Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murayama, Hitoshi
1994-06-01
The author reviews phenomenologically interesting aspects of supersymmetry. First he points out that the discovery of the positron can be regarded as a historic analogue to the would-be discovery of supersymmetry. Second he reviews the recent topics on the unification of the gauge coupling constants, m{sub b}-M{sub {tau}} relation, proton decay, and baryogenesis. The author also briefly discusses the recent proposals to solve the problem of flavor changing neutral currents. Finally he argues that the measurements of supersymmetry parameters may probe the physics at the Planck scale.
Bubble entrapment through topological change
Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.
2010-05-03
When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.
Time-Dependent Changes in a Shampoo Bubble
Chattopadhyay, Arun
2000-10-01
This article demonstrates the fascinating phenomenon of time evolution of a shampoo bubble through experiments that can be performed by undergraduate students. The changes in thickness of the bubble films with time are followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The change in chemical composition as a bubble film evolves is monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. It is observed that the change in thickness of a typical shampoo bubble film enclosed in a container is gradual and slow, and the hydrocarbon components of the bubble drain from the bubble much more slowly than water. An additional agent, such as acetonitrile, strikingly alters the dynamics of evolution of such a bubble.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Turcan, Romeo V.
2013-01-01
A goal of our ongoing research stream is to develop a multidisciplinary metatheory of bubbles. In this viewpoint paper we put forward a typology of bubbles by comparing four types of assets – entertainment, commodities, financial securities (stocks), and housing properties – where bubbles could a...
Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.
Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil
2010-10-01
The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.
Dreyer, Wolfgang; Duderstadt, Frank; Hantke, Maren; Warnecke, Gerald
2012-11-01
In the forthcoming second part of this paper a system of balance laws for a multi-phase mixture with many dispersed bubbles in liquid is derived where phase transition is taken into account. The exchange terms for mass, momentum and energy explicitly depend on evolution laws for total mass, radius and temperature of single bubbles. Therefore in the current paper we consider a single bubble of vapor and inert gas surrounded by the corresponding liquid phase. The creation of bubbles, e.g. by nucleation is not taken into account. We study the behavior of this bubble due to condensation and evaporation at the interface. The aim is to find evolution laws for total mass, radius and temperature of the bubble, which should be as simple as possible but consider all relevant physical effects. Special attention is given to the effects of surface tension and heat production on the bubble dynamics as well as the propagation of acoustic elastic waves by including slight compressibility of the liquid phase. Separately we study the influence of the three phenomena heat conduction, elastic waves and phase transition on the evolution of the bubble. We find ordinary differential equations that describe the bubble dynamics. It turns out that the elastic waves in the liquid are of greatest importance to the dynamics of the bubble radius. The phase transition has a strong influence on the evolution of the temperature, in particular at the interface. Furthermore the phase transition leads to a drastic change of the water content in the bubble. It is shown that a rebounding bubble is only possible, if it contains in addition an inert gas. In Part 2 of the current paper the equations derived are sought in order to close the system of equations for multi-phase mixture balance laws for dispersed bubbles in liquids involving phase change.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brennan, E.C. (ed.)
1985-07-01
Some lectures in these proceedings examine the theoretical basis for supersymmetry, recent developments in theories with compact dimensions, and experimental searches for supersymmetric signatures. Technologies are explored for obtaining very high energy electron-positron colliding beams. Separate abstracts were prepared for 35 papers in these conference proceedings. (LEW)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Emilian Dudas
2009-01-01
We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.
Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough
Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.
2012-12-01
Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.
Calculation of reactivity changes due to bubble collapse. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffman, T.J.; Petrie, L.M.
1977-01-01
Calculations based on Behrens' method indicate that a substantial increase in reactivity may accompany the collapse of a large number of small bubbles in an LMFBR core. More sophisticated transport approaches to this problem have encountered several difficulties: the large number of bubbles requires many mesh points; the desired effect can easily be masked by the movement of fuel to regions of greater (or lesser) importance; the reactivity is desired for a random distribution of spherical bubbles. This paper describes a transport approach to this problem which avoids the above difficulties by using the ''sub-group'' or ''probability table'' method.
Single sector supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John
1999-03-18
We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agashe, Kaustubh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1998-05-01
In this thesis, the author argues that the supersymmetric Standard Model, while avoiding the fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking, requires unnaturalness/fine tuning in some (other) sector of the theory. For example, Baryon and Lepton number violating operators are allowed which lead to proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. He studies some of the constraints from the latter in this thesis. He has to impose an R-parity for the theory to be both natural and viable. In the absence of flavor symmetries, the supersymmetry breaking masses for the squarks and sleptons lead to too large flavor changing neutral currents. He shows that two of the solutions to this problem, gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and making the scalars of the first two generations heavier than a few TeV, reintroduce fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking. He also constructs a model of low energy gauge mediation with a non-minimal messenger sector which improves the fine tuning and also generates required Higgs mass terms. He shows that this model can be derived from a Grand Unified Theory despite the non-minimal spectrum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
Flavour-changing Higgs decays into bottom and strange quarks in supersymmetry
Barenboim, G; Lee, J S; López-Ibáñez, M L; Vives, O
2015-01-01
In this work, we explore the flavour changing decays $H_i \\to b s$ in a general supersymmetric scenario. In these models, the flavour changing decays arise at loop-level but, originating from a dimension-four operator, do not decouple and may provide a first sign of new physics for heavy masses beyond collider reach. In the framework of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), we find that the largest branching ratio of the lightest Higgs ($H_1$) is ${\\cal O}(10^{-6})$ after imposing present experimental constraints. While heavy Higgs states may still present branching ratios ${\\cal O}(10^{-3})$. In a more general supersymmetric scenario, where additional Higgs states may modify the Higgs mixings, the branching ratio BR($H_1 \\to b s$) can reach values ${\\cal O}(10^{-4})$ , while heavy Higgses still remain at ${\\cal O}(10^{-3})$. Although these values are clearly out of reach for the LHC, a full study in a linear collider environment could be worth.
Nomura, Yasunori
2014-01-01
We argue that under a set of simple assumptions the multiverse leads to low energy supersymmetry with the spectrum often called spread or mini-split supersymmetry: the gauginos are in the TeV region with the other superpartners two or three orders of magnitude heavier. We present a particularly simple realization of supersymmetric grand unified theory using this idea.
Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry
Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2002-01-01
We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).
Quantum Extended Supersymmetries
Grigore, D R; Grigore, Dan Radu; Scharf, Gunter
2003-01-01
We analyse some quantum multiplets associated with extended supersymmetries. We study in detail the general form of the causal (anti)commutation relations. The condition of positivity of the scalar product imposes severe restrictions on the (quantum) model. It is problematic if one can find out quantum extensions of the standard model with extended supersymmetries.
Stealth Supersymmetry Simplified
Fan, JiJi; Pinner, David; Reece, Matthew; Ruderman, Joshua T
2015-01-01
In Stealth Supersymmetry, bounds on superpartners from direct searches can be notably weaker than in standard supersymmetric scenarios, due to suppressed missing energy. We present a set of simplified models of Stealth Supersymmetry that motivate 13 TeV LHC searches. We focus on simplified models within the Natural Supersymmetry framework, in which the gluino, stop, and Higgsino are assumed to be lighter than other superpartners. Our simplified models exhibit novel decay patterns that differ significantly from topologies of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, with and without $R$-parity. We determine limits on stops and gluinos from searches at the 8 TeV LHC. Existing searches constitute a powerful probe of Stealth Supersymmetry gluinos with certain topologies. However, we identify simplified models where the gluino can be considerably lighter than 1 TeV. Stops are significantly less constrained in Stealth Supersymmetry than the MSSM, and we have identified novel stop decay topologies that are complete...
Superworld without Supersymmetry
Chakdar, Shreyashi; Nandi, S
2015-01-01
It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world) does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete $Z_2$ symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry). We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be much high...
Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Shadmi, Y; Shadmi, Yael; Shirman, Yuri
2000-01-01
Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. The study of DSB has recently enjoyed dramatic progress, fueled by advances in our understanding of the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. These advances have allowed for direct analysis of DSB in strongly coupled theories, and for the discovery of new DSB theories, some of which contradict early criteria for DSB. We review these criteria, emphasizing recently discovered exceptions. We also describe, through many examples, various techniques for directly establishing DSB by studying the infrared theory, including both older techniques in regions of weak coupling, and new techniques in regions of strong coupling. Finally, we present a list of representative DSB models, their main properties, an...
Supersymmetry Searches with ATLAS
Hill, Ewan; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and studied theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetric particles. Weak and strong production Supersymmetry scenarios are considered, along with direct production of third generation supersymmtric particles. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, leptons, and long lived particles. Sensitivity projections for the 13 TeV data are also presented.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi-Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory; References; Index.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Kuwertz, Emma Sian; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, including those those tagged as originating from b-quark decays, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. An overview of the constraints on supersymmetry from the run1 results is presented, as well as sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015.
Division algebras and supersymmetry
Baez, John C
2009-01-01
Supersymmetry is deeply related to division algebras. Nonabelian Yang--Mills fields minimally coupled to massless spinors are supersymmetric if and only if the dimension of spacetime is 3, 4, 6 or 10. The same is true for the Green--Schwarz superstring. In both cases, supersymmetry relies on the vanishing of a certain trilinear expression involving a spinor field. The reason for this, in turn, is the existence of normed division algebras in dimensions 1, 2, 4 and 8: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Here we provide a self-contained account of how this works.
Supersymmetry for mathematicians
Varadarajan, V S
2004-01-01
Supersymmetry has been the object of study by theoretical physicists since the early 1970's. In recent years it has attracted the interest of mathematicians because of its novelty, and because of significance, both in mathematics and physics, of the main issues it raises. This book presents the foundations of supersymmetry to the mathematically minded reader in a cogent and self-contained manner. It begins with a brief introduction to the physical foundations of the theory, especially the classification of relativistic particles and their wave equations, such as the equations of Dirac and Weyl
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis
Kalinowski, Jan
2002-01-01
Supersymmetric particles can be produced copiously at future colliders. From the high-precision data taken at e+e- linear colliders, TESLA in particular, and combined with results from LHC, and CLIC later, the low-energy parameters of the supersymmetric model can be determined. Evolving the parameters from the low-energy scale to the high-scale by means of renormalization group techniques the fundamental supersymmetry parameters at the high scale, GUT or Planck, can be reconstructed to reveal the origin of supersymmetry breaking.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
F. SOUTO; A HEGER
2001-02-01
Aqueous homogeneous solution reactors have been proposed for the production of medical isotopes. However, the reactivity effects of fuel solution volume change, due to formation of radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion, have to be mitigated to allow steady-state operation of solution reactors. The results of the free run experiments analyzed indicate that the proposed model to estimate the void volume due to radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion in solution reactors can accurately describe the observed behavior during the experiments. This void volume due to radiolytic gas bubbles and fuel solution thermal expansion can then be used in the investigation of reactivity effects in fissile solutions. In addition, these experiments confirm that the radiolytic gas bubbles are formed at a higher temperature than the fuel solution temperature. These experiments also indicate that the mole-weighted average for the radiolytic gas bubbles in uranyl fluoride solutions is about 1 {micro}m. Finally, it should be noted that another model, currently under development, would simulate the power behavior during the transient given the initial fuel solution level and density. The model is based on Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP computer code [Briesmeister, 1997] to obtain the reactor reactivity as a function of the fuel solution density, which, in turn, changes due to thermal expansion and radiolytic gas bubble formation.
Supersymmetry in singular spaces
Bergshoeff, E; Kallosh, R; Van Proeyen, A
2000-01-01
We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D = 5 and comment on 8-branes in D = 10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane is a sink for the flux and requires adding to the standard supergravity a (D - 1)-form field and a sup
Ughetto, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, with focus on those obtained using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV.
Supersymmetry in singular spaces
Bergshoeff, E; Kallosh, R; Van Proeyen, A
2000-01-01
We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D = 5 and comment on 8-branes in D = 10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane is a sink for the flux and requires adding to the standard supergravity a (D - 1)-form field and a
Supersymmetry in Singular Spaces
Bergshoeff, E. A.; Kallosh, R.; Proeyen, A. van
2000-01-01
Published in: J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2000) 033 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We develop the concept of supersymmetry in singular spaces, apply it in an example for 3-branes in D=5 and comment on 8-branes in D=10. The new construction has an interpretation that the brane
Superworld without supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shreyashi Chakdar
2016-03-01
Full Text Available It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete Z2 symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry. We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC can be much higher than the superpartners, leading to the increased possibility of discovering new physics at the LHC.
Superworld without supersymmetry
Chakdar, Shreyashi; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Nandi, S.
2016-03-01
It is a possibility that the superworld (supersymmetric partners of our world) does exist without supersymmetry. The two worlds are being distinguished by an unbroken discrete Z2 symmetry (similar to R-parity in supersymmetry). We lose the solution to the hierarchy problem. However, such a scenario has several motivations. For example, the lightest neutral superworld particle will be a candidate for dark matter. The other being, as in supersymmetry, it is possible to achieve gauge coupling unification. One major difference with the supersymmetric theory is that such a theory is much more general since it is not constrained by supersymmetry. For example, some of the gauge couplings connecting the Standard Model particles with the superpartners now become free Yukawa couplings. As a result, the final state signals as well as the limits on the superworld particles can be modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The reach for these superworld particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be much higher than the superpartners, leading to the increased possibility of discovering new physics at the LHC.
Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
New and recents results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb^-1 are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3rd generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.
Precision measurements in supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1995-05-01
Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.
Doran, C F; Gates, S J, Jr; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D
2008-01-01
We explain how the redefinitions of supermultiplet component fields, comprising what we call "frame shifts", can be used in conjuction with the graphical technology of multiplet Adkinras to render manifest the reducibility of off-shell representations of supersymmetry. This technology speaks to possibility of organizing multiplet constraints in a way which complements and extends the possibilities afforded by superspace methods.
Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John
1998-12-09
Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.
