), articulation (supplementary motor area, pre-motor), and grapheme-phoneme translation (supramarginal gyrus). We found differences between RAN and reading with respect to percent signal change (PSC) in phonological and orthographic regions, but not in articulatory regions. Significant correlations between the neural RAN and reading parameters were found primarily in motor/articulatory regions. Further, we found a unique relationship between in-scanner reading response time and RAN PSC in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken together, these findings support the notion that RAN and reading activate similar neural networks. However, the relationship between RAN and reading is primarily driven by commonalities in the motor-sequencing/articulatory processes.

  1. Why Does Rapid Naming Predict Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) robustly predicts early reading abilities across languages, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study found that RAN associated significantly with processing speed but not with phonological awareness or orthographic knowledge in 89 Hong Kong Chinese second-graders. RAN overlaps more with processing…

  2. Why Does Rapid Naming Predict Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) robustly predicts early reading abilities across languages, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study found that RAN associated significantly with processing speed but not with phonological awareness or orthographic knowledge in 89 Hong Kong Chinese second-graders. RAN overlaps more with processing…

  3. Report of the Hydrographic Service, Royal Australian Navy for the Year Ended 30th June 1988, Issue Number 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Officer LEUT Colin K. Ellis RAN 02-9254817 Operations. Survey Quality Control LCDR Douglas C. Holliday RAN 02-9254808 Detached Survey Officer LCDR...Staff Officer Plans. LEUT Andrew J.F. Ahem RAN 02-9254817 Manager. Administrative Mr. Greg Clarke 02-9254809 Services. Manager. ADP Projects. Mr. Ron

  4. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  5. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus......, the RAN-reading correlation was partly, but not fully, accounted for by precursors of reading that are currently known....

  6. Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Quantification for Geometric Manufacturing Errors in Turbulent Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, Richard; Laizet, Sylvain; Geraci, Gianluca; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Montomoli, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Geometric manufacturing errors of a curved surface can have a large effect on the behavior of turbulent flows. Previously, geometric variability has only been investigated using RANS simulations. Since aleatory uncertainty propagation is strongly affected by epistemic uncertainty, it is difficult to tell to what extent observed variations are caused by geometric variation or are due to RANS modeling errors. In this work, an uncertainty quantification study for flow over periodic hills with random geometry was carried out using 8 DNS as well as 81 RANS simulations to investigate this issue. The results show that RANS models can lead to highly biased and incorrectly shaped probability distributions. However, the results of DNS and RANS can be combined into a hybrid approach with higher accuracy than RANS and lower cost than DNS. It is shown that RANS prediction accuracy can be significantly improved by correcting RANS response surfaces with DNS data in a multi-fidelity non-intrusive Polynomial Chaos approach based on weighted regression. In summary, this work presents two novelties: a high-fidelity propagation of geometric uncertainty using DNS and a DNS/RANS hybrid approach to improve the probabilistic prediction accuracy of RANS models.

  7. Ranolazine attenuates the enhanced reverse Na⁺-Ca²⁺ exchange current via inhibiting hypoxia-increased late sodium current in ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Lei-Lei; Fu, Chen; Zhang, Pei-Hua; Wu, Ying; Ma, Ji-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Ranolazine (RAN), a novel antianginal agent, inhibits the increased late sodium current (INa.L) under many pathological conditions. In this study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to explore the effects of RAN on INa.L and reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX) in rabbit ventricular myocytes during hypoxia.Tetrodotoxin (TTX) at 2 μM or RAN at 9 μM decreased significantly INa.L and reverse INCX under normoxia and RAN had no further effects on both currents in the presence of TTX. RAN (3, 6, and 9 μM) attenuated hypoxia-increased INa.L and reverse INCX in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypoxia-increased INa.L and reverse INCX were inhibited by 2 μM TTX, whereas 9 μM RAN applied sequentially did not further decrease both currents. In another group, after both currents were decreased by 9 μM RAN, 2 μM TTX had no further effects in the presence of Ran. In monophasic action potential (MAP) recording, early after-depolarizations (EADs) were suppressed by RAN (9 μM) during hypoxia. In conclusion, RAN decreased reverse INCX by inhibiting INa.L in normoxia, concentration-dependently attenuated the increase of INa.L, which thereby decreased the reverse INCX, and obviously relieved EADs during hypoxia.

  8. The influence of early intervention movement programs on motor skills development in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (case studies [Vliv raných intervenčních pohybových programů na rozvoj motorických dovedností u dětí předškolního věku s poruchou autistického spektra (případová studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Válková

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the motor skills performance of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder after eight weeks of physical activity intervention. METHODS: Participants included 5 children, 4 male and 1 female, from 62 to 81 months old, who were attending the identical special kindergarten. Both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the children's performance were examined. With regards to the quantitative examination, participants were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Henderson & Sugden, 1992. Qualitative results were obtained through personal observation. Each motor skills intervention program continued for eight weeks, and children were tested in both pre and post intervention phases. RESULTS: Over the course of the intervention, four of the participants improved their motor skills, while one did not. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that even preschool children with autism can improve their motor and social skills if they are involved in a physical activity at least twice a week. The physical activity program could improve their motor and social skills which could help them in their future development.[CÍLE: Účelem předložené studie bylo zhodnotit motorické dovednosti předškolních dětí s poruchami v autistickém spektru po osmitýdenním intervenčním programu. METODIKA: Experimentu se zúčastnilo 5 dětí, 4 chlapci a 1 dívka ve věku od 62 do 81 měsíců. Všichni navštěvovali stejnou speciální mateřskou školu. Šetření za hrnovalo jak kvantitativní, tak kvalitativní aspekty. Kvantitativní data účastníků byla měřena testem M-ABC (Baterie motorického vyšetření dětí podle Henderson a Sugden (1992, zatímco kvalitativní data byla získána pozorováním. Intervenční pohybový program trval osm týdnů a děti byly měřeny před a po intervenci. VÝSLEDKY: Čtyři děti po programu vykazovaly zlepšení dovedností, jedno dítě nikoliv. ZÁVĚRY: Studie uzavírá, že i děti s poruchou v autistickém spektru mohou dosáhnout zlepšení v motorických i sociálních dovednostech, pokud jsou zařazeny do intervenčního pohybového programu minimálně dvakrát týdně, což může napomoci jejich dalšímu rozvoji.

  9. Study on the rapid as essm enti ndxe es for sfa ety manga emen t of high pathogenic biool giac l samplet rans portatoi n bya dopting the Delphi survey%德尔菲法构建高致病性病原微生物菌毒种或样本运输生物安全快速评价指标的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁璧翡; 王绍鑫; 卢中南; 罗海燕; 周宏东

    2016-01-01

    目的:对高致病性病原微生物菌毒种或样本运输生物安全的现行评价指标进行筛选和重构,选择关键性指标从而实现快速评价放行的要求。方法在本市现行使用的高致病性病原微生物菌毒种或样本运输生物安全监督检查评价表的基础上,采取德尔菲研究法组织7名专家对所有21项评价指标进行咨询,经过2轮咨询,对21项指标评分和统计分析,采用界值法并充分结合专家意见筛选评价指标。结果通过2轮咨询,建立了7项关键性指标作为高致病性病原微生物菌毒种或样本的运输安全快速评价指标,包括申办有效的准运证书、运输人员、运输车辆、运输包装以及运输后报告等5个方面。结论建立了一套针对高致病性病原微生物菌毒种和样本运输生物安全的现场快速评估指标,对卫生监督部门来说,缩短了评价放行的时间,提高了运输安全监管效率;对运输部门提供了一套自我评估快速放行的评价指标,对确保运输过程中的生物安全具有重要意义。%Objective To determine key indicators from the current assessment indicators for rapid and safe transportation of high pathogenic biological samples. Methods Based on the current assessment tables of biological safety inspection for high pathogenic biological samples, a total of seven experts were consulted on the 21 indicators by Delphi method.Key assessment indicators were selected through two rounds of consultation and analysis of indexes with boundary value method. Results A total of seven key assessment indexes were selected as the rapid evaluation indexes for safe transportation of high pathogenic biological samples including effective certificate, the management of transportation personnel and transportation vehicles, the safety of transportation packaging, and transportation report. Conclusion A system of rapid assessment indexes about the safe transportation of high pathogenic biological samples have been established.The rapid assessment system can shorten the evaluation time and improve the efficiency of transportation safety supervision for health supervision departments, and can provide a set of rapid self-assessment indexes for the transport sector, thus the biological safety of transportation can be greatly enhanced.

