Sample records for supersynchronous transfer orbit

  1. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank


    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  2. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.


    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  3. Orbital Express fluid transfer demonstration system (United States)

    Rotenberger, Scott; SooHoo, David; Abraham, Gabriel


    Propellant resupply of orbiting spacecraft is no longer in the realm of high risk development. The recently concluded Orbital Express (OE) mission included a fluid transfer demonstration that operated the hardware and control logic in space, bringing the Technology Readiness Level to a solid TRL 7 (demonstration of a system prototype in an operational environment). Orbital Express (funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA) was launched aboard an Atlas-V rocket on March 9th, 2007. The mission had the objective of demonstrating technologies needed for routine servicing of spacecraft, namely autonomous rendezvous and docking, propellant resupply, and orbital replacement unit transfer. The demonstration system used two spacecraft. A servicing vehicle (ASTRO) performed multiple dockings with the client (NextSat) spacecraft, and performed a variety of propellant transfers in addition to exchanges of a battery and computer. The fluid transfer and propulsion system onboard ASTRO, in addition to providing the six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) thruster system for rendezvous and docking, demonstrated autonomous transfer of monopropellant hydrazine to or from the NextSat spacecraft 15 times while on orbit. The fluid transfer system aboard the NextSat vehicle was designed to simulate a variety of client systems, including both blowdown pressurization and pressure regulated propulsion systems. The fluid transfer demonstrations started with a low level of autonomy, where ground controllers were allowed to review the status of the demonstration at numerous points before authorizing the next steps to be performed. The final transfers were performed at a full autonomy level where the ground authorized the start of a transfer sequence and then monitored data as the transfer proceeded. The major steps of a fluid transfer included the following: mate of the coupling, leak check of the coupling, venting of the coupling, priming of the coupling, fluid transfer, gauging

  4. Orbit Clustering Based on Transfer Cost (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric D.; Arrieta-Camacho, Juan J.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.


    We propose using cluster analysis to perform quick screening for combinatorial global optimization problems. The key missing component currently preventing cluster analysis from use in this context is the lack of a useable metric function that defines the cost to transfer between two orbits. We study several proposed metrics and clustering algorithms, including k-means and the expectation maximization algorithm. We also show that proven heuristic methods such as the Q-law can be modified to work with cluster analysis.

  5. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to Low Lunar Orbit (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Peterson, Andrew


    A simple strategy is identified to generate ballistic transfers between the Earth and Moon, i.e., transfers that perform two maneuvers: a trans-lunar injection maneuver to depart the Earth and a Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver to insert into orbit at the Moon. This strategy is used to survey the performance of numerous transfers between varying Earth parking orbits and varying low lunar target orbits. The transfers surveyed include short 3-6 day direct transfers, longer 3-4 month low energy transfers, and variants that include Earth phasing orbits and/or lunar flybys.

  6. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle (United States)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.


    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  7. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  8. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.


    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  9. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.


    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to Earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant

  10. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung


    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  11. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurelien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin


    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  12. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles (United States)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.


    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  13. The K-1 Active Dispenser for Orbit Transfer (United States)

    Lai, G.; Cochran, D.; Curtis, R.


    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is building the K-1, the world's first fully reusable launch vehicle. The two-stage K- 1 is designed primarily to service the market for low-earth orbit (LEO) missions, due to Kistler's need to recover both stages. For customers requiring payload delivery to high-energy orbits, Kistler can outfit the payload with a K- 1 Active Dispenser (an expendable third stage). The K-1 second stage will deploy the Active Dispenser mated with its payload into a 200 km circular LEO parking orbit. From this orbit, the Active Dispenser would use its own propulsion to place its payload into the final desired drop-off orbit or earth-escape trajectory. This approach allows Kistler to combine the low-cost launch services offered by the reusable two-stage K-1 with the versatility of a restartable, expendable upper stage. Enhanced with an Active Dispenser, the K-1 will be capable of delivering 1,500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit or up to approximately 1,000 kg into a Mars rendezvous trajectory. The list price of a K-1 Active Dispenser launch is 25 million (plus the price of mission unique integration services) significantly less than the price of any launch vehicle service in the world with comparable capability.

  14. An analytical optimization method for electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleson, S.R.


    Due to electric propulsion's inherent propellant mass savings over chemical propulsion, electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EPOTVs) are a highly efficient mode of orbit transfer. When selecting an electric propulsion device (ion, MPD, or arcjet) and propellant for a particular mission, it is preferable to use quick, analytical system optimization methods instead of time intensive numerical integration methods. It is also of interest to determine each thruster's optimal operating characteristics for a specific mission. Analytical expressions are derived which determine the optimal specific impulse (Isp) for each type of electric thruster to maximize payload fraction for a desired thrusting time. These expressions take into account the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Verification of the method is made with representative electric propulsion values on a LEO-to-GEO mission. Application of the method to specific missions is discussed

  15. Application of artificial intelligence to impulsive orbital transfers (United States)

    Burns, Rowland E.


    A generalized technique for the numerical solution of any given class of problems is presented. The technique requires the analytic (or numerical) solution of every applicable equation for all variables that appear in the problem. Conditional blocks are employed to rapidly expand the set of known variables from a minimum of input. The method is illustrated via the use of the Hohmann transfer problem from orbital mechanics.

  16. Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors (United States)

    Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.


    A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

  17. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report (United States)

    Davis, E. E.


    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  18. Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory (United States)

    Wang, Kang L.

    Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.

  19. A decay heat removal methodology for reuseable orbital transfer vehicles (United States)

    McDaniel, Patrick J.; Perkins, David R.


    Operation of a nuclear thermal rocket(NTR) as the propulsion system for a reusable orbital transfer vehicle has been considered. This application is the most demanding in terms of designing a multiple restart capability for an NTR. The requirements on a NTR cooling system associated with the nuclear decay heat stored during operation have been evaluated, specifically for a Particle Bed Reactor(PBR) configuration. A three mode method of operation has been identified as required to adequately remove the nuclear decay heat.

  20. Laser propulsion for orbit transfer - Laser technology issues (United States)

    Horvath, J. C.; Frisbee, R. H.


    Using reasonable near-term mission traffic models (1991-2000 being the assumed operational time of the system) and the most current unclassified laser and laser thruster information available, it was found that space-based laser propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) can outperform the aerobraked chemical OTV over a 10-year life-cycle. The conservative traffic models used resulted in an optimum laser power of about 1 MW per laser. This is significantly lower than the power levels considered in other studies. Trip time was taken into account only to the extent that the system was sized to accomplish the mission schedule.

  1. Exploiting orbital effects for short-range extravehicular transfers (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Baughman, David

    The problem studied in this paper is that of using Simplified Aid for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) to carry out efficient short-range transfers from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter to the vicinity of the underside of the vehicle, for instance for inspection and repair of thermal tiles or umbilical doors. Trajectories are shown to exist, for the shuttle flying noise forward and belly down, that take the astronaut to the vicinity of the underside with no thrusting after the initial push-off. However, these trajectories are too slow to be of practical interest, as they take roughly an hour to execute. Additionally, they are quite sensitive to errors in the initial push-off rates. To overcome both of these difficulties, trajectories are then studied which include a single in-flight impulse of small magnitude ( in the range 0.1 - 0.4 fps). For operational simplicity, this impulse is applied towards the Orbiter at the moment when the line-of -sight of the EVA crewmember is tangential to the underside of the vehicle. These trajectories are considerably faster than the non-impulsive ones: transit times of less than 10 minutes are achievable. Furthermore, the man-in-the-loop feedback scheme used for impulse timing greatly reduces the sensitivity to initial velocity errors. Finally, similar one-impulse trajectories are also shown to exist for the Orbiter in a gravity-gradient attitiude.

  2. Emergence of a super-synchronized mobbing state in a large population of coupled chemical oscillators (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Pérez-Mercader, Juan


    Oscillatory phenomena are ubiquitous in Nature. The ability of a large population of coupled oscillators to synchronize constitutes an important mechanism to express information and establish communication among members. To understand such phenomena, models and experimental realizations of globally coupled oscillators have proven to be invaluable in settings as varied as chemical, biological and physical systems. A variety of rich dynamical behavior has been uncovered, although usually in the context of a single state of synchronization or lack thereof. Through the experimental and numerical study of a large population of discrete chemical oscillators, here we report on the unexpected discovery of a new phenomenon revealing the existence of dynamically distinct synchronized states reflecting different degrees of communication. Specifically, we discover a novel large-amplitude super-synchronized state separated from the conventionally reported synchronized and quiescent states through an unusual sharp jump transition when sampling the strong coupling limit. Our results assume significance for further elucidating globally coherent phenomena, such as in neuropathologies, bacterial cell colonies, social systems and semiconductor lasers.

  3. The strv 1 microsatellite semes: Exploiting the geosynchronous transfer orbit (United States)

    Blott, R. J.; Wells, N. S.; Eves, J.

    Following 3 successful years in orbit, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency's two Space Technology Research Vehicle microsatellites (STRV) 1 a&b will be followed by a second mission. STRV 1 c&d are now in construction for a planned launch in 1999. The new mission, which includes 22 experimental payloads and developmental spacecraft bus technologies from European, US and Canadian military, civil and commercial sponsors, exploits the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) to offer an affordable, working space research tool for both government and industry. The STRV 1 programme objective is to promote the enhancement of military and civil space communications, remote sensing and navigation capabilities at reduced cost and risk. Additional aims are to help industry to achieve commercial benefit from investment in emerging technologies and to develop the synergy between government, commercial and civilian space applications. The paper explains how STRV 1 exploits the variable altitude and high radiation environment of GTO to investigate the performance of emerging technologies and techniques. This includes the accelerated life testing of components and materials, such as infra-red detectors, advanced microprocessors and solar cell technologies, and the prototyping of new techniques to improve communications and spacecraft autonomy. Experiments include implementing a secure version of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telecommand and telemetry standards, further development of the Internet-based Space Communication Protocol Standards (SCPS) and evaluating the exploitation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in geosynchronous orbit. The new mission also builds on and extends the comprehensive environmental monitoring achieved by STRV 1 a&b.

  4. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)

    Davis, E. E.


    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  5. Robust approximate optimal guidance strategies for aeroassisted orbital transfer missions (United States)

    Ilgen, Marc R.

    This thesis presents the application of game theoretic and regular perturbation methods to the problem of determining robust approximate optimal guidance laws for aeroassisted orbital transfer missions with atmospheric density and navigated state uncertainties. The optimal guidance problem is reformulated as a differential game problem with the guidance law designer and Nature as opposing players. The resulting equations comprise the necessary conditions for the optimal closed loop guidance strategy in the presence of worst case parameter variations. While these equations are nonlinear and cannot be solved analytically, the presence of a small parameter in the equations of motion allows the method of regular perturbations to be used to solve the equations approximately. This thesis is divided into five parts. The first part introduces the class of problems to be considered and presents results of previous research. The second part then presents explicit semianalytical guidance law techniques for the aerodynamically dominated region of flight. These guidance techniques are applied to unconstrained and control constrained aeroassisted plane change missions and Mars aerocapture missions, all subject to significant atmospheric density variations. The third part presents a guidance technique for aeroassisted orbital transfer problems in the gravitationally dominated region of flight. Regular perturbations are used to design an implicit guidance technique similar to the second variation technique but that removes the need for numerically computing an optimal trajectory prior to flight. This methodology is then applied to a set of aeroassisted inclination change missions. In the fourth part, the explicit regular perturbation solution technique is extended to include the class of guidance laws with partial state information. This methodology is then applied to an aeroassisted plane change mission using inertial measurements and subject to uncertainties in the initial value

  6. Modeling low-thrust transfers between periodic orbits about five libration points: Manifolds and hierarchical design (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Jingrui


    The low-thrust version of the fuel-optimal transfers between periodic orbits with different energies in the vicinity of five libration points is exploited deeply in the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem. Indirect optimization technique incorporated with constraint gradients is employed to further improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the algorithm. The required optimal thrust magnitude and direction can be determined to create the bridging trajectory that connects the invariant manifolds. A hierarchical design strategy dividing the constraint set is proposed to seek the optimal solution when the problem cannot be solved directly. Meanwhile, the solution procedure and the value ranges of used variables are summarized. To highlight the effectivity of the transfer scheme and aim at different types of libration point orbits, transfer trajectories between some sample orbits, including Lyapunov orbits, planar orbits, halo orbits, axial orbits, vertical orbits and butterfly orbits for collinear and triangular libration points, are investigated with various time of flight. Numerical results show that the fuel consumption varies from a few kilograms to tens of kilograms, related to the locations and the types of mission orbits as well as the corresponding invariant manifold structures, and indicates that the low-thrust transfers may be a beneficial option for the extended science missions around different libration points.

  7. Development of super-synchronization speed control assembly for 2500 kW double-fed motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huajun; Xuan Weimin; Peng Jianfei; Hu Haotian; Wang Shujing; Kang Li; Xu Lirong; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Du Cang; Liu Ling


    The super-synchronization speed control assemblies for the two 2500 kW induction motors have been developed successfully in order to meet the need for toroidal field increasing in HL-2A tokamak. Based on the a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speed of each 2500 kW motor has been regulated by means of vector control technology for double-fed motor. The highest rotate speed of the two 80 MVA generator sets have been increased from 1488 rpm rated speed to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each generator set in one pulse discharge can reach 500 MJ. Therefore the toroidal field system is able to reach 2.8T for experiment. (authors)

  8. Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.; Avila, O.


    The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system 209 Bi(d,t) 208 Bi. (Author)

  9. Low-Thrust Orbital Transfers in the Two-Body Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhanov


    Full Text Available Low-thrust transfers between given orbits within the two-body problem are considered; the thrust is assumed power limited. A simple method for obtaining the transfer trajectories based on the linearization of the motion near reference orbits is suggested. Required calculation accuracy can be reached by means of use of a proper number of the reference orbits. The method may be used in the case of a large number of the orbits around the attracting center; no averaging is necessary in this case. The suggested method also is applicable to the cases of partly given final orbit and if there are constraints on the thrust direction. The method gives an optimal solution to the linearized problem which is not optimal for the original nonlinear problem; the difference between the optimal solutions to the original and linearized problems is estimated using a numerical example. Also examples illustrating the method capacities are given.

  10. An Integrated Tool for Low Thrust Optimal Control Orbit Transfers in Interplanetary Trajectories (United States)

    Dargent, T.; Martinot, V.

    In the last recent years a significant progress has been made in optimal control orbit transfers using low thrust electrical propulsion for interplanetary missions. The system objective is always the same: decrease the transfer duration and increase the useful satellite mass. The optimum control strategy to perform the minimum time to orbit or the minimum fuel consumption requires the use of sophisticated mathematical tools, most of the time dedicated to a specific mission and therefore hardly reusable. To improve this situation and enable Alcatel Space to perform rather quick trajectory design as requested by mission analysis, we have developed a software tool T-3D dedicated to optimal control orbit transfers which integrates various initial and terminal rendezvous conditions - e.g. fixed arrival time for planet encounter - and engine thrust profiles -e.g. thrust law variation with respect to the distance to the Sun -. This single and quite versatile tool allows to perform analyses like minimum consumption for orbit insertions around a planet from an hyperbolic trajectory, interplanetary orbit transfers, low thrust minimum time multiple revolution orbit transfers, etc… From a mathematical point of view, the software relies on the minimum principle formulation to find the necessary conditions of optimality. The satellite dynamics is a two body model and relies of an equinoctial formulation of the Gauss equation. This choice has been made for numerical purpose and to solve more quickly the two point boundaries values problem. In order to handle the classical problem of co-state variables initialization, problems simpler than the actual one can be solved straight forward by the tool and the values of the co-state variables are kept as first guess for a more complex problem. Finally, a synthesis of the test cases is presented to illustrate the capacities of the tool, mixing examples of interplanetary mission, orbit insertion, multiple revolution orbit transfers

  11. Robust localized-orbital transferability using the Harris functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierse, W.; Stechel, E.B.


    Replacing diagonalization in a density-functional code by an order-N algorithm does not automatically produce large efficiency gains, at least for system sizes accessible to the current generation of computers. However, both efficiency and conceptual advantages do arise from the transfer of local electronic structure between locally similar, but globally different systems. Order-N methods produce potentially transferable local electronic structure. For practical applications, it is desirable that electronic structure be transferable between subsystems of similar yet somewhat different geometry. We show, in the context of molecular deformations of a simple hydrocarbon system, that this can be accomplished by combining a transfer prescription with the Harris functional. We show proof of principle and discuss the resulting efficiency gains. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. CNDO/SCF molecular orbital structural studies and charge transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimethoxy- diquinone (DQ) has been discussed and compared with some related compounds. The electron transfer between DQ and uracil was studied in ethanol as an interaction medium. The ionization potentials and the electron affinities of the ...

  13. Superfluid helium on on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPirro, M.J.; Kittel, P.


    The SHOOT flight demonstration is being undertaken to verify component and system level technology necessary to resupply large superfluid helium dewars in space. The baseline configuration uses two identical 210 liter dewars connected by a transfer line which contains a quick disconnect coupling. The helium is transferred back and forth between the dewars under various conditions of flow rate, parasitic heat load, and temperature. An astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity is also planned to manually mate and demate the coupling. The components necessary for the flight and currently being developed are described

  14. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang


    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  15. Transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically trapped low-index particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces-Chavez, V.; Sibbett, W.; Dholakia, K.; Volke-Sepulveda, K.; Chavez-Cerda, S.


    We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from a light beam to a trapped low-index particle. The particle is trapped in a dark annular region of a high-order Bessel beam and rotates around the beam axis due to scattering from the helical wave fronts of the light beam. A general theoretical geometrical optics model is developed that, applied to our specific situation, corroborates tweezing and transfer of orbital angular momentum to the low-index particle. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for particle rotation rates is observed

  16. Ariane Transfer Vehicle in service of man in orbit (United States)

    Deutscher, N.; Schefold, K.; Cougnet, C.


    The Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV), an unmanned propulsion system that is designed to be carried by the Ariane 5 launch vehicle, will undertake the logistical support required by the International Space Station and the Man-Tended Free Flyer, carrying both pressurized and unpressurized cargo to these spacecraft and carrying away wastes. The ATV is an expendable vehicle, disposed of by burn-up during reentry, and will be available for initial operations in 1996. In order to minimize development costs and recurrent costs, the ATV design will incorporate existing hardware and software.

  17. Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change (United States)

    Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.


    The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  18. Orbital


    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen


    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  19. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan


    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  20. Sub-Coulomb heavy ion neutron transfer reactions and neutron orbit sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.R.


    Direct transfer reactions below the Coulomb barrier offer the best means of determining neutron densities near the nuclear surface. This paper describes how heavy ion sub-Coulomb transfer can be used to determine the rms radii of neutron orbits in certain nuclei. The theoretical background is outlined and problems associated with the comparison of experiment and theory are discussed. Experiments performed to calibrate sub-Coulomb heavy ion transfer reactions are presented, and some comments are made on the relative roles of light and heavy ion reactions. Preliminary values for the rms radii of neutron orbits and neutron excesses extracted from recent experiments are given, and some remarks are made concerning the implications of these results for the triton wave function and for the Coulomb energy difference anomaly. (author)

  1. Overload control of artificial gravity facility using spinning tether system for high eccentricity transfer orbits (United States)

    Gou, Xing-wang; Li, Ai-jun; Tian, Hao-chang; Wang, Chang-qing; Lu, Hong-shi


    As the major part of space life supporting systems, artificial gravity requires further study before it becomes mature. Spinning tether system is a good alternative solution to provide artificial gravity for the whole spacecraft other than additional devices, and its longer tether length could significantly reduce spinning velocity and thus enhance comfortability. An approximated overload-based feedback method is proposed to provide estimated spinning velocity signals for controller, so that gravity level could be accurately controlled without complicated GPS modules. System behavior in high eccentricity transfer orbits is also studied to give a complete knowledge of the spinning stabilities. The application range of the proposed method is studied in various orbit cases and spinning velocities, indicating that it is accurate and reliable for most of the mission phases especially for the final constant gravity level phase. In order to provide stable gravity level for transfer orbit missions, a sliding mode controller based on estimated angular signals is designed for closed-loop control. Numerical results indicate that the combination of overload-based feedback and sliding mode controller could satisfy most of the long-term artificial gravity missions. It is capable of forming flexible gravity environment in relatively good accuracy even in the lowest possible orbital radiuses and high eccentricity orbits of crewed space missions. The proposed scheme provides an effective tether solution for the artificial gravity construction in interstellar travel.

  2. Coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control for an electric sail in a heliocentric transfer mission. (United States)

    Huo, Mingying; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Shaobiao; Qi, Naiming


    The paper discusses the coupled attitude-orbit dynamics and control of an electric-sail-based spacecraft in a heliocentric transfer mission. The mathematical model characterizing the propulsive thrust is first described as a function of the orbital radius and the sail angle. Since the solar wind dynamic pressure acceleration is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric sails are coupled, and are discussed together. Based on the coupled equations, the flight control is investigated, wherein the orbital control is studied in an optimal framework via a hybrid optimization method and the attitude controller is designed based on feedback linearization control. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, a transfer problem from Earth to Mars is considered. The numerical results show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system very well, and a small control torque can control both the attitude and orbit. The study in this paper will contribute to the theory study and application of electric sail.

  3. Regularization and computational methods for precise solution of perturbed orbit transfer problems (United States)

    Woollands, Robyn Michele

    The author has developed a suite of algorithms for solving the perturbed Lambert's problem in celestial mechanics. These algorithms have been implemented as a parallel computation tool that has broad applicability. This tool is composed of four component algorithms and each provides unique benefits for solving a particular type of orbit transfer problem. The first one utilizes a Keplerian solver (a-iteration) for solving the unperturbed Lambert's problem. This algorithm not only provides a "warm start" for solving the perturbed problem but is also used to identify which of several perturbed solvers is best suited for the job. The second algorithm solves the perturbed Lambert's problem using a variant of the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration initial value solver that solves two-point boundary value problems. This method converges over about one third of an orbit and does not require a Newton-type shooting method and thus no state transition matrix needs to be computed. The third algorithm makes use of regularization of the differential equations through the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and extends the domain of convergence over which the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration two-point boundary value solver will converge, from about one third of an orbit to almost a full orbit. This algorithm also does not require a Newton-type shooting method. The fourth algorithm uses the method of particular solutions and the modified Chebyshev-Picard iteration initial value solver to solve the perturbed two-impulse Lambert problem over multiple revolutions. The method of particular solutions is a shooting method but differs from the Newton-type shooting methods in that it does not require integration of the state transition matrix. The mathematical developments that underlie these four algorithms are derived in the chapters of this dissertation. For each of the algorithms, some orbit transfer test cases are included to provide insight on accuracy and efficiency of these

  4. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications (United States)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.


    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  5. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.


    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  6. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)


    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  7. Simulation of charge transfer and orbital rehybridization in molecular and condensed matter systems (United States)

    Nistor, Razvan A.

    The mixing and shifting of electronic orbitals in molecules, or between atoms in bulk systems, is crucially important to the overall structure and physical properties of materials. Understanding and accurately modeling these orbital interactions is of both scientific and industrial relevance. Electronic orbitals can be perturbed in several ways. Doping, adding or removing electrons from systems, can change the bond-order and the physical properties of certain materials. Orbital rehybridization, driven by either thermal or pressure excitation, alters the short-range structure of materials and changes their long-range transport properties. Macroscopically, during bond formation, the shifting of electronic orbitals can be interpreted as a charge transfer phenomenon, as electron density may pile up around, and hence, alter the effective charge of, a given atom in the changing chemical environment. Several levels of theory exist to elucidate the mechanisms behind these orbital interactions. Electronic structure calculations solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation to high chemical accuracy, but are computationally expensive and limited to small system sizes and simulation times. Less fundamental atomistic calculations use simpler parameterized functional expressions called force-fields to model atomic interactions. Atomistic simulations can describe systems and time-scales larger and longer than electronic-structure methods, but at the cost of chemical accuracy. In this thesis, both first-principles and phenomenological methods are addressed in the study of several encompassing problems dealing with charge transfer and orbital rehybridization. Firstly, a new charge-equilibration method is developed that improves upon existing models to allow next-generation force-fields to describe the electrostatics of changing chemical environments. Secondly, electronic structure calculations are used to investigate the doping dependent energy landscapes of several high

  8. Charge transfer interaction using quasiatomic minimal-basis orbitals in the effective fragment potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Gordon, Mark S.


    The charge transfer (CT) interaction, the most time-consuming term in the general effective fragment potential method, is made much more computationally efficient. This is accomplished by the projection of the quasiatomic minimal-basis-set orbitals (QUAMBOs) as the atomic basis onto the self-consistent field virtual molecular orbital (MO) space to select a subspace of the full virtual space called the valence virtual space. The diagonalization of the Fock matrix in terms of QUAMBOs recovers the canonical occupied orbitals and, more importantly, gives rise to the valence virtual orbitals (VVOs). The CT energies obtained using VVOs are generally as accurate as those obtained with the full virtual space canonical MOs because the QUAMBOs span the valence part of the virtual space, which can generally be regarded as “chemically important.” The number of QUAMBOs is the same as the number of minimal-basis MOs of a molecule. Therefore, the number of VVOs is significantly smaller than the number of canonical virtual MOs, especially for large atomic basis sets. This leads to a dramatic decrease in the computational cost

  9. Numerical analysis of orbital transfers to Mars using solar sails and attitude control (United States)

    Pereira, M. C.; de Melo, C. F.; Meireles, L. G.


    Solar sails present a promising alternative method of propulsion for the coming phases of the space exploration. With the recent advances in materials engineering, the construction of lighter and more resistant materials capable of impelling spaceships with the use of solar radiation pressure has become increasingly viable technologically and economically. The studies, simulations and analysis of orbital transfers from Earth to Mars proposed in this work were implemented considering the use of a flat solar sail. Maneuvers considering the delivery of a sailcraft from a Low Earth Orbit to the border of the Earth’s sphere of influence and interplanetary trajectories to Mars were investigated. A set of simulations were implemented varying the attitude of the sail relative to the Sun. Results show that a sailcraft can carry out transfers with final velocity with respect to Mars smaller than the interplanetary Patched-conic approximation, although this requires a longer time of transfers, provided the attitude of the sailcraft relative to the Sun can be controlled in some points of the trajectories.

  10. Fragment-orbital tunneling currents and electronic couplings for analysis of molecular charge-transfer systems. (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaewook; Kim, Woo Youn


    In theoretical charge-transfer research, calculation of the electronic coupling element is crucial for examining the degree of the electronic donor-acceptor interaction. The tunneling current (TC), representing the magnitudes and directions of electron flow, provides a way of evaluating electronic couplings, along with the ability of visualizing how electrons flow in systems. Here, we applied the TC theory to π-conjugated organic dimer systems, in the form of our fragment-orbital tunneling current (FOTC) method, which uses the frontier molecular-orbitals of system fragments as diabatic states. For a comprehensive test of FOTC, we assessed how reasonable the computed electronic couplings and the corresponding TC densities are for the hole- and electron-transfer databases HAB11 and HAB7. FOTC gave 12.5% mean relative unsigned error with regard to the high-level ab initio reference. The shown performance is comparable with that of fragment-orbital density functional theory, which gave the same error by 20.6% or 13.9% depending on the formulation. In the test of a set of nucleobase π stacks, we showed that the original TC expression is also applicable to nondegenerate cases under the condition that the overlap between the charge distributions of diabatic states is small enough to offset the energy difference. Lastly, we carried out visual analysis on the FOTC densities of thiophene dimers with different intermolecular alignments. The result depicts an intimate topological connection between the system geometry and electron flow. Our work provides quantitative and qualitative grounds for FOTC, showing it to be a versatile tool in characterization of molecular charge-transfer systems.

  11. Nuclear propulsion systems for orbit transfer based on the particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.L.


    The technology of nuclear direct propulsion orbit transfer systems based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. A 200 megawatt illustrative design is presented for LEO to GEO and other high ΔV missions. The PBR-NOTV can be used in a one-way mode with the shuttle or an expendable launch vehicle, e.g., the Titan 34D7, or as a two-way reusable space tug. In the one-way mode, payload capacity is almost three times greater than that of chemical OTV's. PBR technology status is described and development needs outlined

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  13. Influence of radiant energy exchange on the determination of convective heat transfer rates to Orbiter leeside surfaces during entry (United States)

    Throckmorton, D. A.


    Temperatures measured at the aerodynamic surface of the Orbiter's thermal protection system (TPS), and calorimeter measurements, are used to determine heating rates to the TPS surface during atmospheric entry. On the Orbiter leeside, where convective heating rates are low, it is possible that a significant portion of the total energy input may result from solar radiation, and for the wing, cross radiation from the hot (relatively) Orbiter fuselage. In order to account for the potential impact of these sources, values of solar- and cross-radiation heat transfer are computed, based upon vehicle trajectory and attitude information and measured surface temperatures. Leeside heat-transfer data from the STS-2 mission are presented, and the significance of solar radiation and fuselage-to-wing cross-radiation contributions to total energy input to Orbiter leeside surfaces is assessed.

  14. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan


    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  15. Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque (United States)

    Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter


    While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.

  16. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Automated preflight methods concept definition (United States)

    Erickson, C. M.; Hertzberg, D. W.


    The possibility of automating preflight engine checkouts on orbit transfer engines is discussed. The minimum requirements in terms of information and processing necessary to assess the engine'e integrity and readiness to perform its mission were first defined. A variety of ways for remotely obtaining that information were generated. The sophistication of these approaches varied from a simple preliminary power up, where the engine is fired up for the first time, to the most advanced approach where the sensor and operational history data system alone indicates engine integrity. The critical issues and benefits of these methods were identified, outlined, and prioritized. The technology readiness of each of these automated preflight methods were then rated on a NASA Office of Exploration scale used for comparing technology options for future mission choices. Finally, estimates were made of the remaining cost to advance the technology for each method to a level where the system validation models have been demonstrated in a simulated environment.

  17. Thermal response of an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle with a conical drag brake (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.


    As an aeroassisted orbital-transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver, a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70 deg, conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of silica fabric. The heat-shield thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur in the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.

  18. Thermal Response of an Aeroassisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle with a Conical Drag Brake (United States)

    Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.


    As an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) goes through an aerobraking maneuver a significant amount of heat is generated. In this paper, the thermal response of a specific AOTV to this aerobrake heating is examined. The vehicle has a 70-deg, Conical drag-brake heat shield attached to a cylindrical body which contains the payload. The heat shield is made of ceramic fabric its thickness is varied from that of a thin cloth to a 1.5-cm blanket. The fabric thickness, the radiation absorptivity of the vehicle surface materials, and radiation from the wake are all significant parameters in the thermal response to the heating produced by the braking maneuver. The maximum temperatures occur In the vicinity of the interface between the body and the conical heat shield.

  19. An Investigation to Advance the Technology Readiness Level of the Centaur Derived On-orbit Propellant Storage and Transfer System (United States)

    Silvernail, Nathan L.