Supersymmetry and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortin, T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C. U. Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2007-05-15
We show that requiring unbroken supersymmetry everywhere in black-hole-type solutions of N=2, d=4 supergravity coupled to vector supermultiplets ensures in most cases absence of naked singularities. We show that the requirement of global supersymmetry implies the absence of sources for NUT charge, angular momentum, scalar hair and negative energy, for which there is no microscopic interpretation in String Theory. These conditions exclude, for instance, singular solutions such as the Kerr-Newman with M= vertical stroke q vertical stroke, which fails to be everywhere supersymmetric. There are, nevertheless, everywhere supersymmetric solutions with global angular momentum and non-trivial scalar fields. We also present similar preliminary results in N=1, d=5 supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Ferrara, S
2015-01-01
Theories with elementary scalar degrees of freedom seem nowadays required for simple descriptions of the Standard Model and of the Early Universe. It is then natural to embed theories of inflation in supergravity, also in view of their possible ultraviolet completion in String Theory. After some general remarks on inflation in supergravity, we describe examples of minimal inflaton dynamics which are compatible with recent observations, including higher-curvature ones inspired by the Starobinsky model. We also discuss different scenarios for supersymmetry breaking during and after inflation, which include a revived role for non-linear realizations. In this spirit, we conclude with a discussion of the link, in four dimensions, between "brane supersymmetry breaking" and the super--Higgs effect in supergravity.
Supersymmetry and noncommutative geometry
Beenakker, Wim; Suijlekom, Walter D van
2016-01-01
In this work the question whether noncommutative geometry allows for supersymmetric theories is addressed. Noncommutative geometry has seen remarkable applications in high energy physics, viz. the geometrical interpretation of the Standard Model, however such a question has not been answered in a conclusive way so far. The book starts with a systematic analysis of the possibilities for so-called almost-commutative geometries on a 4-dimensional, flat background to exhibit not only a particle content that is eligible for supersymmetry, but also have a supersymmetric action. An approach is proposed in which the basic `building blocks' of potentially supersymmetric theories and the demands for their action to be supersymmetric are identified. It is then described how a novel kind of soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian arises naturally from the spectral action. Finally, the above formalism is applied to explore the existence of a noncommutative version of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This book is ...
Supersymmetry, supergravity, and unification
Nath, Pran
2017-01-01
This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.
Dimensional Enhancement via Supersymmetry
Faux, M G; Landweber, G D
2009-01-01
We explain how the representation theory associated with supersymmetry in diverse dimensions is encoded within the representation theory of supersymmetry in one time-like dimension. This is enabled by algebraic criteria, derived, exhibited, and utilized in this paper, which indicate which subset of one-dimensional supersymmetric models describe "shadows" of higher-dimensional models. This formalism delineates that minority of one-dimensional supersymmetric models which can "enhance" to accommodate extra dimensions. As a consistency test, we use our formalism to reproduce well-known conclusions about supersymmetric field theories using one-dimensional reasoning exclusively. And we introduce the notion of "phantoms" which usefully accommodate higher-dimensional gauge invariance in the context of shadow multiplets in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.
Supersymmetry Searches in ATLAS
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237280; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures.
Supersymmetry: Experimental Status
Ulmer, Keith A
2016-01-01
This talk presents results from the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations from searches for physics beyond the Standard Model motivated by supersymmetry from Run 1 of the LHC. Representative searches are described to illustrate the diverse nature of the search program in both background estimation techniques and final state topologies. The status of preparation for Run 2 searches at 13 TeV is also presented.
Ho, Chiu Man; Okada, Nobuchika
2014-01-01
Supersymmetry does not dictate the way we should quantize the fields in the supermultiplets, and so we have the freedom to quantize the Standard Model (SM) particles and their superpartners differently. We propose a generalized quantization scheme under which a particle can only appear off-shell, while its contributions to quantum corrections are exactly the same as those in the usual quantum field theory. We apply this quantization scheme solely to the sparticles in the $R$-parity preserving...
String Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodie, John H
2001-07-25
We consider the 3+1 visible sector to live on a Hanany-Witten D-brane construction in type IIA string theory. The messenger sector consists of stretched strings from the visible brane to a hidden D6-brane in the extra spatial dimensions. In the open string channel supersymmetry is broken by gauge mediation while in the closed string channel supersymmetry is broken by gravity mediation. Hence, we call this kind of mediation ''string mediation''. We propose an extension of the Dimopoulos-Georgi theorem to brane models: only detached probe branes can break supersymmetry without generating a tachyon. Fermion masses are generated at one loop if the branes break a sufficient amount of the ten dimensional Lorentz group while scalar potentials are generated if there is a force between the visible brane and the hidden brane. Scalars can be lifted at two loops through a combination of brane bending and brane forces. We find a large class of stable non-supersymmetric brane configurations of ten dimensional string theory.
Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Fabio Zwirner
2004-02-01
This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.
Thom, Stephen R; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bogush, Marina; Yang, Ming; Bhopale, Veena M; Pollock, Neal W; Ljubkovic, Marko; Denoble, Petar; Madden, Dennis; Lozo, Mislav; Dujic, Zeljko
2013-05-15
The study goal was to evaluate responses in humans following decompression from open-water SCUBA diving with the hypothesis that exertion underwater and use of a breathing mixture containing more oxygen and less nitrogen (enriched air nitrox) would alter annexin V-positive microparticle (MP) production and size changes and neutrophil activation, as well as their relationships to intravascular bubble formation. Twenty-four divers followed a uniform dive profile to 18 m of sea water breathing air or 22.5 m breathing 32% oxygen/68% nitrogen for 47 min, either swimming with moderately heavy exertion underwater or remaining stationary at depth. Blood was obtained pre- and at 15 and 120 min postdive. Intravascular bubbles were quantified by transthoracic echocardiography postdive at 20-min intervals for 2 h. There were no significant differences in maximum bubble scores among the dives. MP number increased 2.7-fold, on average, within 15 min after each dive; only the air-exertion dive resulted in a significant further increase to 5-fold over baseline at 2 h postdive. Neutrophil activation occurred after all dives. For the enriched air nitrox stationary at depth dive, but not for other conditions, the numbers of postdive annexin V-positive particles above 1 μm in diameter were correlated with intravascular bubble scores (correlation coefficients ∼0.9, P bubbles, MPs, platelet-neutrophil interactions, and neutrophil activation appear to exist, but more study is required to improve confidence in the associations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souto, F.J. [NIS-6: Advanced Nuclear Technology, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heger, A.S. [ESA-EA: Engineering Sciences and Application, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2001-07-01
To investigate the effects of radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion on the steady-state operation of solution reactors at the power level required for the production of medical isotopes, a calculational model has been developed. To validate this model, including its principal hypotheses, specific experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory SHEBA uranyl fluoride solution reactor were conducted. The following sections describe radiolytic gas generation in solution reactors, the equations to estimate the fuel solution volume change due to radiolytic gas bubbles and thermal expansion, the experiments conducted at SHEBA, and the comparison of experimental results and model calculations. (author)
Searches for supersymmetry at CMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collaboration: F. Giordano on behalf of the CMS Collaboration
2017-11-15
Among the most promising prospects for a theory of physics beyond the standard model is supersymmetry. In this talk, the latest results from the CMS experiment at the LHC on searches for supersymmetry produced through strong production and electroweak production channels are presented using 20/fb of data from the 8 TeV LHC run, with particular focus on gluino and stop searches.
BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry
Kulish, Petr P.
2006-12-01
We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.
The Discovery of Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riva Francesco
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Recent LHC searches have provided strong evidence for the Higgs, a boson whose gauge quantum numbers coincide with those of a SM fermion, the neutrino. This raises the question of whether Higgs and neutrino can be related by supersymmetry. I will show explicitly the implications of models where the Higgs is the sneutrino: from a theoretical point of view an R-symmetry, acting as lepton number, is necessary; on the experimental side, squarks exhibit novel decays into quarks and leptons, allowing to differentiate these scenarios from the ordinary MSSM.
Dimensional Enhancement via Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. Faux
2011-01-01
of supersymmetry in one time-like dimension. This is enabled by algebraic criteria, derived, exhibited, and utilized in this paper, which indicate which subset of one-dimensional supersymmetric models describes “shadows” of higher-dimensional models. This formalism delineates that minority of one-dimensional supersymmetric models which can “enhance” to accommodate extra dimensions. As a consistency test, we use our formalism to reproduce well-known conclusions about supersymmetric field theories using one-dimensional reasoning exclusively. And we introduce the notion of “phantoms” which usefully accommodate higher-dimensional gauge invariance in the context of shadow multiplets in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS
Meloni, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
This document summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric particles using LHC proton-proton collision data. Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. We consider both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios. The searches involve final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons, as well as long-lived particle signatures. Sensitivity projections for the data that will be collected in 2015 are also presented.
Supersymmetry and chiral symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Michael Luke [Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics and College of Natural Sciences, Kyung-Hee University, KyongGi, Yong-In 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: m.walker@aip.org.au
2004-12-01
We dispute the nonperturbative non-renormalisation theorem stating that mass cannot be spontaneously generated in supersymmetric QED. Our analysis, which requires no truncation and is fully gauge and supersymmetry consistent, finds instead that there is no reason for the mass corrections to be exactly zero. We concede that an achiral solution is yet to be found. We also extend a long-standing perturbative result, that the effective potential is zero to all orders of perturbation theory, to the nonperturbative regime for arbitrary numbers of flavours. (author)
Kimura, Tetsuji; Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide
2016-01-01
We construct $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of K\\"ahler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.
Holographic renormalization and supersymmetry
Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James
2017-02-01
Holographic renormalization is a systematic procedure for regulating divergences in observables in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. For dual boundary field theories which are supersymmetric it is natural to ask whether this defines a supersymmetric renormalization scheme. Recent results in localization have brought this question into sharp focus: rigid supersymmetry on a curved boundary requires specific geometric structures, and general arguments imply that BPS observables, such as the partition function, are invariant under certain deformations of these structures. One can then ask if the dual holographic observables are similarly invariant. We study this question in minimal N = 2 gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. In four dimensions we show that holographic renormalization precisely reproduces the expected field theory results. In five dimensions we find that no choice of standard holographic counterterms is compatible with supersymmetry, which leads us to introduce novel finite boundary terms. For a class of solutions satisfying certain topological assumptions we provide some independent tests of these new boundary terms, in particular showing that they reproduce the expected VEVs of conserved charges.
Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.
1982-01-01
This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz
2013-01-01
Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Shan Wu
2012-12-01
Conclusion: The size and submergence depth of an expiratory limb of a CPAP circuit, the diameter of the bubble generator bottle, and the compliance of the model lung all influence the magnitude and frequency of the transmitted pressure waveform. Therefore, these factors may affect lung volume recruitment and breathing efficiency in bubble CPAP.
Saha, J P; Saha, Jyoti Prasad; Kundu, Anirban
2004-01-01
We perform a systematic reevaluation of the constraints on the flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) parameters in R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetric models. As a typical process, we study the constraints coming from the measurements on the B0-\\bar{B0} system on the supersymmetric $\\delta^d_{13}$ parameters, as well as on the products of the lambda' type R-parity violating couplings. Present data allows us to put constraints on both the real and the imaginary parts of the relevant parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasios Georgoulas
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The present numerical investigation identifies quantitative effects of fundamental controlling parameters on the detachment characteristics of isolated bubbles in cases of pool boiling in the nucleate boiling regime. For this purpose, an improved Volume of Fluid (VOF approach, developed previously in the general framework of OpenFOAM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Toolbox, is further coupled with heat transfer and phase change. The predictions of the model are quantitatively verified against an existing analytical solution and experimental data in the literature. Following the model validation, four different series of parametric numerical experiments are performed, exploring the effect of the initial thermal boundary layer (ITBL thickness for the case of saturated pool boiling of R113 as well as the effects of the surface wettability, wall superheat and gravity level for the cases of R113, R22 and R134a refrigerants. It is confirmed that the ITBL is a very important parameter in the bubble growth and detachment process. Furthermore, for all of the examined working fluids the bubble detachment characteristics seem to be significantly affected by the triple-line contact angle (i.e., the wettability of the heated plate for equilibrium contact angles higher than 45°. As expected, the simulations revealed that the heated wall superheat is very influential on the bubble growth and detachment process. Finally, besides the novelty of the numerical approach, a last finding is the fact that the effect of the gravity level variation in the bubble detachment time and the volume diminishes with the increase of the ambient pressure.
Prosperetti, Andrea
2017-01-01
This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.
Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J
2016-01-01
Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...
Corpuscular Breaking of Supersymmetry
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
Are topological solitons elementary or composites? We answer this question by drawing up a corpuscular formalism in which solitons are coherent states of quantum constituents. This naturally leads to a functional integral representation, in which the classical saddle point is reached as the most probable distribution of corpuscles in the $\\hbar = 0$ limit and where quantum corpuscular corrections correspond to excursions away from such a distribution that occur only for finite $\\hbar$. Several striking features come up. Topological charge emerges as a collective flow of quantum numbers carried by individual corpuscles. Moreover, the corpuscular corrections are not reducible to any known form of quantum corrections, such as loop expansions in the coupling constant $\\hbar g^2$ or semiclassical $e^{-1/\\hbar g^2}$ effects. Corpuscular corrections are stronger and appear already at order $\\sqrt{\\hbar g^2}$. In SUSY theories quantum corpuscular corrections generically break supersymmetry. We show that a domain wall...
Investigation of bubble-bubble interaction effect during the collapse of multi-bubble system
Shao, Xueming; Zhang, Lingxin; Wang, Wenfeng
2014-11-01
Bubble collapse is not only an important subject among bubble dynamics, but also a key consequence of cavitation. It has been demonstrated that the structural damage is associated with the rapid change in flow fields during bubble collapse. How to model and simulate the behavior of the bubble collapse is now of great interest. In the present study, both theoretical analysis and a direct numerical simulation on the basis of VOF are performed to investigate the collapses of single bubble and bubble cluster. The effect of bubble-bubble interaction on the collapse of multi-bubble system is presented. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11272284, 11332009).
Academic training: Introduction to Supersymmetry
2007-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 12, 13, 14, 15 February, from 11:00 to 12:00 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Introduction to Supersymmetry D. Kaplan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA In these lectures, I will introduce supersymmetry as an extension to spacetime symmetries both formally and physically. I will present motivations for why we think supersymmetry may exist in the real world, and may manifest itself at the LHC. I will describe the current set of models of softly broken supersymmetry at the electroweak scale and the parts that make them exciting and the parts that make people sick. I will then cover the phenomenology of the various models - the spectra and some of the best studied collider signals. Finally, I will describe the phenomenology of the full supersymmetric parameter space in general terms and discuss this collider signals not covered by the classic models.
Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles
Goodwin, Alan
2012-01-01
Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…
Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles
Goodwin, Alan
2012-01-01
Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…
A subtle sign of supersymmetry?
Cho, A
2001-01-01
In experiments conducted by HEAT in 94/95 in the upper atomosphere, more positrons were detected than expected. Last year a revamped detector confirmed the excess. Physicists Gordon Kane and Lian-Tao think this could be evidence of supersymmetry. They postulate the extra positrons come from rare collisions between the lightest particle predicted by supersymmetry and its antimatter partner (1/2 page).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)
1995-09-01
In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.