  10. Clone and Analysiso f ReverseT ran script ase of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposon s in Betula platyphly la under Sodi-um Nitroprusside (SNP) and Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) Treatment%硝普钠(SNP)和茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)诱导的白桦Ty1-copia类逆转座子的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁楠松; 曾凡锁; 李博; 郭梁; 詹亚光

    2013-01-01

    We designed the primers of reverse transcriptase according to the conserved domains of the Ty1-copia retrotransposons reverse transcriptase.We obtained several fragments of reverse transcriptase from callus of birch by using improved RT-PCR.Eleven and nine fragments were amplified from callus of birch treated by sodium nitroprusside ( SNP) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively.The length of 21 reverse transcriptase sequences (named Bprt 1-21) is from 205 to 290 bp, with the consistency of 71.93%, the heterogeneity of from 1.1% to 50.9% and the heterogeneity of amino acid se-quences of from 0.0% to 57.1%.The sequences from birch treated by SNP or MeJA are clustered, respectively.The transcription of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons can be activated by different signals.The analysis of the phylogenetic tree of reverse transcriptase of Ty1-coip a-like retrotransposons between birch and apple revealed each of the reverse transcripta-ses are clustered together, but the evolutional relationship between Bprt9, Bprt11 and DQ410750 are closer.Bprt15, Bprt19, DQ410751 and DQ410753 are clustered together.Therefore, the horizontal transmission can exist in retrotrans-posons.%利用 Tyl-copia类逆转座子逆转录酶( RT)的保守区域设计引物,优化了扩增条件后利用RT-PCR从白桦愈伤组织中得到了1条逆转录酶序列。利用硝普钠( SNP)和茉莉酸甲酯( MeJA)诱导后分别扩增克隆了11条和9条逆转录酶序列。这21条逆转录酶序列(命名Bprt1-21)变化范围为205~290 bp,一致性为71.93%,异质性为11.%~50.9%,翻译成氨基酸的异质性为0~57.1%。经SNP和MeJA处理的样品中,获得的逆转录酶序列基本是分别聚类,初步证明不同的Ty1-copia类逆转座子能够分别响应不同的信号而被转录激活。分析所获得的21逆转录酶序列和苹果中19条逆转录转座子序列( DQ410748~DQ410766)进化关系发现,逆转录酶基本各自聚类,但是Bprt9、Bprt11和DQ410750进化关系比较接近,Bprt15、Bprt19、DQ410751和DQ410753聚为一类,证明逆转座子存在水平传递。

  11. A new species of Harpophora (Magnaporthaceae) recovered from healthy wild rice (Oryza granulata) roots, representing a novel member of a beneficial dark septate endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long; Kubicek, Christian P

    2010-06-01

    A survey of the endophytic fungal community of wild rice (Oryza granulata) in China was conducted. Two isolates recovered from healthy roots are assumed to be dark septate endophytes (DSEs). They are morphologically similar to species from the genus Harpophora and are identified as a new species, Harpophora oryzae, based on the molecular phylogeny and morphological characteristics. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from ITS-5.8S rRNA gene regions reveals that H. oryzae forms a distinctive subclade within the genus Harpophora, and is not genetically close to other species of Harpophora. Harpophora oryzae exhibits a moderate growth rate, with a frequent production of rope-like strands. It sporulates readily on artificial medium. Phialides are usually flask or bottle shaped and occur singly along hyphae or laterally and terminally on branched, hyaline to brown conidiophores, and also form whorls on metulae. Conidiophores are mostly branched with a slightly thickened wall, varying in dimensions. Conidia are one-celled and hyaline, most of them being falcate and strongly curved. The morphological differences between Harpophora spp. and Harpophora-like anamorphs representing different orders are also discussed. An in vitro inoculation test showed that H. oryzae may contribute towards improving rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth. Microscopic inspection of roots and phylogenetic placement of isolates further confirmed that H. oryzae represents a novel member of DSEs.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  13. Multiple mediation analysis of the relationship between rapid naming and reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    for the RAN-reading correlation. One hundred and sixty-nine preschool students were given measures of RAN and additional measures of phonological awareness, lexical search speed, letter knowledge, and paired associate learning. Their reading skills were tested a year later along with speed of processing......It is well established that rapid automatised naming (RAN) correlates with reading ability. Despite several attempts, no single component process (mediator) has been identified that fully accounts for the correlation. The present paper estimated the explanatory value of several mediators....... The influence of the mediators on the RAN-reading correlation was estimated as indirect effects in mediation analyses. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge significantly mediated the RAN-reading relationship, each accounted for a moderate part of the correlation between RAN and reading fluency. Thus...

  14. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Li, James J.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; DENCKLA, MARTHA B.; MAHONE, E. MARK

    2009-01-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In con...

  15. 巧克“长篇六论”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建娟; 倪士明

    2009-01-01

    [例文]Last Sunday afternoon, I was in a bookshop.Suddenly I saw a short man behind me. He stole my purse and ran out of the shop. I followed him but he ran faster than me. I shouted "stop thief! stop thief!" A policeman came to help. Then a woman came and told us "I saw him. He ran along the street and then turned right at the first crossing." The policeman started to run and he ran faster than me. Soon he stopped the thief and I got my purse back.

  16. Hageri alustas oreli taastamisega / Inge Põlma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põlma, Inge

    2009-01-01

    1851. aastal eesti orelimeistri Carl Tantoni valmistatud ja 1892. aastal Gustav Terkmanni poolt kohendatud Hageri Lambertuse kiriku oreli restaureerimisest, ekspertiisi tegi rootsi organist Göran Grahn

  17. Precocious anaphase and expression of Securin and p53 genes as candidate biomarkers for the early detection in areca nut-induced carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkalang, Sillarine; Banerjee, Atanu; Dkhar, Hughbert; Nongrum, Henry B; Ganguly, Buddha; Islam, Mohammad; Rangad, Gordon M; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2015-05-01

    Research over the years has generated enough evidence to implicate areca nut, as a carcinogen in humans. Besides oral, significant rise in the incidence of cancers of the oesophagus, liver and stomach was seen among areca nut chewers. Early diagnosis seems key to understand the initial processes of carcinogenesis which is highly curable. In North-East India, betel quid contains raw areca nut (RAN), lime and small portion of betel leaf without any other constituents. This study was not intended to isolate any active ingredients from the RAN and to look its action. The present objective is to validate the screening of precocious anaphase and analysis of expression of Securin and p53 in non-target cells like human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) as early indicative parameters of RAN + lime-induced cancers. A total of 35 mice were examined at different time points for following ad libitum administration of RAN extract in drinking water with lime. Peripheral blood was collected from 32 human donors of which, 24 were RAN + lime heavy chewers. Expression of genes was assessed by immunoblotting and/or by immunohistochemistry. Histological preparation of stomach tissue of mice revealed that RAN + lime induced stomach cancer. A gradual increase in the frequency of precocious anaphases and aneuploid cells was observed in both RAN + lime-treated mouse BMC and human PBL of RAN heavy chewers. Levels of p53 and Securin were increased in these cells during early days of RAN + lime exposure. The level of Securin was significantly higher in human tumour samples than their adjacent normal counterpart. The expression of Securin was increased significantly in RAN + lime-administered mice as well as in stomach tumour. Present study revealed that precocious anaphase and expression of p53 and Securin in non-target cells are significantly associated with an increased risk of RAN-induced cancer and thus these parameters can be of early diagnostic value.

  18. Solid state characterization and crystal structure from X-ray powder diffraction of two polymorphic forms of ranitidine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Blaton, Norbert; Van Gyseghem, Elke; Martens, Johan; Van Haele, Gerrit; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN-HCl), a known anti-ulcer drug, is the product of reaction between HCl and ranitidine base (RAN-B). RAN-HCl has been extensively studied; however this is not the case of the RAN-B. The solid state characterization of RAN-B polymorphs has been carried out using different analytical techniques (microscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the attenuated total reflection mode, (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The crystal structures of RAN-B form I and form II have been determined using conventional X-ray powder diffraction in combination with simulated annealing and whole profile pattern matching, and refined using rigid-body Rietveld refinement. RAN-B form I is a monoclinic polymorph with cell parameters: a = 7.317(2), b = 9.021(2), c = 25.098(6) A, beta = 95.690(1) degrees and space group P2(1)/c. The form II is orthorhombic: a = 31.252(4), b = 13.052(2), c = 8.0892(11) A with space group Pbca. In RAN-B polymorphs, the nitro group is involved in a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond responsible for the existence of a Z configuration in the enamine portion of the molecules. A tail to tail packing motif can be denoted via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of RAN-B forms are compared to those of RAN-HCl polymorphs. RAN-B polymorphs are monotropic polymorphic pairs.