    This research was carried out in collaboration with the United Launch Alliance (ULA), to advance an innovative Centaur-based on-orbit propellant storage and transfer system that takes advantage of rotational settling to simplify Fluid Management (FM), specifically enabling settled fluid transfer between two tanks and settled pressure control. This research consists of two specific objectives: (1) technique and process validation and (2) computational model development. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this technology, the corresponding FM techniques and processes must be validated in a series of experimental tests, including: laboratory/ground testing, microgravity flight testing, suborbital flight testing, and orbital testing. Researchers from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) have joined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) team to develop a prototype FM system for operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Testing of the integrated system in a representative environment will raise the FM system to TRL 6. The tests will demonstrate the FM system and provide unique data pertaining to the vehicle's rotational dynamics while undergoing fluid transfer operations. These data sets provide insight into the behavior and physical tendencies of the on-orbit refueling system. Furthermore, they provide a baseline for comparison against the data produced by various computational models; thus verifying the accuracy of the models output and validating the modeling approach. Once these preliminary models have been validated, the parameters defined by them will provide the basis of development for accurate simulations of full scale, on-orbit systems. The completion of this project and the models being developed will accelerate the commercialization of on-orbit propellant storage and transfer technologies as well as all in

  20. Communication: electron transfer mediated decay enabled by spin-orbit interaction in small krypton/xenon clusters. (United States)

    Zobel, J Patrick; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V; Pernpointner, Markus


    In this work we study the influence of relativistic effects, in particular spin-orbit coupling, on electronic decay processes in KrXe2 clusters of various geometries. For the first time it is shown that inclusion of spin-orbit coupling has decisive influence on the accessibility of a specific decay pathway in these clusters. The radiationless relaxation process is initiated by a Kr 4s ionization followed by an electron transfer from xenon to krypton and a final second ionization of the system. We demonstrate the existence of competing electronic decay pathways depending in a subtle way on the geometry and level of theory. For our calculations a fully relativistic framework was employed where omission of spin-orbit coupling leads to closing of two decay pathways. These findings stress the relevance of an adequate relativistic description for clusters with heavy elements and their fragmentation dynamics.

  1. Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii; Metodo de transferencia sub-coulombiana de un nucleon para medir radios orbitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.; Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system {sup 209} Bi(d,t) {sup 208} Bi. (Author)

  2. Conjugate gradient determination of optimal plane changes for a class of three-impulse transfers between noncoplanar circular orbits (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.


    A particular type of three-impulse transfer between two circular orbits is analyzed. The possibility of three plane changes is recognized, and the problem is to optimally distribute these plane changes to minimize the sum of the individual impulses. Numerical difficulties and their solution are discussed. Numerical results obtained from a conjugate gradient technique are presented for both the case where the individual plane changes are unconstrained and for the case where they are constrained. Possibly not unexpectedly, multiple minima are found. The techniques presented could be extended to the finite burn case, but primarily the contents are addressed to preliminary mission design and vehicle sizing.

  3. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes


    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2 (United States)


    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  5. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 1: Mission and system requirements (United States)

    Kofal, Allen E.


    The mission and system requirements for the concept definition and system analysis of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) are established. The requirements set forth constitute the single authority for the selection, evaluation, and optimization of the technical performance and design of the OTV. This requirements document forms the basis for the Ground and Space Based OTV concept definition analyses and establishes the physical, functional, performance and design relationships to STS, Space Station, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and payloads.

  6. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results (United States)


    Detailed computer models of the engine were developed to predict both the steady state and transient operation of the engine system. Mechanical design layout drawings were prepared for the following components: thrust chamber and nozzle; extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal; LOX turbopump and boost pump; hydrogen turbopump and boost pump; and the propellant control valves. The necessary heat transfer, stress, fluid flow, dynamic, and performance analyses were performed to support the mechanical design.

  7. Modeling Heat-Transfer in Animal Habitats in the Shuttle Orbiter Middeck (United States)

    Eodice, Michael T.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)


    A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of an Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) in the microgravity environment. The AEM is a spaceflight habitat that provides life support for up to six rodents in the Space Shuttle Middeck. Currently, temperatures within the AEM are recorded in real time using a solid state data recorder; however, the data are only available for analysis post-flight. This temperature information is useful for characterizing the thermal environment of the AEM for researchers, but is unavailable during flight operations. Because animal health in microgravity is directly linked to the thermal environment, the ability to predict internal AEM temperatures is extremely useful to life science researchers. NASA flight crews typically carry hand-held temperature measurement devices which allow them to provide ground researchers with near real time readings of AEM inlet temperature; however, higher priority operations limit the frequency at which these measurements can be made and subsequently downlinked. The mathematical model developed allows users to predict internal cage volume temperatures based on knowledge of the ambient air temperature entering the AEM air intake ports. Additionally, an average convective heat transfer coefficient for the AEM has been determined to provide engineers with the requisite information to facilitate future design improvements and product upgrades. The model has been validated using empirical data from a series of three Space Shuttle missions.

  8. Detection of Orbital Debris Collision Risks for the Automated Transfer Vehicle (United States)

    Peret, L.; Legendre, P.; Delavault, S.; Martin, T.


    In this paper, we present a general collision risk assessment method, which has been applied through numerical simulations to the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) case. During ATV ascent towards the International Space Station, close approaches between the ATV and objects of the USSTRACOM catalog will be monitored through collision rosk assessment. Usually, collision risk assessment relies on an exclusion volume or a probability threshold method. Probability methods are more effective than exclusion volumes but require accurate covariance data. In this work, we propose to use a criterion defined by an adaptive exclusion area. This criterion does not require any probability calculation but is more effective than exclusion volume methods as demonstrated by our numerical experiments. The results of these studies, when confirmed and finalized, will be used for the ATV operations.

  9. Multi-step optimization strategy for fuel-optimal orbital transfer of low-thrust spacecraft (United States)

    Rasotto, M.; Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.


    An effective method for the design of fuel-optimal transfers in two- and three-body dynamics is presented. The optimal control problem is formulated using calculus of variation and primer vector theory. This leads to a multi-point boundary value problem (MPBVP), characterized by complex inner constraints and a discontinuous thrust profile. The first issue is addressed by embedding the MPBVP in a parametric optimization problem, thus allowing a simplification of the set of transversality constraints. The second problem is solved by representing the discontinuous control function by a smooth function depending on a continuation parameter. The resulting trajectory optimization method can deal with different intermediate conditions, and no a priori knowledge of the control structure is required. Test cases in both the two- and three-body dynamics show the capability of the method in solving complex trajectory design problems.

  10. Energy dissipation/transfer and stable attitude of spatial on-orbit tethered system (United States)

    Hu, Weipeng; Song, Mingzhe; Deng, Zichen


    For the Tethered Satellite System, the coupling between the platform system and the solar panel is a challenge in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, the coupling dynamic behaviors of the Tethered Satellite System that is idealized as a planar flexible damping beam-spring-mass composite system are investigated via a structure-preserving method. Considering the coupling between the plane motion of the system, the oscillation of the spring and the transverse vibration of the beam, the dynamic model of the composite system is established based on the Hamiltonian variational principle. A symplectic dimensionality reduction method is proposed to decouple the dynamic system into two subsystems approximately. Employing the complex structure-preserving approach presented in our previous work, numerical iterations are performed between the two subsystems with weak damping to study the energy dissipation/transfer in the composite system, the effect of the spring stiffness on the energy distribution and the effect of the particle mass on the stability of the composite system. The numerical results show that: the energy transfer approach is uniquely determined by the initial attitude angle, while the energy dissipation speed is mainly depending on the initial attitude angle and the spring stiffness besides the weak damping. In addition, the mass ratio between the platform system and the solar panel determines the stable state as well as the time needed to reach the stable state of the composite system. The numerical approach presented in this paper provides a new way to deal with the coupling dynamic system and the conclusions obtained give some useful advices on the overall design of the Tethered Satellite System.

  11. A Complete First-Order Analytical Solution for Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers Between Coplanar Orbits with Small Eccentricities (United States)

    Da Silva Fernandes, Sandro; Das Chagas Carvalho, Francisco; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    The purpose of this work is to present a complete first order analytical solution, which includes short periodic terms, for the problem of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories with large amplitude transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in Newtonian central gravity field. The study of these transfers is particularly interesting because the orbits found in practice often have a small eccentricity and the problem of transferring a vehicle from a low earth orbit to a high earth orbit is frequently found. Besides, the analysis has been motivated by the renewed interest in the use of low-thrust propulsion systems in space missions verified in the last two decades. Several researchers have obtained numerical and sometimes analytical solutions for a number of specific initial orbits and specific thrust profiles. Averaging methods are also used in such researches. Firstly, the optimization problem associated to the space transfer problem is formulated as a Mayer problem of optimal control with Cartesian elements - position and velocity vectors - as state variables. After applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, successive Mathieu transformations are performed and suitable sets of orbital elements are introduced. The short periodic terms are eliminated from the maximum Hamiltonian function through an infinitesimal canonical transformation built through Hori method - a perturbation canonical method based on Lie series. The new Hamiltonian function, which results from the infinitesimal canonical transformation, describes the extremal trajectories for long duration maneuvers. Closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for the new canonical system by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation through the separation of variables technique. By applying the transformation equations of the algorithm of Hori method, a first order analytical solution for the problem is obtained in non-singular orbital elements. For long duration maneuvers

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing (United States)


    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  13. Molecular orbital (SCF-Xα-SW) theory of metal-metal charge transfer processes in minerals - II. Application to Fe2+ --> Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in oxides and silicates (United States)

    Sherman, David M.


    A molecular orbital description, based on Xα-Scattered wave calculations on a (FeTiO10)14− cluster, is given for Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer transitions in minerals. The calculated energy for the lowest Fe2+ → Ti4+ metal-metal charge transfer transition is 18040 cm−1 in reasonable agreement with energies observed in the optical spectra of Fe-Ti oxides and silicates. As in the case of Fe2+ → Fe3+ charge transfer in mixed-valence iron oxides and silicates, Fe2+ → Ti4+ charge transfer is associated with Fe-Ti bonding across shared polyhedral edges. Such bonding results from the overlap of the Fe(t 2g ) and Ti(t 2g ) 3d orbitals.

  14. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.


    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  15. Study of the nuclear spin-orbit interaction by performing the transfer reaction 36S(d,p)37S and 34Si(d,p)35Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgunder, G.


    The spin-orbit interaction depends on the spin orientation of the nucleons with respect to their angular momenta as well as on the derivative of the nuclear density. Even though this density dependence is used in all mean field model, it has never been tested yet due to the lack of data. We propose an original method to test this density dependence by comparing a bubble nucleus ( 34 Si) to a normal nucleus ( 36 S). The 34 Si exhibits a central density which is depleted by a factor of two which induces a non-zero central density derivative and should change the strength of the spin orbit interaction for the inner orbits such as the p orbits (L=1). By performing (d,p) transfer reactions with 36 S and 34 Si beams, the p(3/2) and p(1/2) spin orbit splitting can be inferred for these nuclei. Depending on the models, the spin-orbit splitting varies from 7% (VlowK interaction) up to 70% (Relativistic mean field approach). Beams of 36 S and 34 Si, produced at the LISE spectrometer at 20 A.MeV, were impinged onto a CD 2 target. Tracking the beam particles was achieved using 2 xy beam tracking gas detectors. Protons emitted were detected by 4 multi-segmented Si detectors (MUST2) placed at backwards angles. Gammas issued from the excited states decay were detected in the 4 EXOGAM segmented Germanium detectors. Transfer like nuclei were identified with an ionization chamber and a plastic detector. The excitation energy spectra of the 37 S and 35 Si are determined up to about 7 MeV. Spectroscopic factors and energies of p and f states are derived for the first time in 35 Si. The two nuclei show strong similarity for the f spin-orbit partners, whereas the p(3/2) - p(1/2) energy gap is reduced by 55%. (author)

  16. Using Static Percentiles of AE9/AP9 to Approximate Dynamic Monte Carlo Runs for Radiation Analysis of Spiral Transfer Orbits (United States)

    Kwan, Betty P.; O'Brien, T. Paul


    The Aerospace Corporation performed a study to determine whether static percentiles of AE9/AP9 can be used to approximate dynamic Monte Carlo runs for radiation analysis of spiral transfer orbits. Solar panel degradation is a major concern for solar-electric propulsion because solar-electric propulsion depends on the power output of the solar panel. Different spiral trajectories have different radiation environments that could lead to solar panel degradation. Because the spiral transfer orbits only last weeks to months, an average environment does not adequately address the possible transient enhancements of the radiation environment that must be accounted for in optimizing the transfer orbit trajectory. Therefore, to optimize the trajectory, an ensemble of Monte Carlo simulations of AE9/AP9 would normally be run for every spiral trajectory to determine the 95th percentile radiation environment. To avoid performing lengthy Monte Carlo dynamic simulations for every candidate spiral trajectory in the optimization, we found a static percentile that would be an accurate representation of the full Monte Carlo simulation for a representative set of spiral trajectories. For 3 LEO to GEO and 1 LEO to MEO trajectories, a static 90th percentile AP9 is a good approximation of the 95th percentile fluence with dynamics for 4-10 MeV protons, and a static 80th percentile AE9 is a good approximation of the 95th percentile fluence with dynamics for 0.5-2 MeV electrons. While the specific percentiles chosen cannot necessarily be used in general for other orbit trade studies, the concept of determining a static percentile as a quick approximation to a full Monte Carlo ensemble of simulations can likely be applied to other orbit trade studies. We expect the static percentile to depend on the region of space traversed, the mission duration, and the radiation effect considered.

  17. Comparative molecular-orbital and atomic-orbital study of electron transfer and excitation in He++Na(3s) collisions at energies of 0.05 to 20 keV/amu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, W.; Kimura, M.; Lane, N.F.


    Electron transfer and excitation in 0.05- to 20-keV/amu He + +Na(3s) collisions is studied theoretically within the close-coupling method with two-electron molecular- and atomic-orbital expansion basis sets. Results agree with the trend of other information on this system. Remaining discrepancies that are larger than those in similar contemporary studies of one-electron systems are discussed with reference to the convergence of this two-electron study. Results for the integral alignment parameter A 20 are also presented as a guideline for future experimental study

  18. Characterizing Longitude-Dependent Orbital Debris Congestion in the Geosynchronous Orbit Regime (United States)

    Anderson, Paul V.

    The geosynchronous orbit (GEO) is a unique commodity of the satellite industry that is becoming increasingly contaminated with orbital debris, but is heavily populated with high-value assets from the civil, commercial, and defense sectors. The GEO arena is home to hundreds of communications, data transmission, and intelligence satellites collectively insured for an estimated 18.3 billion USD. As the lack of natural cleansing mechanisms at the GEO altitude renders the lifetimes of GEO debris essentially infinite, conjunction and risk assessment must be performed to safeguard operational assets from debris collisions. In this thesis, longitude-dependent debris congestion is characterized by predicting the number of near-miss events per day for every longitude slot at GEO, using custom debris propagation tools and a torus intersection metric. Near-miss events with the present-day debris population are assigned risk levels based on GEO-relative position and speed, and this risk information is used to prioritize the population for debris removal target selection. Long-term projections of debris growth under nominal launch traffic, mitigation practices, and fragmentation events are also discussed, and latitudinal synchronization of the GEO debris population is explained via node variations arising from luni-solar gravity. In addition to characterizing localized debris congestion in the GEO ring, this thesis further investigates the conjunction risk to operational satellites or debris removal systems applying low-thrust propulsion to raise orbit altitude at end-of-life to a super-synchronous disposal orbit. Conjunction risks as a function of thrust level, miss distance, longitude, and semi-major axis are evaluated, and a guidance method for evading conjuncting debris with continuous thrust by means of a thrust heading change via single-shooting is developed.

  19. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Baraer, L.; Naury, S.; Linet, F.L.


    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs

  20. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X; Proust, E; Gervaise, F; Baraer, L; Naury, S; Linet, F L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Bresson, C F; Coriolis, C.C. de; Bergeron, I T.A.; Bourquin, L V; Clech, L V; Devaux, L V; Chevillot, L V; Augier, E V [EAMEA, 50 - Cherbourg (France)


    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs.

  1. Molecular orbital (SCF-X-α-SW) theory of Fe2+-Mn3+, Fe3+-Mn2+, and Fe3+-Mn3+ charge transfer and magnetic exchange in oxides and silicates (United States)

    Sherman, David M.


    Metal-metal charge-transfer and magnetic exchange interactions have important effects on the optical spectra, crystal chemistry, and physics of minerals. Previous molecular orbital calculations have provided insight on the nature of Fe2+-Fe3+ and Fe2+-Ti4+ charge-transfer transitions in oxides and silicates. In this work, spin-unrestricted molecular orbital calculations on (FeMnO10) clusters are used to study the nature of magnetic exchange and electron delocalization (charge transfer) associated with Fe3+-Mn2+, Fe3+-Mn3+, and Fe2+-Mn3+ interactions in oxides and silicates. 

  2. Guidance and Navigation for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations with a Non-Cooperative Spacecraft at Geosynchronous Orbit (United States)

    Barbee, Brent William; Carpenter, J. Russell; Heatwole, Scott; Markley, F. Landis; Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo J.; VanEepoel, John


    The feasibility and benefits of various spacecraft servicing concepts are currently being assessed, and all require that the servicer spacecraft perform rendezvous, proximity, and capture operations with the target spacecraft to be serviced. Many high-value spacecraft, which would be logical targets for servicing from an economic point of view, are located in geosynchronous orbit, a regime in which autonomous rendezvous and capture operations are not commonplace. Furthermore, existing GEO spacecraft were not designed to be serviced. Most do not have cooperative relative navigation sensors or docking features, and some servicing applications, such as de-orbiting of a non-functional spacecraft, entail rendezvous and capture with a spacecraft that may be non-functional or un-controlled. Several of these challenges have been explored via the design of a notional mission in which a nonfunctional satellite in geosynchronous orbit is captured by a servicer spacecraft and boosted into super-synchronous orbit for safe disposal. A strategy for autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and capture is developed, and the Orbit Determination Toolbox (ODTBX) is used to perform a relative navigation simulation to assess the feasibility of performing the rendezvous using a combination of angles-only and range measurements. Additionally, a method for designing efficient orbital rendezvous sequences for multiple target spacecraft is utilized to examine the capabilities of a servicer spacecraft to service multiple targets during the course of a single mission.

  3. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  4. Estimation of land-atmosphere energy transfer over the Tibetan Plateau by a combination use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Ma, Y.


    Land-atmosphere energy transfer is of great importance in land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric boundary layer processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The energy fluxes have high temporal variability, especially in their diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites alone because of their low temporal resolution. Therefore, it's of great practical significance to retrieve land surface heat fluxes by a combination use of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. In this study, a time series of the hourly LST was estimated from thermal infrared data acquired by the Chinese geostationary satellite FengYun 2C (FY-2C) over the TP. The split window algorithm (SWA) was optimized using a regression method based on the observations from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) and Tibetan observation and research platform (TORP), the land surface emissivity (LSE) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the water vapor content from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) project. The 10-day composite hourly LST data were generated via the maximum value composite (MVC) method to reduce the cloud effects. The derived LST was validated by the field observations of CAMP/Tibet and TORP. The results show that the retrieved LST and in situ data have a very good correlation (with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient (R) values of 1.99 K, 0.83 K, 1.71 K, and 0.991, respectively). Together with other characteristic parameters derived from polar-orbiting satellites and meteorological forcing data, the energy balance budgets have been retrieved finally. The validation results showed there was a good consistency between estimation results and in-situ measurements over the TP, which prove the robustness of the proposed estimation

  5. Congenital orbital teratoma


    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Weng Onn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh


    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The p...

  6. Analysis and Optimisation of Orbit Correction Configurations Using Generalised Response Matrices and its Application to the LHC Injection Transfer Lines TI 2 and TI 8

    CERN Document Server

    Chao Yu Chiu


    The LHC injection transfer lines TI 2 and TI 8 will transport intense high-energy beams over considerable distances. In their regular part a FODO lattice is used with 4 bending magnets per half-cell and a half-cell length of 30.3 m, similar to that of the SPS. The relatively tight apertures in these lines require precise trajectory control. Following an earlier study a baseline correction scheme was chosen where two out of every four consecutive quadrupoles are complemented with correctors and beam position monitors ("2-in-4"). With the ordering of the equipment approaching, a further in-depth investigation has been made using a newly developed analytic method. This method evaluates, based on the design specifications, the global performance of an orbit correction system in terms of observability, correctability, correction range and response singularity. In addition, orbit and error envelopes are obtained over the full beam line in an efficient and rigorous manner, providing insights not easily accessible wi...

  7. Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory and its analytic gradients: Accurate equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David


    Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal

  8. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 4: Operations (United States)

    Mitchell, Jack C.; Keeley, J. T.


    The benefits of the reusable Space Shuttle and the advent of the new Space Station hold promise for increasingly effective utilization of space by the scientific and commercial as well as military communities. A high energy reusable oribital transfer vehicle (OTV) represents an additional capability which also exhibits potential for enhancing space access by allowing more ambitious missions and at the same time reducing launch costs when compared to existing upper stages. This section, Vol. 2: Book 4, covers launch operations and flight operations. The launch operations section covers analyses of ground based and space based vehicles, launch site facilities, logistics requirements, propellant loading, space based maintenance and aft cargo carrier access options. The flight operations sections contain summary descriptions of ground based and space based OTV missions, operations and support requirements, and a discussion of fleet implications.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  10. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.


    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  11. Effect of orbital alignment on the forward and reverse electronic energy transfer Ca(4s5p 1P1)+Marrow-right-leftCa(4s5p 3P/sub J/)+M with rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussert, W.; Neuschaefer, D.; Leone, S.R.; Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440)


    Effects of orbital alignment on the relative cross sections for electronic energy transfer are determined for the near resonant transfer between Ca(4s5p 1 P 1 ) and Ca(4s5p 3 P/sub J/) states with rare gas collision partners. The experiments are carried out by pulsed laser excitation in a crossed beam. The results for the forward direction, 1 P to 3 P, formulated in terms of the ratio of the maximum to minimum transfer probability are: 3 He 1.61 +- 0.05; He 1.60 +- 0.03; Ne 1.55 +- 0.10; Ar 1.52 +- 0.21; for Kr, transfer occurs, but no preference is distinguishable within 1 +- 0.2; Xe 1.44 +- 0.06. The results for He, Ne, and Ar indicate a clear preference in the transfer for the initially prepared molecular Pi state. For Xe the molecular Σ state is dominant. The energy transfer is also carried out in the reverse direction, 3 P 1 to 1 P, for He and Xe, obtaining 1.65 +- 0.10 and 1.94 +- 0.22, respectively. Analysis of the state preparation suggests that the reverse direction favors the asymptotic molecular Σ state for He and the molecular Pi state for Xe. These alignment results provide a first experimental determination of the dominant electronic states involved in a collisional energy transfer process

  12. Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk


    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.

  13. Development of a focal-plane drift chamber for low-energetic pions and experimental determination of an inverse transfer matrix for the short-orbit spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.


    The three-spectrometer facility at the Mainz microtron MAMI was supplemented by an additional spectrometer, which is characterized by its short path-length and therefore is called Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS). At nominal distance from target to SOS (66 cm) the particles to be detected cover a mean path-length between reaction point and detector of 165 cm. Thus for pion electroproduction close to threshold in comparison to the big spectrometers the surviving probability of charged pions with momentum 100 MeV/c raises from 15% to 73%. Consequently the systematic error (''myon contamination''), as for the proposed measurement of the weak form-factors G A (Q 2 ) and G P (Q 2 ), reduces significantly. The main subject of this thesis is the drift chamber for the SOS. Its small relative thickness (0.03% X 0 ), reducing multiple scattering, is optimized with regard to detecting low-energy pions. Due to the innovative character of the driftchamber geometry a dedicated software for track-reconstruction, efficiency-determination etc. had to be developed. A comfortable feature for calibrating the drift path-drift time-relation, represented by cubic splines, was implemented. The resolution of the track detector in the dispersive plane is 76 μaem for the spatial and 0.23 for the angular coordinate (most probable error) and, correspondingly, 110 μm and 0.29 in the non-dispersive plane. For backtracing the reaction quantities from the detector coordinates the inverse transfer-matrix of the spectrometer was determined. For this purpose electrons were scattered quasi-elastically from protons inside the 12 C-nucleus, thus defining the starting angles of the electrons by holes of a sieve collimator. The resulting experimental values for the angular resolution at the target amount to σ φ =1.3 mrad and σ θ =10.6 mrad resp. The momentum calibration of the SOS only can be achieved by quasi-elastic scattering (two-arm experiment). For this reason the contribution of the proton

  14. Congenital orbital teratoma. (United States)

    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Wengonn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh


    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  15. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub


    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky


    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  17. [Orbital inflammation]. (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N


    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Orbital angular momentum transfer and spin desalignment mechanisms in the deep inelastic collisions Ar+Bi and Ni+Pb using the sequential fission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, J.C.


    Angular momentum transfer and spin dealignment mechanisms have been studied in the deep inelastic collisions Ar+Bi and Ni+Pb using the sequential fission method. This experimental technique consists to measure the angular distribution of the fission fragments of a heavy nucleus in coincidence with the reaction partner, and leads to a complete determination of the heavy nucleus spin distribution. High spin values are transferred to the heavy nucleus in the interaction and indicate that the dinuclear system has reached the rigid rotation limit. A theoretical model, taking into account the excitation of surface vibrations of the nuclei and the nucleon transfer between the two partners, is able to reproduce the high spin values measured in our experiments. The spin fluctuations are important, with values of the order of 15 to 20 h units. These fluctuations increase with the charge transfer from the projectile to the target and the total kinetic energy loss. The spin dealignment mechanisms act mainly in a plane approximately perpendicular to the heavy recoil direction in the laboratory system. These results are well described by a dynamical transport model based on the stochastic exchange of individual nucleons between the two nuclei during the interaction. The origin of the dealignment mechanisms in the spin transfer processes is then related to the statistical nature of the nucleon exchange. However other mechanisms can contribute to the spin dealignment as the surface vibrations, the nuclear deformations as well their relative orientations [fr

  19. Study of the deformation-driving νd5/2 orbital in 6728Ni39 using one-neutron transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Diriken


    Full Text Available The νg9/2,d5/2,s1/2 orbitals are assumed to be responsible for the swift onset of collectivity observed in the region below 68Ni. Especially the single-particle energies and strengths of these orbitals are of importance. We studied such properties in the nearby 67Ni nucleus, by performing a (d,p-experiment in inverse kinematics employing a post-accelerated radioactive ion beam (RIB at the REX-ISOLDE facility. The experiment was performed at an energy of 2.95 MeV/u using a combination of the T-REX particle detectors, the Miniball γ-detection array and a newly-developed delayed-correlation technique as to investigate μs-isomers. Angular distributions of the ground state and multiple excited states in 67Ni were obtained and compared with DWBA cross-section calculations, leading to the identification of positive-parity states with substantial νg9/2 (1007 keV and νd5/2 (2207 keV and 3277 keV single-particle strengths up to an excitation energy of 5.8 MeV. 50% of the νd5/2 single-particle strength relative to the νg9/2-orbital is concentrated in and shared between the first two observed 5/2+ levels. A comparison with extended Shell Model calculations and equivalent (3He, d studies in the region around 9040Zr50 highlights similarities for the strength of the negative-parity pf and positive-parity g9/2 state, but differences are observed for the d5/2 single-particle strength.

  20. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.


    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  1. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  2. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyckt, V M M; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W


    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest

  3. Orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.


    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators

  4. Brane orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Riccioni, Fabio


    We complete the classification of half-supersymmetric branes in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory in terms of representations of the T-duality group. As a by-product we derive a last wrapping rule for the space-filling branes. We find examples of T-duality representations of branes in lower dimensions, suggested by supergravity, of which none of the component branes follow from the reduction of any brane in ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory. We discuss the constraints on the charges of half-supersymmetric branes, determining the corresponding T-duality and U-duality orbits.

  5. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.


    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  6. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen


    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  7. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.


    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  8. Molecular Orbital and Density Functional Study of the Formation, Charge Transfer, Bonding and the Conformational Isomerism of the Boron Trifluoride (BF3 and Ammonia (NH3 Donor-Acceptor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal C. Ghosh


    Full Text Available The formation of the F3B–NH3 supermolecule by chemical interaction of its fragment parts, BF3 and NH3, and the dynamics of internal rotation about the ‘B–N’ bond have been studied in terms of parameters provided by the molecular orbital and density functional theories. It is found that the pairs of frontier orbitals of the interacting fragments have matching symmetry and are involved in the charge transfer interaction. The donation process stems from the HOMO of the donor into the LUMO of the acceptor and simultaneously, back donation stems from the HOMO of acceptor into the LUMO of the donor. The density functional computation of chemical activation in the donor and acceptor fragments, associated with the physical process of structural reorganization just prior to the event of chemical reaction, indicates that BF3 becomes more acidic and NH3 becomes more basic, compared to their separate equilibrium states. Theoretically it is observed that the chemical reaction event of the formation of the supermolecule from its fragment parts is in accordance with the chemical potential equalization principle of the density functional theory and the electronegativity equalization principle of Sanderson. The energetics of the chemical reaction, the magnitude of the net charge transfer and the energy of the newly formed bond are quite consistent, both internally and with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. The dynamics of the internal rotation of one part with respect to the other part of the supermolecule about the ‘B–N’ bond mimics the pattern of the conformational isomerism of the isostructural ethane molecule. It is also observed that the dynamics and evolution of molecular conformations as a function of dihedral angles is also in accordance with the principle of maximum hardness, PMH. Quite consistent with spectroscopic predictions, the height of the molecule

  9. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi


    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  10. Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle Propulsion Technology Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perkins, Dave


    .... ROTV propulsion technologies to consider chemical rockets have limited mission capture, solar thermal rockets capture most missions but LH2 issues, and electric has highest PL without volume constraint...

  11. ERS orbit control (United States)

    Rosengren, Mats


    The European remote sensing mission orbit control is addressed. For the commissioning phase, the orbit is defined by the following requirements: Sun synchronous, local time of descending node 10:30; three days repeat cycle with 43 orbital revolutions; overhead Venice tower (12.508206 deg east, 45.314222 deg north). The launch, maneuvers for the initial acquisition of the operational orbit, orbit maintenance maneuvers, evaluation of the orbit control, and the drift of the inclination are summarized.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done without contrast and 3mm/5mm/10mm slices were obtained to cover the orbit, skull base and brain. The findings included a soft tissue mass arising from the orbit. The left eye ball was extra orbital. There was no defect .... love's Short Practice of Surgery. 7 Edition,. Levis London, 1997; 45-64. 2. Orbital tumor Part 1, ...