Physics of bubble oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas [Third Physical Institute, University of Goettingen (Germany)
2010-10-01
Bubbles in liquids, soft and squeezy objects made of gas and vapour, yet so strong as to destroy any material and so mysterious as at times turning into tiny light bulbs, are the topic of the present report. Bubbles respond to pressure forces and reveal their full potential when periodically driven by sound waves. The basic equations for nonlinear bubble oscillation in sound fields are given, together with a survey of typical solutions. A bubble in a liquid can be considered as a representative example from nonlinear dynamical systems theory with its resonances, multiple attractors with their basins, bifurcations to chaos and not yet fully describable behaviour due to infinite complexity. Three stability conditions are treated for stable trapping of bubbles in standing sound fields: positional, spherical and diffusional stability. Chemical reactions may become important in that respect, when reacting gases fill the bubble, but the chemistry of bubbles is just touched upon and is beyond the scope of the present report. Bubble collapse, the runaway shrinking of a bubble, is presented in its current state of knowledge. Pressures and temperatures that are reached at this occasion are discussed, as well as the light emission in the form of short flashes. Aspherical bubble collapse, as for instance enforced by boundaries nearby, mitigates most of the phenomena encountered in spherical collapse, but introduces a new effect: jet formation, the self-piercing of a bubble with a high velocity liquid jet. Examples of this phenomenon are given from light induced bubbles. Two oscillating bubbles attract or repel each other, depending on their oscillations and their distance. Upon approaching, attraction may change to repulsion and vice versa. When being close, they also shoot self-piercing jets at each other. Systems of bubbles are treated as they appear after shock wave passage through a liquid and with their branched filaments that they attain in standing sound fields. The N-bubble
Orvalho, Sandra; Ruzicka, Marek C.; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio
2015-01-01
The goal of this study is to present new experimental data on the effect of the bubble approach velocity and liquid viscosity on pairwise bubble coalescence. Measurements were performed to investigate the dynamics of bubble coalescence under well-defined laboratory conditions. Air and pure
Bubble rupture in bubble electrospinning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Rouxi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As the distinctive properties and different applications of nanofibers, the demand of nanofibers increased sharply in recently years. Bubble electrospinning is one of the most effective and industrialized methods for nanofiber production. To optimize the set-up of bubble electrospinning and improve its mass production, the dynamic properties of un-charged and charged bubbles are studied experimentally, the growth and rupture process of a bubble are also discussed in this paper.
Supersymmetry, Duality And Holonomy
Wen, W
2005-01-01
In this thesis, I study various aspects of solutions to eleven-dimensional supergravity and its descendents. The former is at one corner of the moduli space of M-theory. While it is not clear how to formulate M-theory; it is equally interesting to see how far we can proceed from this low energy window. First of all, various techniques are applied to construct supergravity solutions preserving partial supersymmetry. A seven-dimensional membrane solution in the gauged supergravity is constructed by lifting a self-dual string in six dimensions, and its supersymmetric property is explored in certain detail. Then fractional BPS solutions from Sn × Sn reduction of six and ten-dimensional supergravities are constructed via the method of G-structures. The form of the solutions is totally determined by Laplace equations with specified boundary conditions. Secondly, the concept of duality is realized in two aspects. A certain type of *-theory, obtained from time-like T-dualization of the usual string and M-t...
A Second Supersymmetry in Thermo Field Dynamics
Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.
2003-01-01
This article is an extension of the work done in \\cite{partha} by R. Parthasarathy and R. Sridhar. There they consider supersymmetry in an enlarged thermal system (in a thermo field dynamic formulation) and show that this supersymmetry is not broken at finite temperature. Here we show, using an SU(1,1) R-symmetry, that this system obeys a second supersymmetry. In addition, we proceed to see that this new supersymmetry also remains unbroken at finite temperatures.
Experimantal Study on the Bubble Clustering in Bubbly Flows
Takagi, Shu; Fujiwara, Akiko; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2003-11-01
The statistical properties of bubbly flows and the near-wall bubble-clustering behaviors are investigated for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size, turbulent properties of liquid phase and the bubble clustering motion were measured using image-processing technique, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), respectively. Using 3-pentanol as a surfactant, the mono-dispersed 1mm-bubbles are generated. The mono-dispersed bubbles in upward flows accumulate near the wall and construct bubble clusters. These bubble clusters were investigated. Experimental observation showed that the size of bubble cluster can be much larger than that of the coherent structure in single phase turbulence. The clusters change their shape in time and space and these bubble motions accelerate the mean streamwise velocity near the wall due to the buoyancy effect. Thus the mean velocity profile of the liquid phase becomes flattened. It is suggested that the highly accumulated bubbles in the vicinity of the wall disturb the transport of turbulence energy produced in the wall shear layer from the central region of the channel flow. Furthermore, in the middle of channel, the fluctuations of the liquid phase are mainly generated by the bubble motions.
Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.
2017-03-01
Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.
Supersymmetry for Fermion Masses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chun
2007-01-01
It is proposed that supersymmetry (SUSY) may be used to understand fermion mass hierarchies. A family symmetry Z3L is introduced, which is the cyclic symmetry among the three generation SU(2) doublets. SUSY breaks at a high energy scale ～ 1011 GeV. The electroweak energy scale ～ 100 GeV is unnaturally small. No additional global symmetry, like the R-parity, is imposed. The Yukawa couplings and R-parity violating couplings all take their natural values, which are (&)(100 ～ 10-2). Under the family symmetry, only the third generation charged fermions get their masses. This family symmetry is broken in the soft SUSY breaking terms, which result in a hierarchical pattern of the fermion masses. It turns out that for the charged leptons, the τ mass is fromthe Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV)and the sneutrino VEVs, the muon mass is due to the sneutrino VEVs, and the electron gains its mass due to both Z3L and SUSY breaking. The large neutrino mixing are produced with neutralinos playing the partial role of right-handed neutrinos. |Ve3|, which is for ve-vτ mixing, is expected to be about 0.1. For the quarks, the third generation masses are from the Higgs VEVs, the second generation masses are from quantum corrections, and the down quark mass due to the sneutrino VEVs. It explains mc/ms, ms/me, md ＞ mu, and so on. Other aspects of the model are discussed.
Natural Supersymmetry in Warped Space
Heidenreich, Ben
2014-01-01
We explore the possibility of solving the hierarchy problem by combining the paradigms of supersymmetry and compositeness. Both paradigms are under pressure from the results of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and combining them allows both a higher confinement scale -- due to effective supersymmetry in the low energy theory -- and heavier superpartners -- due to the composite nature of the Higgs boson -- without sacrificing naturalness. The supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum model provides a concrete example where calculations are possible, and we pursue a realistic model in this context. With a few assumptions, we are led to a model with bulk fermions, a left-right gauge symmetry in the bulk, and supersymmetry breaking on the UV brane. The first two generations of squarks are decoupled, reducing LHC signatures but also leading to quadratic divergences at two loops. The model predicts light $W'$ and $Z'$ gauge bosons, and present LHC constraints on exotic gauge bosons imply a high confinement scale and mild tuni...
Split supersymmetry in brane models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ignatios Antoniadis
2006-11-01
Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W = 3/8 at the com-pactification scale of GUT ≃ 2 × 1016 GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.
A Geometric Formulation of Supersymmetry
Freedman, Daniel Z; Van Proeyen, Antoine
2016-01-01
The scalar fields of supersymmetric models are coordinates of a geometric space. We propose a formulation of supersymmetry that is covariant with respect to reparametrizations of this target space. Employing chiral multiplets as an example, we introduce modified supersymmetry variations and redefined auxiliary fields that transform covariantly under reparametrizations. The resulting action and transformation laws are manifestly covariant and highlight the geometric structure of the supersymmetric theory. The covariant methods are developed first for general theories (not necessarily supersymmetric) whose scalar fields are coordinates of a Riemannian target space.
Split Supersymmetry in String Theory
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2006-01-01
Type I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with \\sin^2{\\theta_W}=3/8 at the compactification scale of M_{\\rm GUT}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.
Supersymmetry from the Top Down
Dine, Michael
2011-01-01
If supersymmetry turns out to be a symmetry of nature at low energies, the first order of business to measure the soft breaking parameters. But one will also want to understand the symmetry, and its breaking, more microscopically. Two aspects of this problem constitute the focus of these lectures. First, what sorts of dynamics might account for supersymmetry breaking, and its manifestation at low energies. Second, how might these features fit into string theory (or whatever might be the underlying theory in the ultraviolet). The last few years have seen a much improved understanding of the first set of questions, and at least a possible pathway to address the second.
Avdeev, Alexander A
2016-01-01
This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...
'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara
2010-08-26
We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.
Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking
Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne
2013-01-01
We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet
Crews, J. B.
2015-12-01
Remotely triggered seismicity is a phenomenon in which an earthquake at one location triggers others over distances up to thousands of kilometers. The mechanism by which low-amplitude dynamic oscillations of the confining stress can produce such an effect, often after a time delay of minutes-to-days, is unclear, but a concentration of remotely triggered seismic events in carbon-dioxide-rich volcanic and geothermal regions suggests that an increase in pore fluid pressure associated with the nucleation and growth of carbon-dioxide gas bubbles may reduce the effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. While this hypothesis has been tested in bench-scale laboratory experiments, field detection of seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater may provide further evidence for this remote triggering mechanism. In the present study, a hydrophone continuously records the acoustic power spectrum in CH-10B, a hydrothermal well located in Long Valley Caldera, California - a site that is susceptible to remotely seismic triggering. This well exhibits co-seismic changes in water level in response to near and distant earthquakes, including every magnitude-six or greater at any location on Earth. Exploiting the inverse relationship between gas bubble radius and the peak acoustic frequency emitted when a gas bubble ruptures, this investigation seeks to detect changes in the acoustic power spectrum arising from a shift in the size-distribution or count rate of rupturing gas bubbles, coincident with a distant earthquake. By resolving the timing and intensity of the onset of a change in gas bubble rupture rate after the passage of seismic wave from a distant source, it may be possible to establish the extent to which seismically initiated gas bubble growth contributes to co-seismic borehole water level response, pore fluid pressure perturbations, and the onset of remotely triggered seismicity.
Bubble, Bubble, Toil and Trouble.
Journal of Chemical Education, 2001
2001-01-01
Bubbles are a fun way to introduce the concepts of surface tension, intermolecular forces, and the use of surfactants. Presents two activities in which students add chemicals to liquid dishwashing detergent with water in order to create longer lasting bubbles. (ASK)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Jahangir Alam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The galvanic replacement reaction between silver nanostructures and AuCl4- solution has recently been demonstrated as a versatile method for generating metal nanostructures with hollow interiors. Here we describe the results of a systematic study detailing the morphological, structural, compositional, and spectral changes involved in such a heterogeneous reaction on the nanoscale. Effects of Ar or O2 gas bubbling for the formation of Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles by the galvanic replacement between spherical Ag nanoparticles and AuCl4- especially were studied in ethylene glycol (EG at 150°C. The shape, size, and composition changes occur rapidly under O2 bubbling in comparison with those under Ar bubbling. The major product after 60 min heating under Ar gas bubbling was perforated Ag-Au alloy particles formed by the replacement reaction and the minor product was ribbon-type particles produced from splitting off some perforated particles. On the other hand, the major product after 60 min heating under O2 gas bubbling was ribbon-type particles. In addition, small spherical Ag particles are produced. They are formed through rereduction of Ag+ ions released from the replacement reaction and oxidative etching of Ag nanoparticles by O2/Cl− in EG.
Natural Supersymmetry from Extra Dimensions
Delgado, Antonio; Nardini, Germano; Quiros, Mariano
2016-01-01
We show that natural supersymmetry can be embedded in a five-dimensional theory with supersymmetry breaking \\`a la Scherk-Schwarz (SS). There is no 'gluino-sucks' problem for stops localized in the four-dimensional brane and gluinos propagating in the full five-dimensional bulk, and sub-TeV stops are easily accommodated. The $\\mu / B_\\mu$ problem is absent as well; the SS breaking generates a Higgsino Dirac mass and no bilinear Higgs mass parameter in the superpotential is required. Moreover, for non-maximal SS twists leading to $\\tan \\beta \\simeq 1$, the Higgs spectrum is naturally split, in agreement with LHC data. The 125-GeV Higgs mass and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking can be accommodated by minimally extending the Higgs sector with $Y=0$ $SU(2)_L$ triplets.
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Peskin, Michael E.
2008-01-01
These lectures, presented at the 2006 TASI summer school, give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions...
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Flavors of Supersymmetry Beyond Vanilla
Evans, Jared A
2015-01-01
This review surveys the territory of supersymmetry beyond the vanilla MSSM. With a viewpoint guided by electroweak naturalness, the review focuses on constructions that weaken or bypass current LHC constraints. Models of SUSY containing Dirac gluinos, compressed spectra, flavor-violating squarks, R-parity violation, stealth sectors, exotic detector objects, and more are discussed. In addition to presenting ways of hiding SUSY, these models highlight a few opportunities to improve LHC coverage.
Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking
Murayama, H
2001-01-01
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.
Supersymmetry in mathematics and physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland). Div. Theorie; Fioresi, Rita [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Mathematics; Varadarajan, V.S. (eds.) [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
2011-07-01
Supersymmetry was created by the physicists in the 1970's to give a unified treatment of fermions and bosons, the basic constituents of matter. Since then its mathematical structure has been recognized as that of a new development in geometry, and mathematicians have busied themselves with exploring this aspect. This volume collects recent advances in this field, both from a physical and a mathematical point of view, with an accent on a rigorous treatment of the various questions raised. (orig.)
Supersymmetry breaking made easy, viable, and generic
Murayama, Hitoshi
2007-01-01
The kind of supersymmetry that can be discovered at the LHC must be very much flavor-blind, which used to require very special intelligently designed models of supersymmetry breaking. This led to the pessimism for some in the community that it is not likely for the LHC to discover supersymmetry. I point out that this is not so, because a garden-variety supersymmetric theories actually can do this job.
Semi-Hopf Algebra and Supersymmetry
Gunara, Bobby Eka
1999-01-01
We define a semi-Hopf algebra which is more general than a Hopf algebra. Then we construct the supersymmetry algebra via the adjoint action on this semi-Hopf algebra. As a result we have a supersymmetry theory with quantum gauge group, i.e., quantised enveloping algebra of a simple Lie algebra. For the example, we construct the Lagrangian N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry.