  19. Bioremediation effects on steranes: Examples from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldowan, J.M.; Ekuan, A.; Dahl, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Six samples of severely biodegraded oil residues were selected from a survey of 91 oil residues and tars in the area of Prince William Sound, Alaska. These samples were collected over a period from 1990 to 1994 following the 1989 spill of North Slope crude oil from the supertanker Exxon Valdez (EV). The six samples were among 28 that were shown to have been residues of the EV spill by carbon isotopes and biomarkers. These samples had correlating trends in the depletion of their C{sub 27} steranes, diasteranes and monoaromatic steroids compared with the sum of C{sub 27} + C{sub 28} + C{sub 29} homologues of these steroids, respectively. They also showed relative depletion of C{sub 26} triaromatic steroids compared with the C{sub 27} + C{sub 28} homologues. Losses of diasteranes, monoaromatic and triaromatic steroids prior to extensive depletion of the entire suite of steranes and hopanes have not been observed in reservoired biodegraded oils or seep oils, but have been observed in the analysis of land-farmed refinery wastes. These data suggest an operative mechanism during bioremediation at the surface, in which the sterane side-chain structure is the primary factor influencing relative steroid biodegradation rates, rather than the structure of the steroid ring system.

  20. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  1. Study on Morphological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming through Word Reading and Comprehension in Normal and Disabled Reading Arabic-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the role and extent of the involvement of morphological awareness (MA) in contrast to rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading and comprehension of Arabic as a morphologically based orthography. We gave measures of word reading, reading comprehension, MA, and RAN in addition to a nonverbal mental ability test to 3 groups…

  2. Economic Adjustment/Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Angeles area of California, but appears to have had minimal lasting employment impact. 75 Rockwell established an outplacement center and ran job fairs...Fairchild ran job search workshops and outplacement activities at the plant. A Worker Resource Center, established in May, 1984, with a $45,000 JTPA Title III

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YKR007W, YGR163W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (1) YGR163W GTR2 Putative GTP binding protein that negatively regulates Ran/Tc4 ...163W Prey gene name GTR2 Prey description Putative GTP binding protein that negatively regulates Ran/Tc4 GTP

  4. Musik og film - på tværs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to Chinese and Japanese Music and the Movies "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" and "Hero" (music by Tan Dun), "Ran" and "Rising Sun" (Music By Toru Takemitsu)......An introduction to Chinese and Japanese Music and the Movies "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" and "Hero" (music by Tan Dun), "Ran" and "Rising Sun" (Music By Toru Takemitsu)...

  5. Musik og film - på tværs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    An introduction to Chinese and Japanese Music and the Movies "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" and "Hero" (music by Tan Dun), "Ran" and "Rising Sun" (Music By Toru Takemitsu)......An introduction to Chinese and Japanese Music and the Movies "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" and "Hero" (music by Tan Dun), "Ran" and "Rising Sun" (Music By Toru Takemitsu)...

  6. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  7. CFD computations of wind turbine blade loads during standstill operation KNOW-BLADE, Task 3.1 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Conway, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two rotors blades are computed during standstill conditions, using two different Navier-Stokes solvers EDGE and EllipSys3D. Both steady and transient linear k-? RANS turbulence models are applied, along with steady non-linear RANS and transient DESsimulations. The STORK 5.0 WPX blade is computed ...

  8. Multicomponent Treatment of Rapid Naming, Reading Rate, and Visual Attention in Single and Double Deficit Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kary A.

    2013-01-01

    While the relationship between rapid automatic naming (RAN) deficiencies and dyslexia (reading disability) is well developed and supported in the behavioral and medical research literature to date, direct treatment of the specific RAN deficiency in addition to subsequently poor reading outcomes in the lexical skill of reading rate and the…

  9. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  10. Teachable Moments: When Protests Erupted Following the Publication of an Anti-Reparations Ad in a Campus Newspaper, Brown University President Ruth Simmons Decided Her Community Could Benefit from Taking a Closer Look at the University's Historical Ties to Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It all started as a rather ran-of-the-mill campus controversy over race and slavery: an anti-reparations ad ran in The Brown Daily Herald; students cried foul, formed human chains and demanded "reparations" in the form of free advertising for the opposing side; still others responded with shouts of "political correctness." But then something…

  11. Rapid Naming in Relation to Reading and Writing in Korean (Hangul), Chinese (Hanja) and English among Korean Children: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    The relation of rapid automatised naming (RAN) to word recognition may depend on the phonological regularity of the orthography. This study examined differential contributions of RAN to reading and writing in Korean alphabetic Hangul, logographic Hanja (Chinese) and English as a second language among 73 fifth graders in Korea across 1?year. RAN…

  12. Practical Implementation of Cooperative RRM for IMT-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a practical implementation of a radio resource management (RRM) framework for support of cooperation between radio access networks (RANs). The platform supports the inter-working between a next generation RAN and legacy systems (i.e., WLAN, UMTS). The platform is based on rea...

  13. A ProCoS II Project Final Report: ESPRIT Basic Research project 707

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, J. P.; Hoare, C. A. R.; Langmaack, Hans;

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the research and associated activities of the Europeancollaborative ESPRIT Basic Research ProCoS II project (no. 7071) on``Provably Correct Systems'' which ran from 1992 to 1995 is presented.This was a follow-on project to ProCoS (no. 3104) and ran inparallel with the ProCoS Workin...

  14. Rapid automatized naming and immediate memory functions in Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Richman, Lynn C; Yang, Ling-yan; Guo, Jian-peng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rapid automatized naming skills (RAN) and immediate memory processes in 243 Chinese Mandarin-speaking elementary readers (ranging from Grade 1 to Grade 5). For RAN subtests, the mean naming time decreased monotonically with grade level in good and average readers, and a similar trajectory was found in poor readers, even though they were generally slower in rapid naming. Regardless of grouping methods (counting all participants or counting good readers only), RAN Character emerged as a significant predictor of various Chinese reading measures. Different from classical findings in English readers indicating that RAN Number was a better correlate of reading than RAN Object, RAN Object outperformed RAN Number and became a significant predictor of Chinese reading speed and spelling, suggesting that the differences in predictive power of RAN tasks may be language specific. Comparison of memory profiles for good, average, and poor readers revealed that the patterns varied depending on mode of stimulus presentation or response. Poor readers performed poorly on subtests involving a visual component and did relatively better on subtests involving verbal cues only, whereas a reversed pattern was shown in the group of good readers. The findings were interpreted to suggest that good and poor Chinese readers may be essentially different in applying visual strategies and verbal mediation during visual-verbal intra- and intermodal processing, and visual skills appear to be particularly important in reading of Chinese.

  15. Should Non Department of Defense Meteorological Satellites Be Used to Meet Department of Defense Environmental Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    Information Support laboratory, Geostationary Operational Meteorological Satellite. (Moscow, RU: SMIS IKI RAN and SRC PLANETA , January 2003); Internet...Operational Meteorological Satellite. Moscow, RU: SMIS IKI RAN and SRC PLANETA , January 2003. Squitieri, Tom. “In Bosnia, Weather is primary Foe”. USA Today

  16. Robinson Crusoe鲁宾逊漂流记(Ⅺ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanielDefoe; 向文; 杨静

    2002-01-01

    Friday and his companton (伙伴)ran off quickly to do as I had said. The seven sailors were just getting into the boat when Friday and his companion shouted. Hearing this, the sailors turned and ran along the shore towards the sound.

  17. Training Letter and Orthographic Pattern Recognition in Children with Slow Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research has established that performance on a rapid automatized naming (RAN) task is related to reading, the nature of this relationship is unclear. Bowers (2001) proposed that processes underlying performance on the RAN task and orthographic knowledge make independent and additive contributions to reading performance. We examined the…

  18. Practical Implementation of Cooperative RRM for IMT-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a practical implementation of a radio resource management (RRM) framework for support of cooperation between radio access networks (RANs). The platform supports the inter-working between a next generation RAN and legacy systems (i.e., WLAN, UMTS). The platform is based on rea...

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    develop financial protection as a requirement to achieve universal health coverage. MATERIALS .... th eir relativ es. Iran. 's Health. In su ran ce Org an izatio n. (IHIO): M an d ato ry. In su ran ce th at in clu d .... Mathematics. 1. 5. Organizational.

  20. InterProScan Result: FS919613 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS919613 FS919613_2_ORF2 C3A4180337AD2E2D PIR PIRSF037956 Uncharacterised protein w...ith zinc finger Ran-binding domain, ZRANB2 type 4.6e-92 T IPR017337 Uncharacterised conserved protein UCP037956, zinc finger Ran-binding ...