  13. Radiovolumetry of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, S.


    The authors present a method called ''Radiovolumetry of the orbit'' that permits the evaluation of the orbital volume from anteroposterior skull X-Rays (CALDWELL 30 0 position). The research was based in the determination of the orbital volume with lead spheres, in 1010 orbits of 505 dry skulls of Anatomy Museums. After the dry skulls was X-rayed six frontal orbital diameters were made, with care to correct the radiographic amplification. PEARSON correlation coeficient test was applied between the mean orbital diameter and the orbital volume. The result was r = 0,8 with P [pt

  14. Methods of orbit correction system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Yu-Chiu.


    Extracting optimal performance out of an orbit correction system is an important component of accelerator design and evaluation. The question of effectiveness vs. economy, however, is not always easily tractable. This is especially true in cases where betatron function magnitude and phase advance do not have smooth or periodic dependencies on the physical distance. In this report a program is presented using linear algebraic techniques to address this problem. A systematic recipe is given, supported with quantitative criteria, for arriving at an orbit correction system design with the optimal balance between performance and economy. The orbit referred to in this context can be generalized to include angle, path length, orbit effects on the optical transfer matrix, and simultaneous effects on multiple pass orbits

  15. Evaluation of the synchrotron close orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Yu.A.; Karpov, V.A.


    The knowledge of the closed orbit position is an essential condition for the effective work of any accelerator. Therefore questions of calculations, measurements and controls have great importance. For example, during injection of particles into a synchrotron, the amplitudes of their betatron oscillations may become commensurable with the working region of the synchrotron. This makes one pay attention at the problem of formation of the optimum orbit with use of correcting optical elements. In addition, it is often necessary to calculate such an orbit at the end of the acceleration cycle when particles are deposited at internal targets or removed from the synchrotron. In this paper, the computation of the close orbit is reduced to a determination at an arbitrarily chosen azimuth of the eigenvector of the total transfer matrix of the synchrotron ring and to tracing with this vector desired orbit. The eigenvector is found as a result of an iteration

  16. Traumatic orbital CSF leak (United States)

    Borumandi, Farzad


    Compared to the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) leak through the nose and ear, the orbital CSF leak is a rare and underreported condition following head trauma. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with oedematous eyelid swelling and ecchymosis after a seemingly trivial fall onto the right orbit. Apart from the above, she was clinically unremarkable. The CT scan revealed a minimally displaced fracture of the orbital roof with no emphysema or intracranial bleeding. The fractured orbital roof in combination with the oedematous eyelid swelling raised the suspicion for orbital CSF leak. The MRI of the neurocranium demonstrated a small-sized CSF fistula extending from the anterior cranial fossa to the right orbit. The patient was treated conservatively and the lid swelling resolved completely after 5 days. Although rare, orbital CSF leak needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital swelling following orbital trauma. PMID:24323381

  17. Microscopic Stern-Gerlach effect and spin-orbit pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.


    The motion of a particle with spin in spherical harmonic oscillator potential with spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The attention is focused on the spatial motion of wave packets. The particular case of wave packets moving along the circular orbits for which the most transparent and pedagogical description is possible is considered. The splitting of the wave packets into two components moving differently along classical orbits reflects a strong analogy with the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The periodic transfer of average angular momentum between spin and orbital subspaces accompanying this time evolution is called the spin-orbit pendulum. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  18. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.


    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  19. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  20. Space station orbit maintenance (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.


    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  1. Nontraumatic orbital roof encephalocele. (United States)

    Hoang, Amber; Maugans, Todd; Ngo, Thang; Ikeda, Jamie


    Intraorbital meningoencephaloceles occur most commonly as a complication of traumatic orbital roof fractures. Nontraumatic congenital orbital meningoncephaloceles are very rare, with most secondary to destructive processes affecting the orbit and primary skull defects. Treatment for intraorbital meningoencephaloceles is surgical repair, involving the excision of herniated brain parenchyma and meninges and reconstruction of the osseous defect. Most congenital lesions present in infancy with obvious globe and orbital deformities; we report an orbital meningoencephalocele in a 3-year-old girl who presented with ptosis. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deadly Sunflower Orbits (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.


    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  3. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph


    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  4. POET: Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides (United States)

    Penev, Kaloyan


    POET (Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides) calculates the orbital evolution of a system consisting of a single star with a single planet in orbit under the influence of tides. The following effects are The evolutions of the semimajor axis of the orbit due to the tidal dissipation in the star and the angular momentum of the stellar convective envelope by the tidal coupling are taken into account. In addition, the evolution includes the transfer of angular momentum between the stellar convective and radiative zones, effect of the stellar evolution on the tidal dissipation efficiency, and stellar core and envelope spins and loss of stellar convective zone angular momentum to a magnetically launched wind. POET can be used out of the box, and can also be extended and modified.

  5. Automated low-thrust guidance for the orbital maneuvering vehicle (United States)

    Rose, Richard E.; Schmeichel, Harry; Shortwell, Charles P.; Werner, Ronald A.


    This paper describes the highly autonomous OMV Guidance Navigation and Control system. Emphasis is placed on a key feature of the design, the low thrust guidance algorithm. The two guidance modes, orbit change guidance and rendezvous guidance, are discussed in detail. It is shown how OMV will automatically transfer from its initial orbit to an arbitrary target orbit and reach a specified rendezvous position relative to the target vehicle.

  6. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Mahender K; Chaudhary, Vikas; Baruah, Dhiraj; Kathuria, Manoj; Anand, Rama


    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  7. Radiology of orbital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.K.; Lazo, A.; Metes, J.J.


    Computed tomography has become the gold standard against which to measure orbital imaging modalities. The simultaneous display of bone, soft tissues, paranasal sinuses, and intracranial structures is a unique advantage. Radiation dose and cost have been cited as disadvantages. These would suggest that CT be reserved for the patient with significant orbital injury or difficult diagnostic problems. Magnetic resonance is limited in the investigation of orbital trauma

  8. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem


    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  9. Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Baoyin Hexi; Ma Xingrui


    This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in three-dimensional space. Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars. However, no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far. The characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented, and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated. By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method, families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist. Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points, but only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points. Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined. Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degrees in longitude, which would facilitate observation of the Martian topography. Based on the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix, the evolution of the stability index of periodic orbits is determined. Finally, heteroclinic orbits connecting the two unstable areostationary points are found, providing the possibility for orbital transfer with minimal energy consumption.

  10. Orbital glass in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.


    The physical reasons why the orbital glass may exist in granular high-temperature superconductors and the existing experimental data appeared recently are discussed. The orbital glass is characterized by the coexistence of the orbital paramagnetic state with the superconducting state and occurs at small magnetic fields H c0 c1 . The transition in orbital glass arises at the critical field H c0 which is inversely proportional to the surface cross-area S of an average grain. In connection with theoretical predictions the possible experiments are proposed. (author). 10 refs

  11. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon


    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  12. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.


    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C.; Saeed, Perooz; Esmaeli, Bita; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Mcnab, Alan; Davis, Garry; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Leibovitch, Igal; Kesler, Anat; Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer; Hoyama, Erika; Selva, Dinesh


    To present the clinical features and management in a series of patients with orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis. This multicenter retrospective study included patients with biopsy-proven noncaseating granuloma involving the orbit or adnexa and evidence of systemic sarcoidosis. Clinical records were

  14. Update on orbital reconstruction. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray


    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  15. Orbital wall fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.


    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  16. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo


    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  17. Topology of tokamak orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.


    Guiding center orbits in noncircular axisymmetric tokamak plasmas are studied in the constants of motion (COM) space of (v, zeta, psi/sub m/). Here, v is the particle speed, zeta is the pitch angle with respect to the parallel equilibrium current, J/sub parallels/, and psi/sub m/ is the maximum value of the poloidal flux function (increasing from the magnetic axis) along the guiding center orbit. Two D-shaped equilibria in a flux-conserving tokamak having β's of 1.3% and 7.7% are used as examples. In this space, each confined orbit corresponds to one and only one point and different types of orbits (e.g., circulating, trapped, stagnation and pinch orbits) are represented by separate regions or surfaces in the space. It is also shown that the existence of an absolute minimum B in the higher β (7.7%) equilibrium results in a dramatically different orbit topology from that of the lower β case. The differences indicate the confinement of additional high energy (v → c, within the guiding center approximation) trapped, co- and countercirculating particles whose orbit psi/sub m/ falls within the absolute B well

  18. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.


    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  19. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias


    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  20. Thrombosis of orbital varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Oyhenart, J.; Tenyi, A.; Boschi Pau, J.


    Orbital varices are venous malformations produced by an abnormal dilatation of one or more orbital veins, probably associated with congenital weakness of the vascular wall. They are rare lesions, usually occurring in young patients, that produce intermittent proptosis related to the increase in the systemic venous pressure. The presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis is associated with rapid development of proptosis, pain and decreased ocular motility. We report the cases of two adult patients with orbital varices complicated by thrombosis in whom the diagnosis was based on computed tomography. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings are also discussed. (Author) 16 refs


    Bonaminio, Vincenzo


    This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  2. Charge-spin-orbital dynamics of one-dimensional two-orbital Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Hiroaki [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    We study the real-time evolution of a charge-excited state in a one-dimensional e{sub g}-orbital degenerate Hubbard model, by a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group method. Considering a chain along the z direction, electrons hop between adjacent 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2} orbitals, while x{sup 2}-y{sup 2} orbitals are localized. For the charge-excited state, a holon-doublon pair is introduced into the ground state at quarter filling. At initial time, there is no electron in a holon site, while a pair of electrons occupies 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2} orbital in a doublon site. As the time evolves, the holon motion is governed by the nearest-neighbor hopping, but the electron pair can transfer between 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2} orbital and x{sup 2}-y{sup 2} orbital through the pair hopping in addition to the nearest-neighbor hopping. Thus holon and doublon propagate at different speed due to the pair hopping that is characteristic of multi-orbital systems.

  3. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  4. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk


    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  5. Local orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Critically aligned experiments are sensitive to small changes in the electron beam orbit. At the NSLS storage rings, the electron beam and photon beam motions have been monitored over the past several years. In the survey conducted in 1986 by the NSLS Users Executive Committee, experimenters requested the vertical beam position variation and the vertical angle variation, within a given fill, remain within 10 μm and 10 μr, respectively. This requires improvement in the beam stability by about one order of magnitude. At the NSLS and SSRL storage rings, the beam that is originally centered on the position monitor by a dc orbit correction is observed to have two kinds of motion: a dc drift over a storage period of several hours and a beam bounce about its nominal position. These motions are a result of the equilibrium orbit not being held perfectly stable due to time-varying errors introduced into the magnetic guide field by power supplies, mechanical vibration of the magnets, cooling water temperature variations, etc. The approach to orbit stabilization includes (1) identifying and suppressing as many noise sources on the machine as possible, (2) correcting the beam position globally (see Section 6) by controlling a number of correctors around the circumference of the machine, and (3) correcting the beam position and angle at a given source location by position feedback using local detectors and local orbit bumps. The third approach, called Local Orbit Feedback will be discussed in this section

  6. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.


    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  7. E-Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patera


    Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.

  8. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude


    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  9. [Secondary orbital lymphoma]. (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D


    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.


    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Orbital welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, W.


    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [de

  12. Mean Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit - II - Orbital inclination, longitude of ascending node, mean longitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi


    Full Text Available The osculating orbital elements include the mean, secular, long period, and short period terms. The iterative algorithm used for conversion of osculating orbital elements to mean orbital elements is described. The mean orbital elements of Wc, Ws, and L are obtained.

  13. Isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, V.I.


    The analysis has been made of experimental data on level spectra, single-nucleon transfer reactions near closed shells, and data on polarization effects in charge-exchange (p, n) reactions between isoanalogous states of nuclei with even A. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbitals. This conclusion is confirmed in the frame work of different theoretical approaches [ru

  14. Reactivity index based on orbital energies. (United States)

    Tsuneda, Takao; Singh, Raman K


    This study shows that the chemical reactivities depend on the orbital energy gaps contributing to the reactions. In the process where a reaction only makes progress through charge transfer with the minimal structural transformation of the reactant, the orbital energy gap gradient (OEGG) between the electron-donating and electron-accepting orbitals is proven to be very low. Using this relation, a normalized reaction diagram is constructed by plotting the normalized orbital energy gap with respect to the normalized intrinsic reaction coordinate. Application of this reaction diagram to 43 fundamental reactions showed that the majority of the forward reactions provide small OEGGs in the initial stages, and therefore, the initial processes of the forward reactions are supposed to proceed only through charge transfer. Conversely, more than 60% of the backward reactions are found to give large OEGGs implying very slow reactions associated with considerable structural transformations. Focusing on the anti-activation-energy reactions, in which the forward reactions have higher barriers than those of the backward ones, most of these reactions are shown to give large OEGGs for the backward reactions. It is also found that the reactions providing large OEGGs in the forward directions inconsistent with the reaction rate constants are classified into SN 2, symmetric, and methyl radical reactions. Interestingly, several large-OEGG reactions are experimentally established to get around the optimum pathways. This indicates that the reactions can take significantly different pathways from the optimum ones provided no charge transfer proceeds spontaneously without the structural transformations of the reactants. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits (United States)

    Jesick, Mark C.


    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  16. Bohr orbit theory revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcourt, R.D.


    Bohr orbit theory is used to calculate energies for the 1S, 2P, 3D, 4F and 5G states of the helium muonic atom, when the muon is excited. These energies are close to those which have been calculated variationally by Huang (1977, Phys. Rev. A 15 1832-8). (author)

  17. Meteoroid Orbits from Observations (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, Margaret


    Millions of orbits of meteoroids have been measured over the last few decades, and they comprise the largest sample of orbits of solar system bodies which exists. The orbits of these objects can shed light on the distribution and evolution of comets and asteroids in near-Earth space (e.g. Neslusan et al. 2016). If orbits can be measured at sufficiently high resolution, individual meteoroids can be traced back to their parent bodies and, in principle, even to their ejection time (Rudawska et al. 2012). Orbits can be measured with multi-station optical observations or with radar observations.The most fundamental measured quantities are the speed of the meteor and the two angles of the radiant, or point in the sky from which the meteor appears to come. There are many methods used to determine these from observations, but not all produce the most accurate results (Egal et al. 2017). These three measured quantities, along with the time and location of the observation, are sufficient to obtain an orbit (see, e.g., Clark & Wiegert 2011), but the measurements must be corrected for the deceleration of the meteoroid in the atmosphere before it was detected, the rotation of the Earth, and the gravitational attraction of the Earth (including higher order moments if great precision is necessary).Once meteor orbits have been determined, studies of the age and origin of meteor showers (Bruzzone et al., 2015), the parent bodies of sporadic sources (Pokorny et al. 2014), and the dynamics of the meteoroid complex as a whole can be constrained.Bruzzone, J. S., Brown, P., Weryk, R., Campbell-Brown, M., 2015. MNRAS 446, 1625.Clark, D., Wiegert, P., 2011. M&PS 46, 1217.Egal, A., Gural, P., Vaubaillon, J., Colas, F., Thuillot, W., 2017. Icarus 294, 43.Neslusan, L., Vaubaillon, J., Hajdukova, M., 2016. A&A 589, id.A100.Pokorny, P., Vokrouhlicky, D., Nesvorny, D., Campbell-Brown, M., Brown, P., 2014. ApJ 789, id.25.Rudawska, R., Vaubaillon, J., Atreya, P., 2012. A&A 541, id.A2

  18. Lyapunov Orbits in the Jupiter System Using Electrodynamic Tethers (United States)

    Bokelmann, Kevin; Russell, Ryan P.; Lantoine, Gregory


    Various researchers have proposed the use of electrodynamic tethers for power generation and capture from interplanetary transfers. The effect of tether forces on periodic orbits in Jupiter-satellite systems are investigated. A perturbation force is added to the restricted three-body problem model and a series of simplifications allows development of a conservative system that retains the Jacobi integral. Expressions are developed to find modified locations of equilibrium positions. Modified families of Lyapunov orbits are generated as functions of tether size and Jacobi integral. Zero velocity curves and stability analyses are used to evaluate the dynamical properties of tether-modified orbits.

  19. Dexter energy transfer pathways. (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N


    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  1. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper


    's correlation consistent basis sets, it is seen that for larger penalties, the virtual orbitals become more local than the occupied ones. We also show that the local virtual HF orbitals are significantly more local than the redundant projected atomic orbitals, which often have been used to span the virtual...

  2. GOC: General Orbit Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.


    GOC (General Orbit Code) is a versatile program which will perform a variety of calculations relevant to isochronous cyclotron design studies. In addition to the usual calculations of interest (e.g., equilibrium and accelerated orbits, focusing frequencies, field isochronization, etc.), GOC has a number of options to calculate injections with a charge change. GOC provides both printed and plotted output, and will follow groups of particles to allow determination of finite-beam properties. An interactive PDP-10 program called GIP, which prepares input data for GOC, is available. GIP is a very easy and convenient way to prepare complicated input data for GOC. Enclosed with this report are several microfiche containing source listings of GOC and other related routines and the printed output from a multiple-option GOC run

  3. Orbital debris: a technical assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Space Debris, National Research Council

    ..., and other debris created as a byproduct of space operations. Orbital Debris examines the methods we can use to characterize orbital debris, estimates the magnitude of the debris population, and assesses the hazard that this population poses to spacecraft...

  4. Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang


    Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall

  5. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Oertzen, W.


    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  6. Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers (United States)

    Colombo, G.; Arnold, D.


    The state-of-the-art in tether modelling among participants in the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Program, the slack tether and its behavior, and certain advanced applications of the tether to problems in orbital mechanics are identified. The features and applications of the TSS software set are reviewed. Modelling the slack tether analytically with as many as 50 mass points and the application of this new model to a study of the behavior of a broken tether near the Shuttle are described. A reel control algorithm developed by SAO and examples of its use are described, including an example which also demonstrates the use of the tether in transferring a heavy payload from a low-orbiting Shuttle to a high circular orbit. Capture of a low-orbiting payload by a Space Station in high circular orbit is described. Energy transfer within a dumbbell-type spacecraft by cyclical reeling operations or gravitational effects on the natural elasticity of the connecting tether, it is shown, can circularize the orbit of the spacecraft.

  7. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou


    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  8. Linear orbit parameters for the exact equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.


    This paper defines the beta function and other linear orbit parameters using the exact equations of motion. The β, α and ψ functions are redefined using the exact equations. Expressions are found for the transfer matrix and the emittance. The differential equations for η = x/β 1/2 is found. New relationships between α, β, ψ and ν are derived

  9. Science Planning and Orbit Classification for Solar Probe Plus (United States)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Fox, N. J.; Rodgers, D. J.; Turner, F. S.


    There are a number of challenges for the Science Planning Team (SPT) of the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) Mission. Since SPP is using a decoupled payload operations approach, tight coordination between the mission operations and payload teams will be required. The payload teams must manage the volume of data that they write to the spacecraft solid-state recorders (SSR) for their individual instruments for downlink to the ground. Making this process more difficult, the geometry of the celestial bodies and the spacecraft during some of the SPP mission orbits cause limited uplink and downlink opportunities. The payload teams will also be required to coordinate power on opportunities, command uplink opportunities, and data transfers from instrument memory to the spacecraft SSR with the operation team. The SPT also intend to coordinate observations with other spacecraft and ground based systems. To solve these challenges, detailed orbit activity planning is required in advance for each orbit. An orbit planning process is being created to facilitate the coordination of spacecraft and payload activities for each orbit. An interactive Science Planning Tool is being designed to integrate the payload data volume and priority allocations, spacecraft ephemeris, attitude, downlink and uplink schedules, spacecraft and payload activities, and other spacecraft ephemeris. It will be used during science planning to select the instrument data priorities and data volumes that satisfy the orbit data volume constraints and power on, command uplink and data transfer time periods. To aid in the initial stages of science planning we have created an orbit classification scheme based on downlink availability and significant science events. Different types of challenges arise in the management of science data driven by orbital geometry and operational constraints, and this scheme attempts to identify the patterns that emerge.

  10. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  11. Heat transfer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  12. Heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.A.


    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  13. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo


    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  14. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)


    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au{sup 198}) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  15. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi


    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au 198 ) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  16. Molecular orbitals for properties and spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Vincent [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, Institut de Chimie, Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Blaise Pascal 67000 Strasbourg-France (France); Domingo, Alex [Quantum Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Celestijnenlaan 200f, 3001 Heverlee - Belgium (Belgium); Braunstein, Pierre; Danopoulos, Andreas; Monakhov, Kirill [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, Institut de Chimie, Université de Strasbourg, 4 rue Blaise Pascal 67081 Strasbourg-France (France)


    The description and clarification of spectroscopies and properties goes through ab initio calculations. Wave function based calculations (CASSCF/CASPT2) are particularly appealing since they offer spectroscopic accuracy and means of interpretation. we performed such calculations to elucidate the origin of unusual structural changes and intramolecular electron transfer phenomenon. Based on optimized molecular orbitals and a reading of the multireference wave function, it is suggested that intimate interactions are likely to considerably modify the standard pictures. A so-called PIMA (polarization-induced metalâĹŠarene) interaction similar to the more familiar anion-π interaction is responsible for a significant deviation from sp{sup 3} geometry and an energetic stabilization of 50 kJ/mol in Cr(II) benzyl organometallic complexes. In a similar fashion, it is proposed that the energetic profile of the IVCT (inter valence charge transfer) exhibits strong similarities to the Marcus’ theory, suggesting a response behaviour of the ensemble of electrons as electron transfer occurs in Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} bimetallic compound. The electronic reorganization induced by the IVCT process accounts for 11.8 eV, a very large effect that reduces the transfer energy down to 0.89 eV, in very good agreement with experiments.

  17. Exploratory orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.


    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal

  18. Orbiting radiation stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Dean P; Langford, John; Perez-Giz, Gabe


    We study a spherically symmetric solution to the Einstein equations in which the source, which we call an orbiting radiation star (OR-star), is a compact object consisting of freely falling null particles. The solution avoids quantum scale regimes and hence neither relies upon nor ignores the interaction of quantum mechanics and gravitation. The OR-star spacetime exhibits a deep gravitational well yet remains singularity free. In fact, it is geometrically flat in the vicinity of the origin, with the flat region being of any desirable scale. The solution is observationally distinct from a black hole because a photon from infinity aimed at an OR-star escapes to infinity with a time delay. (paper)

  19. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.


    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  20. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz


    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  1. Solitonic natural orbitals (United States)

    Cioslowski, Jerzy


    The dependence of the natural amplitudes of the harmonium atom in its ground state on the confinement strength ω is thoroughly investigated. A combination of rigorous analysis and extensive, highly accurate numerical calculations reveals the presence of only one positive-valued natural amplitude ("the normal sign pattern") for all ω ≥1/2 . More importantly, it is shown that unusual, weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) corresponding to additional positive-valued natural amplitudes emerge upon sufficient weakening of the confinement. These solitonic NOs, whose shapes remain almost invariant as their radial positions drift toward infinity upon the critical values of ω being approached from below, exhibit strong radial localization. Their asymptotic properties are extracted from the numerical data and their relevance to calculations on fully Coulombic systems is discussed.

  2. Stellar orbits around Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, S; Gillessen, S; Ott, T; Eisenhauer, F; Paumard, T; Martins, F; Genzel, R; Schoedel, R; Eckart, A; Alexander, T


    In this article we present and discuss the latest results from the observations of stars (''S-stars'') orbiting Sgr A* . With improving data quality the number of observed S-stars has increased substantially in the last years. The combination of radial velocity and proper motion information allows an ever more precise determination of orbital parameters and of the mass of and the distance to the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. Additionally, the orbital solutions allow us to verify an agreement between the NIR source Sgr A* and the dynamical centre of the stellar orbits to within 2 mas

  3. Accelerated testing for synchronous orbits (United States)

    Mcdermott, P.


    Degradation of batteries during synchronous orbits is analyzed. Discharge and recharge rates are evaluated. The functional relationship between charge rate and degradation is mathematically determined.

  4. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B


    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  5. MIT Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV): CASTOR Satellite: Design Document (United States)


    that Z93 should be applied on the back of the panels and on the engine. Z93 is a type of white paint that has a low absorptive coefficient and can...PART COMPANY PRODUCT MASS [kg] COST [USD] Tank Luxfor L45J 2.95 350 Stainless Tube McMaster SS316 Tube 0.1 23.84 Pressure Regulator GO Regulator... McMaster 7833K95 0.51 50 TANK AND TANK ADAPTER The cylindrical tank will hold 5.2kg of Xenon to achieve mission requirements, although it is

  6. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide


    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  7. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes


    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  8. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra


    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  9. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes


    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability

  10. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Survey Science Orbit at Ceres (United States)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.


    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt objects, Vesta and Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H- 9.5 (Delta-II Heavy) rocket that placed the 1218-kg spacecraft onto an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide a total delta V of 11 km/s for the heliocentric transfer to Vesta, orbit capture at Vesta, transfer between Vesta science orbits, departure and escape from Vesta, heliocentric transfer to Ceres, orbit capture at Ceres, and transfer between Ceres science orbits. Full-power thrusting from December 2007 through October 2008 was used to successfully target a Mars gravity assist flyby in February 2009 that provided an additional delta V of 2.6 km/s. Deterministic thrusting for the heliocentric transfer to Vesta resumed in June 2009 and concluded with orbit capture at Vesta on July 16, 2011. From July 2011 through September 2012 the IPS was used to transfer to all the different science orbits at Vesta and to escape from Vesta orbit. Cruise for a rendezvous with Ceres began in September 2012 and concluded with the start of the approach to Ceres phase on December 26, 2015, leading to orbit capture on March 6, 2015. Deterministic thrusting continued during approach to place the spacecraft in its first science orbit, called RC3, which was achieved on April 23, 2015. Following science operations at RC3 ion thrusting was resumed for twenty-five days leading to arrival to the next science orbit, called survey orbit, on June 3, 2015. The IPS will be used for all subsequent orbit transfers and trajectory correction maneuvers until completion of the primary mission in approximately June 2016. To date the IPS has been operated for over 46,774 hours, consumed approximately 393 kg of xenon, and provided

  11. Infected orbital cyst following exenteration. (United States)

    Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N


    An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.

  12. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob


    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  13. Diplopia and Orbital Wall Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.


    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  14. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.


    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  15. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning (United States)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.


    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  16. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  17. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew


    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  18. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Jain


    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  19. Characterizing the Survey Strategy and Initial Orbit Determination Abilities of the NASA MCAT Telescope for Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environmental Studies (United States)

    Frith, J.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) recently commissioned the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island with the primary goal of obtaining population statistics of the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital debris environment. To help facilitate this, studies have been conducted using MCAT’s known and projected capabilities to estimate the accuracy and timeliness in which it can survey the GEO environment, including collected weather data and the proposed observational data collection cadence. To optimize observing cadences and probability of detection, on-going work using a simulated GEO debris population sampled at various cadences are run through the Constrained Admissible Region Multi Hypotheses Filter (CAR-MHF). The orbits computed from the results are then compared to the simulated data to assess MCAT’s ability to determine accurately the orbits of debris at various sample rates. The goal of this work is to discriminate GEO and near-GEO objects from GEO transfer orbit objects that can appear as GEO objects in the environmental models due to the short arc observation and an assumed circular orbit. The specific methods and results are presented here.

  20. Orbital express capture system: concept to reality (United States)

    Stamm, Shane; Motaghedi, Pejmun


    The development of autonomous servicing of on-orbit spacecraft has been a sought after objective for many years. A critical component of on-orbit servicing involves the ability to successfully capture, institute mate, and perform electrical and fluid transfers autonomously. As part of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Starsys Research Corporation (SRC) began developing such a system. Phase I of the grant started in 1999, with initial work focusing on simultaneously defining the parameters associated with successful docking while designing to those parameters. Despite the challenge of working without specific requirements, SRC completed development of a prototype design in 2000. Throughout the following year, testing was conducted on the prototype to characterize its performance. Having successfully completed work on the prototype, SRC began a Phase II SBIR effort in mid-2001. The focus of the second phase was a commercialization effort designed to augment the prototype model into a more flight-like design. The technical requirements, however, still needed clear definition for the design to progress. The advent of the Orbital Express (OE) program provided much of that definition. While still in the proposal stages of the OE program, SRC began tailoring prototype redesign efforts to the OE program requirements. A primary challenge involved striking a balance between addressing the technical requirements of OE while designing within the scope of the SBIR. Upon award of the OE contract, the Phase II SBIR design has been fully developed. This new design, designated the Mechanical Docking System (MDS), successfully incorporated many of the requirements of the OE program. SRC is now completing dynamic testing on the MDS hardware, with a parallel effort of developing a flight design for OE. As testing on the MDS progresses, the design path that was once common to both SBIR effort and the OE program begins to diverge. The MDS will complete the scope of the

  1. Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    binary. We have carried out orbital phase resolved spectroscopy to mea- ... agreement with a simple model of a spherically symmetric stellar wind from the .... has a set of Narrow Field Instruments (NFI) comprising one Low Energy Concen-.

  2. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride


    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  3. Computed tomography of orbital myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, S.C.; Rothfus, W.E.; Slamovits, T.L.; Kennerdell, J.S.; Curtin, H.D.


    The computerized tomographic (CT) scans of 11 consecutive patients with orbital myositis were reviewed to better characterize the CT appearance of this condition. The findings in this series differed from those of previous reports in several ways. Multiple muscle involvement predominated. Bilateral involvement was more frequent than previously reported. Enlargement of the tendon as well as the muscle was a frequent finding, but a normal tendinous insertion did not preclude the diagnosis of orbital myositis. Although the CT appearance of orbital myositis is often helpful, the findings are not pathognomonic; correlation with history, clinical findings, and therapeutic response must be considered in making the diagnosis

  4. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  5. Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.

  6. Periodic orbits of solar sail equipped with reflectance control device in Earth-Moon system (United States)

    Yuan, Jianping; Gao, Chen; Zhang, Junhua


    In this paper, families of Lyapunov and halo orbits are presented with a solar sail equipped with a reflectance control device in the Earth-Moon system. System dynamical model is established considering solar sail acceleration, and four solar sail steering laws and two initial Sun-sail configurations are introduced. The initial natural periodic orbits with suitable periods are firstly identified. Subsequently, families of solar sail Lyapunov and halo orbits around the L1 and L2 points are designed with fixed solar sail characteristic acceleration and varying reflectivity rate and pitching angle by the combination of the modified differential correction method and continuation approach. The linear stabilities of solar sail periodic orbits are investigated, and a nonlinear sliding model controller is designed for station keeping. In addition, orbit transfer between the same family of solar sail orbits is investigated preliminarily to showcase reflectance control device solar sail maneuver capability.