Deconstruction, Holography and Emergent Supersymmetry
Nakai, Yuichiro
2014-01-01
We study a gauge theory in a 5D warped space via the dimensional deconstruction that a higher dimensional gauge theory is constructed from a moose of 4D gauge groups. By the AdS/CFT correspondence, a 5D warped gauge theory is dual to a 4D conformal field theory (CFT) with a global symmetry. As far as physics of the gauge theory, we obtain the one-to-one correspondence between each component of a moose of gauge groups and that of a CFT. We formulate a supersymmetric extension of deconstruction and explore the framework of natural supersymmetry in a 5D warped space -- the supersymmetric Randall-Sundrum model with the IR-brane localized Higgs and bulk fermions -- via the gauge moose. In this model, a supersymmetry breaking source is located at the end of the moose corresponding to the UV brane and the first two generations of squarks are decoupled. With left-right gauge symmetries in the bulk of the moose, we demonstrate realization of accidental or emergent supersymmetry of the Higgs sector in comparison with t...
O'Geary, Melissa A.
Bubbles provide an enjoyable and festive medium through which to teach many concepts within the science topics of light, color, chemistry, force, air pressure, electricity, buoyancy, floating, density, among many others. In order to determine the nature of children's engagement within a museum setting and the learning opportunities of playing with bubbles, I went to a children's interactive museum located in a metropolitan city in the Northeastern part of the United States.
Barnaveli, A T; Barnaveli, Andro; Gogberashvili, Merab
1995-01-01
We investigate the gravitational behavior of spherical domain walls (bubbles) arising during the phase transitions in the early Universe. In the thin-wall approximation we show the existence of the new solution of Einstein equations with negative gravitational mass of bubbles and the reversed direction of time flow on the shell. This walls exhibit gravitational repulsion just as the planar walls are assumed to do. The equilibrium radius and critical mass of such objects are found for realistic models.
Supersymmetry in Open Superstring Field Theory
Erler, Theodore
2016-01-01
We realize the 16 unbroken supersymmetries on a BPS D-brane as invariances of the action of the corresponding open superstring field theory. We work in the small Hilbert space approach, where a symmetry of the action translates into a symmetry of the associated cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure. We compute the supersymmetry algebra, being careful to disentangle the components which produce a translation, a gauge transformation, and a symmetry transformation which vanishes on-shell. Via the minimal model theorem, we illustrate how supersymmetry of the action implies supersymmetry of the tree level open string scattering amplitudes.
Supersymmetry of RS bulk and brane
Bergshoeff, E A; Van Proeyen, A; Bergshoeff, Eric; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van
2001-01-01
We review the construction of actions with supersymmetry on spaces with a domain wall. The latter objects act as sources inducing a jump in the gauge coupling constant. Despite these singularities, supersymmetry can be formulated, maintaining its role as a square root of translations in this singular space. The setup is designed for the application in five dimensions related to the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario. The space has two domain walls. We discuss the solutions of the theory with fixed scalars and full preserved supersymmetry, in which case one of the branes can be pushed to infinity, and solutions where half of the supersymmetries are preserved.
Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-11-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.
Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Why and How
Poppitz, E R
1998-01-01
This theoretical review is intended to give non-theorists a flavor of the ideas driving the current efforts to experimentally find supersymmetry. We discuss the main reasons behind the expectation that supersymmetry may be "just around the corner" and may be discovered in the near future. We use simple quantum-mechanical examples to illustrate the concept---and the power---of supersymmetry, the possible ways to break supersymmetry, and the dynamical generation of small scales. We then describe how this theoretical machinery helps shape our perception of what physics beyond the electroweak scale might be.
Visuri, Steven R.; Mammini, Beth M.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.
2003-01-01
The present invention is intended as a means of diagnosing the presence of a gas bubble and incorporating the information into a feedback system for opto-acoustic thrombolysis. In opto-acoustic thrombolysis, pulsed laser radiation at ultrasonic frequencies is delivered intraluminally down an optical fiber and directed toward a thrombus or otherwise occluded vessel. Dissolution of the occlusion is therefore mediated through ultrasonic action of propagating pressure or shock waves. A vapor bubble in the fluid surrounding the occlusion may form as a result of laser irradiation. This vapor bubble may be used to directly disrupt the occlusion or as a means of producing a pressure wave. It is desirable to detect the formation and follow the lifetime of the vapor bubble. Knowledge of the bubble formation and lifetime yields critical information as to the maximum size of the bubble, density of the absorbed radiation, and properties of the absorbing material. This information can then be used in a feedback system to alter the irradiation conditions.
Tasting the SU(5) nature of supersymmetry at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fichet, Sylvain [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Fisica Teorica,São Paulo State University,São Paulo (Brazil); International Institute of Physics, UFRN,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima, 1722 Capim Macio, 59078-400 Natal-RN (Brazil); Herrmann, Björn; Stoll, Yannick [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS,9 Chemin de Bellevue, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux (France)
2015-05-19
We elaborate on a recently found SU(5) relation confined to the up-(s)quark flavour space, that remains immune to large quantum corrections up to the TeV scale. We investigate the possibilities opened by this new window on the GUT scale in order to find TeV-scale SU(5) tests realizable at the LHC. These SU(5) tests appear as relations among observables involving either flavour violation or chirality flip in the up-(s)quark sector. The power of these tests is systematically evaluated using a frequentist, p-value based criterion. SU(5) tests in the Heavy supersymmetry (SUSY), Natural supersymmetry and Top-charm supersymmetry spectra are investigated. The latter scenario features light stops and scharms and is well-motivated from various five-dimensional constructions. A variety of SU(5) tests is obtained, involving techniques of top polarimetry, charm-tagging, or Higgs detection from SUSY cascade decays. We find that O(10) to O(100) events are needed to obtain 50% of relative precision at 3σ significance for all of these tests. In addition, we propose a set of precision measurements in ultraperipheral collisions in order to search for the flavour-changing dipole operators of Heavy supersymmetry.
Perspectives on Higgs Boson and Supersymmetry
Nath, Pran
2013-01-01
We review the recent discovery of the Higgs like particle at $\\sim 125$ GeV and its implications for particle physics models. Specifically the implications of the relatively high Higgs mass for the discovery of supersymmetry are discussed. Several related topics such as naturalness and supersymmetry, dark matter and unification are also discussed.
Supersymmetry Projection Rules on Exotic Branes
Kimura, Tetsuji
2016-01-01
We study the supersymmetry projection rules on exotic branes in type II string theories and M-theory. They justify the validity of the exotic duality between standard branes and exotic branes of codimension two. By virtue of the supersymmetry projection rules on various branes, we can apply the exotic duality to a system which involves multiple non-parallel branes.
Diffeomorphism Invariant Theories and Vector Supersymmetry
Piguet, O
2000-01-01
Einstein gravity in the Palatini first order formalism is shown to possess a vector supersymmetry of the type encountered in the topological gauge theories. A peculiar feature of the gravitationel theory is the link of this vector supersymmetry with the field equation of motion of the Faddeev-Popov ghost associated to diffeomorphism invariance.
Quantum gravity via supersymmetry and holography
Elvang, Henriette; Horowitz, Gary T.
2013-01-01
We review the approach to quantum gravity based on supersymmetry, strings, and holography. This includes a survey of black holes in higher-dimensions, supersymmetry and supergravity, as well as string theory, black hole microstates, and the gauge/gravity duality. This presentation will appear as a chapter in "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", to be published by Cambridge University Press.
Status of Supersymmetry: Foundations and Applications
Ferrara, Sergio
2011-01-01
We review some aspects of the foundations of supersymmetry as a conjectural invariance of the Laws of Nature. This symmetry bypasses the Coleman-Mandula Theorem by enlarging the fundamental space -time symmetries to the Superworld. Application of supersymmetry to particle physics requires its spontaneous breaking, as it happens for the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.
Supersymmetry in random matrix theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kieburg, Mario
2010-05-04
I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)
Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Jonathan L. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Moroi, Takeo [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2000-05-01
We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo
2000-05-01
We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.
Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)
2014-07-30
We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.
An attractor for natural supersymmetry
Cohen, Timothy; Hook, Anson; Torroba, Gonzalo
2012-12-01
We propose an attractor mechanism which generates the more minimal supersymmetric standard model from a broad class of supersymmetry breaking boundary conditions. The hierarchies in the fermion masses and mixings are produced by the same dynamics and a natural weak scale results from gaugino mediation. These features arise from augmenting the standard model with a new SU(3) gauge group under which only the third generation quarks are charged. The theory flows to a strongly interacting fixed point which induces a negative anomalous dimension for the third generation quarks and a positive anomalous dimension for the Higgs. As a result, a split-family natural spectrum and the flavor hierarchies are dynamically generated.
Unraveling supersymmetry at future colliders
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xerxes Tata
2004-02-01
After a quick review of the current limits on sparticle masses, we outline the prospects for their discovery at future colliders. We then proceed to discuss how precision measurements of sparticle masses can provide information about how SM suprpartners acquire their masses. Finally, we examine how we can proceed to establish whether or not any new physics discovered in the future is supersymmetry, and describe how we might zero in on the framework of SUSY breaking. In this connection, we review sparticle mass measurements at future colliders, and point out that some capabilities of experiments at $e^{+}e^{-}$ linear colliders may have been over-stated in the literture.
Supersymmetry results at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manca, Giulia; /Liverpool U.
2005-05-01
The Run II physics programme of the Tevatron is proceeding with more than 300 pb{sup -1} of analysis quality data, collected at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Searches for supersymmetric particles are starting to set new limits, improving over the LEP and Run I results and exploring new regions of parameter space. They present recent results in Supersymmetry with the upgraded CDF and D0 detectors and give some prospects for the future of these searches.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a
Experimental study of the interaction between the spark-induced cavitation bubble and the air bubble
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗晶; 许唯临; 牛志攀; 罗书靖; 郑秋文
2013-01-01
Experiments are carried out by using high-speed photography to investigate the interaction between the spark-generated cavitation bubble and the air bubble in its surrounding fluid. Three problems are discussed in detail: the impact of the air bubble upon the development of the cavitation bubble, the evolution of the air bubble under the influence of the cavitation bubble, and the change of the fluid pressure during the development of a micro jet of the cavitation bubble. Based on the experimental results, under the condition of no air bubble present, the lifetime of the cavitation bubble from expansion to contraction increases with the increase of the maximum radius. On the other hand, when there is an air bubble present, different sized cavitation bubbles have similarity with one another generally in terms of the lifetime from expansion to contraction, which does not depend on the maximum radius. Also, with the presence of an air bubble, the lifetime of the smaller cavitation bubble is extended while that of the bigger ones reduced. Furthermore, it is shown in the experiment that the low pressure formed in the opposite direction to the cavitation bubble micro jet makes the air bubble in the low pressure area being stretched into a steplike shape.
Multivariate bubbles and antibubbles
Fry, John
2014-08-01
In this paper we develop models for multivariate financial bubbles and antibubbles based on statistical physics. In particular, we extend a rich set of univariate models to higher dimensions. Changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. Moreover, our multivariate models are able to capture some of the contagious effects that occur during such episodes. We are able to show that declining lending quality helped fuel a bubble in the US stock market prior to 2008. Further, our approach offers interesting insights into the spatial development of UK house prices.
Supersymmetry, attractors and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellorin, Jorge [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jorge.bellorin@uam.es; Meessen, Patrick [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: patrick.meessen@cern.ch; Ortin, Tomas [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: tomas.ortin@cern.ch
2007-01-29
We show that requiring unbroken supersymmetry everywhere in black-hole-type solutions of N=2, d=4 supergravity coupled to vector supermultiplets ensures in most cases absence of naked singularities. We formulate three specific conditions which we argue are equivalent to the requirement of global supersymmetry. These three conditions can be related to the absence of sources for NUT charge, angular momentum, scalar hair and negative energy, although the solutions can still have globally defined angular momentum and non-trivial scalar fields, as we show in an explicit example. Furthermore, only the solutions satisfying these requirements seem to have a microscopic interpretation in string theory since only they have supersymmetric sources. These conditions exclude, for instance, singular solutions such as the Kerr-Newman with M=|q|, which fails to be everywhere supersymmetric. We also present a re-derivation of several results concerning attractors in N=2, d=4 theories based on the explicit knowledge of the most general solutions in the timelike class.
Yan, Wanfeng; Woodard, Ryan; Sornette, Didier
2012-01-01
Leverage is strongly related to liquidity in a market and lack of liquidity is considered a cause and/or consequence of the recent financial crisis. A repurchase agreement is a financial instrument where a security is sold simultaneously with an agreement to buy it back at a later date. Repurchase agreement (repo) market size is a very important element in calculating the overall leverage in a financial market. Therefore, studying the behavior of repo market size can help to understand a process that can contribute to the birth of a financial crisis. We hypothesize that herding behavior among large investors led to massive over-leveraging through the use of repos, resulting in a bubble (built up over the previous years) and subsequent crash in this market in early 2008. We use the Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (JLS) model of rational expectation bubbles and behavioral finance to study the dynamics of the repo market that led to the crash. The JLS model qualifies a bubble by the presence of characteristic patterns in the price dynamics, called log-periodic power law (LPPL) behavior. We show that there was significant LPPL behavior in the market before that crash and that the predicted range of times predicted by the model for the end of the bubble is consistent with the observations.
Measuring supersymmetry at the large hadron collider
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B C Allanach
2003-02-01
The large hadron collider (LHC) should have the ability to detect supersymmetric particles if low-energy supersymmetry solves the hierarchy problem. Studies of the LHC detection reach, and the ability to measure properties of supersymmetric particles are currently underway. We highlight some of these, such as the reach in minimal supergravity space and correlation with a ﬁne-tuning parameter, precision measurements of edge variables, anomaly- or gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Supersymmetry with baryon-number violation seems at ﬁrst glance more difﬁcult to detect, but proves to be possible by using leptons from cascade decays.
Cosmological aspects of gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown
Dalianis, Ioannis
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we study the details of some fundamental cosmological problems of the gauge mediated supersymmetry breakdown and we probe the supersymmetry breaking sector by cosmological arguments. We manifest that problems like the metastable vacuum selection and the gravitino overproduction in the reheated early universe are naturally absent in the most general class of gauge mediation models without including additional ingredients or assumptions. We also find that the gravitino can generically account for the bulk dark matter of the universe. Cosmological implications of a stringy UV-completion of the supersymmetry breaking sector have been also considered.
Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles
Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2016-09-01
In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.
Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles
Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2016-01-01
In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.