  1. Catalysis of GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases at atomic detail by integration of X-ray crystallography, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudack, Till; Jenrich, Sarah; Brucker, Sven; Vetter, Ingrid R; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-10-02

    Small GTPases regulate key processes in cells. Malfunction of their GTPase reaction by mutations is involved in severe diseases. Here, we compare the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras. By combination of time-resolved FTIR difference spectroscopy and QM/MM simulations we elucidate that the Mg(2+) coordination by the phosphate groups, which varies largely among the x-ray structures, is the same for Ran and Ras. A new x-ray structure of a Ran·RanBD1 complex with improved resolution confirmed this finding and revealed a general problem with the refinement of Mg(2+) in GTPases. The Mg(2+) coordination is not responsible for the much slower GTPase reaction of Ran. Instead, the location of the Tyr-39 side chain of Ran between the γ-phosphate and Gln-69 prevents the optimal positioning of the attacking water molecule by the Gln-69 relative to the γ-phosphate. This is confirmed in the RanY39A·RanBD1 crystal structure. The QM/MM simulations provide IR spectra of the catalytic center, which agree very nicely with the experimental ones. The combination of both methods can correlate spectra with structure at atomic detail. For example the FTIR difference spectra of RasA18T and RanT25A mutants show that spectral differences are mainly due to the hydrogen bond of Thr-25 to the α-phosphate in Ran. By integration of x-ray structure analysis, experimental, and theoretical IR spectroscopy the catalytic center of the x-ray structural models are further refined to sub-Å resolution, allowing an improved understanding of catalysis.

  2. The contribution of discrete-trial naming and visual recognition to rapid automatized naming deficits of dyslexic children with and without a history of language delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo eGasperini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD are impaired in Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN tasks, where subjects are asked to name arrays of high frequency items as quickly as possible. However the reasons why RAN speed discriminates DD from typical readers are not yet fully understood. Our study was aimed to identify some of the cognitive mechanisms underlying RAN-reading relationship by comparing one group of 32 children with DD with an age-matched control group of typical readers on a naming and a visual recognition task both using a discrete-trial methodology , in addition to a serial RAN task, all using the same stimuli (digits and colors. Results showed a significant slowness of DD children in both serial and discrete-trial naming tasks regardless of type of stimulus, but no difference between the two groups on the discrete-trial recognition task. Significant differences between DD and control participants in the RAN task disappeared when performance in the discrete-trial naming task was partialled out by covariance analysis for colors, but not for digits. The same pattern held in a subgroup of DD subjects with a history of early language delay (LD. By contrast, in a subsample of DD children without LD the RAN deficit was specific for digits and disappeared after slowness in discrete-trial naming was partialled out. Slowness in discrete-trial naming was more evident for LD than for noLD DD children. Overall, our results confirm previous evidence indicating a name-retrieval deficit as a cognitive impairment underlying RAN slowness in DD children. This deficit seems to be more marked in DD children with previous LD. Moreover, additional cognitive deficits specifically associated with serial RAN tasks have to be taken into account when explaining deficient RAN speed of these latter children. We suggest that partially different cognitive dysfunctions underpin superficially similar RAN impairments in different subgroups of DD subjects.

  3. Risk factors and outcome for colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteraemia in patients without previous colistin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-C; Lee, Y-T; Yang, Y-S; Chen, C-T; Chiu, C-H; Yin, T; Kuo, S-C; Chen, T-L; Lin, J-C; Wang, F-D; Fung, C-P; Chang, F-Y

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia have been documented, but those of patients with bacteraemia caused by other Acinetobacter species remain unknown. Previous exposure to colistin has been shown to be associated with the emergence of colistin resistance, but may be not the only predisposing factor. In the current study, we highlight the risk and outcome of patients without previous exposure to colistin who acquired colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (ColRAN) bacteraemia. This 11-year single-centre retrospective study analysed 58 patients with ColRAN bacteraemia and 213 patients with colistin-susceptible A. nosocomialis (ColSAN) bacteraemia. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined with an agar dilution method. The clonal relationship of ColRAN isolates was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A conjugation mating-out assay was conducted to delineate the potential transfer of colistin resistance genes. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for ColRAN bacteraemia. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was independently associated with ColRAN bacteraemia (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.45-6.37; p 0.003). Patients with ColRAN bacteraemia had higher APACHE II scores, but the two groups showed no significant differences in 14-day mortality (10.3% vs. 10.3%) or 28-day mortality (15.5% vs. 15.0%). ColRAN isolates had greater resistance than ColSAN isolates to all antimicrobial agents except for ciprofloxacin (0% vs. 6.6%). There were 16 different ColRAN pulsotypes, and two major clones were found. Colistin resistance did not transfer to colistin-susceptible A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis. These results show that COPD is an independent risk factor for acquisition of ColRAN bacteraemia. The mortality rates were similar between patients with ColRAN and ColSAN bacteraemia.

  4. Aspergillus asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are differentially affected by transcriptional and translational mechanisms regulating stunted gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Miller, B L

    1997-10-01

    The Stunted protein (StuAp) is a member of a family of transcription factors that regulate fungal development and cell cycle progression. Regulated stuA gene expression is required for correct cell pattern formation during asexual reproduction (conidiation) and for initiation of the sexual reproductive cycle in Aspergillus nidulans. Transcriptional initiation from two different promoters yields overlapping mRNAs (stuA alpha and stuAbeta) that upon translation yield the same protein. Here we show that multiple regulatory mechanisms interact to control (i) developmental competence-dependent expression of both transcripts and (ii) induction-dependent expression of stuA alpha, but not stuAbeta, by the conidiation-specific Bristle (BrlAp) transcriptional activator. Quantitative levels of both mRNAs are further modulated by (i) an activator(s) located at a far-upstream upstream activation sequence, (ii) feedback regulation by StuAp, and (iii) positive translational regulation that requires the peptide product of a micro-open reading frame unique to the stuA alpha mRNA 5' untranslated region. Gradients in stuA alpha expression were most important for correct cell and tissue type development. Threshold requirements were as follows: metula-phialide differentiation < ascosporogenesis < cleistothecial shell-Hülle cell differentiation. Altered stuA expression affected conidiophore morphology and conidial yields quantitatively but did not alter the temporal development of cell types or conidiophore density. By contrast, the sexual cycle showed both temporal delay and quantitative reduction in the number of cleistothecial initials but normal morphogenesis of tissue types.

  5. What are the effects of distance management on the retention of remote area nurses in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, S; Davey, C; Wright, J I; Nieuwoudt, L-A; Barclay, L; Belton, S; Svenson, S; Bowell, L

    2007-01-01

    Australian remote area nurses (RANs) are specialist advanced practice nurses. They work in unique, challenging and sometimes dangerous environments to provide a diverse range of healthcare services to remote and predominantly Aboriginal communities. There is an emerging skills gap in the remote nursing workforce as experienced and qualified RANs leave this demanding practice. There is a shortage of new nurses interested in working in these areas, and many of those who enter remote practice leave after a short time. Distance management was examined in order to gain a better understanding of its effects on the retention of RANs in the Australian states of Northern Territory (NT), Western Australia (WA) and South Australia (SA). Distance management in this context occurs when the health service's line management team is located geographically distant from the workplace they are managing. The study used a mixed method design, with a combination of anonymous surveys and interviews conducted by telephone and face to face. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected. The data were thematically analysed and basic descriptive statistics were also used. All RANs who worked in government and other non-Aboriginal controlled remote health services in NT, SA and WA were included in the sample. Sixty-one RANs (anonymous survey, 55% response rate) and 26 ex-RANs (telephone interview) participated in the research. The ex-RANs were sampled using a snowball technique where interviewees recommended former colleagues for interview. Nine nursing executives with expertise in distance management of remote health services also contributed (face-to-face interview), and they are referred to as 'the experts'. Respondents expressed a dichotomy in their reactions to remote area nursing. On one hand, they expressed a strong sense of pleasure and satisfaction in the nature of their work; while, on the other, they expressed dissatisfaction with aspects of infrastructure, support and

  6. Is rapid automatized naming related to reading and mathematics for the same reason(s)? A follow-up study from kindergarten to Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Tziraki, Niki; Manolitsis, George; Fella, Argyro

    2013-07-01

    We examined (a) what rapid automatized naming (RAN) components (articulation time and/or pause time) predict reading and mathematics ability and (b) what processing skills involved in RAN (speed of processing, response inhibition, working memory, and/or phonological awareness) may explain its relationship with reading and mathematics. A sample of 72 children were followed from the beginning of kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 and were assessed on measures of RAN, general cognitive ability, speed of processing, attention, working memory, phonological awareness, reading, and mathematics. The results indicated that pause time was the critical component in both the RAN-reading and RAN-mathematics relationships and that it shared most of its predictive variance in reading and mathematics with speed of processing and working memory. Our findings further suggested that, unlike the relationship between RAN and reading fluency in Grade 1, there is nothing in the RAN task that is uniquely related to math. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uniform Concentration-Compactness for Sobolev Spaces on Variable Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Dorin

    2000-04-01

    We present a new method for proving existence results in shape optimization problems involving the eigenvalues of the Dirichlet-Laplace operator. This method brings together the γ-convergence theory and the concentration-compactness principle. Given a sequence of open sets (An)n∈N in RN, not necessarily bounded, but of uniformly bounded measure, we prove a concentration-compactness result in L(L2(RN)) for the sequence of resolvent operators (RAn)n∈N, where RAn: L2(RN)→H10(An), RAn=(-Δ)-1.