  7. Uncertainty Requirement Analysis for the Orbit, Attitude, and Burn Performance of the 1st Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song


    Full Text Available In this study, the uncertainty requirements for orbit, attitude, and burn performance were estimated and analyzed for the execution of the 1st lunar orbit insertion (LOI maneuver of the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO mission. During the early design phase of the system, associate analysis is an essential design factor as the 1st LOI maneuver is the largest burn that utilizes the onboard propulsion system; the success of the lunar capture is directly affected by the performance achieved. For the analysis, the spacecraft is assumed to have already approached the periselene with a hyperbolic arrival trajectory around the moon. In addition, diverse arrival conditions and mission constraints were considered, such as varying periselene approach velocity, altitude, and orbital period of the capture orbit after execution of the 1st LOI maneuver. The current analysis assumed an impulsive LOI maneuver, and two-body equations of motion were adapted to simplify the problem for a preliminary analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the statistical analysis to analyze diverse uncertainties that might arise at the moment when the maneuver is executed. As a result, three major requirements were analyzed and estimated for the early design phase. First, the minimum requirements were estimated for the burn performance to be captured around the moon. Second, the requirements for orbit, attitude, and maneuver burn performances were simultaneously estimated and analyzed to maintain the 1st elliptical orbit achieved around the moon within the specified orbital period. Finally, the dispersion requirements on the B-plane aiming at target points to meet the target insertion goal were analyzed and can be utilized as reference target guidelines for a mid-course correction (MCC maneuver during the transfer. More detailed system requirements for the KPLO mission, particularly for the spacecraft bus itself and for the flight dynamics subsystem at the ground

  8. Cost Per Pound From Orbit (United States)

    Merriam, M. L.


    Traditional studies of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) designs have focused on designs that are completely reusable except for the fuel. This may not be realistic with current technology . An alternate approach is to look at partially reusable launch vehicles. This raises the question of which parts should be reused and which parts should be expendable. One approach is to consider the cost/pound of returning these parts from orbit. With the shuttle, this cost is about three times the cost/pound of launching payload into orbit. A subtle corollary is that RLVs are much less practical for higher orbits, such as the one on which the International Space Station resides, than they are for low earth orbits.

  9. Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...

  10. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals. (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.


    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  11. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?" (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  12. Adopting Internet Standards for Orbital Use (United States)

    Wood, Lloyd; Ivancic, William; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Jackson, Chris; Stewart, Dave; Shell, Dave; Hodgson, Dave


    After a year of testing and demonstrating a Cisco mobile access router intended for terrestrial use onboard the low-Earth-orbiting UK-DMC satellite as part of a larger merged ground/space IP-based internetwork, we reflect on and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of integration and standards reuse for small satellite missions. Benefits include ease of operation and the ability to leverage existing systems and infrastructure designed for general use, as well as reuse of existing, known, and well-understood security and operational models. Drawbacks include cases where integration work was needed to bridge the gaps in assumptions between different systems, and where performance considerations outweighed the benefits of reuse of pre-existing file transfer protocols. We find similarities with the terrestrial IP networks whose technologies we have adopted and also some significant differences in operational models and assumptions that must be considered.

  13. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González


    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  14. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in advanced lithium-ion battery materials using high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering


    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun


    Abstract: Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delit...

  15. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Guerman


    Full Text Available We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  16. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster


    Guerman, Anna D.; Smirnov, Georgi V.; Pereira, Maria Cecilia


    We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  17. Research on orbit prediction for solar-based calibration proper satellite (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Qi, Wenwen; Xu, Peng


    Utilizing the mathematical model of the orbit mechanics, the orbit prediction is to forecast the space target's orbit information of a certain time based on the orbit of the initial moment. The proper satellite radiometric calibration and calibration orbit prediction process are introduced briefly. On the basis of the research of the calibration space position design method and the radiative transfer model, an orbit prediction method for proper satellite radiometric calibration is proposed to select the appropriate calibration arc for the remote sensor and to predict the orbit information of the proper satellite and the remote sensor. By analyzing the orbit constraint of the proper satellite calibration, the GF-1solar synchronous orbit is chose as the proper satellite orbit in order to simulate the calibration visible durance for different satellites to be calibrated. The results of simulation and analysis provide the basis for the improvement of the radiometric calibration accuracy of the satellite remote sensor, which lays the foundation for the high precision and high frequency radiometric calibration.

  18. Station Transfers (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  19. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  20. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations (United States)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.


    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  1. Angles-only relative orbit determination in low earth orbit (United States)

    Ardaens, Jean-Sébastien; Gaias, Gabriella


    The paper provides an overview of the angles-only relative orbit determination activities conducted to support the Autonomous Vision Approach Navigation and Target Identification (AVANTI) experiment. This in-orbit endeavor was carried out by the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) in autumn 2016 to demonstrate the capability to perform spaceborne autonomous close-proximity operations using solely line-of-sight measurements. The images collected onboard have been reprocessed by an independent on-ground facility for precise relative orbit determination, which served as ultimate instance to monitor the formation safety and to characterize the onboard navigation and control performances. During two months, several rendezvous have been executed, generating a valuable collection of images taken at distances ranging from 50 km to only 50 m. Despite challenging experimental conditions characterized by a poor visibility and strong orbit perturbations, angles-only relative positioning products could be continuously derived throughout the whole experiment timeline, promising accuracy at the meter level during the close approaches. The results presented in the paper are complemented with former angles-only experience gained with the PRISMA satellites to better highlight the specificities induced by different orbits and satellite designs.

  2. An Orbit Propagation Software for Mars Orbiting Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song


    Full Text Available An orbit propagation software for the Mars orbiting spacecraft has been developed and verified in preparations for the future Korean Mars missions. Dynamic model for Mars orbiting spacecraft has been studied, and Mars centered coordinate systems are utilized to express spacecraft state vectors. Coordinate corrections to the Mars centered coordinate system have been made to adjust the effects caused by Mars precession and nutation. After spacecraft enters Sphere of Influence (SOI of the Mars, the spacecraft experiences various perturbation effects as it approaches to Mars. Every possible perturbation effect is considered during integrations of spacecraft state vectors. The Mars50c gravity field model and the Mars-GRAM 2001 model are used to compute perturbation effects due to Mars gravity field and Mars atmospheric drag, respectively. To compute exact locations of other planets, JPL's DE405 ephemerides are used. Phobos and Deimos's ephemeris are computed using analytical method because their informations are not released with DE405. Mars Global Surveyor's mapping orbital data are used to verify the developed propagator performances. After one Martian day propagation (12 orbital periods, the results show about maximum ±5 meter errors, in every position state components(radial, cross-track and along-track, when compared to these from the Astrogator propagation in the Satellite Tool Kit. This result shows high reliability of the developed software which can be used to design near Mars missions for Korea, in future.

  3. Detecting a Subsurface Ocean From Periodic Orbits at Enceladus (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Russell, R. P.; Lara, M.


    from the tiger- stripes. Near-circular, low altitude highly inclined orbits with arbitrary initial conditions will impact Enceladus if uncontrolled in about 1 to 2 days. To reduce risk and station-keeping requirements we choose periodic orbits in the Hill's plus non-spherical Enceladus model. Despite the instability, the repeat ground track solutions represent equilibria in the dominant terms of the dynamics and therefore extend the uncontrolled lifetimes to ~7 to ~10 days. Round-trip transfers between the two orbital phases is expected to conservatively cost between ~50 and ~100 m/s. We use orbits of different altitudes and inclinations to simulate Earth-based ranging to the orbiter and altimeter measurements to the surface of Enceladus. The simulations are made assuming different tidal responses by adopting different values of the Love numbers. The synthetic measurements are then inverted and the tidal parameters h2 and k2 estimated. Results will be presented in terms of sensitivity of detection of Love numbers to the different orbital geometries. Indications will thus be provided for optimized orbit planning of future exploration missions aimed at investigating the internal structure of the satellite and the detection of its putative subcrustal ocean.

  4. Orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimoto T


    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Masahiro Tonari1, Norihiko Ishizaki1, Mitsuhiro Monta2, Saori Hirata2, Hidehiro Oku1, Jun Sugasawa1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shitennoji Hospital, Osaka, JapanAbstract: We report our findings for a patient with orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Our patient was initially admitted to a neighborhood hospital because of nausea and loss of appetite of 10 days' duration. The day after hospitalization, she developed skin vesicles along the first division of the trigeminal nerve, with severe lid swelling and conjunctival injection. On suspicion of meningoencephalitis caused by varicella zoster virus, antiviral therapy with vidarabine and betamethasone was started. Seventeen days later, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia developed in the right eye. The light reflex in the right eye was absent and anisocoria was present, with the right pupil larger than the left. Fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images showed high intensity areas in the muscle cone, cavernous sinus, and orbital optic nerve sheath. Our patient was diagnosed with orbital apex syndrome, and because of skin vesicles in the first division of the trigeminal nerve, the orbital apex syndrome was considered to be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. After the patient was transferred to our hospital, prednisolone 60 mg and vidarabine antiviral therapy was started, and fever and headaches disappeared five days later. The ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis, but not the anisocoria, gradually resolved during tapering of oral therapy. From the clinical findings and course, the cause of the orbital apex syndrome was most likely invasion of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus by the herpes virus through the trigeminal nerve ganglia.Keywords: varicella zoster virus, orbital apex syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complete ophthalmoplegia

  5. Heat transfer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviany, Massoud


    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  6. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system (United States)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the

  7. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.


    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  8. The method of coadjoint orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delius, G.W.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; Rodgers, V.G.J.


    The method of coadjoint orbits produces for any infinite dimensional Lie (super) algebra A with nontrivial central charge an action for scalar (super) fields which has at least the symmetry A. In this article, the authors try to make this method accessible to a larger audience by analyzing several examples in more detail than in the literature. After working through the Kac-Moody and Virasoro cases, we apply the method to the super Virasoro algebra and reobtain the super-symmetric extension of Polyakov's local nonpolynomial action for two-dimensional quantum gravity. As in the Virasoro case this action corresponds to the coadjoint orbit of a pure central extension. The authors further consider the actions corresponding to the other orbits of the super Virasoro algebra. As a new result the authors construct the actions for the N = 2 super Virasoro algebra

  9. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G


    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)

  10. MRI of orbital hydroxyapatite implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanders, A.E.; De Potter P.; Rao, V.M.; Tom, B.M.; Shields, C.L.; Shields, J.A.


    Our aim was to use MRI for the postsurgical assessment of a new form of integrated orbital implant composed of a porous calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite substrate. We studied ten patients 24-74 years of age who underwent enucleation and implantation of a hydroxyapatite ball; 5-13 months after surgery, each patient was examined by spin-echo MRI, with fat suppression and gadolinium enhancement. Fibrovascular ingrowth was demonstrated in all ten patients as areas of enhancement at the periphery of the hydroxyapatite sphere that extended to the center to a variable degree. The radiologist should aware of the MRI appearances of the coralline hydroxyapatite orbital implant since it is now widely used following enucleation. MRI is a useful means to determine successful incorporation of the substrate into the orbital tissues. The normal pattern of contrast enhancement should not be mistaken for recurrent tumor or infection. (orig.)

  11. Orbits on bodies of rotation (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    Orbits of small balls on revolutions solid shells are examined. Which velocity is necessary to stay in balance? The angular velocity remains constant. General revolution solid, revolution cone, revolution ellipsoid, ball, paraboloid and hyperboloid are treated. Chapter 1 represents the frictionless case. Chapter 2 deals with the friction case. The transformation from velocity to the belonging orbit height is calculated in chapter 3. In chapter 4 and 5 the macro revolution solids follow (without and with friction)is treated. The assumption of a homogeneous field is not possible here. The radial gravitational field must be used. In the last chapter we have orbits with non constant angular velocity that can be derived with the Lagrange-equations of the second kind in the frictionless case. Here is also possible to view different revolution solids. The book is recommended to all experimental-, theoretical and mathematical physicists. There is an english and a german edition.

  12. Orbital periods of recurrent novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.


    The class of recurrent novae (RN) with thermonuclear runaways contains only three systems (T Pyx, U Sco, and V394 CrA), for which no orbital periods are known. This paper presents a series of photometric observations where the orbital periods for all three systems are discovered. T Pyx is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.08 mag and a period of 2.3783 h (with a possible alias of 2.6403 h). U Sco is found to be an eclipsing system with an eclipse amplitude of roughly 1.5 mag and an orbital period of 1.2344 days. V394 CrA is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a period of 0.7577 days. Thus two out of three RN with thermonuclear runaways (or five out of six for all RN) have evolved companions. 16 refs

  13. MR imaging of orbital disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Ryuiti; Sakamoto, Yuji; Kojima, Ryutaro; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Maruoka, Syouko; Okamura, Ryoichi; Oguni, Tatsuro.


    Sixty five cases with orbital and ocular lesions were evaluated by MRI in comparison with high resolution CT. MRI was performed with spin echo techniques (short TR/TE and long TR/TE) using a 0.22 tesla resistive unit (Toshiba MRT-22A) or a 1.5 tesla superconductive unit (Siemens Magnetom). MRI was superior to CT in (1) detecting ocular lesions and vitreous changes, (2) differentiating a tumor from the adjacent extraocular muscles and optic nerves, (3) identifying the lesion in the orbital apex and demonstrating the posterior extent of the tumor and (4) detecting the abnormal flow in the orbital vascular structures. Although some tumors had specific signal intensities including hemangioma, menigioma, and pseudotumor, majority of tumors revealed non-sepcific signal intensities. CT was superior to MRI in detection for small and calcified lesions as well as visualization of bone details. (author).

  14. Mass transfer dynamics in double degenerate binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, M; Rosswog, S; Brueggen, M


    We present a numerical study of the mass transfer dynamics prior to the gravitational wave-driven merger of a double white dwarf system. Recently, there has been some discussion about the dynamics of these last stages, different methods seemed to provide qualitatively different results. While earlier SPH simulations indicated a very quick disruption of the binary on roughly the orbital time scale, more recent grid-based calculations find long-lived mass transfer for many orbital periods. Here we demonstrate how sensitive the dynamics of this last stage is to the exact initial conditions. We show that, after a careful preparation of the initial conditions, the reportedly short-lived systems undergo mass transfer for many dozens of orbits. The reported numbers of orbits are resolution-biased and therefore represent only lower limits to what is realized in nature. Nevertheless, the study shows convincingly the convergence of different methods to very similar results.

  15. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo


    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos

  16. Theory of orbital magnetoelectric response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malashevich, Andrei; Souza, Ivo; Coh, Sinisa; Vanderbilt, David


    We extend the recently developed theory of bulk orbital magnetization to finite electric fields, and use it to calculate the orbital magnetoelectric (ME) response of periodic insulators. Working in the independent-particle framework, we find that the finite-field orbital magnetization can be written as a sum of three gauge-invariant contributions, one of which has no counterpart at zero field. The extra contribution is collinear with and explicitly dependent on the electric field. The expression for the orbital magnetization is suitable for first-principles implementations, allowing one to calculate the ME response coefficients by numerical differentiation. Alternatively, perturbation-theory techniques may be used, and for that purpose we derive an expression directly for the linear ME tensor by taking the first field-derivative analytically. Two types of terms are obtained. One, the 'Chern-Simons' term, depends only on the unperturbed occupied orbitals and is purely isotropic. The other, 'Kubo' terms, involve the first-order change in the orbitals and give isotropic as well as anisotropic contributions to the response. In ordinary ME insulators all terms are generally present, while in strong Z 2 topological insulators only the Chern-Simons term is allowed, and is quantized. In order to validate the theory, we have calculated under periodic boundary conditions the linear ME susceptibility for a 3D tight-binding model of an ordinary ME insulator, using both the finite-field and perturbation-theory expressions. The results are in excellent agreement with calculations on bounded samples.

  17. Orbital computed tomography for exophthalmos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Hyun; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Since exophthalmos is caused by any decrease in the size of bony orbit or occurrence of mass within the rigid orbit, the accurate diagnosis of its causes are essential in determining the therapeutic aims. Exophthalmos is one of the important signs being the indication for orbital computed tomography along with periorbital swelling, visual loss, orbital trauma and diplopia. CT as the diagnostic tool for the cause of exophthalmos not only displays a superb role with uncomparable quality in comparison to any conventional diagnostic methods but also has a decisive role in determining the therapeutic aims and the appropriate operative method when the operation is indicated. The orbital CT was performed from May in 1983 to May in 1985 whose with chief complaints were exophthalmos and 23 cases were confirmed by operation, biopsy, clinical progression or other diagnostic procedures. Here was report thoroughly analyzed 23 cases. The results were as follows : 1. The etiologic disease of exophthalmos were 6 cases of pseudotumor, 4 cases of thyroid ophthalmopathy, 4 cases of maxill ary sinus and nasal cavity Ca., 3 cases of mucocele and 1 case of alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteoma, dermoid cyst, pleomorphic adenoma, meningioma, and C.C.F. each. 2. The origin of the etiologic diseases of exophthalmos were 13 cases of primary within bony orbit and 10 cases of secondary from adjacent structure. 3. The site of lesions were 11 cases of intraconal and extraconal, 10 cases of extraconal, and 2 cases of intraconal origin. 4. The degree of exophthalmos in CT scan was in proportion to the volume of the mass except in the case of thyroid ophthalmopathy. The upper limit of normal range by CT scan using regression line equation was 16.2 mm in approximation. 5. CT was a very useful diagnostic tool in the accurate assessment of the kinds of lesion, its location, and its relationship to adjacent structures in the diagnosis of etiologic diseases of exophthalmos.

  18. Technology Transfer (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.


    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  19. GLONASS orbit/clock combination in VNIIFTRI (United States)

    Bezmenov, I.; Pasynok, S.


    An algorithm and a program for GLONASS satellites orbit/clock combination based on daily precise orbits submitted by several Analytic Centers were developed. Some theoretical estimates for combine orbit positions RMS were derived. It was shown that under condition that RMS of satellite orbits provided by the Analytic Centers during a long time interval are commensurable the RMS of combine orbit positions is no greater than RMS of other satellite positions estimated by any of the Analytic Centers.

  20. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy (United States)

    Colombo, Oscar L.


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  1. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú


    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  2. Orbital resonances around black holes. (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja


    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  3. Orbital effects in actinide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.


    Actinide magnetism presents a number of important challenges; in particular, the proximity of 5f band to the Fermi energy gives rise to strong interaction with both d and s like conduction electrons, and the extended nature of the 5f electrons means that they can interact with electron orbitals from neighboring atoms. Theory has recently addressed these problems. Often neglected, however, is the overwhelming evidence for large orbital contributions to the magnetic properties of actinides. Some experimental evidence for these effects are presented briefly in this paper. They point, clearly incorrectly, to a very localized picture for the 5f electrons. This dichotomy only enhances the nature of the challenge

  4. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  5. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  6. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  7. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  8. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit (United States)

    Nettles, Bill


    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  9. A plasma solenoid driven by an Orbital Angular Momentum laser beam


    Nuter, R.; Korneev, Ph.; Thiele, I.; Tikhonchuk, V.


    A tens of Tesla quasi-static axial magnetic field can be produced in the interaction of a short intense laser beam carrying an Orbital Angular Momentum with an underdense plasma. Three-dimensional "Particle In Cell" simulations and analytical model demonstrate that orbital angular momentum is transfered from a tightly focused radially polarized laser beam to electrons without any dissipative effect. A theoretical model describing the balistic interaction of electrons with laser shows that par...

  10. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.


    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  11. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengpin; Gao Yunfeng; Li Junfeng


    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable. A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel. Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design. This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius. The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization. An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables, which are normalized within a unit sphere. The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit. A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories. For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist, first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions. The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration. For a solar sail with a small lightness number, the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory. The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results. The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  12. Orbital computed tomography: technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Miller, N.R.


    Computed tomographic scanning has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of orbital disease. The best use of this methodology requires knowledge of the principles and appropriate attention to scanning protocols. Computed tomographic scanning of the orbit is a demanding technique requiring thin sections through planes precisely positioned from the topographical anatomy. Ideally, orbital CT should include both transverse axial and coronal sections: The pathological condition and its plane of growth will influence the selection of the optimal plane or section. Coronal sections may be obtained either directly or indirectly by computer reconstruction from contiguous transverse images. Sagittal or oblique sections or both also are useful and may be obtained directly or indirectly. Difficulty in patient positioning may preclude direct sagittal imaging, however. The use of intravenous contrast enhancement is not necessary as a routine technique unless a mass is identified or suspected. Where surgical resection or biopsy of a space-occupying lesion is contemplated, contrast enhancement can be valuable in assessing relative vascularity and aiding diagnostic specificity. It should be continually emphasized that CT is a powerful technology which, in orbital diagnosis, produces the highest yield when clinician and radiologist collaborate in the radiodiagnostic workup. The clinical information supplied by the referring ophthalmologist is used by the radiologist both in the selection of the appropriate techniques for investigation and in striving to achieve the most specific conclusion

  13. Getting a Crew into Orbit (United States)

    Riddle, Bob


    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  14. Closed orbit analysis for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.


    We examine the effects of four types of errors in the RHIC dipoles and quadrupoles on the on-momentum closed orbit in the machine. We use PATRIS both to handle statistically the effects of kick-modeled errors and to check the performance of the Fermilab correcting scheme in a framework of a more realistic modeling. On the basis of the accepted rms values of the lattice errors, we conclude that in about 40% of all studied cases the lattice must be to some extent pre-corrected in the framework of the so-called ''first turn around strategy,'' in order to get a closed orbit within the aperture limitations at all and, furthermore, for approximately 2/3 of the remaining cases we find that a single pass algorithm of the Fermilab scheme is not sufficient to bring closed orbit distortions down to acceptable levels. We have modified the scheme and have allowed repeated applications of the otherwise unchanged three bump method and in doing so we have been able to correct the orbit in a satisfactory manner. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.


    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. ABSTRAC"H". Congenital orbital teratomas are rare. This is a case report of an otherwise .... aspirate showed fairly cloudy, blood-tinged straw- coloured fluid with no malignant cells or organisms. Two histopathology reports of 3cm/ ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Australian Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  18. Orbital meningioma, the Utrecht experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, Maarten Ph.; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem


    AIMS. 1) To evaluate epidemiological data (age, gender, initial complaints, and ophthalmic findings) of a patient cohort with a primary or secondary orbital meningioma. 2) To evaluate the clinical course of these patients. 3) To evaluate the outcome of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS. All

  19. Targeting Ballistic Lunar Capture Trajectories Using Periodic Orbits in the Sun-Earth CRTBP (United States)

    Cooley, D.S.; Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar


    A particular periodic orbit in the Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is shown to have the characteristics needed for a ballistic lunar capture transfer. An injection from a circular parking orbit into the periodic orbit serves as an initial guess for a targeting algorithm. By targeting appropriate parameters incrementally in increasingly complicated force models and using precise derivatives calculated from the state transition matrix, a reliable algorithm is produced. Ballistic lunar capture trajectories in restricted four body systems are shown to be able to be produced in a systematic way.

  20. Broadening of ICRH produced fast ion profiles due to orbit effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.-G.; Porcelli, F.


    In the JET tokamak, minority ions accelerated by ICRH reach energies in the MeV range. Near the plasma magnetic axis, the standard trapped particle ''banana'' orbit is distorted into a ''potato'' or ''fat banana'' orbit. The zero banana width approximation which is used in most Fokker-Planck calculations of velocity distributions of resonating ions is often not valid in JET. The inclusion of finite banana width effects will, in general, lead to a lowering of the averaged tail energy and a broadening of pressure profiles, power transfer profiles etc. A model for calculating orbit broadened profiles is presented. (Author)

  1. Spin torque on the surface of graphene in the presence of spin orbit splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen


    Full Text Available We study theoretically the spin transfer torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to (deposited onto a graphene surface in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC. We show that the RSOC induces an effective magnetic field, which will result in the spin precession of conduction electrons. We derive correspondingly the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation, which describes the precessional motion of local magnetization under the influence of the spin orbit effect. Our theoretical estimate indicates that the spin orbit spin torque may have significant effect on the magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic layer coupled to the graphene surface.

  2. Subdecoherence time generation and detection of orbital entanglement in quantum dots. (United States)

    Brange, F; Malkoc, O; Samuelsson, P


    Recent experiments have demonstrated subdecoherence time control of individual single-electron orbital qubits. Here we propose a quantum-dot-based scheme for generation and detection of pairs of orbitally entangled electrons on a time scale much shorter than the decoherence time. The electrons are entangled, via two-particle interference, and transferred to the detectors during a single cotunneling event, making the scheme insensitive to charge noise. For sufficiently long detector dot lifetimes, cross-correlation detection of the dot charges can be performed with real-time counting techniques, providing for an unambiguous short-time Bell inequality test of orbital entanglement.

  3. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm. (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A


    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  4. The Orbit of X Persei and Its Neutron Star Companion (United States)

    Delgado-Martí, Hugo; Levine, Alan M.; Pfahl, Eric; Rappaport, Saul A.


    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Pulse timing analyses of the 837 s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We infer that the orbit is characterized by a period Porb=250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star axsini=454 lt-s, a mass function f(M)=1.61 Msolar, and a modest eccentricity e=0.11. The measured orbital parameters, together with the known properties of the classical Be star X Per, imply a semimajor axis a=1.8-2.2 AU and an orbital inclination i~26deg-33deg. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass probability of a system like that of X Per forming with an orbital eccentricity e<~0.11. We speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick. Finally, we discuss the connected topics of the wide orbit and accretion by the neutron star from a stellar wind.

  5. The globe and orbit in Laron syndrome. (United States)

    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Lilos, P; Laron, Z


    Patients with LS have an inborn growth hormone resistance, resulting in failure to generate IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of the eye and orbit in LS. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging of the brain in 9 patients with LS for the following parameters: axial diameter of the globe, interzygomatic distance, perpendicular distance from the interzygomatic line to margins of the globe, medial-to-lateral diameter of the orbit at the anterior orbital rim, distance from the anterior orbital rim to the anterior globe, maximal distance between the medial walls of the orbits, lateral orbital wall angle, lateral orbital wall length, and mediolateral thickness of the intraorbital fat in the most cranial image of the orbit. All measurements were made bilaterally. Twenty patients referred for MR imaging for unrelated reasons served as control subjects. Compared with the control group, the patients with LS had a significantly smaller maximal globe diameter and shallower but wider orbits due to a shorter lateral wall, a smaller medial distance between the orbits, and a larger angle of the orbit. The ratio between the most anterior orbital diameter and the globe was greater than that in controls. The position of the globe was more anterior in relation to the interzygomatic line. Shallow and wide orbits and small globes relative to orbital size are seen in LS and may be secondary to IGF-1 deficiency.

  6. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ye, Huanchun; Breizman, B.N.


    The linear response of energetic particles to the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width: when the banana width triangle b is much larger than the mode thickness triangle m , we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When triangle m /triangle b much-lt 1, the banana orbit effect reduces the power transfer by a factor of triangle m /triangle b from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balance-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (|υ parallel | = υ A is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (|υ parallel |) = υ A /(2 ell - 1) with ell ≥ 2) is substantially reduced. 10 refs

  7. Manipulation and application of orbital ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhigao; Sun Yuping


    Under certain conditions, the orbits of the outmost shell electrons in strong correlated materials can be localized in order, which gives birth to so-called orbital ordering. During the construction or destruction of the orbital ordering, strongly correlated materials show fruitful quantum critical phenomena with great potential for future applications. We first present the mechanism for the construction of orbital ordering. Then, some physical properties associated with orbits are discussed. Finally, we emphasize the key points and progress in the research of orbital ordering controlling. (authors)

  8. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de

  9. Orbital floor reconstruction with free flaps after maxillectomy. (United States)

    Sampathirao, Leela Mohan C S R; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Duraisamy, Sriprakash; Hedne, Naveen; Sharma, Mohit; Mathew, Jimmy; Iyer, Subramania


    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of orbital floor reconstruction with free flaps after maxillectomy. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 34 consecutive patients who underwent maxillectomy with orbital floor removal for malignancies, reconstructed with free flaps. A cross-sectional survey to assess the functional and esthetic outcome was done in 28 patients who were alive and disease-free, with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Results Twenty-six patients had bony reconstruction, and eight had soft tissue reconstruction. Free fibula flap was the commonest flap used (n = 14). Visual acuity was normal in 86%. Eye movements were normal in 92%. Abnormal globe position resulted in nine patients. Esthetic satisfaction was good in 19 patients (68%). Though there was no statistically significant difference in outcome of visual acuity, eye movement, and patient esthetic satisfaction between patients with bony and soft tissue reconstruction, more patients without bony reconstruction had abnormal globe position (p = 0.040). Conclusion Free tissue transfer has improved the results of orbital floor reconstruction after total maxillectomy, preserving the eye. Good functional and esthetic outcome was achieved. Though our study favors a bony orbital reconstruction, a larger study with adequate power and equal distribution of patients among the groups would be needed to determine this. Free fibula flap remains the commonest choice when a bony reconstruction is contemplated.

  10. Magneto-Spin-Orbit Graphene: Interplay between Exchange and Spin-Orbit Couplings. (United States)

    Rybkin, Artem G; Rybkina, Anna A; Otrokov, Mikhail M; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Klimovskikh, Ilya I; Petukhov, Anatoly E; Filianina, Maria V; Voroshnin, Vladimir Yu; Rusinov, Igor P; Ernst, Arthur; Arnau, Andrés; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Shikin, Alexander M


    A rich class of spintronics-relevant phenomena require implementation of robust magnetism and/or strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to graphene, but both properties are completely alien to it. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate that a quasi-freestanding character, strong exchange splitting and giant SOC are perfectly achievable in graphene at once. Using angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the Dirac state in the Au-intercalated graphene on Co(0001) experiences giant splitting (up to 0.2 eV) while being by no means distorted due to interaction with the substrate. Our calculations, based on the density functional theory, reveal the splitting to stem from the combined action of the Co thin film in-plane exchange field and Au-induced Rashba SOC. Scanning tunneling microscopy data suggest that the peculiar reconstruction of the Au/Co(0001) interface is responsible for the exchange field transfer to graphene. The realization of this "magneto-spin-orbit" version of graphene opens new frontiers for both applied and fundamental studies using its unusual electronic bandstructure.

  11. Transfer Zymography. (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna


    The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.

  12. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.


    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  13. Spin-orbit-coupling induced torque in ballistic domain walls: Equivalence of charge-pumping and nonequilibrium magnetization formalisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.; Kelly, Paul J.


    To study the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on spin-transfer torque in magnetic materials, we have implemented two theoretical formalisms that can accommodate SOC. Using the “charge-pumping” formalism, we find two contributions to the out-of-plane spin-transfer torque parameter β in ballistic

  14. Pursuit/evasion in orbit (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lutze, F. H.


    Maneuvers available to a spacecraft having sufficient propellant to escape an antisatellite satellite (ASAT) attack are examined. The ASAT and the evading spacecraft are regarded as being in circular orbits, and equations of motion are developed for the ASAT to commence a two-impulse maneuver sequence. The ASAT employs thrust impulses which yield a minimum-time-to-rendezvous, considering available fuel. Optimal evasion is shown to involve only in-plane maneuvers, and begins as soon as the ASAT launch information is gathered and thrust activation can be initiated. A closest approach, along with a maximum evasion by the target spacecraft, is calculated to be 14,400 ft. Further research to account for ASATs in parking orbit and for generalization of a continuous control-modeled differential game is indicated.