Strongly Coupled Semi-Direct Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibe, M.; /SLAC; Izawa, K.-I.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /Tokyo U., IPMU; Nakai, Y.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto
2011-09-13
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is expected to be a crucial ingredient of basic laws in Nature. It is an attractive possibility that SUSY is broken at low energy within the experimental reach in the near future. Among others, low-energy dynamics with gauge mediation between a hidden sector of SUSY breaking and the visible sector of SUSY standard model may be phenomenologically viable. In particular, the gauge interactions are flavor blind, so that the unwanted flavor-changing processes are naturally suppressed. Strongly coupled semi-direct gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard model symmetries.
Stable tridimensional bubble clusters in multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).
Rosselló, J M; Dellavale, D; Bonetto, F J
2015-01-01
In the present work, stable clusters made of multiple sonoluminescent bubbles are experimentally and theoretically studied. Argon bubbles were acoustically generated and trapped using bi-frequency driving within a cylindrical chamber filled with a sulfuric acid aqueous solution (SA85w/w). The intensity of the acoustic pressure field was strong enough to sustain, during several minutes, a large number of positionally and spatially fixed (without pseudo-orbits) sonoluminescent bubbles over an ellipsoidally-shaped tridimensional array. The dimensions of the ellipsoids were studied as a function of the amplitude of the applied low-frequency acoustic pressure (PAc(LF)) and the static pressure in the fluid (P0). In order to explain the size and shape of the bubble clusters, we performed a series of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic forces acting over the bubbles. In both cases the observed experimental behavior was in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The simulations revealed that the positionally stable region, mainly determined by the null primary Bjerknes force (F→Bj), is defined as the outer perimeter of an axisymmetric ellipsoidal cluster centered in the acoustic field antinode. The role of the high-frequency component of the pressure field and the influence of the secondary Bjerknes force are discussed. We also investigate the effect of a change in the concentration of dissolved gas on the positional and spatial instabilities through the cluster dimensions. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper are potentially useful for further understanding and modeling numerous current research topics regarding multi-bubble phenomena, e.g. forces acting on the bubbles in multi-frequency acoustic fields, transient acoustic cavitation, bubble interactions, structure formation processes, atomic and molecular emissions of equal bubbles and nonlinear or unsteady acoustic pressure fields in bubbly media.
On Setting Limits for Supersymmetry
Simeon, Paul; Toback, David
2004-10-01
When searching for new particles two separate production mechanisms from the same theory may produce the same final state. For example, in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with \\chi^0_1arrow γ tildeG at least two production mechanisms, \\chi^0_1\\chi^±1 and \\chi^0_2\\chi^±_1, can cascade to produce events with two photons and missing transverse energy. If there is no discovery one wants to set the best possible limits. While it seems obvious that the goal is to find the lowest possible cross section limit, one should be careful and focus on excluding the largest amount of parameter space for a theory. We show that the combined cross section limit from both (or all) production mechanisms that produce the same final state is the most sensitive way to attempt to exclude a theory.
Search for supersymmetry at CDF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CDF Collaboration
1994-05-01
We have conducted a search for trilepton events from supersymmetry (SUSY) in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. In the Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), trilepton events are expected from chargino-neutralino ({tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {plus_minus}}{tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup {minus}0}) pair production, with subsequent decay into leptons. In all possible combinations of electron and muon channels in 19 pb{sup {minus}1} data, we observe no events which pass our trilepton selection criteria. Employing the GUT hypothesis within the framework of the MSSM, our preliminary excludes M({tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {plus_minus}}) <46 GeV/c{sup 2} c{sup 2} for {minus}500 < {mu} < {minus}400 GeV, 2.0 < tan({beta}) < 15.0, and M({tilde q}) = 1.2 {times} M({tilde g}).
A Supersymmetry Model of Leptons
Liu, C
2005-01-01
If supersymmetry (SUSY) is not for stabilizing the electroweak energy scale, what is it used for in particle physics? We propose that it is for flavor problems. A cyclic family symmetry is introduced. Under the family symmetry, only the $\\tau$-lepton is massive due to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the Higgs field. This symmetry is broken by a sneutrino VEV which results in the muon mass. The comparatively large sneutrino VEV does not result in a large neutrino mass due to requiring heavy gauginos. SUSY breaks at a high scale $\\sim 10^{13}$ GeV. The electroweak energy scale is unnaturally small. No additional global symmetry, like the R-parity, is imposed. Other aspects of the model are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casteel, K.
1999-04-01
The article, based on a series of interviews with column flotation equipment suppliers, reviews and comments on the progress of bubble generator design. Developments mentioned include the Air/Water sparger from Cominco, the SparJet and SlamJet from CPT, the CISA sparger from Sevala CISA, Microcel flotation columns from Birtley Engineering, Flotaire column flotation cells from LMC International, and the Variable Gap Sparger from MinnovEX. 1 fig., 2 photo.
Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demir, D.A. [Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Everett, L.L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States), Dept. of Physics; Langacker, P. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
2007-12-15
We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1){sup '}), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)
Torsion and Supersymmetry in Omega-background
Ito, Katsushi; Sasaki, Shin
2012-01-01
We study the dimensional reduction of ten-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory in curved backgrounds with torsion. We examine the parallel spinor conditions and the constraints for the torsion parameters which preserve supersymmetry and gauge symmetry in four dimensions. In particular we examine the ten-dimensional Omega-background with the torsion which is identified with the R-symmetry Wilson line gauge fields. After the dimensional reduction, we obtain the Omega-deformed N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Solving the parallel spinor conditions and the torsion constraints, we classify the deformed supersymmetry associated with the topological twist of N=4 supersymmetry. We also study deformed supersymmetries in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Caitlin A.; Patel, Maulik K.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Yanwen; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Wen, Juan; Xue, Haizhou; Wang, Yongqiang; Weber, William J.
2016-08-15
Pyrochlores have long been considered as potential candidates for advanced ceramic waste-forms for the immobilization of radioactive waste nuclides. This work provides evidence that Gd2Zr2O7, often considered the most radiation tolerant pyrochlore, could be susceptible to radiation damage in the form of bubble nucleation at the highest He doses expected over geological time. Ion irradiations were utilized to experimentally simulate the radiation damage and He accumulation produced by ..alpha..-decay. Samples were pre-damaged using 7 MeV Au3+ to induce the pyrochlore to defect-fluorite phase transformation, which would occur due to ..alpha..-recoil damage within several hundred years of storage in a Gd2Zr2O7 waste-form. These samples were then implanted to various He concentrations in order to study the long-term effects of He accumulation. Helium bubbles 1-3 nm in diameter were observed in TEM at a concentration of 4.6 at.% He. Some bubbles remained isolated, while others formed chains 10-30 nm in length parallel to the surface. GIXRD measurements showed lattice swelling after irradiating pristine Gd2Zr2O7 with 7 MeV Au3+ to a fluence of 2.2 x 1015 Au/cm2. An increase in lattice swelling was also measured after 2.2 x 1015 Au/cm2 + 2 x 1015 He/cm2 and 2.2 x 1015 Au/cm2 + 2 x 1016 He/cm2. A decrease in lattice swelling was measured after irradiation with 2.2 x 1015 Au/cm2 + 2 x 1017 He/cm2, the fluence where bubbles and bubble chains were observed in TEM. Bubble chains are thought to form in order to reduce lattice strain normal to the surface, which is produced by the Au and He irradiation damage.
Supersymmetry: Early Roots That Did Not Grow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cecilia Jarlskog
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is about early roots of supersymmetry, as found in the literature from 1940s and early 1950s. There were models where the power of “partners” in alleviating divergences in quantum field theory was recognized. However, other currently known remarkable features of supersymmetry, such as its role in the extension of the Poincaré group, were not known. There were, of course, no supersymmetric nonabelian quantum field theories in those days.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and unification of couplings
Dubovsky, S L; Troitsky, S V
1997-01-01
We consider the possibility of unification of the Supersymmetric Standard Model gauge groups with those of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) sector in theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find constraints on the DSB gauge group beta function that come from unification of the gauge coupling constants of the two sectors. These constraints are satisfied by a fairly wide class of models. We discuss possible unification scenarios in the context of a simple model.
Prospects for Supersymmetry at the LHC & Beyond
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556
2015-01-01
Run 1 of the LHC has provided three new motivations for supersymmetry: the need to stabilize the electroweak vacuum, the mass of the Higgs boson, and the fact that its couplings are Standard Model-like (so far). The prospects for discovering (and measuring) supersymmetry during future runs of the LHC are discussed in the frameworks of the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to Higgs masses (NUHM1,2) and the phenomenological MSSM with 10 arbitrary soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters (pMSSM10). In addition to the classic searches for missing transverse energy, searches for long-lived charged sparticles may also be promising. If supersymmetry does show up at the LHC, there are good prospects for measurements of the spectrum that can be compared with the indirect indications from other experiments. On the other hand, a higher-energy future circular proton-proton collider may be the best option for discovering supersymmetry if it does not appear at the L...
Digital Microfluidics with Bubble Manipulations by Dielectrophoresis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shih-Kang Fan
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents basic bubble manipulations, including transporting, splitting, and merging, by dielectrophoresis (DEP in an oil environment. In our presented method, bubbles are placed between parallel plates in an oil medium of a low vapor pressure, which eliminates the possibility of changing the gaseous composition of the bubble caused by evaporation of the medium. DEP has been previously investigated to actuate dielectric droplets and is adopted here to drive the oil environment as well as the immersed bubbles between parallel plates. In our experiment, air bubbles of 0.3 ml were successfully transported in a 20 cSt silicone oil medium between a 75 mm-high parallel plate gap. In addition, 0.6 ml air bubbles were successfully split into two 0.3 ml air bubbles, and then merged again by DEP. These successful manipulations make digital gaseous lab-on-a-chip a reality.
An equation of motion for bubble growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesage, F.J. [College d' Enseignement General et Professionnel de L' Outaouais, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics; Cotton, J.S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Robinson, A.J. [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
2009-07-01
A mathematical model is developed which describes asymmetric bubble growth, either during boiling or bubble injection from submerged orifices. The model is developed using the integral form of the continuity and momentum equations, resulting in a general expression for the acceleration of the bubble's centre of gravity. The proposed model highlights the need to include acceleration due to an asymmetric gain or loss of mass in order to accurately predict bubble motion. Some scenarios are posed by which the growth of bubbles, particularly idealized bubbles that remain a section of a sphere, must include the fact that bubble growth can be asymmetric. In particular, for approximately hemispherical bubble growth the sum of the forces acting on the bubble is negligible compared with the asymmetric term. Further, for bubble injection from a submerged needle this component in the equation of motion is very significant during the initial rapid growth phase as the bubble issues from the nozzle changing from a near hemisphere to truncated sphere geometry. (author)
Yukawa CFTs and Emergent Supersymmetry
Fei, Lin; Klebanov, Igor R; Tarnopolsky, Grigory
2016-01-01
We study conformal field theories with Yukawa interactions in dimensions between 2 and 4; they provide UV completions of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and Gross-Neveu models which have four-fermion interactions. We compute the sphere free energy and certain operator scaling dimensions using dimensional continuation. In the Gross-Neveu CFT with $N$ fermion degrees of freedom we obtain the first few terms in the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion using the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model, and the first few terms in the $2+\\epsilon$ expansion using the four-fermion interaction. We then apply Pade approximants to produce estimates in $d=3$. For $N=1$, which corresponds to one 2-component Majorana fermion, it has been suggested that the Yukawa theory flows to a ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric CFT. We provide new evidence that the $4-\\epsilon$ expansion of the $N=1$ Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model respects the supersymmetry. Our extrapolations to $d=3$ appear to be in good agreement with the available results obtained using the numerical conformal boo...
Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry
Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.
2016-01-01
Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...
Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry
Crivellin, Andreas; Haisch, Ulrich; Tunstall, Lewis C.
2016-09-01
Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops {tilde{t}}_1 , making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are {tilde{t}}_1to t{tilde{χ}}_1^0 , {tilde{t}}_1to W b{tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 . We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 in a model-independent fashion, revealing that a large parameter space region with stop mass values {m_{tilde{t}}}{_1} up to 530 GeV is excluded for any {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 branching ratio by LHC Run I data. The impact of {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 decays is further illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 bounds are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing can lead to an increase in the allowed parameter space by at most 35%, with large areas excluded for arbitrary mixing.
Dynamical Contents of Unconventional Supersymmetry
Guevara, Alfredo; Zanelli, Jorge
2016-01-01
The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in $(2+1)$-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field $\\psi$ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons $U(1)$ and $SO(2,1)$ connections, $A$ and $\\omega$, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a...
Supersymmetry as a cosmic censor
Kallosh, Renata E; Ortín, Tomas; Peet, A W; Van Proeyen, A; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Ort\\'in, Tom\\'as; Peet, Amanda; Proeyen, Antoine Van
1992-01-01
In supersymmetric theories the mass of any state is bounded below by the values of some of its charges. The corresponding bounds in case of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes are known to coincide with the requirement that naked singularities be absent. Here we investigate charged dilaton black holes in this context. We show that the extreme solutions saturate the supersymmetry bound of $N=4\\ d=4$ supergravity, or dimensionally reduced superstring theory. Specifically, we have shown that extreme dilaton black holes, with electric and magnetic charges, admit super-covariantly constant spinors. The supersymmetric positivity bound for dilaton black holes, $M \\geq \\frac{1}{\\sqrt 2}(|Q|+|P|)$, takes care of the absence of naked singularities of the dilaton black holes and is, in this sense, equivalent to the cosmic censorship condition. The temperature, entropy and singularity are discussed. The Euclidean action (entropy) of the extreme black hole is given by $2\\pi |PQ|$. We argue that this result,...
Dynamical contents of unconventional supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-08-11
The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in (2+1)-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field ψ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons U(1) and SO(2,1) connections, A and ω, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a specific configuration for the Dirac fermion consistent with its spin, where Weyl symmetry is exchanged by time reparametrizations; iii) the vacuum sector ψ=0, which is of interest for perturbation theory. For the latter the analysis is adapted to the case of manifolds with boundary, and the corresponding Dirac brackets together with the centrally extended charge algebra are found. Finally, the SU(2) generalization of the gauge group is briefly treated, yielding analogous conclusions for the degrees of freedom.
Supersymmetry at the electroweak scale
Chankowski, P H
1996-01-01
The simplest interpretation of the global success of the Standard Model is that new physics decouples well above the electroweak scale. Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model offers the possibility of light chargino and the right-handed stop (with masses below $M_Z$), and still maintaining the successful predictions of the Standard Model. The value of $R_b$ can then be enhanced up to $\\sim 0.218$ (the Standard Model value is $\\sim 0.216$). Light chargino and stop give important contribution to rare processes such as $b\\rightarrow s \\gamma$, $\\overline K^0-K^0$ and $\\overline B^0-B^0$ mixing but consistency with experimental results is maintained in a large region of the parameter space. The exotic four-jet events reported by ALEPH (if confirmed) may constitute a signal for supersymmetry with such a light spectrum and with explicitly broken $R-$parity. Their interpretation as pair production of charginos with $m_C\\sim 60$ GeV, with subsequent decay $C\\rightarrow \\tilde t_R b \\rightarrow dsb$ (where $m_...