  8. Large-Eddy / Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of a Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Hassan, Hassan A.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, James; Smith, Chad; Cutler, Andrew; Johansen, Craig; Danehy, Paul M.; Kouchi, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of reacting and non-reacting flows within a scramjet combustor configuration experimentally mapped at the University of Virginia s Scramjet Combustion Facility (operating with Configuration A ) are described in this paper. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid Large Eddy Simulation / Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (LES / RANS) methods are utilized, with the intent of comparing essentially blind predictions with results from non-intrusive flow-field measurement methods including coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), hydroxyl radical planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF), stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV), wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), and focusing Schlieren. NC State's REACTMB solver was used both for RANS and LES / RANS, along with a 9-species, 19- reaction H2-air kinetics mechanism by Jachimowski. Inviscid fluxes were evaluated using Edwards LDFSS flux-splitting scheme, and the Menter BSL turbulence model was utilized in both full-domain RANS simulations and as the unsteady RANS portion of the LES / RANS closure. Simulations were executed and compared with experiment at two equivalence ratios, PHI = 0.17 and PHI = 0.34. Results show that the PHI = 0.17 flame is hotter near the injector while the PHI = 0.34 flame is displaced further downstream in the combustor, though it is still anchored to the injector. Reactant mixing was predicted to be much better at the lower equivalence ratio. The LES / RANS model appears to predict lower overall heat release compared to RANS (at least for PHI = 0.17), and its capability to capture the direct effects of larger turbulent eddies leads to much better predictions of reactant mixing and combustion in the flame stabilization region downstream of the fuel injector. Numerical results from the LES/RANS model also show very good agreement with OH-PLIF and SPIV measurements. An un-damped long-wave oscillation of the pre-combustion shock train, which caused

  9. Induction of Muscle Hypertrophy in Rats through Low Intensity Eccentric Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether a low intensity exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The level group ran on a treadmill on a 0° incline. The downhill group ran on a treadmill on a −16° incline. The two exercise groups ran on a treadmill at 16 m/mi...

  10. Long-term prediction of reading accuracy and speed: The importance of paired-associate learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Asmussen, Vibeke; Juul, Holger;

    of reading comprehension and isolated sight word reading accuracy and speed. Results: PAL predicted unique variance in sight word accuracy, but not speed. Furthermore, PAL was indirectly linked to reading comprehension through sight word accuracy. RAN correlated with both accuracy and speed......, and these effects translated into indirect effects on reading comprehension. Phonological awareness and letter knowledge did not contribute uniquely to Grade 5 reading after control for PAL and RAN. Conclusions: PAL and RAN predict separate aspects of sight word reading: accuracy and speed. Both aspects appear...... relevant for reading comprehension. We discuss the lack of long-term prediction from phonological awareness and letter knowledge....

  11. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION WITH ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ran...

  12. 76 FR 81761 - Mine Safety Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... other property including impoundments, retention dams, and tailings ponds, on the surface or underground... their periodic reports.\\43\\ \\42\\ See letters from Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Inc. (``Freeport-McMo...

  13. A Random Matrix Approach for Quantifying Model-Form Uncertainties in Turbulence Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Heng; Ghanem, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    With the ever-increasing use of Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) simulations in mission-critical applications, the quantification of model-form uncertainty in RANS models has attracted attention in the turbulence modeling community. Recently, a physics-based, nonparametric approach for quantifying model-form uncertainty in RANS simulations has been proposed, where Reynolds stresses are projected to physically meaningful dimensions and perturbations are introduced only in the physically realizable limits. However, a challenge associated with this approach is to assess the amount of information introduced in the prior distribution and to avoid imposing unwarranted constraints. In this work we propose a random matrix approach for quantifying model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations with the realizability of the Reynolds stress guaranteed. Furthermore, the maximum entropy principle is used to identify the probability distribution that satisfies the constraints from available information but without int...

  14. Constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa: a possible misdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan; Germain, Natacha

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and biological aspects of restrictive anorexia nervosa (R-AN) are well documented. More than 10,000 articles since 1911 and more than 600 in 2013 have addressed R-AN psychiatric, somatic, and biological aspects. Genetic background, ineffectiveness of appetite regulating hormones on refeeding process, bone loss, and place of amenorrhea in the definition are widely discussed and reviewed. Oppositely, constitutional thinness (CT) is an almost unknown entity. Only 32 articles have been published on this topic since 1953. Similar symptoms associating low body mass index, low fat, and bone mass are reported in both CT and R-AN subjects. Conversely, menses are preserved in CT women and almost the entire hormonal profile is normal, except for leptin and PYY. The aim of the present review is to alert the clinician on the confusing clinical presentation of these two situations, a potential source of misdiagnosis, especially since R-AN definition has changed in DSM5.

  15. Constitutional thinness and anorexia nervosa: a possible misdiagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eEstour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and biological aspects of restrictive anorexia nervosa (R-AN are well documented. More than ten thousand articles since 1911 and more than six hundred in 2013 have addressed R-AN psychiatric, somatic and biological aspects. Genetic background, ineffectiveness of appetite regulating hormones on refeeding process, bone loss and place of amenorrhea in the definition are widely discussed and reviewed. Oppositely, constitutional thinness (CT is an almost unknown entity. Only 32 articles have been published on this topic since 1953. Similar symptoms associating low BMI, low fat and bone mass are reported in both CT and R-AN subjects. Conversely, menses are preserved in CT women and almost the entire hormonal profile is normal, except for leptin and PYY. The aim of the present review is to alert the clinician on the confusing clinical presentation of these two situations, a potential source of misdiagnosis, especially since R-AN definition has changed in DSM-5.

  16. PÖFFi suvekino toob Haapsallu filmikontserdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    3. septembril näidatakse Haapsalu väikeses linnuses saksa tummfilmi klassikasse kuuluvat Fr. W. Murnau filmi "Tartüff" (1925), mida saadab kohapeal Ardo Ran Varrese originaalmuusika "Tartüff live" ARV Ensemble esituses

  17. Helilooja sõnateatris / Mari Amor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amor, Mari, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Helilooja loodud originaalmuusika kasutamisest eesti sõnateatris, koostööst lavastajaga. Sõnalavastuste muusikalisest kujundusest avaldavad arvamust ka Viive Ernesaks, Ardo Ran Varres, Olav Ehala, Eino Tamberg, Mati Unt ja Rein Agur

  18. Helilooja sõnateatris / Mari Amor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amor, Mari, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Helilooja loodud originaalmuusika kasutamisest eesti sõnateatris, koostööst lavastajaga. Sõnalavastuste muusikalisest kujundusest avaldavad arvamust ka Viive Ernesaks, Ardo Ran Varres, Olav Ehala, Eino Tamberg, Mati Unt ja Rein Agur

  19. A Test of Rank-Dependent Utility in the Context of Ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigations of nonexpected utility have primarily concentrated on decision under risk ("probability triangles"). The literature suggests, however, that ambiguity is one of the main causes for deviations from expected utility. This paper investigates the descriptive performance of ran

  20. Teaching logic visually with a Raspberry Pi and NFC tags at TEDxCERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    This talk explains the BREAK THE CODE activity that ran during TEDxCERN 2015. It consisted of a simple web application and a NFC tag reader, that can be used to teach logic and deductive reasoning via physical interactions.

  1. Kuidas Iisraeli saadik ajas sassi Iisraeli-Rootsi suhted / Joel Haukka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukka, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Rootsi ajaloomuuseumis toimunud intsidendist, kus Iisraeli saadik Rootsis Zvi Mazel rikkus muuseumi õues olnud installatsiooni. Intsidendi järelkajadest Rootsi ajakirjanduses, suursaadiku, Rootsi peaministri Göran Perssoni seisukohtadest

  2. Women’s Images in Chinese Literature Have Varied During Current Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    ●In the early 20th century, awakening women who ran from their feudalistic families found that the male-dominated society, where men managed the exterior affairs and women managed the interior ones, was indestructible.

  3. The Impact of a Ship Grounding and Associated Fuel Spill at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In October 1993, the Taiwanese longliner Jin Shiang fa ran aground at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, spilling 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel and other...