  15. Neutron stars with orbiting light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.


    There is a wide-spread belief in the literature of relativistic astrophysics concerning nonsingular final states of the stellar evolution: the external gravitational field of a physically nonsingular central symmetric body (e.g. a neutron star) is asymptotically empty and simple, i.e. there are no closed or trapped light-like causal geodesics. Present paper shows that this belief is false: some examples are presented for nonsingular bodies with various equations of state, around which there are closed light-like trajectories: 'orbiting light'. The reality of the used equations of state is discussed in detail. Present state of particle physics does not establish the existence of matter with such equations of state, but the hypothetical subquark level of matter may have such equation of state, thus 'subquark-stars' may exist with orbiting light around them. So the criterion of 'nonsingularity' must be further analyzed and accurately defined. (D.Gy.) 24 refs.; 5 figs

  16. Orbit monitoring in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Emma, P.; Van Olst, D.


    Beam orbits in the SLC are monitored in real time and the data is stored for future trend and correlation analysis. A background process acquires Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and Toroid data on a periodic basis and saves the general quantities such as orbit RMS and beam intensity in addition to the individual readings. Some of this data is archived by the SLC History Buffer facility and the rest is saved in files for later analysis. This has permitted the tracing of interaction point instabilities to specific devices as far away as the damping rings. In addition, the data is displayed for the operators both in summary and in full form. The different displays can be configured from the control consoles. 2 refs., 5 figs

  17. [Orbital decompression in Grave's ophtalmopathy]. (United States)

    Longueville, E


    Graves disease orbitopathy is a complex progressive inflammatory disease. Medical treatment remains in all cases the proposed treatment of choice. Surgical treatment by bone decompression can be considered as an emergency mainly in cases of optic neuropathy or ocular hypertension not being controlled medically or in post-traumatic exophthalmos stage. Emergency bone decompression eliminates compression or stretching of the optic nerve allowing visual recovery. The uncontrolled ocular hypertension will benefit from decompression. The normalization of intraocular pressure may be obtained by this surgery or if needed by the use of postoperative antiglaucoma drops or even filtration surgery. In all operated cases, the IOP was normalized with an average decrease of 7.71 mmHg and a cessation of eye drops in 3/7 cases. Regarding sequelae, our therapeutic strategy involves consecutively surgery of the orbit, extraocular muscles and eyelids. The orbital expansion gives excellent results on the cosmetic level and facilitates the implementation of subsequent actions.

  18. Robustness analysis method for orbit control (United States)

    Zhang, Jingrui; Yang, Keying; Qi, Rui; Zhao, Shuge; Li, Yanyan


    Satellite orbits require periodical maintenance due to the presence of perturbations. However, random errors caused by inaccurate orbit determination and thrust implementation may lead to failure of the orbit control strategy. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the robustness of the orbit control methods. Feasible strategies which are tolerant to errors of a certain magnitude can be developed to perform reliable orbit control for the satellite. In this paper, first, the orbital dynamic model is formulated by Gauss' form of the planetary equation using the mean orbit elements; the atmospheric drag and the Earth's non-spherical perturbations are taken into consideration in this model. Second, an impulsive control strategy employing the differential correction algorithm is developed to maintain the satellite trajectory parameters in given ranges. Finally, the robustness of the impulsive control method is analyzed through Monte Carlo simulations while taking orbit determination error and thrust error into account.

  19. Management of ocular, orbital, and adnexal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoor, T.C.; Nesi, F.A.


    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Ruptured Globe: Primary Care; Corneal Trauma, Endophthalmitis; Antibiotic Usage; Radiology of Orbital Trauma; Maxillofacial Fractures; Orbital Infections; and Basic Management of Soft Tissue Injury

  20. Dynamique des orbites fortement elliptiques


    Lion , Guillaume


    Most of the orbits of artificial satellites around the Earth have relatively low eccentricities. The calculation of their trajectories is very well under control, either by means of numerical methods when it comes to focus on accuracy and comparing observations, or either through analytical or semi-analytical theories to optimize the speed of calculations. This second category is used, in particular, for computing many long-term trajectories that could help to ensure the security and safety o...

  1. Superbanana orbits in stellarator geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.A.; Shohet, J.L.


    The presence of superbanana orbit types localized to either the interior or the exterior of stellarators and torsatrons is numerically investigated for 3.5 MeV alpha particles. The absence of the interior superbanana in both geometries is found to be due to non-conservation of the action. Exterior superbananas are found in the stellarator only, as a consequence of the existence of closed helical magnetic wells. No superbananas of either type are found in the torsatron

  2. Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Bakri, Moug; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Thomsen, Carsten


    were retrospectively analyzed. Thirteen patients imaged for unilateral orbital fractures served as controls. Results. The retrobulbar muscle volume was 2.1 ± 0.5 cm(3) (mean ± SD) in controls, 4.3 ± 1.5 cm(3) in GO without DON, and 4.7 ± 1.7 cm(3) in GO with DON. The retrobulbar fat volume was 5.4 ± 1...

  3. Aeroassisted orbital maneuvering using Lyapunov optimal feedback control (United States)

    Grantham, Walter J.; Lee, Byoung-Soo


    A Liapunov optimal feedback controller incorporating a preferred direction of motion at each state of the system which is opposite to the gradient of a specified descent function is developed for aeroassisted orbital transfer from high-earth orbit to LEO. The performances of the Liapunov controller and a calculus-of-variations open-loop minimum-fuel controller, both of which are based on the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere, are simulated using both the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere and an atmosphere corresponding to the STS-6 Space Shuttle flight. In the STS-6 atmosphere, the calculus-of-variations open-loop controller fails to exit the atmosphere, while the Liapunov controller achieves the optimal minimum-fuel conditions, despite the + or - 40 percent fluctuations in the STS-6 atmosphere.

  4. CryoSat/SIRAL Cal1 Calibration Orbits (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso


    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for SAR processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution that is significantly improved with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In fact, not only corrections for transfer function, gain and instrument path delay have to be computed (as in previous altimeters), but also corrections for phase (SAR/SARIn) and phase difference between the two receiving chains (SARIN only). Recalling that the CryoSat's orbit has a high inclination of 92° and it is non-sun-synchronous, the temperature of the SIRAL changes continuously along the orbit with a period of about 480 days and it is also function of the ascending/descending passes. By analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections, it has been verified that the internal path delay and the instrument gain variation measured on the SIRAL are affected by the thermal status of the instrument and as a consequence they are expected to vary along the orbit. In order to gain knowledge on the calibration corrections (i.e. the instrument behavior) as function of latitude and temperature, it has been planned to command a few number of orbits where only CAL1 calibration acquisitions are continuously performed. The analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections produced along the Calibration orbits can be also useful to verify whether the current calibration plan is able to provide sufficiently accurate corrections for the instrument acquisitions at any latitude. In 2016, the CryoSat/SIRAL Cal1 Calibration Orbits have been commanded two times, a first time the 20th of July 2016 and a second time the 24th of November 2016, and they

  5. A new kinematical definition of orbital eccentricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.


    Full Text Available A new concept of orbital eccentricity is given. The dimensionless quantities proposed in the present paper to serve as orbital eccentricities have a kinematical nature. The purpose is to use them in describing the motion for the case of three-dimensional orbits. A comparison done for nearly planar orbits shows that the values of the eccentricities proposed here do not differ significantly from those corresponding to the eccentricities of geometric nature usually applied.

  6. An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data


    Rovetto, Robert J.


    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to ...

  7. Algorithms for orbit control on SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.; Keeley, D.; Hettel, R.; Linscott, I.; Sebek, J.


    A global orbit feedback system has been installed on SPEAR to help stabilize the position of the photon beams. The orbit control algorithms depend on either harmonic reconstruction of the orbit or eigenvector decomposition. The orbit motion is corrected by dipole corrector kicks determined from the inverse corrector-to-bpm response matrix. This paper outlines features of these control algorithms as applied to SPEAR

  8. Quantum maps from transfer operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Carioli, M.


    The Selberg zeta function ζ S (s) yields an exact relationship between the periodic orbits of a fully chaotic Hamiltonian system (the geodesic flow on surfaces of constant negative curvature) and the corresponding quantum system (the spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the same manifold). It was found that for certain manifolds, ζ S (s) can be exactly rewritten as the Fredholm-Grothendieck determinant det(1-T s ), where T s is a generalization of the Ruelle-Perron-Frobenius transfer operator. An alternative derivation of this result is given, yielding a method to find not only the spectrum but also the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in terms of eigenfunctions of T s . Various properties of the transfer operator are investigated both analytically and numerically for several systems. (author) 30 refs.; 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. On the Lack of Circumbinary Planets Orbiting Isolated Binary Stars (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Barnes, Rory; Graham, David E.; Luger, Rodrigo; Quinn, Thomas R.


    We outline a mechanism that explains the observed lack of circumbinary planets (CBPs) via coupled stellar–tidal evolution of isolated binary stars. Tidal forces between low-mass, short-period binary stars on the pre-main sequence slow the stellar rotations transferring rotational angular momentum to the orbit as the stars approach the tidally locked state. This transfer increases the binary orbital period, expanding the region of dynamical instability around the binary, and destabilizing CBPs that tend to preferentially orbit just beyond the initial dynamical stability limit. After the stars tidally lock, we find that angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking can significantly shrink the binary orbit, and hence the region of dynamical stability, over time, impacting where surviving CBPs are observed relative to the boundary. We perform simulations over a wide range of parameter space and find that the expansion of the instability region occurs for most plausible initial conditions and that, in some cases, the stability semimajor axis doubles from its initial value. We examine the dynamical and observable consequences of a CBP falling within the dynamical instability limit by running N-body simulations of circumbinary planetary systems and find that, typically, at least one planet is ejected from the system. We apply our theory to the shortest-period Kepler binary that possesses a CBP, Kepler-47, and find that its existence is consistent with our model. Under conservative assumptions, we find that coupled stellar–tidal evolution of pre-main sequence binary stars removes at least one close-in CBP in 87% of multi-planet circumbinary systems.

  10. Traumatic orbital encephalocele: Presentation and imaging. (United States)

    Wei, Leslie A; Kennedy, Tabassum A; Paul, Sean; Wells, Timothy S; Griepentrog, Greg J; Lucarelli, Mark J


    Traumatic orbital encephalocele is a rare but severe complication of orbital roof fractures. We describe 3 cases of orbital encephalocele due to trauma in children. Retrospective case series from the University of Wisconsin - Madison and Medical College of Wisconsin. Three cases of traumatic orbital encephalocele in pediatric patients were found. The mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident in 2 patients and accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound in 1 patient. All 3 patients sustained orbital roof fractures (4 mm to 19 mm in width) and frontal lobe contusions with high intracranial pressure. A key finding in all 3 cases was progression of proptosis and globe displacement 4 to 11 days after initial injury. On initial CT, all were diagnosed with extraconal hemorrhage adjacent to the roof fractures, with subsequent enlargement of the mass and eventual diagnosis of encephalocele. Orbital encephalocele is a severe and sight-threatening complication of orbital roof fractures. Post-traumatic orbital encephalocele can be challenging to diagnose on CT as patients with this condition often have associated orbital and intracranial hematoma, which can be difficult to distinguish from herniated brain tissue. When there is a high index of suspicion for encephalocele, an MRI of the orbits and brain with contrast should be obtained for additional characterization. Imaging signs that should raise suspicion for traumatic orbital encephalocele include an enlarging heterogeneous orbital mass in conjunction with a roof fracture and/or widening fracture segments.

  11. [1012.5676] The Exoplanet Orbit Database (United States)

    : The Exoplanet Orbit Database Authors: Jason T Wright, Onsi Fakhouri, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Eunkyu Han present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets

  12. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  13. The orbital record in stratigraphy (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.


    Orbital signals are being discovered in pre-Pleistocene sediments. Due to their hierarchical nature these cycle patterns are complex, and the imprecision of geochronology generally makes the assignment of stratigraphic cycles to specific orbital cycles uncertain, but in sequences such as the limnic Newark Group under study by Olsen and pelagic Cretaceous sequence worked on by our Italo-American group the relative frequencies yield a definitive match to the Milankovitch hierarchy. Due to the multiple ways in which climate impinges on depositional systems, the orbital signals are recorded in a multiplicity of parameters, and affect different sedimentary facies in different ways. In platform carbonates, for example, the chief effect is via sea-level variations (possibly tied to fluctuating ice volume), resulting in cycles of emergence and submergence. In limnic systems it finds its most dramatic expression in alternations of lake and playa conditions. Biogenic pelagic oozes such as chalks and the limestones derived from them display variations in the carbonate supplied by planktonic organisms such as coccolithophores and foraminifera, and also record variations in the aeration of bottom waters. Whereas early studies of stratigraphic cyclicity relied mainly on bedding variations visible in the field, present studies are supplementing these with instrumental scans of geochemical, paleontological, and geophysical parameters which yield quantitative curves amenable to time-series analysis; such analysis is, however, limited by problems of distorted time-scales. My own work has been largely concentrated on pelagic systems. In these, the sensitivity of pelagic organisms to climatic-oceanic changes, combined with the sensitivity of botton life to changes in oxygen availability (commonly much more restricted in the Past than now) has left cyclic patterns related to orbital forcing. These systems are further attractive because (1) they tend to offer depositional continuity

  14. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  15. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.


    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  16. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail:; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)


    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  17. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik


    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset

  18. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.


    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Similarity in Bilateral Isolated Internal Orbital Fractures. (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Chang; Cox, Jacob T; Sanyal, Abanti; Mahoney, Nicholas R


    In evaluating patients sustaining bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures, the authors have observed both similar fracture locations and also similar expansion of orbital volumes. In this study, we aim to investigate if there is a propensity for the 2 orbits to fracture in symmetrically similar patterns when sustaining similar trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed studying all cases at our institution of bilateral isolated internal orbital fractures involving the medial wall and/or the floor at the time of presentation. The similarity of the bilateral fracture locations was evaluated using the Fisher's exact test. The bilateral expanded orbital volumes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess for orbital volume similarity. Twenty-four patients with bilateral internal orbital fractures were analyzed for fracture location similarity. Seventeen patients (70.8%) had 100% concordance in the orbital subregion fractured, and the association between the right and the left orbital fracture subregion locations was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Fifteen patients were analyzed for orbital volume similarity. The average orbital cavity volume was 31.2 ± 3.8 cm on the right and 32.0 ± 3.7 cm on the left. There was a statistically significant difference between right and left orbital cavity volumes (P = 0.0026). The data from this study suggest that an individual who suffers isolated bilateral internal orbital fractures has a statistically significant similarity in the location of their orbital fractures. However, there does not appear to be statistically significant similarity in the expansion of the orbital volumes in these patients.

  20. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.


    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  1. Orbital storage and supply of subcritical liquid nitrogen (United States)

    Aydelott, John C.


    Subcritical cryogenic fluid management has long been recognized as an enabling technology for key propulsion applications, such as space transfer vehicles (STV) and the on-orbit cryogenic fuel depots which will provide STV servicing capability. The LeRC Cryogenic Fluids Technology Office (CFTO), under the sponsorship of OAST, has the responsibility of developing the required technology via a balanced program involving analytical modeling, ground based testing, and in-space experimentation. Topics covered in viewgraph form include: cryogenic management technologies; nitrogen storage and supply; cryogenic nitrogen cooling capability; and LN2 system demonstration technical objectives.

  2. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George


    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  3. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking (United States)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.


    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  4. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.


    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  5. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi


    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  6. Orbiter fuel cell improvement assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.


    The history of fuel cells and the theory of fuel cells is given. Expressions for thermodynamic and electrical efficiencies are developed. The voltage losses due to electrode activation, ohmic resistance and ionic diffusion are discussed. Present limitations of the Orbiter Fuel Cell, as well as proposed enhancements, are given. These enhancements are then evaluated and recommendations are given for fuel cell enhancement both for short-range as well as long-range performance improvement. Estimates of reliability and cost savings are given for enhancements where possible

  7. On-Orbit Software Analysis (United States)

    Moran, Susanne I.


    The On-Orbit Software Analysis Research Infusion Project was done by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC). The Project was a joint collaborative effort between NASA Codes IC and SL, Kestrel Technology (Kestrel), and Intrinsyx. The primary objectives of the Project were: Discovery and verification of software program properties and dependencies, Detection and isolation of software defects across different versions of software, and Compilation of historical data and technical expertise for future applications

  8. Propagation of orbital angular momentum carrying beams through a perturbing medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaibi, A


    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum of light has been suggested as a means of information transfer over free-space, yet the detected optical vortex is known to be sensitive to perturbation. Such effects have been studied theoretically, in particular...

  9. The Sturmian expansion: A well-depth-method for orbitals in a deformed potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.M.; Vaagen, J.S.


    The Sturmian expansion method has over the years successfully been used to generate orbitals in a deformed potential. In this paper we review the method in detail including more recent extentions. The convergence properties are discussed in terms of examples of current interest for nucleon-transfer reactions. Comparisons with other methods are also made. (orig.)

  10. Neutron orbital radii in {sup 13} C; Radios orbitales neutronicos en {sup 13} C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.J.; Avila, O.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this work its were carried out experimental measurements of the reaction {sup 12}C(d,p) {sup 13}C at low energy. Preliminary results of a DWBA analysis of the data are presented, and the possibility of using this reaction to obtain the orbital radius of the transferred neutron is investigated. (Author)

  11. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program (United States)


    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  12. Military Applications of High-Altitude Satellite Orbits in a Multi-Body Dynamical Environment Using Numerical Methods and Dynamical Systems Theory (United States)


    around a libration point in the Earth -Moon system are used as unpredictable transfer pathways when traveling from one Earth orbit to another...spacecraft traveling from one Earth orbit to another in a multi- body environment, as well as characterizing the potential motions in the vicinity inspiring account of how using the gravity of the Moon assisted in placing the satellite in a favorable Earth orbit after a rocket malfunction left

  13. Intraosseous hemangioma of the orbit. (United States)

    Choi, June Seok; Bae, Yong Chan; Kang, Gyu Bin; Choi, Kyung-Un


    Intraosseous hemangioma is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for 1% or fewer of all osseous tumors. The most common sites of its occurrence are the vertebral column and calvaria. Occurrence in a facial bone is very rare. The authors aim to report a case of the surgical treatment of intraosseous hemangioma occurring in the periorbital region, which is a very rare site of occurrence and to introduce our own experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of this condition along with a literature review. A 73-year-old male patient visited our hospital with the chief complaint of a mass touching the left orbital rim. A biopsy was performed by applying a direct incision after local anesthesia. Eventually, intraosseous hemangioma was diagnosed histologically. To fully resect the mass, the orbital floor and zygoma were exposed through a subciliary incision under general anesthesia, and then the tumor was completely eliminated. Bony defect was reconstructed by performing a seventh rib bone graft. Follow-up observation has so far been conducted for 10 months after surgery without recurrence or symptoms.

  14. Chaotic Transport in Circumterrestrial Orbits (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron Jay


    The slow deformation of circumterrestrial orbits in the medium region, subject to lunisolar secular resonances, is well approximated by a Hamiltonian system with 2.5 degrees of freedom. This dynamical model is referred to in the astrophysical and celestial dynamics communities as the quadrupolar, secular, hierarchical three-body problem, and, in the non-autonomous case, gives rise to the classical Kozai-Lidov mechanism. In the time-dependent model, brought about in our case by the Moon's perturbed motion, the action variables of the system may experience chaotic variations and large drifts due to the possible overlap of nearby resonances. Using variational chaos indicators, we compute high-resolution portraits of the action space, revealing the existence of tori and structures filling chaotic regions. Our refined and elaborate calculations allow us to isolate precise initial conditions near specific areas of interest and to study their asymptotic behavior in time. We highlight in particular how the drift in phase space is mediated by the complement of the numerically detected KAM tori. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors, and, like the small body remnants of Solar system formation, they have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  15. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.


    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  16. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Namba, Yuzaburo; Koshima, Isao; Ida, Kentaro; Kanazawa, Susumu


    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  17. A Preliminary Formation Flying Orbit Dynamics Analysis for Leonardo-BRDF (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Mailhe, Laurie M.


    Leonardo-BRDF is a NASA mission concept proposed to allow the investigation of radiative transfer and its effect on the Earth's climate and atmospheric phenomenon. Enabled by the recent developments in small-satellite and formation flying technology, the mission is envisioned to be composed of an array of spacecraft in carefully designed orbits. The different perspectives provided by a distributed array of spacecraft offer a unique advantage to study the Earth's albedo. This paper presents the orbit dynamics analysis performed in the context of the Leonardo-BRDF science requirements. First, the albedo integral is investigated and the effect of viewing geometry on science return is studied. The method used in this paper, based on Gauss quadrature, provides the optimal formation geometry to ensure that the value of the integral is accurately approximated. An orbit design approach is presented to achieve specific relative orbit geometries while simultaneously satisfying orbit dynamics constraints to reduce formation-keeping fuel expenditure. The relative geometry afforded by the design is discussed in terms of mission requirements. An optimal two-burn initialization scheme is presented with the required delta-V to distribute all spacecraft from a common parking orbit into their appropriate orbits in the formation. Finally, formation-keeping strategies are developed and the associated delta-V's are calculated to maintain the formation in the presence of perturbations.

  18. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.


    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  19. Finite Orbit Width Features in the CQL3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Y. V.; Harvey, R., E-mail: [CompX, Del Mar (United States)


    Full text: The CQL3D Fokker-Planck equation solver is being upgraded to allow for the Finite-Orbit- Width (FOW) capabilities, which will provide an accurate description for a neoclassical transport, losses to the walls, and transfer of particles, momentum, and heat to the scrape-off layer. Two different options are discussed for implementing the FOW capabilities. In one option, the Fokker-Planck equation is solved for the distribution function of orbits centered around given flux surface; in the other, the equation is solved for the local distribution function at the outer-most point of flux surface at the midplane. Both options use a fast lookup table that allows characterization of orbits without actually tracing them. The lookup table, in effect, performs mapping from the Constants-Of-Motion space onto the (R{sub o}, u{sub o}, {theta}{sub o}) computational space on the midplane. The FOW modifications have been implemented for the formations of neutral beam source, RF quasilinear diffusion operator, particle diagnostics and collisional operator, and internal boundary conditions are being refined. Initial test runs show that in general, the FOW modifications result in a broader profiles of power absorption and RF-driven current, and accurate description of the loss cone. (author)

  20. Analysis of the SPS Long Term Orbit Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velotti, Francesco [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Fraser, Matthew [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN


    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last accelerator in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain, and has to deliver the two high-intensity 450 GeV proton beams to the LHC. The transport from SPS to LHC is done through the two Transfer Lines (TL), TI2 and TI8, for Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) respectively. During the first LHC operation period Run 1, a long term drift of the SPS orbit was observed, causing changes in the LHC injection due to the resulting changes in the TL trajectories. This translated into longer LHC turnaround because of the necessity to periodically correct the TL trajectories in order to preserve the beam quality at injection into the LHC. Different sources for the SPS orbit drifts have been investigated: each of them can account only partially for the total orbit drift observed. In this paper, the possible sources of such drift are described, together with the simulated and measured effect they cause. Possible solutions and countermeasures are also discussed.

  1. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system instruction and training guide (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.


    This guide instructs users in the operation of a Proximity Operations Planning System. This system uses an interactive graphical method for planning fuel-efficient rendezvous trajectories in the multi-spacecraft environment of the space station and allows the operator to compose a multi-burn transfer trajectory between orbit initial chaser and target trajectories. The available task time (window) of the mission is predetermined and the maneuver is subject to various operational constraints, such as departure, arrival, spatial, plume impingement, and en route passage constraints. The maneuvers are described in terms of the relative motion experienced in a space station centered coordinate system. Both in-orbital plane as well as out-of-orbital plane maneuvering is considered. A number of visual optimization aids are used for assisting the operator in reaching fuel-efficient solutions. These optimization aids are based on the Primer Vector theory. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes, operational constraints, and optimization functions, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool is an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  2. Advances in the management of orbital fractures. (United States)

    Nguyen, P N; Sullivan, P


    Great progress has been made in both the basic science and the clinical knowledge base used in orbital reconstruction. With this, increasing complex orbital reconstructive problems are better managed. The diagnosis, treatment plan, and the actual reconstruction have evolved to a higher level. Several areas of progress are of note: the greater appreciation of the intimate relation between the bony orbit's shape and the position of the globe; application of computer technology in orbital injuries; effect of rigid fixation on autogenous and alloplastic graft; and the use of advanced biocompatible synthetic materials in orbital reconstruction. Although this progress has great impact on treatment of orbital injuries, there are many unanswered challenges in the treatment of the fragile frame of the window to the human soul.

  3. Orbit determination for ISRO satellite missions (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Sreehari; Sinha, S. K.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been successful in using the in-house developed orbit determination and prediction software for satellite missions of Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE. Considering the requirements of satellite missions, software packages are developed, tested and their accuracies are assessed. Orbit determination packages developed are SOIP, for low earth orbits of Bhaskara and Rohini missions, ORIGIN and ODPM, for orbits related to all phases of geo-stationary missions and SEGNIP, for drift and geo-stationary orbits. Software is tested and qualified using tracking data of SIGNE-3, D5-B, OTS, SYMPHONIE satellites with the help of software available with CNES, ESA and DFVLR. The results match well with those available from these agencies. These packages have supported orbit determination successfully throughout the mission life for all ISRO satellite missions. Member-Secretary

  4. Orbits of the inner satellites of Neptune (United States)

    Brozovic, Marina; Showalter, Mark R.; Jacobson, Robert Arthur; French, Robert S.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack


    We report on the numerically integrated orbits of seven inner satellites of Neptune, including S/2004 N1, the last moon of Neptune to be discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The dataset includes Voyager imaging data as well as the HST and Earth-based astrometric data. The observations span time period from 1989 to 2016. Our orbital model accounts for the equatorial bulge of Neptune, perturbations from the Sun and the planets, and perturbations from Triton. The initial orbital integration assumed that the satellites are massless, but the residuals improved significantly as the masses adjusted toward values that implied that the density of the satellites is in the realm of 1 g/cm3. We will discuss how the integrated orbits compare to the precessing ellipses fits, mean orbital elements, current orbital uncertainties, and the need for future observations.

  5. Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.


    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers

  6. Automated and Adaptive Mission Planning for Orbital Express (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel; Koblick, Darin


    The Orbital Express space mission was a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) lead demonstration of on-orbit satellite servicing scenarios, autonomous rendezvous, fluid transfers of hydrazine propellant, and robotic arm transfers of Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) components. Boeing's Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle provided the servicing to the Ball Aerospace's Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NextSat) client. For communication opportunities, operations used the high-bandwidth ground-based Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) along with the relatively low-bandwidth GEO-Synchronous space-borne Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) network. Mission operations were conducted out of the RDT&E Support Complex (RSC) at the Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico. All mission objectives were met successfully: The first of several autonomous rendezvous was demonstrated on May 5, 2007; autonomous free-flyer capture was demonstrated on June 22, 2007; the fluid and ORU transfers throughout the mission were successful. Planning operations for the mission were conducted by a team of personnel including Flight Directors, who were responsible for verifying the steps and contacts within the procedures, the Rendezvous Planners who would compute the locations and visibilities of the spacecraft, the Scenario Resource Planners (SRPs), who were concerned with assignment of communications windows, monitoring of resources, and sending commands to the ASTRO spacecraft, and the Mission planners who would interface with the real-time operations environment, process planning products and coordinate activities with the SRP. The SRP position was staffed by JPL personnel who used the Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment (ASPEN) to model and enforce mission and satellite constraints. The lifecycle of a plan began three weeks outside its execution on-board. During the planning timeframe, many aspects could change the plan

  7. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program (United States)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.


    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  8. Computed tomography of the eye and orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag, S.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Weber, A.L.


    This book is the product of the evolution of computed tomography (CT) into subspecialization and the need for one source of information for the busy radiologist. The authors have succeeded in providing a readable overview of orbital CT as well as a reference book. The book is divided into seven major catagories of pathology (Neurofibromatosis, Primary Orbital Neoplasms, Secondary and Metastic Tumors of the Orbit, Vascular Disorders, Inflammatory Disease, Occular Lesions, and Trauma) after separate discussions of anatomy and technique

  9. Neural networks and orbit control in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.; Friedman, A.


    An overview of the architecture, workings and training of Neural Networks is given. We stress the aspects which are important for the use of Neural Networks for orbit control in accelerators and storage rings, especially its ability to cope with the nonlinear behavior of the orbit response to 'kicks' and the slow drift in the orbit response during long-term operation. Results obtained for the two NSLS storage rings with several network architectures and various training methods for each architecture are given

  10. Operational factors affecting microgravity levels in orbit (United States)

    Olsen, R. E.; Mockovciak, J., Jr.


    Microgravity levels desired for proposed materials processing payloads are fundamental considerations in the design of future space platforms. Disturbance sources, such as aerodynamic drag, attitude control torques, crew motion and orbital dynamics, influence the microgravity levels attainable in orbit. The nature of these effects are assessed relative to platform design parameters such as orbital altitude and configuration geometry, and examples are presented for a representative spacecraft configuration. The possible applications of control techniques to provide extremely low acceleration levels are also discussed.

  11. Orbital structure in oscillating galactic potentials (United States)

    Terzić, Balša; Kandrup, Henry E.


    Subjecting a galactic potential to (possibly damped) nearly periodic, time-dependent variations can lead to large numbers of chaotic orbits experiencing systematic changes in energy, and the resulting chaotic phase mixing could play an important role in explaining such phenomena as violent relaxation. This paper focuses on the simplest case of spherically symmetric potentials subjected to strictly periodic driving with the aim of understanding precisely why orbits become chaotic and under what circumstances they will exhibit systematic changes in energy. Four unperturbed potentials V0(r) were considered, each subjected to a time dependence of the form V(r, t) =V0(r)(1 +m0 sinωt). In each case, the orbits divide clearly into regular and chaotic, distinctions which appear absolute. In particular, transitions from regularity to chaos are seemingly impossible. Over finite time intervals, chaotic orbits subdivide into what can be termed `sticky' chaotic orbits, which exhibit no large-scale secular changes in energy and remain trapped in the phase-space region where they started; and `wildly' chaotic orbits, which do exhibit systematic drifts in energy as the orbits diffuse to different phase-space regions. This latter distinction is not absolute, transitions corresponding apparently to orbits penetrating a `leaky' phase-space barrier. The three different orbit types can be identified simply in terms of the frequencies for which their Fourier spectra have the most power. An examination of the statistical properties of orbit ensembles as a function of driving frequency ω allows us to identify the specific resonances that determine orbital structure. Attention focuses also on how, for fixed amplitude m0, such quantities as the mean energy shift, the relative measure of chaotic orbits and the mean value of the largest Lyapunov exponent vary with driving frequency ω and how, for fixed ω, the same quantities depend on m0.

  12. Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit (United States)

    Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.


    Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

  13. Orbit stability of the ALS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Nishimura, H.; Biocca, A.


    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring, a synchrotron light source of the third generation, is specified to maintain its electron orbit stable within one tenth of the rms beam size. In the absence of a dedicated orbit feed-back system, several orbit-distorting effects were investigated, aided by a new interactive simulation tool, the code TRACY V. The effort has led to a better understanding of the behavior of a variety of accelerator subsystems and in consequence produced a substantial improvement in day-to-day orbit stability

  14. Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission (United States)

    Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.

    INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D

  15. Doing Your Science While You're in Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark L; Miller, Stephen D; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Trater, James R, E-mail:


    repository files, (e) user, group, repository, and web 2.0 based global positioning with additional service capabilities are currently available. The SNS based Orbiter SOA integration progress with the Distributed Data Analysis for Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) software development project is summarized with an emphasis on DANSE Central Services and the Virtual Neutron Facility (VNF). Additionally, the DANSE utilization of the Orbiter SOA authentication, authorization, and data transfer services best practice implementations are presented.

  16. Doing Your Science While You're in Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mark L; Miller, Stephen D; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Trater, James R


    repository files, (e) user, group, repository, and web 2.0 based global positioning with additional service capabilities are currently available. The SNS based Orbiter SOA integration progress with the Distributed Data Analysis for Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) software development project is summarized with an emphasis on DANSE Central Services and the Virtual Neutron Facility (VNF). Additionally, the DANSE utilization of the Orbiter SOA authentication, authorization, and data transfer services best practice implementations are presented.

  17. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.


    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  18. The puzzling orbital period evolution of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901 (United States)

    Ponti, G.; De, K.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Stella, L.; Nandra, K.


    The discovery of gravitational waves through mergers of binary black holes raises the question of how such compact systems form, renewing issues related to the orbital evolution of binary systems. Eclipsing X-ray binaries are excellent tools to constrain the orbital period evolution and how the system loses angular momentum. I will present an X-ray eclipse timing analysis (spanning an interval of more than 20 yr) of one of such objects, AX J1745.6-2901. Its orbital period is decreasing at a rate Pdotorb=-4.03+-0.32 e-11 s s-1, at least one order of magnitude larger than expected from conservative mass transfer and angular momentum losses due to gravitational waves and magnetic braking, and it might result from either non-conservative mass transfer or magnetic activity changing the quadrupole moment of the companion star. I will also show that imprinted on the long-term evolution of the orbit, there are highly significant eclipse leads delays of 10-30 s, characterized by a clear state dependence in which, on average, eclipses occur earlier during the hard state. Finally, I will discuss whether accretion disc winds might have an impact onto the orbital evolution.

  19. Orbital Resonances in the Vinti Solution (United States)

    Zurita, L. D.

    As space becomes more congested, contested, and competitive, high-accuracy orbital predictions become critical for space operations. Current orbit propagators use the two-body solution with perturbations added, which have significant error growth when numerically integrated for long time periods. The Vinti Solution is a more accurate model than the two-body problem because it also accounts for the equatorial bulge of the Earth. Unfortunately, the Vinti solution contains small divisors near orbital resonances in the perturbative terms of the Hamiltonian, which lead to inaccurate orbital predictions. One approach to avoid the small divisors is to apply transformation theory, which is presented in this research. The methodology of this research is to identify the perturbative terms of the Vinti Solution, perform a coordinate transformation, and derive the new equations of motion for the Vinti system near orbital resonances. An analysis of these equations of motion offers insight into the dynamics found near orbital resonances. The analysis in this research focuses on the 2:1 resonance, which includes the Global Positioning System. The phase portrait of a nominal Global Positioning System satellite orbit is found to contain a libration region and a chaotic region. Further analysis shows that the dynamics of the 2:1 resonance affects orbits with semi-major axes ranging from -5.0 to +5.4 kilometers from an exactly 2:1 resonant orbit. Truth orbits of seven Global Positioning System satellites are produced for 10 years. Two of the satellites are found to be outside of the resonance region and three are found to be influenced by the libration dynamics of the resonance. The final satellite is found to be influenced by the chaotic dynamics of the resonance. This research provides a method of avoiding the small divisors found in the perturbative terms of the Vinti Solution near orbital resonances.

  20. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development (United States)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  1. Orbital Dynamics of Low-Earth Orbit Laser-Propelled Space Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Komurasaki, Kimiya


    Trajectories applicable to laser-propelled space vehicles with a laser station in low-Earth orbit are investigated. Laser vehicles are initially located in the vicinity of the Earth-orbiting laser station in low-earth orbit at an altitude of several hundreds kilometers, and are accelerated by laser beaming from the laser station. The laser-propelled vehicles start from low-earth orbit and finally escape from the Earth gravity well, enabling interplanetary trajectories and planetary exploration

  2. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz


    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  3. Transfer and Social Practice. (United States)

    Billett, Stephen


    Transfer involves disembodying knowledge and transferring it for use in different contexts. Vocational knowledge arises in communities of practice, and difficulties arise in transferring it from one distinct community, such as a workplace, to another, such as a classroom. (SK)

  4. Ejectile polarization and nuclear orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Maruyama, T.; Horiuchi, H.


    Ejectile polarization phenomena are studied by the use of 'Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus external mean field' model. It is shown that the far-side contribution increases as the incident energy increases or the target charge decreases. The incident energy and the target dependence of ejectile polarization data is reproduced qualitatively. The near- and far-side contributions themselves are calculated to be almost monotone functions of ejectile momentum as is predicted in a simple projectile fragmentation scheme without the assumption that the linear and angular momentum transfers are negligible, and their statistical average results in various shapes in ejectile polarization

  5. Orbital Light Curves of UU Aquarii in Stunted Outburst (United States)

    Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Henden, A. A.; Campbell, R. T.


    Stunted outbursts are ∼0.ͫ6 eruptions, typically lasting 5–10 days, which are found in some novalike cataclysmic variables, including UU Aqr. The mechanism responsible for stunted outbursts is uncertain but is likely related to an accretion disk instability or to variations in the mass transfer rate. A campaign to monitor the eclipse light curves in UU Aqr has been conducted in order to detect any light curve distortions due to the appearance of a hot spot on the disk at the location of the impact point of the accretion stream. If stunted outbursts are due to a temporary mass transfer enhancement, then predictable deformations of the orbital light curve are expected to occur during such outbursts. This study used 156 eclipses on 135 nights during the years 2000–2012. During this interval, random samples found the system to be in stunted outbursts 4%–5% of the time, yielding ∼7 eclipses obtained during some stage of stunted outburst. About half of the eclipses obtained during stunted outbursts showed clear evidence for hot spot enhancement, providing strong evidence that the stunted outbursts in UU Aqr are associated with mass transfer variations. The other half of the eclipses during stunted outburst showed little or no evidence for hot spot enhancement. Furthermore, there were no systematic changes in the hot spot signature as stunted outbursts progressed. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed the changes in hot spot visibility during stunted outburst to random blobby accretion, which likely further modulates the strength of the accretion stream on orbital timescales.

  6. Orbiting compressor for residential air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Ahn, Jong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Incheon, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea)


    A new type of compressor, called an orbiting compressor, is introduced in this paper. The orbiting compressor is characterized by an orbiting piston, and the piston or orbiter consists of a circular base plate and a ring type vane protruding vertically from the base plate. The orbiter is made to orbit in an annular space formed between two concentric circular walls via an Oldham-ring mechanism, producing two sealed gas pockets on both sides of the vane wrap with a 180 phase difference. This operating mechanism leads to alternating compression and discharge processes, which results in low torque variation. The orbiting compressor has been designed for an R410A residential air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 10.0 kW. The performance of the orbiting compressor model has been analytically investigated, where the volumetric, adiabatic and mechanical efficiencies were calculated to be 94.8%, 90.4% and 93.4%, respectively for the ARI condition. The EER was estimated to be about 10.86 with a motor efficiency of 89%. (author)

  7. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek


    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  8. Strange diquarks and orbital excitations of hyperons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Ralchenko, Yu.V.; Vasilets, A.V.


    Using the model of the QCD string with spin-orbital interaction the masses of strange diquarks are determined. The spectra of orbital excitations of the Λ and Σ hyperons are calculated and discussed. Also the decay modes for Λ's and Σ's are considered

  9. Characteristics of pellet injuries to the orbit. (United States)

    Kükner, A Sahap; Yilmaz, Turgut; Celebi, Serdal; Karslioğlu, Safak; Alagöz, Gürsoy; Serin, Didem; Acar, M Akif; Ozveren, M Faik


    To investigate the features of orbital injuries by pellets fired from the front. Retrospective, 4 cases of pellet injuries. Five orbits of 4 patients who sustained pellet injuries received from the front were reviewed retrospectively. The course of injury and results were assessed. Radiological examinations were reviewed. The patients were evaluated between December 1996 and June 2004. Five orbits of 4 patients sustained injuries caused by pellets fired from an anterior direction. The globe in the injured orbit was intact in 2 cases. Severe loss of vision was also present in these 2 globes due to optic nerve involvement. Final visual acuity was down to no light perception in 4 eyes and limited to light perception in 1 eye. The prognosis of orbital pellet injuries is, unfortunately, poor. A pellet passing through the floor of the orbit often causes double perforation of the globe and, once in the orbital aperture, it travels towards the apex as a result of the conical shape of the orbit and lodges in the optic canal or its entrance, severely damaging the optic nerve. Surgery or other treatments are usually unsuccessful. Even if the globe is intact, vision is usually severely impaired. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. NWaorgu

    cavernous sinus thrombosis, and brain abscess. 3, 4 In ... left orbit was involved in 55% and the right in 31% while it was bilateral ... Figure 1: Age and sex of patients with orbital cellulitis. 0. 5 ... However, Kenny et al and Child have suggested ...

  11. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.


    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  12. Summary of the Orbiter mechanical systems (United States)

    Kiker, J.; Hinson, K.


    Major mechanical systems of the Orbiter space vehicle are summarized with respect to general design details, manner of operation, expected performance, and, where applicable, unique features. A synopsis of data obtained during the five atmospheric flight tests of spacecraft OV-101 and status of the systems for the first orbital spacecraft STS-1 are presented.

  13. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.


    We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling

  14. Efficient orbit integration by manifold correction methods. (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio


    Triggered by a desire to investigate, numerically, the planetary precession through a long-term numerical integration of the solar system, we developed a new formulation of numerical integration of orbital motion named manifold correct on methods. The main trick is to rigorously retain the consistency of physical relations, such as the orbital energy, the orbital angular momentum, or the Laplace integral, of a binary subsystem. This maintenance is done by applying a correction to the integrated variables at each integration step. Typical methods of correction are certain geometric transformations, such as spatial scaling and spatial rotation, which are commonly used in the comparison of reference frames, or mathematically reasonable operations, such as modularization of angle variables into the standard domain [-pi, pi). The form of the manifold correction methods finally evolved are the orbital longitude methods, which enable us to conduct an extremely precise integration of orbital motions. In unperturbed orbits, the integration errors are suppressed at the machine epsilon level for an indefinitely long period. In perturbed cases, on the other hand, the errors initially grow in proportion to the square root of time and then increase more rapidly, the onset of which depends on the type and magnitude of the perturbations. This feature is also realized for highly eccentric orbits by applying the same idea as used in KS-regularization. In particular, the introduction of time elements greatly enhances the performance of numerical integration of KS-regularized orbits, whether the scaling is applied or not.

  15. International technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Won Gi


    This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.

  16. Technology transfer by multinationals


    Kostyantyn Zuzik


    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  17. Two impulse trajectory optimization for the RAE-B orbit trim problem (United States)

    Payne, M. H.; Pines, S.; Horsewood, J. L.


    The results are reported of work on an appropriate approach to the solution of the optimum two-impulse transfer problem between orbits of specified inclination. The task included a literature search to identify the current state of the art and a definition of the suggested approach for the specific application of a lunar orbit trim. The applications of the results to the problem are included. The formulation for a computer program developed under this task following a more conventional approach is also included.

  18. Orbital angular momentum of a high-order Bessel light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volke-Sepulveda, K; Garces-Chavez, V; Chavez-Cerda, S; Arlt, J; Dholakia, K


    The orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams is calculated explicitly within a rigorous vectorial treatment. This allows us to investigate some aspects that have not been analysed previously, such as the angular momentum content of azimuthally and radially polarized beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the mechanical transfer of orbital angular momentum to trapped particles in optical tweezers using a high-order Bessel beam. We set transparent particles of known dimensions into rotation, where the sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the sign of the singularity. Quantitative results are obtained for rotation rates. This paper's animations are available from the Multimedia Enhancements page

  19. Tunable rotary orbits of matter-wave nonlinear modes in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y J; Wang, H Z; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru


    We demonstrate that by spatially modulating the Bessel optical lattice where a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded, we get tunable rotary orbits of nonlinear lattice modes. We show that the radially expanding or shrinking Bessel lattice can drag the nonlinear localized modes to orbits of either larger or smaller radii and the rotary velocity of nonlinear modes can be changed accordingly. The localized modes can even be transferred to the Bessel lattice core when the localized modes' rotations are stopped. Effects beyond the quasi-particle approximation such as destruction of the nonlinear modes by nonadiabatic dragging are also explored

  20. Acoustic Virtual Vortices with Tunable Orbital Angular Momentum for Trapping of Mie Particles (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.


    Acoustic vortices can transfer angular momentum and trap particles. Here, we show that particles trapped in airborne acoustic vortices orbit at high speeds, leading to dynamic instability and ejection. We demonstrate stable trapping inside acoustic vortices by generating sequences of short-pulsed vortices of equal helicity but opposite chirality. This produces a "virtual vortex" with an orbital angular momentum that can be tuned independently of the trapping force. We use this method to adjust the rotational speed of particles inside a vortex beam and, for the first time, create three-dimensional acoustics traps for particles of wavelength order (i.e., Mie particles).

  1. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  2. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.


    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  3. Generating Animated Displays of Spacecraft Orbits (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.; Chimiak, Reine A.; Harris, Bernard T.


    Tool for Interactive Plotting, Sonification, and 3D Orbit Display (TIPSOD) is a computer program for generating interactive, animated, four-dimensional (space and time) displays of spacecraft orbits. TIPSOD utilizes the programming interface of the Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb) services to communicate with the SSC logic and database by use of the open protocols of the Internet. TIPSOD is implemented in Java 3D and effects an extension of the preexisting SSCWeb two-dimensional static graphical displays of orbits. Orbits can be displayed in any or all of the following seven reference systems: true-of-date (an inertial system), J2000 (another inertial system), geographic, geomagnetic, geocentric solar ecliptic, geocentric solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic. In addition to orbits, TIPSOD computes and displays Sibeck's magnetopause and Fairfield's bow-shock surfaces. TIPSOD can be used by the scientific community as a means of projection or interpretation. It also has potential as an educational tool.

  4. Hemangiopericitoma de órbita Orbital hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ximenes Alves


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever um raro caso de hemangiopericitoma orbital. Métodos: Relato de caso de associação entre hemangipericitoma orbital e blefaroptose. Resultados: A exérese da neoplasia normalizou o posicionamento palpebral. Conclusões: Lesões orbitais anteriores são causas de blefaroptose por compressão do músculo elevador palpebral.Purpose: To describe a rare case of orbital hemangiope- ricytoma. Methods: Case report of an association of blepha-roptosis with orbital hemangiopericytoma. Results: When the lesion was surgically removed the position of the upper eyelid returned to normal. Conclusions: Anterior orbital lesions can lead to blepharoptosis by compression of the levator palpebrae muscle.

  5. Discrete symmetries in periodic-orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.M.


    The application of periodic-orbit theory to systems which possess a discrete symmetry is considered. A semiclassical expression for the symmetry-projected Green's function is obtained; it involves a sum over classical periodic orbits on a symmetry-reduced phase space, weighted by characters of the symmetry group. These periodic orbits correspond to trajectories on the full phase space which are not necessarily periodic, but whose end points are related by symmetry. If the symmetry-projected Green's functions are summed, the contributions of the unperiodic orbits cancel, and one recovers the usual periodic-orbit sum for the full Green's function. Several examples are considered, including the stadium billiard, a particle in a periodic potential, the Sinai billiard, the quartic oscillator, and the rotational spectrum of SF 6

  6. Primary Orbital Chondromyxoid Fibroma: A Rare Case. (United States)

    Mullen, Martin G; Somogyi, Marie; Maxwell, Sean P; Prabhu, Vikram; Yoo, David K

    A 56-year-old male with history of chronic sinusitis was found to have a 3 cm left orbital lesion on CT. Subsequent MRI demonstrated a multilobulated enhancing soft tissue lesion at the superotemporal region of the left orbit. Initial biopsy was reported as a low-grade sarcoma. On further evaluation, a consensus was made that the lesion was likely a benign mixed mesenchymal type tumor but should nonetheless be surgically removed. Left lateral orbitotomy was performed which revealed a tumor originating in the lateral orbital bone with segments eroding through the wall of the orbit. Intraoperative frozen sections revealed myoepitheliod tissue with locally aggressive features and the tumor was completely removed. The final histopathologic analysis of the tissue was consistent with a chondromyxoid fibroma. Chondomyxoid fibroma is a rare entity in the orbital bones and is more commonly seen in long bones.

  7. LCTS on ALPHASAT and Sentinel 1a: in orbit status of the LEO to geo data relay system (United States)

    Zech, H.; Heine, F.; Troendle, D.; Pimentel, P. M.; Panzlaff, K.; Motzigemba, M.; Meyer, R.; Philipp-May, S.


    The performance of sensors for Earth Observation Missions is constantly improving. This drives the need for a reliable, high-speed data transfer capability from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft (S/C) to ground. In addition, for the transfer of time-critical data to ground, a low latency between data generation in orbit and data reception at the respective mission control center is of high importance. Laser communication between Satellites for high data transmission in combination with a GEO data relay system for reducing the latency time addresses these requirements.

  8. Metrics in Keplerian orbits quotient spaces (United States)

    Milanov, Danila V.


    Quotient spaces of Keplerian orbits are important instruments for the modelling of orbit samples of celestial bodies on a large time span. We suppose that variations of the orbital eccentricities, inclinations and semi-major axes remain sufficiently small, while arbitrary perturbations are allowed for the arguments of pericentres or longitudes of the nodes, or both. The distance between orbits or their images in quotient spaces serves as a numerical criterion for such problems of Celestial Mechanics as search for common origin of meteoroid streams, comets, and asteroids, asteroid families identification, and others. In this paper, we consider quotient sets of the non-rectilinear Keplerian orbits space H. Their elements are identified irrespective of the values of pericentre arguments or node longitudes. We prove that distance functions on the quotient sets, introduced in Kholshevnikov et al. (Mon Not R Astron Soc 462:2275-2283, 2016), satisfy metric space axioms and discuss theoretical and practical importance of this result. Isometric embeddings of the quotient spaces into R^n, and a space of compact subsets of H with Hausdorff metric are constructed. The Euclidean representations of the orbits spaces find its applications in a problem of orbit averaging and computational algorithms specific to Euclidean space. We also explore completions of H and its quotient spaces with respect to corresponding metrics and establish a relation between elements of the extended spaces and rectilinear trajectories. Distance between an orbit and subsets of elliptic and hyperbolic orbits is calculated. This quantity provides an upper bound for the metric value in a problem of close orbits identification. Finally the invariance of the equivalence relations in H under coordinates change is discussed.

  9. Use of Orbital Conformer to Improve Speech in Patients with Confluent Maxillectomy and Orbital Defects (United States)

    Colebeck, Amanda C.; Kase, Michael T.; Nichols, Cindy B.; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M.


    The basic objective in prosthetic restoration of confluent maxillary and orbital defects is to achieve a comfortable, cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that restores speech, deglutition, and mastication. It is a challenging task complicated by the size and shape of the defects. The maxillary obturator prosthesis often satisfies the objective of adequate deglutition; however, orbital defects that are not obturated in the medial septal or posterior walls allow air to escape, negatively impacting phonation. This article describes a technique to achieve favorable prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with a maxillectomy and ipsilateral orbital exenteration. The prosthetic components include maxillary obturator, orbital conformer, and orbital prosthesis connected using rigid magnetic attachments. PMID:25953143

  10. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.


    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  11. Space Debris Attitude Simulation - IOTA (In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis) (United States)

    Kanzler, R.; Schildknecht, T.; Lips, T.; Fritsche, B.; Silha, J.; Krag, H.

    Today, there is little knowledge on the attitude state of decommissioned intact objects in Earth orbit. Observational means have advanced in the past years, but are still limited with respect to an accurate estimate of motion vector orientations and magnitude. Especially for the preparation of Active Debris Removal (ADR) missions as planned by ESA's Clean Space initiative or contingency scenarios for ESA spacecraft like ENVISAT, such knowledge is needed. The In-Orbit Tumbling Analysis tool (IOTA) is a prototype software, currently in development within the framework of ESA's “Debris Attitude Motion Measurements and Modelling” project (ESA Contract No. 40000112447), which is led by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The project goal is to achieve a good understanding of the attitude evolution and the considerable internal and external effects which occur. To characterize the attitude state of selected targets in LEO and GTO, multiple observation methods are combined. Optical observations are carried out by AIUB, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is performed by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IWF) and radar measurements and signal level determination are provided by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR). Developed by Hyperschall Technologie Göttingen GmbH (HTG), IOTA will be a highly modular software tool to perform short- (days), medium- (months) and long-term (years) propagation of the orbit and attitude motion (six degrees-of-freedom) of spacecraft in Earth orbit. The simulation takes into account all relevant acting forces and torques, including aerodynamic drag, solar radiation pressure, gravitational influences of Earth, Sun and Moon, eddy current damping, impulse and momentum transfer from space debris or micro meteoroid impact, as well as the optional definition of particular spacecraft specific influences like tank sloshing, reaction wheel behaviour

  12. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun


    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  13. Stable low-altitude orbits around Ganymede considering a disturbing body in a circular orbit (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, J.; Carvalho, J. P. S.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.


    Some missions are being planned to visit Ganymede like the Europa Jupiter System Mission that is a cooperation between NASA and ESA to insert the spacecraft JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Ganymedes orbit. This comprehension of the dynamics of these orbits around this planetary satellite is essential for the success of this type of mission. Thus, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around Ganymede. An emphasis is given in polar orbits and it can be useful in the planning of space missions to be conducted around, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of artificial satellites around Ganymede under the influence of the third-body (Jupiter's gravitational attraction) and the polygenic perturbations like those due to non-uniform distribution of mass (J_2 and J_3) of the main body. A simplified dynamic model for these perturbations is used. The Lagrange planetary equations are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. The results show the argument of pericenter circulating. However, low-altitude (100 and 150 km) polar orbits are stable. Another orbital elements behaved variating with small amplitudes. Thus, such orbits are convenient to be applied to future space missions to Ganymede. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (processes n° 2011/05671-5, 2012/12539-9 and 2012/21023-6).

  14. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicles and mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T


    From mobile, cable-free re-charging of electric vehicles, smart phones and laptops to collecting solar electricity from orbiting solar farms, wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies offer consumers and society enormous benefits. Written by innovators in the field, this comprehensive resource explains the fundamental principles and latest advances in WPT and illustrates key applications of this emergent technology.

  15. Reconstruction of Orbital Floor With Auricular Concha. (United States)

    Seven, Ergin; Tellioglu, Ali Teoman; Inozu, Emre; Ozakpinar, Hulda Rifat; Horoz, Ugur; Eryilmaz, Avni Tolga; Karamursel, Sebat


    Orbital floor fractures of varying sizes commonly occur after orbital injuries and remain a serious challenge. Serious complications of such fractures include enopthalmos, restriction of extraocular movement, and diplopia. There is a dearth of literature that can be applied widely, easily, and successfully in all such situations, and therefore there is no consensus on the treatment protocol of this pathology yet. Autogenous grafts and alloplastic and allogenic materials with a wide variety of advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. The value of preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examination should be standard of care in all orbital fracture patients. An ideal reconstructed orbital floor fracture should accelerate the restoration of orbital function with acceptable cosmetic results. Management parameters of orbital fractures such as timing of surgery, incision type, and implant materials, though widely discussed, remain controversial. In this study, 55 patients with orbital floor fractures surgically reconstructed with conchal cartilage grafts between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Complications and long-time follow-up visit results have been reported with clinical and radiographic findings. The aim of this study was to present the authors' clinical experiences of reconstruction of blow-out fractures with auricular conchal graft and to evaluate the other materials available for use.

  16. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro


    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  17. A Numerical-Analytical Approach Based on Canonical Transformations for Computing Optimal Low-Thrust Transfers (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, S.; das Chagas Carvalho, F.; Bateli Romão, J. V.


    A numerical-analytical procedure based on infinitesimal canonical transformations is developed for computing optimal time-fixed low-thrust limited power transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in an inverse-square force field. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem with a set of non-singular orbital elements as state variables. Second order terms in eccentricity are considered in the development of the maximum Hamiltonian describing the optimal trajectories. The two-point boundary value problem of going from an initial orbit to a final orbit is solved by means of a two-stage Newton-Raphson algorithm which uses an infinitesimal canonical transformation. Numerical results are presented for some transfers between circular orbits with moderate radius ratio, including a preliminary analysis of Earth-Mars and Earth-Venus missions.

  18. Doing Your Science While You're in Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mark L.; Miller, Stephen D.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Trater, James R.


    files, (e) user, group, repository, and web 2.0 based global positioning with additional service capabilities are currently available. The SNS based Orbiter SOA integration progress with the Distributed Data Analysis for Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) software development project is summarized with an emphasis on DANSE Central Services and the Virtual Neutron Facility (VNF). Additionally, the DANSE utilization of the Orbiter SOA authentication, authorization, and data transfer services best practice implementations are presented.

  19. Systems engineering studies of on-orbit assembly operation (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.


    While the practice of construction has a long history, the underlying theory of construction is relatively young. Very little has been documented as to techniques of logistic support, construction planning, construction scheduling, construction testing, and inspection. The lack of 'systems approaches' to construction processes is certainly one of the most serious roadblocks to the construction of space structures. System engineering research efforts at CSC are aimed at developing concepts and tools which contribute to a systems theory of space construction. The research is also aimed at providing means for trade-offs of design parameters for other research areas in CSC. Systems engineering activity at CSC has divided space construction into the areas of orbital assembly, lunar base construction, interplanetary transport vehicle construction, and Mars base construction. A brief summary of recent results is given. Several models for 'launch-on-time' were developed. Launch-on-time is a critical concept to the assembly of such Earth-orbiting structures as the Space Station Freedom, and to planetary orbiters such as the Mars transfer vehicle. CSC has developed a launch vehicle selection model which uses linear programming to find optimal combinations of launch vehicles of various sizes (Atlas, Titan, Shuttles, HLLV's) to support SEI missions. Recently, the Center developed a cost trade-off model for studying on orbit assembly logistics. With this model it was determined that the most effective size of the HLLV would be in the range of 120 to 200 metric tons to LEO, which is consistent with the choices of General Stafford's Synthesis Group Report. A second-generation Dynamic Construction Activities Model ('DYCAM') process model has been under development, based on our past results in interruptability and our initial DYCAM model. This second-generation model is built on the paradigm of knowledge-based expert systems. It is aimed at providing answers to two questions: (1


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.


    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.

  1. The Double Star Orbit Initial Value Problem (United States)

    Hensley, Hagan


    Many precise algorithms exist to find a best-fit orbital solution for a double star system given a good enough initial value. Desmos is an online graphing calculator tool with extensive capabilities to support animations and defining functions. It can provide a useful visual means of analyzing double star data to arrive at a best guess approximation of the orbital solution. This is a necessary requirement before using a gradient-descent algorithm to find the best-fit orbital solution for a binary system.

  2. [A Case of an Orbital Angioleiomyoma]. (United States)

    Sato, Kohei; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Takai, Hiroki; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijiro; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Uno, Masaaki


    A 70-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of painless conjunctival congestion and proptosis of the right eye. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 48-mm lesion in the right medial orbit. As the symptoms progressed, the tumor was resected by performing fronto-orbital craniotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a vascular tumor surrounded by smooth muscle fibers and immunohistochemistry demonstrated tumor positivity for smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as an angioleiomyoma, and no recurrence has been observed as of 5 years postoperatively. Angioleiomyomas in the orbit are extremely rare;thus, we have reported this case with reference to the literature.

  3. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F


    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  4. Analysis of Heat Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.

  5. Orbits 2nd order singularity-free solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang


    In its 2nd edition, this book covers the theory of satellite orbits, derives the complete solutions of orbital disturbances, describes the algorithms of orbits determination and the applications of the theory to the phenomenon of physical satellite formation.

  6. Tangent Orbital Rendezvous Using Linear Relative Motion with J2 Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang


    Full Text Available The tangent-impulse coplanar orbit rendezvous problem is studied based on the linear relative motion for J2-perturbed elliptic orbits. There are three cases: (1 only the first impulse is tangent; (2 only the second impulse is tangent; (3 both impulses are tangent. For a given initial impulse point, the first two problems can be transformed into finding all roots of a single variable function about the transfer time, which can be done by the secant method. The bitangent rendezvous problem requires the same solution for the first two problems. By considering the initial coasting time, the bitangent rendezvous solution is obtained with a difference function. A numerical example for two coplanar elliptic orbits with J2 perturbations is given to verify the efficiency of these proposed techniques.

  7. Thermally induced vibrations of smart solar panel in a low-orbit satellite (United States)

    Azadi, E.; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Azadi, M.


    In this paper, a smart flexible satellite moving in a circular orbit with two flexible panels are studied. The panels have been modeled as clamped-free-free-free rectangular plates with attached piezoelectric actuators. It is assumed that the satellite has a pitch angle rotation maneuver. Rapid temperature changes at day-night transitions in orbit generate time dependent bending moments. Satellite maneuver and temperature varying induce vibrations in the appendages. So, to simulate the system, heat radiation effects on the appendages have been considered. The nonlinear equations of motion and the heat transfer equations are coupled and solved simultaneously. So, the governing equations of motion are nonlinear and very complicated ones. Finally, the whole system is simulated and the effects of the heat radiation, radius of the orbit, piezoelectric voltages, and piezoelectric locations on the response of the system are studied.

  8. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  9. Retrieval of RTG'S in earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Frieder, M.A.; Skrabek, A.


    Since 1961, some ten Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) have been placed into a variety of spacecraft which are now in earth orbit. All of these spacecraft are in orbits with lifetimes in excess of 100 years and pose no risk. However, since most of these spacecraft are no longer being actively used, these may be subject to an active removal program to reduce the population of objects in space. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of retrieving or disposing of spacecraft with RTGs on board. Intervention scenarios are developed and an orbital rendezvous vehicle is conceptualized. The costs of RTG retrieval are derived and compared to the costs of RTG disposal, i.e., boost to a higher, multi-millenium-lifetime orbit, and are found to be not significantly different

  10. Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work on the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, much attention has been devoted to the subject, with particular attention into the quantum aspects of information processing using OAM. Furthermore...

  11. From Slater orbitals to Coulomb Sturmians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The simple connection between the Slater orbitals, venerable in quantum chemistry, and ... Thanks to the growth of computing ... of classical mechanics for the motion of planets or pro- ... riments show that a ionized gas of H atom has a con-.

  12. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet


    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  13. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome and orbital lymphoma.


    Ko, G. T.; Chow, C. C.; Yeung, V. T.; Chan, H.; Cockram, C. S.