Study of constrained minimal supersymmetry
Kane, G L; Roszkowski, Leszek; Wells, J D; Chris Kolda; Leszek Roszkowski; James D Wells
1994-01-01
Taking seriously phenomenological indications for supersymmetry, we have made a detailed study of unified minimal SUSY, including effects at the few percent level in a consistent fashion. We report here a general analysis without choosing a particular unification gauge group. We find that the encouraging SUSY unification results of recent years do survive the challenge of a more complete and accurate analysis. Taking into account effects at the 5-10% level leads to several improvements of previous results, and allows us to sharpen our predictions for SUSY in the light of unification. We perform a thorough study of the parameter space. The results form a well-defined basis for comparing the physics potential of different facilities. Very little of the acceptable parameter space has been excluded by LEP or FNAL so far, but a significant fraction can be covered when these accelerators are upgraded. A number of initial applications to the understanding of the SUSY spectrum, detectability of SUSY at LEP II or FNAL...
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-01-01
Previous work on t-b-\\tau Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m_h\\sim125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan\\beta\\sim50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low \\mu\\sim100-250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR(B\\to X_s\\gamma) and BR(B_s\\to \\mu+\\mu-) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT \\Delta\\lesssim 50-100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R_yuk\\sim1.3 (30% unification) if B-physics constraints are imposed. This may be improved to R_yuk\\sim1.2 if additional small flavor violating terms conspire to improve accord with B-constraints. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be a...
Testing split supersymmetry with inflation
Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel
2014-07-01
Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.
Should we still believe in constrained supersymmetry?
Balázs, Csaba; Carter, Daniel; Farmer, Benjamin; White, Martin
2012-01-01
We calculate Bayes factors to quantify how the feasibility of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) has changed in the light of a series of observations. This is done in the Bayesian spirit where probability reflects a degree of belief in a proposition and Bayes' theorem tells us how to update it after acquiring new information. Our experimental baseline is the approximate knowledge that was available before LEP, and our comparison model is the Standard Model with a simple dark matter candidate. To quantify the amount by which experiments have altered our relative belief in the CMSSM since the baseline data we compute the Bayes factors that arise from learning in sequence the LEP Higgs constraints, the XENON100 dark matter constraints, the 2011 LHC supersymmetry search results, and the early 2012 LHC Higgs search results. We find that LEP and the LHC strongly shatter our trust in the CMSSM (with $M_0$ and $M_{1/2}$ below 2 TeV), reducing its posterior odds by a factor of approximately ...
Ostwald Ripening in Multiple-Bubble Nuclei
Watanabe, Hiroshi; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu
2014-01-01
The ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 million Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as $t^{-x}$ with scaling exponent $x$. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from $x=3/2$ to $1$, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the $t^{1/2}$ law) to diffusion-limited (the $t^{1/3}$ law) growth.
Ostwald ripening in multiple-bubble nuclei.
Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu
2014-12-21
The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by molecular dynamics simulations involving up to 679 × 10(6) Lennard-Jones particles. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liquid phase, and the coarsening of bubbles follows. The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total number of bubbles decreases asymptotically as t(-x) with scaling exponent x. As the initial temperature increases, the exponent changes from x = 3/2 to 1, which implies that the growth of bubbles changes from interface-limited (the t(1/2) law) to diffusion-limited (the t(1/3) law) growth.
Modified Bubble Core Fields and Bubble Shape in Laser Driven Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Hai-Cheng; XIE Bai-Song
2013-01-01
Bubble core fields as well bubble shape modification due to the nondepleted electrons inside the bubble is investigated theoretically.It is found that the slope of transverse fields are reduced significantly,however,the slope of longitudinal electric field,which plays a key role on electrons acceleration in bubble,changes little.Moreover a modified longitudinal compressed bubble shape leads to a shorter dephasing distance which makes the electrons acceleration energy reduced to some extent.As a comparison we perform particle-in-cell simulations whose results are consistent with that of our theoretical consideration.
Lagrangian supersymmetries depending on derivatives. Global analysis and cohomology
Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G
2004-01-01
Lagrangian contact supersymmetries (depending on derivatives of arbitrary order) are treated in very general setting. The cohomology of the variational bicomplex on an arbitrary graded manifold and the iterated cohomology of a generic nilpotent contact supersymmetry are computed. In particular, the first variational formula and conservation laws for Lagrangian systems on graded manifolds using contact supersymmetries are obtained.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom
2016-01-01
While Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an “irrational bubble,” he has never publicly expressed his opinion on “rational bubbles.” On empirical grounds Fama rejects bubbles by referring to the lack of reliable evidence that price declines are predictable. Howe...... component in stock market valuation ratios, consistent with a rational bubble....
Yukawa-unified natural supersymmetry
Baer, Howard; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita
2012-12-01
Previous work on t - b - τ Yukawa-unified supersymmetry, as expected from SUSY GUT theories based on the gauge group SO(10), tended to have exceedingly large electroweak fine-tuning (EWFT). Here, we examine supersymmetric models where we simultaneously require low EWFT ("natural SUSY") and a high degree of Yukawa coupling unification, along with a light Higgs scalar with m h 125 GeV. As Yukawa unification requires large tan β 50, while EWFT requires rather light third generation squarks and low μ ≈ 100 - 250 GeV, B-physics constraints from BR( B → X s γ) and BR( B s → μ + μ -) can be severe. We are able to find models with EWFT Δ ≲ 50 - 100 (better than 1-2% EWFT) and with Yukawa unification as low as R yuk 1.2 (20% unification). The unification is lessened to R yuk 1.3 when B-physics constraints are imposed. We present several Yukawa-unified natural SUSY (YUNS) benchmark points. LHC searches will be able to access gluinos in the lower 1 - 2 TeV portion of their predicted mass range although much of YUNS parameter space may lie beyond LHC14 reach. If heavy Higgs bosons can be accessed at a high rate, then the rare H, A → μ + μ - decay might allow a determination of tan β 50 as predicted by YUNS models. Finally, the predicted light higgsinos should be accessible to a linear e + e - collider with sqrt{s}˜ 0.5 TeV.
Supersymmetry versus black holes at the LHC
Roy, Arunava
2007-01-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but powerful method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a strong signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Supersymmetry Versus Black Holes at the Lhc
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglià, Marco
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but effective method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show that the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a promising signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Generalised supersymmetry and p-brane actions
Hewson, S F
1997-01-01
We investigate the most general N=1 graded extension of the Poincare algebra, and find the corresponding supersymmetry transformations and the associated superspaces. We find that the supersymmetry for which {Q,Q}=P is not special, and in fact must be treated democratically with a whole class of supersymmetries. We show that there are two distinct types of grading, and a new class of general spinors is defined. The associated superspaces are shown to be either of the usual type, or flat with no torsion. p-branes are discussed in these general superspaces and twelve dimensions emerges as maximal. New types of brane are discovered which could explain many features of the standard p-brane theories.
Supersymmetry on a space-time lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaestner, Tobias
2008-10-28
In this thesis the WZ model in one and two dimensions has been thoroughly investigated. With the help of the Nicolai map it was possible to construct supersymmetrically improved lattice actions that preserve one of several supersymmetries. For the WZ model in one dimension SLAC fermions were utilized for the first time leading to a near-perfect elimination of lattice artifacts. In addition the lattice superpotential does not get modified which in two dimensions becomes important when further (discrete) symmetries of the continuum action are considered. For Wilson fermions two new improvements have been suggested and were shown to yield far better results than standard Wilson fermions concerning lattice artifacts. In the one-dimensional theory Ward Identities were studied.However, supersymmetry violations due to broken supersymmetry could only be detected at coarse lattices and very strong couplings. For the two-dimensional models a detailed analysis of supersymmetric improvement terms was given, both for Wilson and SLAC fermions. (orig.)
Magnetic Fixed Points and Emergent Supersymmetry
Antipin, Oleg; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We establish the existence of fixed points for certain gauge theories candidate to be magnetic duals of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. In the perturbative regime of the magnetic theory the existence of a very large number of fixed points is unveiled. We classify them by analyzing their basin of attraction. The existence of several nonsupersymmetric fixed points for the magnetic gauge theory lends further support towards the existence of gauge-gauge duality beyond supersymmetry. We also discover that among these very many fixed points there are supersymmetric ones emerging from a generic nonsupersymmetric renormalization group flow. We therefore conclude that supersymmetry naturally emerges as a fixed point theory from a nonsupersymmetric Lagrangian without the need for fine-tuning of the bare couplings. Our results suggest that supersymmetry can be viewed as an emergent phenomenon in field theory. In particular there should be no need for fine-tuning the bare couplings when performing Lattice simulations ...
Experimental study on interaction and coalescence of synchronized multiple bubbles
Cui, P.; Wang, Q. X.; Wang, S. P.; Zhang, A. M.
2016-01-01
Experiments are carried out on the interaction and coalescence of two, three, and four bubbles with approximately the same sizes, distributed evenly and symmetrically. The bubbles are generated simultaneously by electric discharges, using an in-house designed series circuit, and their interaction is captured using a high-speed camera. Particular attentions are paid to if/when coalescence of bubbles happens and the motion of the joined bubbles. Some new features are observed, which depend mainly on the dimensionless distance γbb = dbb/Rmax, where dbb is the inter-bubble distance and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius. For γbb > 2, a jet forms and penetrates each side bubble, directed to the center of the configuration, resulting in a protrusion. Towards the end of collapse, a large portion of bubble gases is compressed into the protrusion from the main part of the toroidal bubble. For γbb bubbles coalesce during expansion, and the part of the joined bubble's surface distal from the center of the configuration collapses faster than elsewhere. The experiments show that the oscillation period of multi-bubbles does not change appreciably without coalescence but increases significantly with coalescence. For three bubbles initiated at collinear positions with γbb > 2, the jets that form from the side bubbles are towards the middle, and the middle bubble splits into two parts, moving towards the two side bubbles. For γbb bubbles merge with the middle bubble during expansion, forming an ellipsoid bubble; the joined bubble collapses predominantly from two sides, where two inward jets form towards the end of collapse.
Supersymmetry and integrability in planar mechanical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assis, Leonardo P.G. de; Helayel-Neto, Jose A. [Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpgassis@cbpf.br; helayel@cbpf.br; Paschoal, Ricardo C. [Centro de Tecnologia da Industria Quimica e/ Textil (SENAI/CETIQT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: paschoal@cbpf.br
2005-05-15
We present an N = 2-supersymmetric mechanical system whose bosonic sector, with two degrees of freedom, stems from the reduction of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with the assumption of spatially homogeneous field configurations and a particular Ansatz imposed on the gauge potentials in the dimensional reduction procedure. The Painleve test is adopted to discuss integrability and we focus on the role of supersymmetry and parity invariance in two space dimensions for the attainment of integrable or chaotic models. Our conclusion is that the relationships among the parameters imposed by supersymmetry seem to drastically reduce the number of possibilities for integrable interaction potentials of the mechanical system under consideration. (author)
Natural inflation and low energy supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rolf Kappl
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Natural (axionic inflation provides a well-motivated and predictive scheme for the description of the early universe. It leads to sizeable primordial tensor modes and thus a high mass scale of the inflationary potential. Naïvely this seems to be at odds with low (TeV scale supersymmetry, especially when embedded in superstring theory. We show that low scale supersymmetry is compatible with natural (high scale inflation. The mechanism requires the presence of two axions that are provided through the moduli of string theory.
Cosmological constant, supersymmetry, nonassociativity, and big numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [KazNU, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); IETP, Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2015-02-01
The nonassociative generalization of supersymmetry is considered. It is shown that the associator of four supersymmetry generators has the coefficient ∝ ℎ/l{sub 0}{sup 2} where l0 is some characteristic length. Two cases are considered: (a) l{sub 0}{sup -2} coincides with the cosmological constant; (b) l{sub 0} is the classical radius of the electron. It is also shown that the scaled constant is of the order of 10{sup -120} for the first case and 10{sup -30} for the second case. The possible manifestation and smallness of nonassociativity is discussed. (orig.)
Self-isospectrality, tri-supersymmetry and band structure
Correa, Francisco; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S
2008-01-01
We reveal an unexpected hidden supersymmetric structure in a self-isospectral system constructed on the base of the periodic finite-gap associated Lame equation. It admits three different choices of the Z_2-grading, under which three basic nontrivial integrals of motion coherently change their fermionic/bosonic nature, and generate a certain nonlinear supersymmetry. These integrals reflect the band structure, its separability, and characteristic properties of the band-edge states of the system, which can be interpreted as an electron in one-dimensional crystal produced by periodic electric and magnetic fields.
球状泡群内气泡的耦合振动∗%Coupled oscillation of bubbles in a spherical bubble cluster
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王成会; 莫润阳; 胡静; 陈时
2015-01-01
The pressure wave emitted by a pulsating bubble affects the motions of other bubbles, so in an acoustic field bubbles are in a state of coupled oscillation. In this paper, a cluster with cavitation bubbles inside is considered, and a mathematical model is developed to describe the dynamics of the bubbles of the same radius inside a spherical cluster when the effects of coupled oscillation are included. Based on this new model, the nonlinear acoustic response of cavitation bubbles is analyzed numerically. Comparison of our model with those in the literature, shows that bubbles are suppressed heavily. Because of the coupled oscillations of bubbles, the motions of a bubble are affected by more constraints in the system, which cause the decrease of natural frequency of the bubbles. The nonlinear acoustical response of bubbles is improved by the coupled oscillation in a bubble cluster. With the rise in number density of the cluster, the suppression of bubble oscillation is enhanced. For a cluster of 1 mm radius, when the bubble number is below 500, the change of bubble number may cause a sharp decrease of maximum radial displacement of the bubbles. In cavitation region, there are bubble clusters and large-sized bubble, and the moving large bubble can absorb small bubbles from the surface of bubble cluster, so the bubble numbers inside a cluster varies with time, which may change the acoustic response of coupled oscillating bubbles. The increase of the liquid static pressure can suppress the oscillation of bubbles too, and there is a sensitive region (1–2 atm) that affects remarkably the acoustical response of bubbles. Driving ultrasound can affect the motion of bubble greatly. The range of cavitation bubble size is narrowed when the wave frequency increases. The bubbles whose initial radii are close to 5 µm are easy to be activated by ultrasound under given acoustic conditions, i.e. sizes of bubble cluster, surrounding liquid and inner gas. The cluster oscillation of
Stationary axion/dilaton solutions and supersymmetry
Bergshoeff, E. A.; Kallosh, R.; Ortín, Tomas
1996-01-01
We present a new set of supersymmetric stationary solutions of pure N = 4, d = 4 supergravity (and, hence, of low-energy effective string theory) that generalize (and include) the Israel-Wilson-Pejes solutions of Einstein-Maxwell theory. All solutions have 1/4 of the supersymmetries unbroken and som
Testing supersymmetry at the next linear collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, J.L.