  4. Hybrid LES – Review and assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vengadesan; P Nithiarasu

    2007-10-01

    In the late eighties and up to the beginning of nineties computation of turbulent flows is mostly dominated by RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes Simulation) type modelling. During the last few years URANS (Unsteady RANS) and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) type of approaches have been attempted with some success. Yet, there have been many difficulties when LES is applied to practical engineering problems and to high Reynolds number flows as energy dissipating eddies become really small and mesh resolution required for a reasonably resolved LES approaches that of DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). An alternative solution suggested was to combine RANS and LES, which in general referred to as Hybrid LES. There have been many proposals for combining RANS and LES in different ways. In this article, some of the issues involved in performing hybrid LES reported in the recent literature is briefly reviewed.

  5. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    Number: ...... ...... Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress *See attachment* Technology Transfer...camera and another Canon high- definition (HD) camera simultaneously. We then ran the method on a few manually selected frames of the video. Higher

  6. Down to earth with a bump

    CERN Multimedia

    Adam, D

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 both the ISS and the LHC project ran into serious financial difficulties. This could have serious repercussions for other 'big science' projects trying to attract funding from already nervous politicians (1 page).

  7. Mediating Effects of Working Memory in the Relation Between Rapid Automatized Naming and Chinese Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoqian; Li, Guangze; Li, Rongbao

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the mediating role of working memory (WM) in the relation between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and Chinese reading comprehension. Three tasks assessing differentially visual and verbal components of WM were programmed by E-prime 2.0. Data collected from 55 Chinese college students were analyzed using correlations and hierarchical regression methods to determine the connection among RAN, reading comprehension, and WM components. Results showed that WM played a significant mediating role in the RAN-reading relation and that auditory WM made stronger contributions than visual WM. Taking into account of the multi-component nature of WM and the specificity of Chinese reading processing, this study discussed the mediating powers of the WM components, particularly auditory WM, further clarifying the possible components involved in the RAN-reading relation and thus providing some insight into the complicated Chinese reading process.

  8. Environ: E00718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rans flower Obtained by steam distillation Major component: cis-Linalool oxide, trans-Linalool oxide Essenti...6], Nonanal Osmanthus fragrans [TAX:93977] Oleaceae (olive family) Osmanthus frag

  9. Suvekino pakub tummfilmi "Tartüff Live !" ja kontserti / Kristiina Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Kristiina

    2005-01-01

    8. septembril näidatakse Viljandi kultuurimaja hoovis saksa tummfilmi klassikasse kuuluvat Fr.W. Murnau filmi "Tartüff" (1925), mida saadab kohapeal Ardo Ran Varrese originaalmuusika "Tartüff live" ARV Ensemble esituses

  10. Structure of RCC1 chromatin factor bound to the nucleosome core particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makde, Ravindra D.; England, Joseph R.; Yennawar, Hemant P.; Tan, Song (Penn)

    2010-11-11

    The small GTPase Ran enzyme regulates critical eukaryotic cellular functions including nuclear transport and mitosis through the creation of a RanGTP gradient around the chromosomes. This concentration gradient is created by the chromatin-bound RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation) protein, which recruits Ran to nucleosomes and activates Ran's nucleotide exchange activity. Although RCC1 has been shown to bind directly with the nucleosome, the molecular details of this interaction were not known. Here we determine the crystal structure of a complex of Drosophila RCC1 and the nucleosome core particle at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution, providing an atomic view of how a chromatin protein interacts with the histone and DNA components of the nucleosome. Our structure also suggests that the Widom 601 DNA positioning sequence present in the nucleosomes forms a 145-base-pair nucleosome core particle, not the expected canonical 147-base-pair particle.

  11. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-11-22 to 1977-12-04 (NCEI Accession 7800462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains the results from the Outer Continental Shelf Study (OCS) benchmark study in the North Atlantic which ran November to December 1977 from the R/V...

  12. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from runners (N=200) who officially ran half-marathon road ... Department of Sport Science, School of Physiotherapy, Sport Science and ..... Van Mechelen W. Running injuries: A review of the epidemiological literature.

  13. Sex Differences in Limb and Joint Stiffness in Recreational Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Sinclair; Hannah Frances Shore; Paul J. Taylor; Stephen Atkins

    2015-01-01

    .... Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s . Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz...

  14. Investigations on organolead compounds II. The reaction of triphenylplumbyllithium with small-ring heterocycles: Functionally substituted organolead compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    The reactions between riphenylplumbyllithium and small-ring heterocycles have been studied. The reaction ran successfully with the following heterocycles: ethylene oxide, ethylene V83 V 2 sulphide, N-acylethylenimines and trimethylene oxide. No reaction occurred with ethylenimine,

  15. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from GYRE in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-02-10 to 1977-03-07 (NCEI Accession 7800459)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains the results from the Outer Continental Shelf Study (OCS) Benchmark Study in the North Atlantic which ran from February 10 to March 7, 1977 from...

  17. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  18. Off-site embankments to protect fields from the growth of peatlands in the Valli Grandi Veronesi Meridionali (Italy) during Middle and Recent Bronze Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudio Balista; Fiorenza Bortolami; Marco Marchesini; Silvia Marvelli

    2016-01-01

    ...) and nearby Bonifica Padana, an area that stretches between rivers Adige and Po and which is drained by the river Tartaro, was taken into consideration the position of a long embankment that ran...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... he saw, Sarah's husband took her to the doctor, who ran some tests. After deciding her symptoms ... a stroke, brain tumor, or similar conditions, Sarah's doctor referred her to a psychiatrist, a type of ...

  20. 75 FR 9831 - Proposed Renaming of the Yamhill-Carlton District Viticultural Area (2008R-305P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... both Yamhill and Carlton, including the local school district, local sports groups and even the....'' On March 17, 2007, the Community Press newspaper ran an advertisement for a dance sponsored by...

  1. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A. D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method. In this ran

  2. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Dhami, Sangeeta; Netuveli, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. Methods:Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using ran...

  3. 75 FR 25895 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc./The..... 280 ADBE Adobe Systems Inc. 225 MEE Massey Energy Co 281... Radio Inc. 241 SII Smith International Inc... 291 MMR McMoRan Exploration Co. 242 RTN Raytheon Co...

  4. 75 FR 25890 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    .... Corp. 220 DTV DIRECTV......... 279 DHI DR Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc/ 280 ADBE Adobe Systems... Sirius XM Radio The. Inc. 241 SII Smith 291 MMR McMoRan International Exploration Co. Inc. 242...

  5. 75 FR 26312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    .... 220 DTV DIRECTV. 279 DHI DR Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc/The. 280 ADBE Adobe Systems Inc. 225... XM Radio Inc. 241 SII Smith International 291 MMR McMoRan Exploration Inc. Co. 242 RTN Raytheon...

  6. World Materials Summit (3rd). Held in Washington, DC on 9-12 October, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Materials360 electronic newsletter Immediately after the meeting ran highlights from some of the keynote and plenary presentations. Publicized Linkedln group...reliability Science for substitutions through materials discovery (alloys, nanomaterials, components): composition, structure and morphology \\ A

  7. Suvekino pakub tummfilmi "Tartüff Live !" ja kontserti / Kristiina Vaarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarik, Kristiina

    2005-01-01

    8. septembril näidatakse Viljandi kultuurimaja hoovis saksa tummfilmi klassikasse kuuluvat Fr.W. Murnau filmi "Tartüff" (1925), mida saadab kohapeal Ardo Ran Varrese originaalmuusika "Tartüff live" ARV Ensemble esituses

  8. Kuidas Iisraeli saadik ajas sassi Iisraeli-Rootsi suhted / Joel Haukka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukka, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Rootsi ajaloomuuseumis toimunud intsidendist, kus Iisraeli saadik Rootsis Zvi Mazel rikkus muuseumi õues olnud installatsiooni. Intsidendi järelkajadest Rootsi ajakirjanduses, suursaadiku, Rootsi peaministri Göran Perssoni seisukohtadest

  9. Cape Peirce field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 Cape Peirce season ran from June 16th to October 14th with volunteers Donna O'Daniel, Gay Sheffield, and, later in the season, Michelle Bourassa stationed...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSJ329 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , mRNA sequence. 44 4e-07 4 BI815073 |BI815073.1 PfESToaa14a04.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...TEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 44 4e-07 4 BU498261 |BU498261.1 PfESToab94h09.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...INDING NUCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 44 4e-07 4 BI815642 |BI815642.1 PfESToaa31a10.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...11.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545 GT...5.1 PfESToaa94h01.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSI774 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 2e-40 5 BU498261 |BU498261.1 PfESToab94h09.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...NDING NUCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 92 3e-40 5 BI815642 |BI815642.1 PfESToaa31a10.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...1.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545 GTP....1 PfESToaa94h01.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_P

  12. Dicty_cDB: VSG164 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NUCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 86 1e-35 4 BU498261 |BU498261.1 PfESToab94h09.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to...PfESToaa29h11.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAF... RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 86 1e-35 4 BI815073 |BI815073.1 PfESToaa14a04.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 ase...xual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545 GTP-BINDING