    A 69 year old Chinese housewife presented with periorbital puffiness, and dry eyes and mouth. Subsequent investigations confirmed the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Sjogren's syndrome and orbital lymphoma. This unusual combination is discussed with reference to previous publications.

  14. Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato


    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  15. Environmental studies using earth orbital photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobber, F J


    Orbital remote sensing, and particularly orbital photography, can provide immediately useful data for scientists familiar with applying aerial photographic techniques to environmental problems. Despite the expansion of analytical techniques in the earth sciences, the environmental data base has remained relatively static compared with increased information needs because of the difficulty of effective worldwide surveys and the high cost of timely data collection. Color, color infrared and black and white space photographs obtained incident to the Gemini and Apollo programs provide unique synoptic tools for analyzing modern environments and processes, and data that cannot be duplicated by aerial photographic mosaics. Principal advantages of orbital surveys include repetitious worldwide coverage promising environmental synthesis within the full spectrum of seasonal contrasts, and synoptic observations on a scale generally impossible from aircraft. The general categories of environmental data that can be extracted from orbital photography are summarized. 26 references, 37 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Orbital-angular-momentum entanglement in turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamadou Ibrahim, A


    Full Text Available The turbulence-induced decay of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) entanglement between two photons is investigated numerically and experimentally. To compare our resultswith previouswork,we simulate the turbulent atmosphere with a single phase screen...

  17. Asteroid orbital error analysis: Theory and application (United States)

    Muinonen, K.; Bowell, Edward


    We present a rigorous Bayesian theory for asteroid orbital error estimation in which the probability density of the orbital elements is derived from the noise statistics of the observations. For Gaussian noise in a linearized approximation the probability density is also Gaussian, and the errors of the orbital elements at a given epoch are fully described by the covariance matrix. The law of error propagation can then be applied to calculate past and future positional uncertainty ellipsoids (Cappellari et al. 1976, Yeomans et al. 1987, Whipple et al. 1991). To our knowledge, this is the first time a Bayesian approach has been formulated for orbital element estimation. In contrast to the classical Fisherian school of statistics, the Bayesian school allows a priori information to be formally present in the final estimation. However, Bayesian estimation does give the same results as Fisherian estimation when no priori information is assumed (Lehtinen 1988, and reference therein).

  18. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space (United States)

    Humi, Mayer


    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  19. Dynamics and design of space nets for orbital capture

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Leping; Zhen, Ming; Liu, Haitao


    This book covers the topics of theoretical principles, dynamics model and algorithm, mission analysis, system design and experimental studies of space nets system, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for those interested. Space nets system represents a forefront field in future development of aerospace technologies. However, it involves new challenges and problems such as nonlinear and distorted nets structure, complex rigid flexible coupling dynamics, orbital transfer of space flexible composite and dynamics control. Currently, no comprehensive books on space nets dynamics and design are available, so potential readers can get to know the working mechanism, dynamics elements, and mission design of the space nets system from a Chinese perspective.

  20. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian


    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  1. Orbit control on SPEAR: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Keeley, D.


    In this paper, we report work on initial studies of the global feedback system for SPEAR. In particular, we describe components of a comprehensive accelerator simulation program used to assess the performance of harmonic and eigenvector orbit control algorithms. This program has also been used to choose new bpm sites, and can simulate the interaction between global and local orbit feedback systems. A prototype on-line version used for SPEAR is discussed. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  2. About counterintuitive orbital mixing and bond populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de


    It is shown that negative bond and orbital populations may be avoided by the introduction of a weight factor in a bond index definition, together with a suitable parameterization. The negative bond populations found for first-row metal complexes need not be ascribed to counterintuitive orbital mixing but rather, essentially, to the equipartition of the charge distribution. Different definitions of the bond population are compared for ferrocene and the effects of some parameterizations are discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD (United States)


    meeting of the Satellite Division of ION, Palm Springs, CA., 12–15 Sep 1995. Hughey, Raymond H., Jr., “ History of Mathematics and Computing Technology ...TR-17/229 HISTORY OF SATELLITE ORBIT DETERMINATION AT NSWCDD BY EVERETT R. SWIFT WARFARE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND INTEGRATION...AND SUBTITLE History of Satellite Orbit Determination at NSWCDD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  4. Equivelar toroids with few flag-orbits


    Collins, José; Montero, Antonio


    An $(n+1)$-toroid is a quotient of a tessellation of the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space with a lattice group. Toroids are generalizations of maps in the torus on higher dimensions and also provide examples of abstract polytopes. Equivelar toroids are those that are induced by regular tessellations. In this paper we present a classification of equivelar $(n+1)$-toroids with at most $n$ flag-orbits; in particular, we discuss a classification of $2$-orbit toroids of arbitrary dimension.

  5. A hybrid numerical method for orbit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.; Himel, T.; Shoaee, H.


    The authors describe a simple hybrid numerical method for beam orbit correction in particle accelerators. The method overcomes both degeneracy in the linear system being solved and respects boundaries on the solution. It uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to find and remove the null-space in the system, followed by a bounded Linear Least Squares analysis of the remaining recast problem. It was developed for correcting orbit and dispersion in the B-factory rings

  6. Orbiting transmission source for positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.


    Accidental suppression and effective data rates have been measured for the orbiting transmission source as implemented in the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. A mechanical description of the orbiting source and a description of the electronics used to discard scattered and accidental events is included. Since accidental coincidences were the rate-limiting factor in transmission data acquisition, the new method allows us to acquire sufficient transmission data in a shorter time with a more active transmission source

  7. Servicing communication satellites in geostationary orbit (United States)

    Russell, Paul K.; Price, Kent M.


    The econmic benefits of a LEO space station are quantified by identifying alternative operating scenarios utilizing the space station's transportation facilities and assembly and repair facilities. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of the impact of on-orbit assembly and servicing on a typical communications satellite is analyzed. The results of this study show that on-orbit servicing can increase the internal rate of return by as much as 30 percent.

  8. Orbital infarction in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, M.H.; Sty, J.R.


    Bone infarction is common in sickle cell disease; however, involvement of the orbit is not. Only four cases have been reported in the English literature. We describe a patient who presented with headache, proptosis and lid edema due to infarction of the sphenoid bone. The combination of radionuclide bone imaging and computed tomography (CT) of the orbit were useful in differentiating bone infarction from other etiologies of proptosis. (orig.)

  9. Efficiency in Carrying Cargo to Earth Orbits: Spaceports Repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Hospodka


    Full Text Available Space flights are in these days not any more question of technology, but more question of costs. One way how to decrease cost of launch is change of home spaceport. Change of home spaceport for different rockets is a way to achieve more efficient launches to space. The reason is different acceleration achieved from Earth rotation. We added several mathematical calculations of missions to Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Earth Orbit to show bonuses from Earth rotation and effect of atmospheric drag on specific rockets used these days. We discussed only already used space vessels. Namely Arianne 5, Delta 4 heavy, Proton-M, Zenit and Falcon9. For reaching GEO we discuss possibility of using Hohmman transfer, because none of aforementioned vessels is available for direct GEO entry. As possible place for launch we discussed spaceports Baikonur, Kennedy Space center, Guyana Space center and Sea Launch platform. We present results in form of additional acceleration for each spaceport, and we also project this additional acceleration in means payload increase. In conclusion we find important differences between vessel effectivity based on spaceport used for launch. Change of launch location may bring significant cost decrease for operators.

  10. Finite orbit energetic particle linear response to toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ye Huanchun; Breizman, B.N.


    The linear response of energetic particles of the TAE modes is calculated taking into account their finite orbit excursion from the flux surfaces. The general expression reproduces the previously derived theory for small banana width; when the banana width Δ b is much larger than the mode thickness Δ m , we obtain a new compact expression for the linear power transfer. When Δ m /Δ b m /Δ b from that predicted by the narrow orbit theory. A comparison is made of the contribution to the TAE growth rate of energetic particles with a slowing-down distribution arising from an isotropic source, and a balanced-injected beam source when the source speed is close to the Alfven speed. For the same stored energy density, the contribution from the principal resonances (vertical strokev parallel vertical stroke=v A ) is substantially enhanced in the beam case compared to the isotropic case, while the contribution at the higher sidebands (vertical strokev parallel vertical stroke=v A /(2l-1) with l≥2) is substantially reduced. (orig.)

  11. The international environment UNISPACE '82 and the ITU: A relationship between orbit-spectrum resource allocation and orbital debris (United States)

    Olmstead, D.


    The 1985 Space WARC will examine and potentially modify the current geostationary orbit spectrum resource allocation methodology. Discussions in this international political environment could likely associate the geostationary orbital debris issue with the politicized issue of orbit spectrum allocation.

  12. Orbital lymphoma masquerading as thyroid ophthalmopathy. (United States)

    Boyce, P J


    Lymphoid tumors are known to originate within the lacrimal gland and orbital fat. Ocular findings commonly seen are a palpable mass with proptosis and downward displacement of the globe. Graves' ophthalmopathy is the most common orbital pathology occurring in the general population. Signs and symptoms of Graves' ophthalmopathy, such as unilateral or bilateral proptosis, double vision, limitation of movement of the extraocular muscles, are not specific for this condition. A 57-year-old man came to us with a chief symptom of "eye swelling" for the last 3 years. He had been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and had received three surgical procedures for orbital decompression. Clinical findings included limitation of upward and downward gaze, exophthalmometry readings of 30 1/2 mm O.D. and 31 mm O.S. (with a base of 112), and profound proptosis with fatty tissue prolapse. Subsequent thyroid testing revealed euthyroid status and computed tomography scan revealed orbital lymphoma. Orbital involvement from a malignant nodular histiocytic lymphoma resulted in a proptosis similar to that observed in Graves' ophthalmopathy. This very unusual presentation of orbital lymphoma mimicked Graves' disease so closely that the true cause was overlooked. This case emphasizes the need to include space-occupying lesions in the differential diagnosis of proptosis and gaze restrictions. The disease process and controversial management strategies are discussed.

  13. Orbit Feedback Operation with RCBX (MD 1209)

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, Jorg; Nisbet, David; Ponce, Laurette; Louro Alves, Diogo Miguel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    The LHC Orbit Feedback (OFB) is able to drive any orbit corrector circuit (COD) to steer the LHC orbit. But during the first feedback tests in 2010, all attempts to use the common triplet orbit correctors (MCBX) failed because the QPS system installed to protect those magnets triggered power aborts as soon as the OFB steered the beam with those CODs. The reason was most likely the violation of the RCBX circuit acceleration limits. For this reason the MCBX orbit correctors were never driven by the OFB in regular operation. Although the performance of the OFB is generally excellent, the quality of the beam steering around IRs could be improved if the OFB could correct the orbit with the MCBX to counteract locally triplet quadrupole movements. The aim of this MD was to make a new attempt to use the MCBX in the OFB. The test was successful at injection (no circuit trip) and failed during the ramp (QPS power abort). The PC voltages and QPS Ures signals revealed the presence of voltage spikes with a period of 10~s...

  14. Radiotherapy of lymphoid diseases of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin-Seymour, M.M.; Donaldson, S.S.; Egbert, P.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Kriss, J.P.


    Thirty-two patients with orbital pseudotumor (18), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (2), atypical lymphoid infiltrate (4) or malignant lymphoma (8) were treated in the Division of Radiation Therapy at Stanford University between January 1973 and May 1983. Of the 20 patients with pseudotumor or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 10 had unilateral lesions and 10 had bilateral lesions. Biopsy samples were obtained in 15 patients; in five patients with bilateral disease the diagnosis was made on the basis of computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. The majority of patients were referred because of disease refractory to treatment with corticosteroids. The patients were given a mean dose of 2360 rad using complex, individualized megavoltage techniques including lens shielding. Radiotherapy was well tolerated with no significant acute or late complications. Fifteen patients had complete resolution of symptoms after treatment; five had continued symptoms. Of the 12 patients with malignant lymphoma or atypical lymphoid infiltrate, four had systemic lymphoma with orbital involvement and eight had orbital involvement only. A mean dose of 3625 rad was delivered to the orbit only. Most of the patients received complex megavoltage treatment using bolus. All patients in this group had a complete response and local control. Two patients developed cataracts. Carefullly planned orbital radiotherapy provides local control without symptomatic sequelae for orbital masses ranging from pseudotumor to malignant lymphoma

  15. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the transition mechanism between molecular orbitals in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Misono, S.; von Oertzen, W.; Voit, H.


    The molecular orbitals of the nucleon(s) in nucleus-nucleus collisions are dynamically defined as a linear combination of nucleon single-particle orbits (LCNO) in a rotating frame by using the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) theory. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the promotions of nucleon, - especially due to the Landau-Zener radial coupling are discussed with the method above mentioned. (author)

  16. Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.


    'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)

  17. On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei


    This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.

  18. Burn Delay Analysis of the Lunar Orbit Insertion for Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (United States)

    Bae, Jonghee; Song, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bangyeop


    The first Korea lunar orbiter, Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), has been in development since 2016. After launch, the KPLO will execute several maneuvers to enter into the lunar mission orbit, and will then perform lunar science missions for one year. Among these maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion (LOI) is the most critical maneuver because the KPLO will experience an extreme velocity change in the presence of the Moon’s gravitational pull. However, the lunar orbiter may have a delayed LOI burn during operation due to hardware limitations and telemetry delays. This delayed burn could occur in different captured lunar orbits; in the worst case, the KPLO could fly away from the Moon. Therefore, in this study, the burn delay for the first LOI maneuver is analyzed to successfully enter the desired lunar orbit. Numerical simulations are performed to evaluate the difference between the desired and delayed lunar orbits due to a burn delay in the LOI maneuver. Based on this analysis, critical factors in the LOI maneuver, the periselene altitude and orbit period, are significantly changed and an additional delta-V in the second LOI maneuver is required as the delay burn interval increases to 10 min from the planned maneuver epoch.

  19. Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites (United States)

    Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman


    Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.

  20. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission: 10 Years of Exploration from Mars Orbit (United States)

    Johnston, M. Daniel; Zurek, Richard W.


    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter ( MRO ) entered Mars orbit on March 10, 2006. After five months of aerobraking, a series of propulsive maneuvers were used to establish the desired low -altitude science orbit. The spacecraft has been on station in its 255 x 320 k m, sun -synchronous (approximately 3 am -pm ), primary science orbit since September 2006 performing both scientific and Mars programmatic support functions. This paper will provide a summary of the major achievements of the mission to date and the major flight activities planned for the remainder of its third Extended Mission (EM3). Some of the major flight challenges the flight team has faced are also discussed.

  1. Orbit error characteristic and distribution of TLE using CHAMP orbit data (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-li; Xiong, Yong-qing


    Space object orbital covariance data is required for collision risk assessments, but publicly accessible two line element (TLE) data does not provide orbital error information. This paper compared historical TLE data and GPS precision ephemerides of CHAMP to assess TLE orbit accuracy from 2002 to 2008, inclusive. TLE error spatial variations with longitude and latitude were calculated to analyze error characteristics and distribution. The results indicate that TLE orbit data are systematically biased from the limited SGP4 model. The biases can reach the level of kilometers, and the sign and magnitude are correlate significantly with longitude.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.


    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  4. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements While Performing Orbit Maintenance Maneuvers Containing an Orbit Normal Delta-V Component (United States)

    Johnson, Megan R.; Petersen, Jeremy D.


    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Aura's Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Aura's frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under noslew operations.

  5. Circumvention of orbital symmetry restraints by 1,3-H-shifts of enolic radical cations. (United States)

    Hudson, Charles E; McAdoo, David J


    The reaction coordinates of 1,3-H-shifts across double bonds are traced by theory for three reactions, CH(3)C(OH)CH(2)(+*) (1) --> CH(3)C(O(+*))CH(3) (2), CH(2)C(OH)(2)(+*) (3) --> CH(3)CO(2)H(+*) (4) and CH(3)C(OH)CH(2)(+*) (1) --> CH(2)C(OH)CH(3)(+*) (1'), to explore how the need to conserve orbital symmetry influences the pathways for these reactions. In the first and second reactions, prior to the start of the H-transfer the methylene rotates from being in the skeletal plane to being bisected by it. Thus these reactions are neither antarafacial nor suprafacial, but precisely between those possibilities. This stems from a counterbalancing between the need to conserve orbital symmetry and the large distorting forces required to attain an allowed antarafacial transition state. In contrast to the first two reactions, 1 --> 1' follows a suprafacial pathway. However, this pathway does not violate conservation of orbital symmetry, as it utilizes lower lying orbitals of appropriate symmetry rather than the antisymmetric uppermost occupied allyl-type orbital. Changes in geometry which presumably produce asymmetric vibrational excitation and the unequal losses of methyl that follow 1 --> 2, i.e., nonergodic behavior, are also characterized.

  6. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0 (United States)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.


    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  7. Fulde-Ferrell state in superconducting core/shell nanowires: role of the orbital effect (United States)

    Mika, Marek; Wójcik, Paweł


    The orbital effect on the Fulde-Ferrell (FF) phase is investigated in superconducting core/shell nanowires subjected to the axial magnetic field. Confinement in the radial direction results in quantization of the electron motion with energies determined by the radial j and orbital m quantum numbers. In the external magnetic field, the twofold degeneracy with respect to the orbital magnetic quantum number m is lifted which leads to the Fermi wave vector mismatch between the paired electrons, (k, j, m, \\uparrow) ≤ftrightarrow (-k, j, -m, \\downarrow) . This mismatch is transferred to the nonzero total momentum of the Cooper pairs, which results in a formation of the FF phase occurring sequentially with increasing magnetic field. By changing the nanowire radius R and the superconducting shell thickness d, we discuss the role of the orbital effect in the FF phase formation in both the nanowire-like (R/d \\ll 1 ) and nanofilm-like (R/d \\gg 1 ) regime. We have found that the irregular pattern of the FF phase which appears for the case of the nanowire-like regime, for the nanofilm-like geometry evolves towards the regular distribution in which the FF phase stability regions emerge periodically between the BCS states. The transition between these two different phase diagrams is explained as resulting from the orbital effect and the multigap character of superconductivity in the core/shell nanowires.

  8. Self-consistent field theory of collisions: Orbital equations with asymptotic sources and self-averaged potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Y.K., E-mail:


    The self-consistent field theory of collisions is formulated, incorporating the unique dynamics generated by the self-averaged potentials. The bound state Hartree–Fock approach is extended for the first time to scattering states, by properly resolving the principal difficulties of non-integrable continuum orbitals and imposing complex asymptotic conditions. The recently developed asymptotic source theory provides the natural theoretical basis, as the asymptotic conditions are completely transferred to the source terms and the new scattering function is made fullyintegrable. The scattering solutions can then be directly expressed in terms of bound state HF configurations, establishing the relationship between the bound and scattering state solutions. Alternatively, the integrable spin orbitals are generated by constructing the individual orbital equations that contain asymptotic sources and self-averaged potentials. However, the orbital energies are not determined by the equations, and a special channel energy fixing procedure is developed to secure the solutions. It is also shown that the variational construction of the orbital equations has intrinsic ambiguities that are generally associated with the self-consistent approach. On the other hand, when a small subset of open channels is included in the source term, the solutions are only partiallyintegrable, but the individual open channels can then be treated more simply by properly selecting the orbital energies. The configuration mixing and channel coupling are then necessary to complete the solution. The new theory improves the earlier continuum HF model. - Highlights: • First extension of HF to scattering states, with proper asymptotic conditions. • Orbital equations with asymptotic sources and integrable orbital solutions. • Construction of self-averaged potentials, and orbital energy fixing. • Channel coupling and configuration mixing, involving the new orbitals. • Critical evaluation of the

  9. Long-term orbital period behaviour of low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo (United States)

    Ćetinkaya, Halil; Soydugan, Faruk


    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo based on published minima times. From the O-C analysis, it was found that FP Boo indicates orbital period decrease while the period of GR Vir is increasing. Mass transfer process was used to explain increase and decrease in the orbital periods. In the O-C diagrams of both systems periodic variations also exist. Cyclic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a third component around the eclipsing binaries. In order to interpret of cyclic orbital period changes for GR Vir, which has late-type components, possible magnetic activity cycles of the components have been also considered.

  10. Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.


    Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.

  11. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM) (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffey, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; TOAM Team


    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG 500 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan’s atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  12. Management of Orbital and Periorbital Venous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara A. Benoiton


    Full Text Available BackgroundTo review our management of common venous malformation (VM affecting the orbit and/or periorbital area.MethodsConsecutive patients with orbital and/or periorbital VM were identified from our vascular anomalies database. Demographic details of the patients, anatomic site(s affected, symptoms and signs, presence of a family history of VM, and types of treatment(s were collected, supplemented by chart review.ResultsA total of 24 patients’ age 1–68 (mean, 30 years with orbital and/or periorbital VM presented with cosmetic concerns (n = 17, 71%, distensibility (n = 15, 63%, pain (n = 9, 38%, diplopia (n = 4, 17%, and spontaneous thrombosis (n = 1, 8%. The VM caused globe dystopia (n = 13, 54%, enophthalmos (n = 6, 25%, proptosis (n = 3, 12%, exotropia (n = 3, 12%, and pseudoptosis with visual obstruction (n = 3, 13%. A total of 11 (46% patients were managed conservatively. 13 (54% patients underwent active treatment. Ethanol sclerotherapy (ES was performed in six patients with extensive facial VM associated with orbital/periorbital involvement, resulting in symptomatic improvement in five patients, one of whom developed skin necrosis and another patient developed reduced infraorbital nerve sensation. Surgery was performed for localized lesion (n = 3, 23%, for extensive lesions (n = 4, 31% and as an adjunct to ES (n = 6, 46% resulting in symptomatic improvement in all patients. One patient required correction of lower lid ectropion.ConclusionOrbital and/or periorbital VMs are heterogeneous, and management needs to be individualized. Surgery is used for localized lesions aiming for complete excision, as a debulking procedure for extensive orbital/periorbital VM when ES was not possible, or following ES for extensive facial VM with orbital and/or periorbital involvement.

  13. Positive transfer operators and decay of correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Baladi, Viviane


    Although individual orbits of chaotic dynamical systems are by definition unpredictable, the average behavior of typical trajectories can often be given a precise statistical description. Indeed, there often exist ergodic invariant measures with special additional features. For a given invariant measure, and a class of observables, the correlation functions tell whether (and how fast) the system "mixes", i.e. "forgets" its initial conditions.This book, addressed to mathematicians and mathematical (or mathematically inclined) physicists, shows how the powerful technology of transfer operators,

  14. GLONASS Orbits in Teqc: Methodology and Future Extension for Using SP3 Orbits (United States)

    Estey, L.; Wier, S.


    UNAVCO's teqc software package provides translation of a wide variety of GNSS receiver formats, metadata editing (either during translation to RINEX or on existing RINEX files), time-windowing and epoch decimation editing, and quality check (qc) analysis. Teqc is used extensively in GNSS pre-processing, and is designed to handle mixed satellite constellations, such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and SBAS. The latest release of teqc adds GLONASS orbit calculations using GLONASS broadcast navigation messages, read from RINEX file format, during qc. The ephemerides for each GLONASS SV have time and orbit position in Earth-centered, Earth-fixed x, y, and z coordinates. Following Schenewerk [2003], we use trigonometric interpolation, essentially a fit of a partial sum of the Fourier series for each time-varying cartesian orbital component, allowing estimates of orbit positions at most GLONASS observation times. Tests show the interpolated GLONASS orbits made from the broadcast messages diverge from final orbits little more than the same differences using GPS orbits computed from their broadcast messages. Since GLONASS ephemerides do not use Keplerian orbital elements, GLONASS SV orbits can only be interpolated using this method for time intervals when an adequate sequence of ephemerides are available. For typical daily navigation messages collected at a single sit, when a GLONASS SV is in view less than three hours, that SV's signals are generally not used by teqc due to less precise orbit positions. Teqc quality control including SV position can now use GPS alone, GLONASS alone, or the joint solution. Future work will extend teqc to use SP3 format files, such as the IGS final orbit files, and SBAS data, which have broadcast ephemerides with elements similar to GLONASS.

  15. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  16. Permanent Habitats in Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol Orbit Positions (United States)

    Greenspon, J.

    Project Outpost is a manned Earth-Sol/Mars-Sol platform that enables permanent occupation in deep space. In order to develop the program elements for this complex mission, Project Outpost will rely primarily on existing/nearterm technology and hardware for the construction of its components. For the purposes of this study, four mission requirements are considered: 1. Outpost - Man's 1st purpose-produced effort of space engineering, in which astructure is developed/constructed in an environment completely alien to currentpractices for EVA guidelines. 2. Newton - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development ofa modified Hohmann personnel orbital transport operating between Earth andMars. Newton would serve as the primary crew delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization. 3. Cruis - a concept study developed at StarGate Research, for the development of amodified Hohmann cargo orbital transport operating between Earth and Mars.Cruis would serve as the primary equipment delivery apparatus throughrepeatable transfer scheduling for all Earth-Lpoint-Mars activities. Thispermanent "transit system" would establish the foundations for Solar systemcolonization, and 4. Ares/Diana - a more conventional space platform configuration for Lunar andMars orbit is included as a construction baseline. The operations of these assetsare supported, and used for the support, of the outpost. Outpost would be constructed over a 27-year period of launch opportunities into Earth-Sol or Mars-Sol Lagrange orbit (E-S/M-S L1, 4 or 5). The outpost consists of an operations core with a self-contained power generation ability, a docking and maintenance structure, a Scientific Research complex and a Habitation Section. After achieving initial activation, the core will provide the support and energy required to operate the outpost in a 365

  17. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server



    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  18. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve


    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  19. Impact of spin-orbit density dependent potential in heavy ion reactions forming Se nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajni; Sharma, Ishita; Sharma, Manoj K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Jain, Deepika [Mata Gujri College, Department of Physics, Fatehgarh Sahib (India)


    The Skyrme energy density formalism is employed to explore the effect of spin-orbit interaction potential by considering a two nucleon transfer process via various entrance channels such as {sup 23}Na + {sup 49}V, {sup 25}Mg + {sup 47}Ti, {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc, {sup 29}Si + {sup 43}Ca and {sup 31}P + {sup 41}K, all forming the same compound system {sup 72}Se*, using both spherical as well as quadrupole deformed (β{sub 2}) nuclei. For spherical nuclei, the spin-orbit density part V{sub J} of nuclear potential remains unaffected with the transfer of two nucleons from the target to the projectile, however, show notable variation in magnitude after inclusion of deformation effects. Likewise, deformations play an important role in the spin-orbit density independent part V{sub P}, as the fusion pocket start appears, which otherwise diminish for the spherical nuclei. Further, the effect of an increase in the N/Z ratio of Se is explored on V{sub J} as well as V{sub P} and results are compared with transfer channels. In addition to this, the role of double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}) with relative contribution of the isoscalar and isovector parts of spin-orbit strength is explored in view of SkI2, SkI3 and SkI4 Skyrme forces. Beside this, the decay path of {sup 72}Se* nucleus formed in {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is investigated within the framework of dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), where the nuclear proximity potential is obtained by both Skyrme energy density formalism (SEDF) and proximity pocket formula. The fusion hindrance in the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction is also addressed via the barrier lowering parameter ΔV{sub B}. Finally, the contribution of spin-orbit density dependent interaction potential is estimated for the {sup 27}Al + {sup 45}Sc reaction using single (W{sub 0} or W{sub 0}{sup '}) and double spin-orbit parameters (W{sub 0} and W{sub 0}{sup '}). (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Space Science, Institute of Space Technology, P.O. Box 2750 Islamabad (Pakistan)


    It is known that two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) cannot merge in a spherical galaxy within a Hubble time; an emerging picture is that galaxy geometry, rotation, and large potential perturbations may usher the SMBH binary through the critical three-body scattering phase and ultimately drive the SMBH to coalesce. We explore the orbital content within an N-body model of a mildly flattened, non-rotating, SMBH-embedded elliptical galaxy. When used as the foundation for a study on the SMBH binary coalescence, the black holes bypassed the binary stalling often seen within spherical galaxies and merged on gigayear timescales. Using both frequency-mapping and angular momentum criteria, we identify a wealth of resonant orbits in the axisymmetric model, including saucers, that are absent from an otherwise identical spherical system and that can potentially interact with the binary. We quantified the set of orbits that could be scattered by the SMBH binary, and found that the axisymmetric model contained nearly six times the number of these potential loss cone orbits compared to our equivalent spherical model. In this flattened model, the mass of these orbits is more than three times that of the SMBH, which is consistent with what the SMBH binary needs to scatter to transition into the gravitational wave regime.

  1. Orbital Instabilities in a Triaxial Cusp Potential (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.; Butler, Suzanne C.; Druce, Jeffrey M.; Ketchum, Jacob A.


    This paper constructs an analytic form for a triaxial potential that describes the dynamics of a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including the inner portions of dark matter halos, the central regions of galactic bulges, and young embedded star clusters. Specifically, this potential results from a density profile of the form ρ(m)~m-1, where the radial coordinate is generalized to triaxial form so that m2=x2/a2+y2/b2+z2/c2. Using the resulting analytic form of the potential and the corresponding force laws, we construct orbit solutions and show that a robust orbit instability exists in these systems. For orbits initially confined to any of the three principal planes, the motion in the perpendicular direction can be unstable. We discuss the range of parameter space for which these orbits are unstable, find the growth rates and saturation levels of the instability, and develop a set of analytic model equations that elucidate the essential physics of the instability mechanism. This orbit instability has a large number of astrophysical implications and applications, including understanding the formation of dark matter halos, the structure of galactic bulges, the survival of tidal streams, and the early evolution of embedded star clusters.

  2. Orbital Epidermoid Cysts: A Diagnosis to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania A. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Background. Orbital epidermoids form a rare pathological entity that is separate from dermoid cysts. They have variable clinical and radiological presentations and they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital cystic lesions. This work describes the various clinical and radiological presentations of 17 cases of epidermoid cysts and the surgical outcome. Method. A prospective interventional study was conducted on 17 patients diagnosed with epidermoid cysts. Patients’ symptoms and signs were recorded; CT scan was done for all patients. All lesions were removed through anterior orbitotomy and histopathological diagnosis confirmed. Results. Mean age of patients was 16.3 years ±  10.54. Main complaints were lid swelling, masses, ocular dissimilarity, chronic pain, and ocular protrusion. Clinical signs varied from lid swelling and masses in all cases to proptosis, globe displacement, limitation of ocular motility, and scars. Radiological findings ranged from homogenous hypodense masses (58.8% to homogenous radiolucent (17.6% and heterogenous masses (23.5%. No recurrences following surgeries were reported throughout the follow-up (mean 18.8 months ±  0.72. Conclusion. Deep orbital epidemoid cysts are a separate entity that can behave like deep orbital epidermoid; however, they usually present at a relatively older age. They can be associated with increased orbital volume but not necessarily related to bony sutures.

  3. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.L.


    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing

  4. A retrograde object near Jupiter's orbit (United States)

    Connors, M.; Wiegert, P.