1994-09-01
If new particles are discovered, it will be important to determine if they are the supersymmetric partners of standard model bosons and fermions. Supersymmetry predicts relations among the couplings and masses of these particles. The authors discuss the prospects for testing these relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider with measurements that exploit the availability of polarized beams.
Supersymmetry in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime
Sagi, Eran
2016-01-01
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is a symmetry transforming bosons to fermions and vice versa. Indications of its existence have been extensively sought after in high-energy experiments. However, signatures of SUSY have yet to be detected. In this manuscript we propose a condensed matter realization of SUSY on the edge of a Read-Rezayi quantum Hall state, given by filling factors of the form $\
Playing with the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry
Cattaruzza, E.; Gozzi, E.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we show how to obtain from a scalar superfield its first component via a similarity transformation. We prove that in D = 4 the generators of this similarity transformation live in the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry while for D = 1 they belong to the basic algebra.
Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.
2000-12-11
The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra.
New strings with world-sheet supersymmetry
Nichols, A; Savvidy, G K
2004-01-01
We suggest a new model of string theory with world-sheet supersymmetry. It possesses an additional global fermionic symmetry which is similar in many ways to BRST symmetry. The spectrum consists of massless states of Rarita-Schwinger fields describing infinite tower of half-integer spins.
Singularity development and supersymmetry in holography
Buchel, Alex
2017-08-01
We study the effects of supersymmetry on singularity development scenario in holography presented in [1] (BBL). We argue that the singularity persists in a supersymmetric extension of the BBL model. The challenge remains to find a string theory embedding of the singularity mechanism.
Coupled SU(3)-structures and Supersymmetry
Fino, Anna
2015-01-01
We review coupled ${\\rm SU}(3)$-structures, also known in the literature as restricted half-flat structures, in relation to supersymmetry. In particular, we study special classes of examples admitting such structures and the behaviour of flows of ${\\rm SU}(3)$-structures with respect to the coupled condition.
Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.
2016-04-01
The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.
Report of the Supersymmetry Theory Subgroup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, James D
2003-05-23
We provide a mini-guide to some of the possible manifestations of weak-scale supersymmetry. For each of six scenarios we provide: a brief description of the theoretical underpinnings, the adjustable parameters, a qualitative description of the associated phenomenology at future colliders, and comments on how to simulate each scenario with existing event generators.
Report of the Supersymmetry Theory Subgroup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amundson, J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Baer, H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others
1996-09-17
We provide a mini-guide to some or the possible manifestations of weak scale supersymmetry. For each of six scenarios we provide: a brief description of the theoretical underpinnings, the adjustable parameters, a qualitative description of the associated phenomenology at future colliders, comments on how to simulate each scenario with existing event generators,
Playing with the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry
Cattaruzza, E
2016-01-01
In this paper we show how to obtain from a scalar superfield its first component via a similarity transformation. We prove that in D=4 the generators of this similarity transformation live in the enveloping algebra of supersymmetry while for D=1 they belong to the basic algebra.
Instability and breakup of cavitation bubbles within diesel drops
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Lü; Zhi Ning; Kai Yan; Juan Fu; Chunhua Sun
2015-01-01
A modified mathematical model is used to study the effects of various forces on the stability of cavitation bubbles within a diesel droplet. The principal finding of the work is that viscous forces of fluids stabilize the cavitation bubble, while inertial force destabilizes the cavitation bubble. The droplet viscosity plays a dominant role on the stability of cavitation bubbles compared with that of air and bubble. Bubble–droplet radius ratio is a key factor to control the bubble stability, especially in the high radius ratio range. Internal hydrodynamic and surface tension forces are found to stabilize the cavitation bubble, while bubble stability has little relationship with the external hydrodynamic force. Inertia makes bubble breakup easily, however, the breakup time is only slightly changed when bubble growth speed reaches a certain value (50 m·s−1). In contrast, viscous force makes bubble hard to break. With the increasing initial bubble–droplet radius ratio, the bubble growth rate increases, the bubble breakup radius decreases, and the bubble breakup time becomes shorter.
Brut: Automatic bubble classifier
Beaumont, Christopher; Goodman, Alyssa; Williams, Jonathan; Kendrew, Sarah; Simpson, Robert
2014-07-01
Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsted, Tom
Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...
Neutron Imaging study of bubble behaviors in Nanofluid Through Engineered Orifices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
Most studies focused on the change of surface parameters through deposited nanoparticles, while Vafaei and Wen firstly discussed modification of bubble dynamics by dispersed nanoparticles in fluid as well as deposited ones. The boiling mechanism, as an effective heat transfer mode, includes bubble generation, growth, departure, and coalescence. Therefore the change of bubble dynamics can lead to the change of boiling heat transfer condition. That is, not only surface characteristics but the dispersed nanoparticles would be the essential parameters of boiling mechanism in terms of bubble dynamics. For advanced visualization of opaque fluids, the neutron imaging technique is introduced. In the present study, the bubble dynamics in nanofluid through engineered orifices was studied. The main parameters of engineered orifices are size and geometry. Photographic analysis of bubble departure frequency and averaged bubble departure volume provides as follows: With increasing orifice diameter, averaged bubble departure volume increases, while bubble departure frequency decreases. The results are attributed to enhanced capillary force by increasing contact perimeter. Averaged bubble departure volume and bubble departure frequency remain similar for three different types of orifices. But edges of the triangle and square orifice produce small bubbles which interrupts bubble generation. The converged triple contact line due to the edge may be a reason for the emerged baby bubbles. Nanofluid shows less averaged bubble departure volume and higher bubble departure frequency. Considering little change in physical properties of the fluid, interaction between bubble interface and nanoparticles may be in charge of the results.
Closed superstrings in magnetic field instabilities and supersymmetry breaking
Tseytlin, Arkady A
1995-01-01
We consider a 2-parameter class of solvable closed superstring models which `interpolate' between Kaluza-Klein and dilatonic Melvin magnetic flux tube backgrounds. The spectrum of string states has similarities with Landau spectrum for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. The presence of spin-dependent `gyromagnetic' interaction implies breaking of supersymmetry and possible existence (for certain values of magnetic parameters) of tachyonic instabilities. We study in detail the simplest example of the Kaluza-Klein Melvin model describing a superstring moving in flat but non-trivial 10-d space containing a 3-d factor which is a `twisted' product of a 2-plane and an internal circle. We also discuss the compact version of this model constructed by `twisting' the product of the two groups in SU(2) x U(1) WZNW theory without changing the local geometry (and thus the central charge). We explain how the supersymmetry is broken by continuous `magnetic' twist parameters and comment on possible implications ...
Metastable spontaneous breaking of N = 2 supersymmetry
Légeret, Benoît; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Smyth, Paul
2013-05-01
We show that contrary to the common lore it is possible to spontaneously break N = 2 supersymmetry even in simple theories without constant Fayet-Iliopoulos terms. We consider the most general N = 2 supersymmetric theory with one hypermultiplet and one vector multiplet without Fayet-Iliopoulos terms, and show that metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua can arise if both the hyper-Kähler and the special-Kähler geometries are suitably curved. We then also prove that while all the scalars can be massive, the lightest one is always lighter than the vector boson. Finally, we argue that these results also directly imply that metastable de Sitter vacua can exist in N = 2 supergravity theories with Abelian gaugings and no Fayet-Iliopoulos terms, again contrary to common lore, at least if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large.
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project
Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.
2006-01-01
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...
Supersymmetry - When Theory Inspires Experimental Searches
AUTHOR|(CDS)2070740
2014-01-01
We review, in the first part of this work, many pioneering works on supersymmetry and organize these results to show how supersymmetric quantum field theories arise from spin-statistics, N{\\oe}ther and a series of no-go theorems. We then introduce the so-called superspace formalism dedicated to the natural construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians and detail the most popular mechanisms leading to soft supersymmetry breaking. As an application, we describe the building of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and investigate current experimental limits on the parameter space of its most constrained versions. To this aim, we use various flavor, electroweak precision, cosmology and collider data. We then perform several phenomenological excursions beyond this minimal setup and probe effects due to non-minimal flavor violation in the squark sector, revisiting various constraints arising from indirect searches for superpartners. Next, we use several interfaced high-energy physics tools, including the FeynRule...
Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking
Goodsell, Mark D
2014-01-01
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-12-15
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.
Deconstructing zero: resurgence, supersymmetry and complex saddles
Dunne, Gerald V.; Ünsal, Mithat
2016-12-01
We explain how a vanishing, or truncated, perturbative expansion, such as often arises in semi-classically tractable supersymmetric theories, can nevertheless be related to fluctuations about non-perturbative sectors via resurgence. We also demonstrate that, in the same class of theories, the vanishing of the ground state energy (unbroken supersymmetry) can be attributed to the cancellation between a real saddle and a complex saddle (with hidden topological angle π), and positivity of the ground state energy (broken supersymmetry) can be interpreted as the dominance of complex saddles. In either case, despite the fact that the ground state energy is zero to all orders in perturbation theory, all orders of fluctuations around non-perturbative saddles are encoded in the perturbative E ( N, g). We illustrate these ideas with examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
Metastable spontaneous breaking of N=2 supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Légeret, Benoît; Scrucca, Claudio A., E-mail: claudio.scrucca@epfl.ch; Smyth, Paul
2013-05-24
We show that contrary to the common lore it is possible to spontaneously break N=2 supersymmetry even in simple theories without constant Fayet–Iliopoulos terms. We consider the most general N=2 supersymmetric theory with one hypermultiplet and one vector multiplet without Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, and show that metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua can arise if both the hyper-Kähler and the special-Kähler geometries are suitably curved. We then also prove that while all the scalars can be massive, the lightest one is always lighter than the vector boson. Finally, we argue that these results also directly imply that metastable de Sitter vacua can exist in N=2 supergravity theories with Abelian gaugings and no Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, again contrary to common lore, at least if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large.
Deconstructing zero: resurgence, supersymmetry and complex saddles
Dunne, Gerald V
2016-01-01
We explain how a vanishing, or truncated, perturbative expansion, such as often arises in semi-classically tractable supersymmetric theories, can nevertheless be related to fluctuations about non-perturbative sectors via resurgence. We also demonstrate that, in the same class of theories, the vanishing of the ground state energy (unbroken supersymmetry) can be attributed to the cancellation between a real saddle and a complex saddle (with hidden topological angle pi), and positivity of the ground state energy (broken supersymmetry) can be interpreted as the dominance of complex saddles. In either case, despite the fact that the ground state energy is zero to all orders in perturbation theory, all orders of fluctuations around non-perturbative saddles are encoded in the perturbative E(N, g). We illustrate these ideas with examples from supersymmetric quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
Searches for Supersymmetry at the Tevatron
Meyer, A; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Abazov, V M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Arnoud, Y; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Baldin, B Yu; Balm, P W; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Beauceron, S; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Binder, M; Bischoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Bolton, T; Bonamy, P; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Butler, J M; Bystrický, J; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Del Signore, K; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisk, H E; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Goldmann, K S; Golling, T; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L S; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Harder, K; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kau, D; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, K H; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Kopal, M; Korablev, V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kouchner, A; Kuznetsov, O; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuznetsov, V E; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Mal, P K; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manankov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M I; Mattingly, S E K; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Meng, X; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mishra, C S; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N V; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Mostafa, M A; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L K; Piegaia, R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Reay, N W; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sabirov, B M; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schukin, A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shephard, W D; Shpakov, D; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; 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Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A; Meyer, Arnd
2004-01-01
Both Tevatron experiments, D0 and CDF, have searched for signs of Supersymmetry in the present Run II data sample, using integrated luminosities of up to 260/pb collected in ppbar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96TeV. In these proceedings, new results are presented in the search for squarks and gluinos in the jets and missing transverse energy final state, associated production of charginos and neutralinos with multilepton final states, search for the rare decay B_s->mumu, searches allowing R-parity violation (muons+jets, multileptons), and searches in the gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking framework with the final state of two photons and missing transverse energy. In the absence of any significant deviation from Standard Model expectations, limits on the presence of new physics are set, which in many cases are the most stringent to date.
Why supersymmetry? Physics beyond the standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ROMESH K KAUL
2016-09-01
The Naturalness Principle as a requirement that the heavy mass scales decouple from the physics of light mass scales is reviewed. In quantum field theories containing {\\em elementary} scalar fields, such as the StandardModel of electroweak interactions containing the Higgs particle, mass of the scalar field is not a natural parameter as it receives large radiative corrections. How supersymmetry solves this Naturalness Problem is outlined. Thereare also other contexts where the presence of elementary scalar fields generically spoils the high–low mass scales decoupling in the quantum theory. As an example of this, the non-decoupling of possible Planck scale violationof Lorentz invariance due to quantum gravity effects from the physics at low scales in theories with elementary scalar fields such as the Higgs field is described. Here again supersymmetry provides a mechanism for ensuringthat the decoupling of heavy–light mass scales is maintained.
Free Surface Lattice Boltzmann with Enhanced Bubble Model
Anderl, Daniela; Rauh, Cornelia; Rüde, Ulrich; Delgado, Antonio
2016-01-01
This paper presents an enhancement to the free surface lattice Boltzmann method (FSLBM) for the simulation of bubbly flows including rupture and breakup of bubbles. The FSLBM uses a volume of fluid approach to reduce the problem of a liquid-gas two-phase flow to a single-phase free surface simulation. In bubbly flows compression effects leading to an increase or decrease of pressure in the suspended bubbles cannot be neglected. Therefore, the free surface simulation is augmented by a bubble model that supplies the missing information by tracking the topological changes of the free surface in the flow. The new model presented here is capable of handling the effects of bubble breakup and coalesce without causing a significant computational overhead. Thus, the enhanced bubble model extends the applicability of the FSLBM to a new range of practically relevant problems, like bubble formation and development in chemical reactors or foaming processes.
Neural basis of economic bubble behavior.