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSG423 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . ;, mRNA sequence. 86 4e-38 5 BU498261 |BU498261.1 PfESToab94h09.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual...10.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545 GT...94h01.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexual cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_PLAFA P38545...P-BINDING NUCLEAR PROTEIN RAN/TC4. ;, mRNA sequence. 86 4e-38 5 BI815554 |BI815554.1 PfESToaa29h11.y1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 asexu...al cDNA Plasmodium falciparum cDNA 5' similar to SW:RAN_

  14. VLES Modelling with the Renormalization Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris De Langhe; Bart Merci; Koen Lodefier; Erik Dick

    2003-01-01

    In a Very-Large-Eddy Simulation (VLES), the filterwidth-wavenumber can be outside the inertial range, and simple subgrid models have to be replaced by more complicated ('RANS-like') models which can describe the transport of the biggest eddies. One could approach this by using a RANS model in these regions, and modify the lengthscale in the model for the LES-regions[1~3]. The problem with these approaches is that these models are specifically calibrated for RANS computations, and therefore not suitable to describe inertial range quantities. We investigated the construction of subgrid viscosity and transport equations without any calibrated constants, but these are calculated directly form the Navier-Stokes equation by means of a Renormalization Group (RG)procedure. This leads to filterwidth dependent transport equations and effective viscosity with the right limiting behaviour (DNS and RANS limits).

  15. Persson tule all : peaministri maja ehitusel rikuti seadust / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Rootsi töökeskkonna inspektorid avastasid peaminister Göran Perssoni kodu ehitusobjektilt mitu õigusrikkumist, mis ähvardavad valitsusjuhti vahetult enne valimisi rahatrahviga. Lisa: Valimisteni jäänud loetud kuud

  16. Persson kaitses Partsi / Heiki H. Tann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tann, Heiki H.

    2005-01-01

    Autori sõnul püüdis Rootsi peaminister Göran Persson piirata pressikonverentsil Estonia kohta käivate küsimuste esitamist Eesti peaministrile Juhan Partsile. Rootsi ja Eesti peaministri kohtumisest

  17. STUDENT FORUMS AS MOTIVATION FOR CREATIVE AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Nelly A. Finskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers participating of students in the annual electronic Student forums of RANS as motivation to continue their scientific activity and research of cross-cultural communication in the sphere of professional education .

  18. Siidiid / Kreete Reval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reval, Kreete

    2002-01-01

    Helilooja ja laulja Tom Waits, kelle plaat "Blood Money" on kirjutatud kahasse Kathleen Brennaniga Robert Wilsoni lavastuse "Woyzeck" tarvis Kopenhaageni 2000.a. lavastuse jaoks. Eestis lavastas selle näidendi Peeter Raudsepp, muusikalise kujunduse andis siis Ardo Ran Varres

  19. Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...

  20. Evidence-based policy for environmental sustainability: a path forward for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available , Environment and Tourism; and South Africa's Departments of Environment and Tourism and Science and Technology. Two international and two CSIR facilitators ran the workshop, which was attended by a select list of scientists and policy-makers...

  1. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from GYRE in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-05-05 to 1977-05-25 (NCEI Accession 7800460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains the results from the Outer Continental Shelf study (OCS) benchmark study in the North Atlantic which ran during the month of May 77 from the R/V...

  2. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from GILLISS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1977-05-05 to 1977-09-02 (NCEI Accession 7800461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This entry contains the results from the Outer Continental Shelf Study (OCS) benchmark study in the North Atlantic which ran May 5 to September 2, 1977 from the R/V...

  3. Interrelationships between glutamine and citrulline metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article analyzes the contribution of glutamine to the synthesis of citrulline and reviews the evidence that glutamine supplementation increases citrulline production. Glutamine supplementation has been proposed in the treatment of critically ill patients; however, a recent large multicenter ran...

  4. Federal cabinet minister from N.B joins opponents to LNG terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.

    2005-08-25

    This article addressed the debate regarding the United States' proposal to construct liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities on a pristine bay between New Brunswick and Maine. Two LNG projects are currently being promoted for Passamaquoddy Bay, and 2 more proposals are expected to be announced in the near future. However, the proponents have not yet submitted any formal applications to the Canadian government. A federal cabinet minister from New Brunswick has joined the growing opposition to the proposed project, claiming that the location on the Maine side of Passamaquoddy Bay, a large inlet off the Bay of Fundy, poses too many risks to the habitat of several endangered or at-risk species, including the North Atlantic Right Whale. The proposed sites in Maine are directly across a narrow bay where tourism and fishing are prime industries in New Brunswick. The cabinet minister claims that with over 2,000 miles of coastline on the eastern seaboard, another location can be found for the LNG facilities that would not present navigational difficulties. The Canadian federal government has the jurisdiction to stop the project by not allowing the supertankers to cross Canadian waters to enter the Bay. The waters are known for their treacherous navigation. The premier of New Brunswick has also stepped in to ensure that the governor of Maine is made aware of Canada's opposition to the project. Officials with Downeast LNG and Quoddy Bay LLC claim there would not be any safety or environmental risks associated with the LNG project.

  5. Dosages d'hydrocarbures dans l'eau et le sédiment marins par infrarouge et chromatographie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire Hydrocarbon Titration in Water and Marine Sediments by Infrared Analysis and Gas Chromatography in a Capillary Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons étudié l'évolution des hydrocarbures pétroliers dans un site confiné, celui de l'Aber-Benoît (Finistère, à la suite de l'accident du super-pétrolier Amoco-Cadiz en mars 1978. Pour ce faire, plusieurs méthodes ont été mises en oeuvre, et tout particulièrement la chromato-graphie gazeuse sur colonne capillaire : le protocole analytique est décrit pour l'eau et pour le sédiment, après optimisation des techniques de filtration, de préconcentration et de fractionnement préalables à la mesure. Il est possible de travailler sur des échantillons de deux litres d'eau de mer ou de cinquante grammes de sédiment, avec des seuils de détection du niveau de la partie par trillion (ppt dans l'eau et de la centaine de ppt dans le sédiment. The evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons was analyzed in a confined site, at Aber-Benoît in the Finistère department, following the accident of the supertanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978. To do this, several methods were developed, including, in particular, capillary coulumn as chromatography. The analytical procedure is described for water and sediment after optimization of filtering, preconcentrating and fractionating techniques prior to measuring. Analyses can be made with two liters of seawater or fifty grams of sediment, with detection thresholds in parts per trillion (ppt in water and the hundredth of a ppt in sediment.

  6. Evaluating Predicates over Encrypted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    4.8, 4.8.2, 5.1, 5.1, 5.3.3 [14] Ran Canetti , Shai Halevi, and Jonathan Katz. A forward-secure public-key encryption scheme. In EUROCRYPT, pages 255...271, 2003. 2.1.2, 3.1.3, 4.1.2, 5.1, 5.3.3 [15] Ran Canetti , Shai Halevi, and Jonathan Katz. Chosen-ciphertext security from identity-based

  7. Allosteric control of the exportin CRM1 unraveled by crystal structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Thomas; Dickmanns, Achim; Ficner, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking in eukaryotic cells is a highly regulated and coordinated process which involves an increasing variety of soluble nuclear transport receptors. Generally, transport receptors specifically bind their cargo and facilitate its transition through nuclear pore complexes, aqueous channels connecting the two compartments. Directionality of such transport events by receptors of the importin β superfamily requires the interaction with the small GTPase Ras-related nuclear antigen (Ran). While importins need RanGTP to release their cargo in the nucleus and thus to terminate import, exportins recruit cargo in the RanGTP-bound state. The exportin chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a highly versatile transport receptor that exports a plethora of different protein and RNP cargoes. Moreover, binding of RanGTP and of cargo to CRM1 are highly cooperative events despite the fact that cargo and RanGTP do not interact directly in crystal structures of assembled export complexes. Integrative approaches have recently unraveled the individual steps of the CRM1 transport cycle at a structural level and explained how the HEAT-repeat architecture of CRM1 provides a framework for the key elements to mediate allosteric interactions with RanGTP, Ran binding proteins and cargo. Moreover, during the last decade, CRM1 has become a more and more appreciated target for anti-cancer drugs. Hence, detailed understanding of the flexibility, the regulatory features and the positive binding cooperativity between CRM1, Ran and cargo is a prerequisite for the development of highly effective drugs. Here we review recent structural advances in the characterization of CRM1 and CRM1-containing complexes with a special emphasis on X-ray crystallographic studies.