    Asteroid 2007 VW266 is among the rare objects with a heliocentric retrograde orbit, and its semimajor axis is within a Hill sphere radius of that of Jupiter. This raised the interesting possibility that it could be in co-orbital retrograde resonance with Jupiter, a second "counter-orbital" object in addition to recently discovered 2015 BZ509. We find instead that the object is in 13/14 retrograde mean motion resonance (also referred to as 13/-14). The object is shown to have entered its present orbit about 1700 years ago, and it will leave it in about 8000 years, both through close approach to Jupiter. Entry and exit states both avoid 1:1 retrograde resonance, but the retrograde nature is preserved. The temporary stable state is due to an elliptic orbit with high inclination keeping nodal passages far from the associated planet. We discuss the motion of this unusual object based on modeling and theory, and its observational prospects.

  5. Initial results of centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation BDS satellites with inter-satellite link measurements (United States)

    Tang, Chengpan; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhou, Shanshi; Liu, Li; Pan, Junyang; Chen, Liucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Lingfeng; Hu, Guangming; Li, Xiaojie; He, Feng; Chang, Zhiqiao


    Autonomous orbit determination is the ability of navigation satellites to estimate the orbit parameters on-board using inter-satellite link (ISL) measurements. This study mainly focuses on data processing of the ISL measurements as a new measurement type and its application on the centralized autonomous orbit determination of the new-generation Beidou navigation satellite system satellites for the first time. The ISL measurements are dual one-way measurements that follow a time division multiple access (TDMA) structure. The ranging error of the ISL measurements is less than 0.25 ns. This paper proposes a derivation approach to the satellite clock offsets and the geometric distances from TDMA dual one-way measurements without a loss of accuracy. The derived clock offsets are used for time synchronization, and the derived geometry distances are used for autonomous orbit determination. The clock offsets from the ISL measurements are consistent with the L-band two-way satellite, and time-frequency transfer clock measurements and the detrended residuals vary within 0.5 ns. The centralized autonomous orbit determination is conducted in a batch mode on a ground-capable server for the feasibility study. Constant hardware delays are present in the geometric distances and become the largest source of error in the autonomous orbit determination. Therefore, the hardware delays are estimated simultaneously with the satellite orbits. To avoid uncertainties in the constellation orientation, a ground anchor station that "observes" the satellites with on-board ISL payloads is introduced into the orbit determination. The root-mean-square values of orbit determination residuals are within 10.0 cm, and the standard deviation of the estimated ISL hardware delays is within 0.2 ns. The accuracy of the autonomous orbits is evaluated by analysis of overlap comparison and the satellite laser ranging (SLR) residuals and is compared with the accuracy of the L-band orbits. The results indicate

  6. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field. The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics, which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance. The spherical harmonic ...

  7. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  8. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian


    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  9. Orbital and conunctival lymphoma treatment and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessell, E.M.; Henk, J.M.; Whitelocke, R.A.F.; Wright, J.E.


    115 patients with lymphoid tumours presenting in the orbit were seen between 1970 and 1984. The histological types were high-grade malignant lymphoma - 18, low-grade malignant lymphoma - 43, and indeterminate lymphocytic lesions - 54. Eighteen patients were found to have disseminated lymphoma at presentation. The majority of the patients received radiotherapy to the orbit; local control was achieved in all cases and the ocular morbidity from radiotherapy was low with 11 patients developing lens opacities and 5 a dry eye. Survival of patients with stage I low-grade lymphoma adn indeterminate lymphocytic lesions was similar to that of a normal population of the same age distribution. The clinic features and dissemination pattern of the low-grade malignant lymphomata and the indeterminate lymphocytic lesions were identical, suggesting that most, if not all, lymphoid masses presenting in the orbit are neoplastic rather than reactive in nature. 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. The Viking Orbiter and its Mariner inheritance (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.; Norris, H. W.


    The orbiter system of the Viking spacecraft performs the functions of transporting the lander into orbit around Mars, surveying the proposed landing sites, relaying lander data to earth, and conducting independent scientific observations of Mars. The orbiter system is a semiautomatic, solar-powered, triaxially stabilized platform capable of making trajectory corrections and communicating with earth on S-band. Its instruments for visual imaging, detecting water vapor, and thermal mapping are mounted on a separate two-degree-of-freedom scan platform. Radio science is conducted at three frequencies, using the main S-band system, a separate X-band derived from the S-band, and the UHF one-way link with the lander.

  11. Lightning measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.


    The plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency signals when the spacecraft traverses the nightside ionosphere near periapsis. These particular noise bursts appear only when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere thus; the signals have all characteristics of lightning whistlers. We have tried to identify lightning sources between the cloud layers and the planet itself by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set, consisting of measurements through Orbit 1185, strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with an additional significant cluster near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  12. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits (United States)

    Levin, Janna


    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  13. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Janna


    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  14. Closed orbit correction in the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Ferede, H.; Pilat, F.


    Most of the techniques associated with closed orbit correction are widely known. The present paper gives a brief description of one such method and discusses the results obtained when it is applied to the SSC collider lattice. The emphasis is on features of the lattice which effect closed orbit correction and it is likely that any of the 8 methods cataloged in a cited reference would yield similar results. The global scheme described here is very robust and easy to apply. The results of three separate studies are briefly described. Typical results for the residual RMS closed orbit in the arc is calculated to be 0.65 mm with peak values of 3 mm

  15. [Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with orbital extension]. (United States)

    Hervás Ontiveros, A; España Gregori, E; Climent Vallano, L; Rivas Rodero, S; Alamar Velázquez, A; Simal Julián, J A


    The case is presented of a 21 year-old male with a history of left proptosis and diplopia of two weeks of onset. The MRI showed an ethmoid-orbital vascular lesion with anterior skull base invasion and orbital extension. Biopsy of the ethmoid confirmed fibrovascular tissue, which supported the diagnosis of angiofibroma. It is a benign neoplasm with local characteristics of malignancy due to its ability to invade adjacent areas. In this case, the debut presented with manifestations of orbital extension. A broad and multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Coadjoint orbits and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W. IV.


    This thesis is primarily a study of certain aspects of the geometric and algebraic structure of coadjoint orbit representations of infinite-dimensional Lie groups. The goal of this work is to use coadjoint orbit representations to construct conformal field theories, in a fashion analogous to the free-field constructions of conformal field theories. The new results which are presented in this thesis are as follows: First, an explicit set of formulae are derived giving an algebraic realization of coadjoint orbit representations in terms of differential operators acting on a polynomial Fock space. These representations are equivalent to dual Verma module representations. Next, intertwiners are explicitly constructed which allow the construction of resolutions for irreducible representations using these Fock space realizations. Finally, vertex operators between these irreducible representations are explicitly constructed as chain maps between the resolutions; these vertex operators allow the construction of rational conformal field theories according to an algebraic prescription

  17. Summary of ACCSIM and ORBIT Benchmarking Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    AIBA, M


    We have performed a benchmarking study of ORBIT and ACCSIM which are accelerator tracking codes having routines to evaluate space charge effects. The study is motivated by the need of predicting/understanding beam behaviour in the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in which direct space charge is expected to be the dominant performance limitation. Historically at CERN, ACCSIM has been employed for space charge simulation studies. A benchmark study using ORBIT has been started to confirm the results from ACCSIM and to profit from the advantages of ORBIT such as the capability of parallel processing. We observed a fair agreement in emittance evolution in the horizontal plane but not in the vertical one. This may be partly due to the fact that the algorithm to compute the space charge field is different between the two codes.

  18. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics (United States)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal


    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  19. Mars Molniya Orbit Atmospheric Resource Mining (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Braun, Robert D.; Sibille, Laurent; Sforzo, Brandon; Gonyea, Keir; Ali, Hisham


    This NIAC (NASA Advanced Innovative Concepts) work will focus on Mars and will build on previous efforts at analyzing atmospheric mining at Earth and the outer solar system. Spacecraft systems concepts will be evaluated and traded, to assess feasibility. However the study will primarily examine the architecture and associated missions to explore the closure, constraints and critical parameters through sensitivity studies. The Mars atmosphere consists of 95.5 percent CO2 gas which can be converted to methane fuel (CH4) and Oxidizer (O2) for chemical rocket propulsion, if hydrogen is transported from electrolyzed water on the Mars surface or from Earth. By using a highly elliptical Mars Molniya style orbit, the CO2 atmosphere can be scooped, ram-compressed and stored while the spacecraft dips into the Mars atmosphere at periapsis. Successive orbits result in additional scooping of CO2 gas, which also serves to aerobrake the spacecraft, resulting in a decaying Molniya orbit.

  20. Orbital and conunctival lymphoma treatment and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessell, E M; Henk, J M; Whitelocke, R A.F.; Wright, J E


    115 patients with lymphoid tumours presenting in the orbit were seen between 1970 and 1984. The histological types were high-grade malignant lymphoma - 18, low-grade malignant lymphoma - 43, and indeterminate lymphocytic lesions - 54. Eighteen patients were found to have disseminated lymphoma at presentation. The majority of the patients received radiotherapy to the orbit; local control was achieved in all cases and the ocular morbidity from radiotherapy was low with 11 patients developing lens opacities and 5 a dry eye. Survival of patients with stage I low-grade lymphoma adn indeterminate lymphocytic lesions was similar to that of a normal population of the same age distribution. The clinic features and dissemination pattern of the low-grade malignant lymphomata and the indeterminate lymphocytic lesions were identical, suggesting that most, if not all, lymphoid masses presenting in the orbit are neoplastic rather than reactive in nature. 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs.

  1. Heat transfer system (United States)

    Not Available


    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  2. Fuel transfer machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, I.


    A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures

  3. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D


    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  4. Measurement of orbital volume by computed tomography. Especially on the growth of orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Minoru [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)


    Using reconstructed X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of serial coronal sections, we measured the orbital volume and studied its changes with age. The subjects consisted of 109 patients (74 males, 35 females) who had undergone X-ray CT. After the reproducibility of orbital volume measurements and laterality in individuals were confirmed, the relation between the orbital volume and the age, sex, weight, and interlateral orbital rim distance were examined. The difference between two measurements in the same patients was 0.4% for measured volume, which showed the reproducibility of this measurement to be good. The laterality in individuals was 0.06 cm{sup 3}: this difference was very small and not significant. The orbital volume showed no unbalance between the right and left at any stage of growth. Both the height and the interlateral orbital rim distance had a strong correlation with the orbital volume. Referring to the relation between age and orbital volume, a strong correlation with an almost identical approximate equation was obtained for both sexes under 12 years of age. Presumably, the rapid growth of the orbit comes to an end by 15 years of age in males and 11 years in females. This means that more than 95% growth of adults has already been completed in the first half of the teens. The mean orbital volume in adult Japanese is 23.6{+-}2.0 (mean{+-}standard deviation) cm{sup 3} in males and 20.9{+-}1.3 cm{sup 3} in females. (author)

  5. Measurement of orbital volume by computed tomography. Especially on the growth of orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Minoru


    Using reconstructed X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of serial coronal sections, we measured the orbital volume and studied its changes with age. The subjects consisted of 109 patients (74 males, 35 females) who had undergone X-ray CT. After the reproducibility of orbital volume measurements and laterality in individuals were confirmed, the relation between the orbital volume and the age, sex, weight, and interlateral orbital rim distance were examined. The difference between two measurements in the same patients was 0.4% for measured volume, which showed the reproducibility of this measurement to be good. The laterality in individuals was 0.06 cm 3 : this difference was very small and not significant. The orbital volume showed no unbalance between the right and left at any stage of growth. Both the height and the interlateral orbital rim distance had a strong correlation with the orbital volume. Referring to the relation between age and orbital volume, a strong correlation with an almost identical approximate equation was obtained for both sexes under 12 years of age. Presumably, the rapid growth of the orbit comes to an end by 15 years of age in males and 11 years in females. This means that more than 95% growth of adults has already been completed in the first half of the teens. The mean orbital volume in adult Japanese is 23.6±2.0 (mean±standard deviation) cm 3 in males and 20.9±1.3 cm 3 in females. (author)

  6. Frozen orbit realization using LQR analogy (United States)

    Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. Reno

    In the case of remote sensing orbits, the Frozen Orbit concept minimizes altitude variations over a given region using passive means. This is achieved by establishing the mean eccentricity vector at the orbital poles i.e., by fixing the mean argument of perigee at 90 deg with an appropriate eccentricity to balance the perturbations due to zonal harmonics J2 and J3 of the Earth's potential. Eccentricity vector is a vector whose magnitude is the eccentricity and direction is the argument of perigee. The launcher dispersions result in an eccentricity vector which is away from the frozen orbit values. The objective is then to formulate an orbit maneuver strategy to optimize the fuel required to achieve the frozen orbit in the presence of visibility and impulse constraints. It is shown that the motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen perigee can be approximated as a circle. Combining the circular motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen point and the maneuver equation, the following discrete equation is obtained. X(k+1) = AX(k) + Bu(k), where X is the state (i.e. eccentricity vector components), A the state transition matrix, u the scalar control force (i.e. dV in this case) and B the control matrix which transforms dV into eccentricity vector change. Based on this, it is shown that the problem of optimizing the fuel can be treated as a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem in which the maneuver can be solved by using control system design tools like MATLAB by deriving an analogy LQR design.

  7. Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉


    We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.

  8. Infective Endocarditis Presenting as Bilateral Orbital Cellulitis: An Unusual Case


    Asif, Talal; Hasan, Badar; Ukani, Rehman; Pauly, Rebecca R


    Orbital cellulitis is a severe and sight-threatening infection of orbital tissues posterior to the orbital septum. The most common causes of orbital cellulitis are rhinosinusitis, orbital trauma, and surgery. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a systemic infection that begins on cardiac valves and spreads by means of the bloodstream to peripheral organs. Septic emboli can spread to any organ including the eyes and can cause focal or diffuse ophthalmic infection. Ocular complications of IE classic...

  9. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles


    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Heat transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasatani, Masanobu; Itaya, Yoshinori


    In order to develop energy-saving techniques and new energy techniques, and also most advanced techniques by making industrial equipment with high performance, heat transfer performance frequently becomes an important problem. In addition, the improvement of conventional heat transfer techniques and the device of new heat transfer techniques are often required. It is most proper that chemical engineers engage in the research and development for enhancing heat transfer. The research and development for enhancing heat transfer are important to heighten heat exchange efficiency or to cool equipment for preventing overheat in high temperature heat transfer system. In this paper, the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer and the improvement of radiative heat transfer characteristics are reported. Radiative heat transfer is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature, and it does not require any heat transfer medium, but efficient heat-radiation converters are necessary. As the techniques of enhancing radiative heat transfer, the increase of emission and absorption areas, the installation of emissive structures and the improvement of radiative characteristics are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang


    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  13. Orbit Determination Using Vinti’s Solution (United States)


    crew capsule orbited the earth twice and then experienced re-entry as part of an experimental test flight (Orion EFT -1). With a flight duration of almost...utility greatly outweighs these initial difficulties. A summary of efforts required to tap into these benefits follows. • The current research developed...and Lear, D., “Orion EFT -1 Postflight MMOD Inspection,” Orbital Debris Quarterly News, Vol. 19, April 2015, pp. 6–9. [16] European Space Agency, “Space

  14. Viking orbiter and its Mariner inheritance (United States)


    Improvements to the design of the Mariner spacecraft resulted in the Viking spacecraft. The Viking spacecraft would consist of two major systems - an orbiter and a lander, while the lander would provide the means for safely delivering the scientific instruments to the surface, house, and provide the necessary power source and communication links for those experiments, the orbiter would transport the lander to Mars, rovide a platform for the Viking imaging system so that proposed landing sites could be surveyed and certified, relay lander science information back to Earth, and conduct scientific observations in its own right.

  15. Orbit Representations from Linear mod 1 Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Correia Ramos


    Full Text Available We show that every point $x_0in [0,1]$ carries a representationof a $C^*$-algebra that encodes the orbit structure of thelinear mod 1 interval map $f_{eta,alpha}(x=eta x +alpha$. Such $C^*$-algebra is generated by partial isometries arising from the subintervals of monotonicity of the underlying map $f_{eta,alpha}$. Then we prove that such representation is irreducible. Moreover two such of representations are unitarily equivalent if and only if the points belong to the same generalized orbit, for every $alphain [0,1[$ and $etageq 1$.

  16. Numerical orbit generators of artificial earth satellites (United States)

    Kugar, H. K.; Dasilva, W. C. C.


    A numerical orbit integrator containing updatings and improvements relative to the previous ones that are being utilized by the Departmento de Mecanica Espacial e Controle (DMC), of INPE, besides incorporating newer modellings resulting from the skill acquired along the time is presented. Flexibility and modularity were taken into account in order to allow future extensions and modifications. Characteristics of numerical accuracy, processing quickness, memory saving as well as utilization aspects were also considered. User's handbook, whole program listing and qualitative analysis of accuracy, processing time and orbit perturbation effects were included as well.

  17. Orbital Period Changes in WZ Sagittae (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph; Stone, Geoffrey; Kemp, Jonathan; Skillman, David R.; de Miguel, Enrique; Potter, Michael; Starkey, Donn; Uthas, Helena; Jones, Jim; Slauson, Douglas; Koff, Robert; Myers, Gordon; Menzies, Kenneth; Campbell, Tut; Roberts, George; Foote, Jerry; Vanmunster, Tonny; Cook, Lewis M.; Krajci, Thomas; Ogmen, Yenal; Sabo, Richard; Seargeant, Jim


    We report a long-term (1961–2017) study of the eclipse times in the dwarf nova WZ Sagittae, in an effort to learn its rate of orbital-period change. Some wiggles with a timescale of 20–50 years are apparent, and a connection with the ∼23 year interval between dwarf-nova eruptions is possible. These back-and-forth wiggles dominate the O–C diagram, and prevent a secure measurement of the steady rate of orbital-period change.

  18. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits. (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M


    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  19. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Grunblatt, Samuel K.; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Kane, Stephen R.; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P.; Ciardi, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Wright, Jason T.; Ford, Eric B.


    We present the discovery of three modestly irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of 15.4 ± 2.4 {M}\\oplus , a semimajor axis of 0.55 au, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 (ρ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of 12.9 ± 1.6 {M}\\oplus and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 au. HD 164922 c has a semimajor axis of 0.34 au and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semimajor axis of 0.44 au, has a minimum mass of 25 ± 2 {M}\\oplus , and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photometry from the Automated Photometric Telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory failed to detect any transits, but the precise, high-cadence APT photometry helped to disentangle planetary-reflex motion from stellar activity. These planets were discovered as part of an ongoing radial velocity survey of bright, nearby, chromospherically inactive stars using the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope at Lick Observatory. The high-cadence APF data combined with nearly two decades of radial velocity data from Keck Observatory and gives unprecedented sensitivity to both short-period low-mass, and long-period intermediate-mass planets. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of Hawai‘I, the University of California, and NASA.

  20. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.


    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  1. Orbit equivalence and actions of F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag


    In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions.......In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions....

  2. Mitigating Climate Change with Earth Orbital Sunshades (United States)

    Coverstone, Victoria; Johnson, Les


    An array of rotating sunshades based on emerging solar sail technology will be deployed in a novel Earth orbit to provide near-continuous partial shading of the Earth, reducing the heat input to the atmosphere by blocking a small percentage of the incoming sunlight, and mitigating local weather effects of anticipated climate change over the next century. The technology will provide local cooling relief during extreme heat events (and heating relief during extreme cold events) thereby saving human lives, agriculture, livestock, water and energy needs. A synthesis of the solar sail design, the sails' operational modes, and the selected orbit combine to provide local weather modification.

  3. Status of Digital Orbit Feedback for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettel, Robert


    The present global orbit feedback system for SPEAR can adjust the electron beam position with a cycle time of 5 s. In addition, 50 Hz analog local servos stabilize the vertical photon beam position at monitors situated in the ten SSRL beamlines. The global and local systems will soon be merged into a single unified system operating from a dedicated DSP board. The goal is to acquire orbits, process the data, and correct beam position in a 1-2 ms interval to achieve a 30-50 Hz closed-loop bandwidth

  4. Cosmic censorship, black holes, and particle orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.


    One of the main reasons for believing in the cosmic censorship hypothesis is the disquieting nature of the alternative: the existence of naked singularities, and hence loss of predictability, the possibility of closed timelike lines and so forth. The consequences of assuming the cosmic hypothesis can also be somewhat strange and unexpected. In particular, Hawking's black hole area theorem is applied to the study of particle orbits near a Schwarzschild black hole. If the cosmic censorship hypothesis (and hence the area theorem) is true, then there exist stable near-circular orbits arbitrarily close to the horizon at r = 2M. (author)

  5. Computed tomographic features of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Hoch, H.; Azevedo, M. de L.


    The purpose of this m anuscript is to present the use of CT in the evaluation of 42 cases of orbital lesions studied at the National Institute of Cancer in an one year and half period. Correlation with clinical and pathological data was performed and the results compared with those of the literature. Four cases of rare lesions are shown: alveolar soft tissue sarcoma, giant cell tumor and hematogenic metastatic deposits of a clear cell sarcoma and epidermoid carcinoma. The value of CT in the evaluation of all orbital masses is emphasized. (author) [pt

  6. The Coupled Orbit-Attitude Dynamics and Control of Electric Sail in Displaced Solar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Huo


    Full Text Available Displaced solar orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated. Since the propulsive thrust is induced by the sail attitude, the orbital and attitude dynamics of electric-sail-based spacecraft are coupled and required to be investigated together. However, the coupled dynamics and control of electric sails have not been discussed in most published literatures. In this paper, the equilibrium point of the coupled dynamical system in displaced orbit is obtained, and its stability is analyzed through a linearization. The results of stability analysis show that only some of the orbits are marginally stable. For unstable displaced orbits, linear quadratic regulator is employed to control the coupled attitude-orbit system. Numerical simulations show that the proposed strategy can control the coupled system and a small torque can stabilize both the attitude and orbit. In order to generate the control force and torque, the voltage distribution problem is studied in an optimal framework. The numerical results show that the control force and torque of electric sail can be realized by adjusting the voltage distribution of charged tethers.

  7. Orbitals from local RDMFT: Are they Kohn-Sham or natural orbitals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Rubio, Angel


    Recently, an approximate theoretical framework was introduced, called local reduced density matrix functional theory (local-RDMFT), where functionals of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM) are minimized under the additional condition that the optimal orbitals satisfy a single electron Schrödinger equation with a local potential. In the present work, we focus on the character of these optimal orbitals. In particular, we compare orbitals obtained by local-RDMFT with those obtained with the full minimization (without the extra condition) by contrasting them against the exact NOs and orbitals from a density functional calculation using the local density approximation (LDA). We find that the orbitals from local-RMDFT are very close to LDA orbitals, contrary to those of the full minimization that resemble the exact NOs. Since local RDMFT preserves the good quality of the description of strong static correlation, this finding opens the way to a mixed density/density matrix scheme, where Kohn-Sham orbitals obtain fractional occupations from a minimization of the occupation numbers using 1-RDM functionals. This will allow for a description of strong correlation at a cost only minimally higher than a density functional calculation

  8. Application of orbital strong magnet in the extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chen Jia


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the surgical method and efficacy of extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of patients with deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies(OMFBin Hebei Eye Hospital from June 2014 to May 2017 was processed. A total of 23 eyes were enrolled, among them, 14 eyes of extraorbital OMFB, 9 eyes of intraorbital OMFB. The rate of extraction of foreign bodies and the postoperative complications were observed. RESULTS: All eyes of intraorbital foreign bodies were successfully extracted with 100% success rate. Twelve of 14 eyes of extraorbital foreign bodies were extracted with 86% success rate. Mild orbital hemorrhage were found in 2 eyes. There was no other obvious complication such as visual loss, orbital massive hemorrhage or limited ocular movement. CONCLUSION: It's an ideal surgical method to extract the deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet, with mini-injury, high success rate, short duration and few complications.

  9. Applicability of meteor radiant determination methods depending on orbit type. I. High-eccentric orbits (United States)

    Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Porubcan, V.


    It is evident that there is no uniform method of calculating meteor radiants which would yield reliable results for all types of cometary orbits. In the present paper an analysis of this problem is presented, together with recommended methods for various types of orbits. Some additional methods resulting from mathematical modelling are presented and discussed together with Porter's, Steel-Baggaley's and Hasegawa's methods. In order to be able to compare how suitable the application of the individual radiant determination methods is, it is necessary to determine the accuracy with which they approximate real meteor orbits. To verify the accuracy with which the orbit of a meteoroid with at least one node at 1 AU fits the original orbit of the parent body, we applied the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion (Southworth, R.B., Hawkins, G.S.: 1963, Smithson. Contr. Astrophys 7, 261). D0.2 the fit is rather poor and the change of orbit unrealistic. The optimal methods with the smallest values of D for given types of orbits are shown in two series of six plots. The new method of rotation around the line of apsides we propose is very appropriate in the region of small inclinations. There is no doubt that Hasegawa's omega-adjustment method (Hasegawa, I.: 1990, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 42, 175) has the widest application. A comparison of the theoretical radiants with the observed radiants of seven known meteor showers is also presented.

  10. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions. (United States)

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  11. Combined high and low-thrust geostationary orbit insertion with radiation constraint (United States)

    Macdonald, Malcolm; Owens, Steven Robert


    The sequential use of an electric propulsion system is considered in combination with a high-thrust propulsion system for application to the propellant-optimal Geostationary Orbit insertion problem, whilst considering both temporal and radiation flux constraints. Such usage is found to offer a combined propellant mass saving when compared with an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. This propellant mass saving is seen to increase as the allowable transfer duration is increased, and as the thrust from the low-thrust system is increased, assuming constant specific impulse. It was found that the required plane change maneuver is most propellant-efficiently performed by the high-thrust system. The propellant optimal trajectory incurs a significantly increased electron flux when compared to an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. However, the electron flux can be reduced to a similar order of magnitude by increasing the high-thrust propellant consumption, whilst still delivering an improved mass fraction.

  12. TerraSAR-X precise orbit determination with real-time GPS ephemerides (United States)

    Wermuth, Martin; Hauschild, Andre; Montenbruck, Oliver; Kahle, Ralph

    globally valid. The latency of the estimated clocks is approximately 7 seconds. Another limiting factor is the frequency of satellite downlinks and the latency of the data transfer from the ground station to the computation center. Therefore a near real-time scenario is examined in which the satellite has about one ground station contact per orbit or respectively one contact in 90 minutes. The results of the near real-time POD are evaluated in an internal consistency check and compared against the science orbit solution and laser ranging observations.

  13. Orbital cellulitis in course of typhoid fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacka, K.; Szreter, M.; Mikolajewicz, J.


    In 18 months girl with exophthalmus of the left eye and extensive swelling of the soft tissues in both orbits during continued fever was observed. Typhoid fever with a non-typical course and ophthalmic complications were diagnosed on the basis of serological tests. Complete cure after treatment with augmenting was obtained. (author)

  14. Using Orbital Platforms to Study Planet Formation (United States)

    Brisset, J.; Colwell, J. E.; Dove, A.; Maukonen, D.


    We will present results from the ISS NanoRocks experiment as well as the design of the Q-PACE CubeSat to demonstrate how orbital miniaturized payloads can be used to collect unprecedented amounts of data on the collision behavior of PPD dust grains.

  15. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder


    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this metho...

  16. Orbital Models and Electronic Structure Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderberg, Jan


    This tribute to the work by Carl Johan Ballhausen focuses on the emergence of quantitative means for the study of the electronic properties of complexes and molecules. Development, refinement and application of the orbital picture elucidated electric and magnetic features of ranges of molecules...

  17. Precise Orbit Determination of QZS-1 (United States)

    Hugentobler, U.; Steigenberger, P.; Rodriguez-Solano, C.; Hauschild, A.


    QZS-1, the first satellite of the Japanese Quasi Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) was launched in September 2010. Transmission of the standard codes started in December 2010 and the satellite was declared healthy in June 2011. Five stations of the COoperative Network for GIOVE Observation (CONGO) were upgraded to provide QZSS tracking capability. These five stations provide the basis for the precise orbit determination (POD) of the QZS-1 spacecraft. The stability and consistency of different orbital arc lengths is analyzed based on orbit fit residuals, day boundary discontinuities, and Satellite Laser Ranging residuals. As QZS-1 simultaneously transmits navigation signals on three frequencies in the L1, L2, and L5 band, different ionosphere-free linear combinations can be formed. The differences of the orbits computed from these different observables (ionosphere-free linear combination of L1/L2 and L1/L5) as well as the stability of the differential code biases estimated within the POD are studied. Finally, results of the attitude determination based on the navigation signal transmission from two different antennas onboard QZS-1 are presented.

  18. Orbiting objective lens telescope system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, J.W. Jr.


    A large objective lens is placed in a highly eccentric orbit about the earth. The orbit and orientation of the lens are carefully chosen so that it focuses light or other radiation from a preselected astronomical object into an image which slowly moves across the surface of the earth. A row of optical sensing units is located on the surface of the earth so that the image focused by the orbiting objective lens will travel substantially perpendicularly across the row during an observation. Output data generated from the sensing units may be multiplexed and fed to a real time processor which produces display signals. Each of the sensing units provides one scan line of the image being observed. The display signals are fed to a suitable display device which produces a picture of the preselected astronomical object. The objective lens may comprise a large flexible Fresnel zone plate or a flexible convex lens carried by a bicycle wheel-type supporting structure. The lens and supporting structure may be unfolded from compact cargo configurations and rotated after being placed into orbit

  19. Orbital atherectomy: device evolution and clinical data. (United States)

    Staniloae, Cezar S; Korabathina, Ravikiran


    A number of atherectomy devices were developed in the last few years. Among them, the DiamondBack 360° Peripheral Orbital Atherectomy System (Cardiovascular Systems, Inc) was specifically designed to work in severely calcified plaque. This article reviews the history, mechanism of action, evolution, clinical data, and future applications of this particular atherectomy device.

  20. Thermoluminescence of meteorites and their orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.


    The thermolunimescence (TL) levels of 45 ordinary chondrites were measured to obtain information about the meteorite orbits. The low-temperature TL reaches equilibrium while the meteorite is in space and reflects the temperature of the meteorite at perihelion. Samples of Pribram, Lost City, and Innisfree, whose orbits are accurately known, were used as control samples. The TL levels in 40 out of 42 meteorites are similar to the three control samples, indicating that the vast majority of ordinary chondrites that survive atmospheric entry have perihelia similar to three known orbits, i.e., in the range 0.8-1 AU. The effects of albedo and rotation are also considered. A simple model indicates that temperature gradients of 1-2 0 K/cm are possible in slowly rotating meteoroids and such a temperature gradient is consistent with the unusually large TL gradient measured in the Farmville meteorite. Since slow rotation rates are improbable, other possibilities are examined but no satisfactory explanation has been found. The TL level measured in the Malakal meteorite is two orders of magnitude lower than control samples and is best explained by thermal draining due to solar heating in an orbit with a small perihelion distance. The perihelion is estimated to be approx. 0.5-0.6 AU. (orig.)