  8. Operational facilities of remote control software of ranging measurement equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becceneri, Jose Carlos

    The basic purpose of this paper is to document, in this symposium, the work performed for the construction of Ranging Management Software (RAN), which is one of the functions of the Satellite Control System (SICS) software developed by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) to control the Brazilian satellites of MECB (Brazilian Complete Space Mission). This paper shows the RAN basic architecture as well as a set of functions which facilitates both the operation and the ranging system test.

  9. Juan Yacht Design:ITesting LES turbulence models in race boat sails

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Owen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to implement LES turbulence models outside the academic world to simulate flow around sailsIto replace RANS models that are the standard in the industry. The implementation and testing in the finite code ALYA is done by the Barcelona Supercomputing Center so that Juan Yatch Design SL (JYD) can appreciate the advantages of using a LES formulation for their problem.The obtained results show that LES can provide significant advantages over RANS simula...

  10. Aerobic interval exercise with an eccentric contraction induces muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tsumiyama, Wakako; Oki, Sadaaki; Takamiya, Naomi; Umei, Namiko; Shimizu, Michele Eisemann; Ono, Takeya; Otsuka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether an aerobic interval exercise using an eccentric contraction would result in skeletal muscular hypertrophy and augmentation of muscular strength in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one female Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group performed no exercise. The aerobic endurance exercise group ran for 90 min. The aerobic interval exercise group ran for a total of 90 minut...

  11. Co-delivery of docetaxel and endostatin by a biodegradable nanoparticle for the synergistic treatment of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Ji, Minghui; Song, Xiaosong; Zhu, Yongqiang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Xudong; Wu, Shu; Chen, Hongbo; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yi

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major problem in women's health worldwide. In this research, a novel biodegradable d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate- b-poly(ɛ-caprolactone- ran-glycolide) (TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)) nanoparticle (NP) was developed as a co-delivery system of docetaxel and endostatin for the synergistic treatment of cervical cancer. Docetaxel-loaded TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA) NPs were prepared and further modified by polyethyleneimine for coating plasmid pShuttle2-endostatin. All NPs were characterized in size, surface charge, morphology, and in vitro release of docetaxel and pDNA. The uptake of coumarin 6-loaded TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI-pDsRED by HeLa cells was observed via fluorescent microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Endostatin expression in HeLa cells transfected by TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI-pShuttle2-endostatin NPs was detected using Western blot analysis, and the cell viability of different NP-treated HeLa cells was determined by MTT assay. The HeLa cells from the tumor model, nude mice, were treated with various NPs including docetaxel-loaded-TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI-endostatin NPs, and their survival time, tumor volume and body weight were monitored during regimen process. The tumor tissue histopathology was analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in tumor tissue was evaluated immunohistochemically. The results showed that the TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI NPs can efficiently and simultaneously deliver both coumarin-6 and plasmids into HeLa cells, and the expression of endostatin was verified via Western blot analysis. Compared with control groups, the TPGS- b-(PCL- ran-PGA)/PEI-pShuttle2-endostatin NPs significantly decreased the cell viability of HeLa cells ( p cancer therapy.

  12. Simulations of Turbulent Momentum and Scalar Transport in Confined Swirling Coaxial Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three-dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code(NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS); both without and with invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation.

  13. Energy Efficiency and Capacity Tradeoff in Cloud Radio Access Network of High-Speed Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Li; Gang Zhu; Siyu Lin; Qian Gao; Lei Xiong; Weiliang Xie; Xiaoyu Qiao

    2017-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of high-data-rate services of high-speed railway (HSR) passengers, cloud radio access network (C-RAN) is proposed. This paper investigates the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE) performance and capacity in C-RAN of HSR. Considering that the train location can be predicted, we propose a predictable path loss based time domain power allocation method (PPTPA) to improve EE performance of HSR communication system. First, we consider that the communication system...

  14. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy); Delogu, Giuseppe [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Capobianco, Giampiero [Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Farace, Cristiano [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco [Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Madeddu, Roberto [Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome (Italy); Olivero, Martina [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy); Di Renzo, Maria Flavia, E-mail: mariaflavia.direnzo@unito.it [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Institute for Cancer Research at Candiolo, Candiolo, Torino (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  15. Ecodesign Directive version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014.......This present report reports on the main findings of the project Ecodesign Directive version 2.0 - from Energy Efficiency to Resource Efficiency. The project is financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and ran from December 2012 to June 2014....

  16. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Physics around Blunt Shaped MAV using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    bus. Iaccarino and Durbin [32] performed unsteady three-dimensional RANS simulations with turbulence model to the solution of the flow around a...application. The eddy viscosity, which represents the effects of turbulence, is calculated from an algebraic expression which includes a model constant...32833. [32] G. Iaccarino and P. Durbin , Unsteady 3D RANS simulations using the model, Center for Turbulence Research, Anual Research Briefs 2000

  17. In Contact! Case Studies from the Long War. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Mosul as well. Route BARRACUDA was a major thoroughfare that intersected MSR TAMPA several blocks south of Yarmuk Circle. Several blocks south of... BARRACUDA was Route NISSAN which also intersected MSR TAMPA and ran eastward through the northern portion of the old city and across the Tigris River...across the fourth bridge (counting from the south). BARRACUDA ran into NISSAN about a kilometer and a half east of MSR TAMPA. In the southwestern

  18. Dynamic mechanisms for pre-miRNA binding and export by Exportin-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Ma, Zhi; Huo, Yingqiu; Xiao, Zhengtao; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-08-01

    The biogenesis and function of mature microRNAs (miRNAs) is dependent on the nuclear export of miRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) by Exportin-5 (Exp5). To characterize the molecular mechanisms of how pre-miRNA is recognized and transported by Exp5, we have performed 21 molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of RNA-bound Exp5 (Exp5-RanGTP-premiRNA, Exp5-RanGDP-premiRNA, Exp5-premiRNA), RNA-unbound Exp5 (Exp5-RanGTP, Exp5-RanGDP, apo-Exp5), and pre-miRNA. Our simulations with standard MD, steered molecular dynamics (SMD), and energy analysis have shown that (1) Free Exp5 undergoes extensive opening motion, and in this way facilitates the RanGTP binding. (2) RanGTP efficiently regulates the association/dissociation of pre-miRNA to its complex by inducing conformational changes in the HEAT-repeat helix stacking of Exp5. (3) The GTP hydrolysis prevents Ran from rebinding to Exp5 by regulating the hydrophobic interfaces and salt bridges between Ran and Exp5. (4) The transition from the A'-form to the A-form of the pre-miRNA modulates the structural complementarities between the protein and the pre-miRNA, thus promoting efficient assembly of the complex. (5) The base-flipping process (from the closed to the fully flipped state) of the 2-nt 3' overhang is a prerequisite for the pre-miRNA recognition by Exp5, which occurs in a sequence-independent manner as evidenced by the fact that different 2-nt 3' overhangs bind to Exp5 in essentially the same way. And finally, a plausible mechanism of the pre-miRNA export cycle has been proposed explaining how the protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions are coordinated in physiological conditions.

  19. Opportunistic Interference Alignment for Random Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hu; Jeon, Sang-Woon; Jung, Bang Chul

    2015-01-01

    An interference management problem among multiple overlapped random access networks (RANs) is investigated, each of which operates with slotted ALOHA protocol. Assuming that access points and users have multiple antennas, a novel opportunistic interference alignment~(OIA) is proposed to mitigate interference among overlapped RANs. The proposed technique intelligently combines the transmit beamforming technique at the physical layer and the opportunistic packet transmission at the medium acces...

  20. Karyopherins regulate nuclear pore complex barrier and transport function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, Larisa E; Huang, Binlu; Rencurel, Chantal; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2017-09-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is sustained by karyopherins (Kaps) and a Ran guanosine triphosphate (RanGTP) gradient that imports nuclear localization signal (NLS)-specific cargoes (NLS-cargoes) into the nucleus. However, how nuclear pore complex (NPC) barrier selectivity, Kap traffic, and NLS-cargo release are systematically linked and simultaneously regulated remains incoherent. In this study, we show that Kapα facilitates Kapβ1 turnover and occupancy at the NPC in a RanGTP-dependent manner that is directly coupled to NLS-cargo release and NPC barrier function. This is underpinned by the binding affinity of Kapβ1 to phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporins (FG Nups), which is comparable with RanGTP·Kapβ1, but stronger for Kapα·Kapβ1. On this basis, RanGTP is ineffective at releasing standalone Kapβ1 from NPCs. Depleting Kapα·Kapβ1 by RanGTP further abrogates NPC barrier function, whereas adding back Kapβ1 rescues it while Kapβ1 turnover softens it. Therefore, the FG Nups are necessary but insufficient for NPC barrier function. We conclude that Kaps constitute integral constituents of the NPC whose barrier, transport, and cargo release functionalities establish a continuum under a mechanism of Kap-centric control. © 2017 Kapinos et al.