Ogawa, A; Onozaki, T; Mizuno, T; Asamizuya, T; Ueno, K; Cheng, K; Iriki, A
2014-04-18
Throughout human history, economic bubbles have formed and burst. As a bubble grows, microeconomic behavior ceases to be constrained by realistic predictions. This contradicts the basic assumption of economics that agents have rational expectations. To examine the neural basis of behavior during bubbles, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants traded shares in a virtual stock exchange with two non-bubble stocks and one bubble stock. The price was largely deflected from the fair price in one of the non-bubble stocks, but not in the other. Their fair prices were specified. The price of the bubble stock showed a large increase and battering, as based on a real stock-market bust. The imaging results revealed modulation of the brain circuits that regulate trade behavior under different market conditions. The premotor cortex was activated only under a market condition in which the price was largely deflected from the fair price specified. During the bubble, brain regions associated with the cognitive processing that supports order decisions were identified. The asset preference that might bias the decision was associated with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The activity of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was correlated with the score of future time perspective, which would bias the estimation of future price. These regions were deemed to form a distinctive network during the bubble. A functional connectivity analysis showed that the connectivity between the DLPFC and the IPL was predominant compared with other connectivities only during the bubble. These findings indicate that uncertain and unstable market conditions changed brain modes in traders. These brain mechanisms might lead to a loss of control caused by wishful thinking, and to microeconomic bubbles that expand, on the macroscopic scale, toward bust.
Residual Local Supersymmetry and the Soft Gravitino
Avery, Steven G.; Schwab, Burkhard U. W.
2016-04-01
We show that there exists an infinite tower of fermionic symmetries in pure d =4 , N =1 supergravity on an asymptotically flat background. The Ward identities associated with these symmetries are equivalent to the soft limit of the gravitino and to the statement of supersymmetry at every angle. Additionally, we show that these charges commute into charges associated with the (unextended) Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group, providing a supersymmetrization of the BMS translations.
Superstring gravitational wave backgrounds with spacetime supersymmetry
Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter; Kiritsis, E; Kounnas, C; Lüst, D
1994-01-01
We analyse the stringy gravitational wave background based on the current algebra E.sup(c).sub(2). We determine its exact spectrum and construct the modular invariant vacuum energy. The corresponding N=1 extension is also constructed. The algebra is again mapped to free bosons and fermions and we show that this background has N=4 (N=2) unbroken spacetime supersymmetry in the type II (heterotic case).
Model building and phenomenology in supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Jong Soo
2008-09-15
Supersymmetry (SUSY) stabilizes the hierarchy between the electroweak scale and the scale of grand unified theories (GUT) or the Planck scale. The simplest supersymmetric extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) solves several phenomenological problems, e. g. the gauge couplings unify and the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is a dark matter candidate. In this thesis, Jarlskog invariants, squark pair production at the LHC and massive neutrinos are discussed in the framework of the MSSM and its extensions. (orig.)
The heterotic string yields natural supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krippendorf, Sven, E-mail: krippendorf@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Nilles, Hans Peter, E-mail: nilles@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: michael.ratz@tum.de [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Winkler, Martin Wolfgang, E-mail: martin.winkler@tum.de [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2012-05-30
The most promising MSSM candidates of the heterotic string reveal some distinctive properties. These include gauge-top unification, a specific solution to the {mu}-problem and mirage pattern for the gaugino masses. The location of the top- and the Higgs-multiplets in extra dimensions differs significantly from that of the other quarks and leptons leading to a characteristic signature of suppressed soft breaking terms, reminiscent of a scheme known as natural supersymmetry.
Massive Gravity with N=1 local Supersymmetry
Malaeb, Ola
2013-01-01
A consistent theory of massive gravity, where the graviton acquires mass by spontaneously breaking diffeomorphism invariance, is now well established. We supersymmetrize this construction using N =1 fields. Coupling to N = 1 supergravity is done by applying the rules of tensor calculus to construct an action invariant under local N = 1 supersymmetry. The supersymmetric action is shown, at the quadratic level, to be free of ghosts and have as its spectrum a massive graviton, two gravitinos with different masses, and a massive vector.
Supersymmetry search via gauge boson fusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anindya Datta
2003-02-01
We propose a novel method for the search of supersymmetry, especially for the electroweak gauginos at the large hadron collider (LHC). Gauge boson fusion technique was shown to be useful for heavy and intermediate mass Higgs bosons. In this article, we have shown that this method can also be applied to ﬁnd the signals of EW gauginos in supersymmetric theories where the canonical search strategies for these particles fail.
Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2008-04-01
We assess the distinguishability between supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention and Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinchliffe, I.; et al.
2005-05-05
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim atreconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breakingmechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed whenhigher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme,Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set ofconventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs isprovided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate theLagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e-linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths andproduction cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition,programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, thedensity of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the crosssections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme stillrequires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental sidebefore data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desiredprecision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme byapplying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry referencepoint.
Enhanced Higgs Mass in Compact Supersymmetry
Tobioka, Kohsaku; Murayama, Hitoshi
2015-01-01
The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with $|A_t|\\sim 2m_{\\tilde{t}}$ which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. While the zero mode contributions of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgs mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50 %. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top Yukawa couplin...
Enhanced Higgs mass in Compact Supersymmetry
Tobioka, Kohsaku; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi
2016-04-01
The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with |{A}_t|˜ 2{m}_{tilde{t}} which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. While the zero mode contribution of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgs mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50%. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top mass depend on higher powers in the Higgs field. As a result the Higgs mass is enhanced up to 15 GeV from the previous calculation. We also show the whole parameter space is testable at the LHC run II.
Linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS,Palaiseau (France); Gersdorff, Gero von [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo State University,Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Warsaw (Poland); Ziegler, Robert [TUM-IAS and Physik Department, Technische Universität München,Munich (Germany)
2014-01-22
With the aim of linking natural supersymmetry to flavour physics, a model is proposed based on a family symmetry G×U(1), where G is a discrete nonabelian subgroup of SU(2), with both F-term and (abelian) D-term supersymmetry breaking. A good fit to the fermion masses and mixing is obtained with the same U(1) charges for the left- and right- handed quarks of the first two families and the right-handed bottom quark, and with zero charge for the left-handed top-bottom doublet and the the right handed top. The model shows an interesting indirect correlation between the correct prediction for the V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} ratio and large right-handed rotations in the (s,b) sector, required to diagonalise the Yukawa matrix. For the squarks, one obtains almost degenerate first two generations. The main source of the FCNC and CP violation effects is the splitting between the first two families and the right-handed sbottom determined by the relative size of F-term and D-term supersymmetry breaking. The presence of the large right-handed rotation implies that the bounds on the masses of the first two families of squarks and the right handed sbottom are in a few to a few tens TeV range. The picture that emerges is light stops and left handed sbottom and much heavier other squarks.
Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.
2009-05-07
We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.
Numerical Simulation of Sub-cooled Cavitating Flow by Using Bubble Size Distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yutaka ITO; Hideki WAKAMATSU; Takao NAGASAKI
2003-01-01
A new cavitating model by using bubble size distribution based on mass of bubbles is proposed. Liquid phase is treated with Eulerian framework as a mixture containing minute cavitating bubbles. Vapor phase consists of various sizes of minute vapor bubbles, which is distributed to classes based on their mass. The change of bubble number density for each class was solved by considering the change of bubble mass due to phase change as well as generation of new bubbles due to heterogeneous nucleation. In this method the mass of bubbles is treated as an independent variable, in other word, a new coordinate, and dependant variables are solved in Eulerian framework for spatial coordinates and bubble-mass coordinate. The present method is applied to a cavitating flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle, and the two-phase flow with bubble size distribution and phase change was successfully predicted.
Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking and Minimal Gauge Mediation on Branes
Halyo, Edi
2010-01-01
We construct a model with D5 branes wrapped on a deformed and resolved $A_6$ singularity which realizes metastable supersymmetry breaking and minimal gauge mediation. Supersymmetry is broken at tree level by the F--term of singlet which also obtains a VEV as required in gauge mediation. Three nodes of the singularity are used to break supersymmetry whereas the other three realize gauge mediation. The supersymmetry breaking scale is suppressed due to brane instanton effects which are computed using a geometric transition.
Impact of money supply on stock bubbles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Širůček, Martin
2013-01-01
This article focuses on the effect and implications of changes in money supply in the US on stock bubble rise on the US capital market, which is represented by the Dow Jones Industrial Average index...
Steady-state size distribution of air bubbles in polar ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Ya. Lipenkov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Between the close-off depth and the bubble-to-hydrate transition zone in polar ice sheets, the geometrical properties of air bubbles, such as number concentration and size of bubbles, are mainly controlled by firn temperature and ice accumulation rate prevailing during the snow to ice transformation [3], and by the bubble compression in the course of bubbly ice densification [13]. This implies that the data on the bubble properties can be used for reconstruction of the past climate change. On the basis of our earlier studies of bubbly ice densification and the new measurements of air bubbles in the Antarctic ice cores, we have developed a theory of bubble evolution in polar ice and propose an inverse procedure for bubble size conversion to specified conditions at the close-off depth. Both outcomes of the research contribute to elaboration of the new paleoclimatological tool based on the bubble properties.
Path instabilities of air bubbles rising in clean water
Wu, M; Wu, Mingming; Gharib, Moteza
1998-01-01
Experiments are conducted to study the path and shape of single air bubbles (diameter range 0.10- 0.20cm) rising freely in clean water. The experimental results demonstrate that the bubble shape has a bistable state, i. e. the bubble chooses to be in spherical or ellipsoidal shape depending on its generation mechanism. The path of a spherical/ellipsoidal bubble is found to change from a straight path to a zigzag/spiral path via a supercritical/subcritical bifurcation when the Reynolds number of the bubble exceeds a threshold.
Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials.
Solano-Altamirano, J M; Malcolm, John D; Goldman, Saul
2015-01-01
Epstein and Plesset's seminal work on the rate of gas bubble dissolution and growth in a simple liquid is generalized to render it applicable to a gas bubble embedded in a soft elastic solid. Both the underlying diffusion equation and the expression for the gas bubble pressure were modified to allow for the non-zero shear modulus of the medium. The extension of the diffusion equation results in a trivial shift (by an additive constant) in the value of the diffusion coefficient, and does not change the form of the rate equations. But the use of a generalized Young-Laplace equation for the bubble pressure resulted in significant differences on the dynamics of bubble dissolution and growth, relative to an inviscid liquid medium. Depending on whether the salient parameters (solute concentration, initial bubble radius, surface tension, and shear modulus) lead to bubble growth or dissolution, the effect of allowing for a non-zero shear modulus in the generalized Young-Laplace equation is to speed up the rate of bubble growth, or to reduce the rate of bubble dissolution, respectively. The relation to previous work on visco-elastic materials is discussed, as is the connection of this work to the problem of Decompression Sickness (specifically, "the bends"). Examples of tissues to which our expressions can be applied are provided. Also, a new phenomenon is predicted whereby, for some parameter values, a bubble can be metastable and persist for long times, or it may grow, when embedded in a homogeneous under-saturated soft elastic medium.
Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil
2007-02-09
We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.
Wildeman, Sander; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea
2016-01-01
We report on the nucleation of bubbles on solids that are gently rubbed against each other in a liquid. The phenomenon is found to depend strongly on the material and roughness of the solid surfaces. For a given surface, temperature, and gas content, a trail of growing bubbles is observed if the rubbing force and velocity exceed a certain threshold. Direct observation through a transparent solid shows that each bubble in the trail results from the early coalescence of several microscopic bubbles, themselves detaching from microscopic gas pockets forming between the solids. From a detailed study of the wear tracks, with atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging, we conclude that these microscopic gas pockets originate from a local fracturing of the surface asperities, possibly enhanced by chemical reactions at the freshly created surfaces. Our findings will be useful either for preventing undesired bubble formation or, on the contrary, for "writing with bubbles," i.e., creating controlled patterns ...
Flavor from the double tetrahedral group without supersymmetry
Carone, Christopher D; Vasquez, Savannah
2016-01-01
We consider a class of flavor models proposed by Aranda, Carone and Lebed, relaxing the assumption of supersymmetry and allowing the flavor scale to float anywhere between the weak and Planck scales. We perform global fits to the charged fermion masses and CKM angles, and consider the dependence of the results on the unknown mass scale of the flavor sector. We find that the typical Yukawa textures in these models provide a good description of the data over a wide range of flavor scales, with a preference for those that approach the lower bounds allowed by flavor-changing-neutral-current constraints. Nevertheless, the possibility that the flavor scale and Planck scale are identified remains viable. We present models that demonstrate how the assumed textures can arise most simply in a non-supersymmetric framework.
Youssefmir, M; Hogg, T; Youssefmir, Michael; Huberman, Bernardo; Hogg, Tad
1994-01-01
We present a dynamical theory of asset price bubbles that exhibits the appearance of bubbles and their subsequent crashes. We show that when speculative trends dominate over fundamental beliefs, bubbles form, leading to the growth of asset prices away from their fundamental value. This growth makes the system increasingly susceptible to any exogenous shock, thus eventually precipitating a crash. We also present computer experiments which in their aggregate behavior confirm the predictions of the theory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Hao; (王; 昊); PENG; Xiaofeng; (彭晓峰); WANG; Buxuan; (王补宣); LEE; Duzhong; (李笃中)
2003-01-01
A series of subcooled boiling experiments was conducted on very small platinum wires having diameters of 0.1 and 0.025 mm. Vapor bubbles were visually observed to sweep back and forth along the wires in the experiments. The dynamic characteristics of bubble-sweeping phenomenon are described, and the induced bubble interaction and nonlinear growth are investigated to understand the boiling heat transfer mechanisms. An unsymmetrical temperature model is proposed to explain the physical mechanism.
Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Probir Roy
2003-02-01
We provide a bird’s eyeview of current ideas on supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in the MSSM. The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered brieﬂy and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon. A few statement are also made on braneworld supersymmetry breaking.
Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking via Anti-Generation Fields
Ito, M
2000-01-01
In the context of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we propose a new model of mediating supersymmetry breaking. The breakdown of supersymmetry in the hidden sector is transmitted to anti-generation fields via gravitational interactions. Subsequent transmission of the breaking to the MSSM sector occurs via gauge interactions. It is shown that the mass spectra of superparticles are phenomenologically viable.
Constrained Superfields and Standard Realization of Nonlinear Supersymmetry
Luo, Hui; Zheng, Sibo
2009-01-01
A constrained superfield formalism has been proposed recently to analyze the low energy physics related to Goldstinos. We prove that this formalism can be reformulated in the language of standard realization of nonlinear supersymmetry. New relations have been uncovered in the standard realization of nonlinear supersymmetry.
Erice lectures on "The status of local supersymmetry"
Duff, M.J.
2004-01-01
In the first lecture we review the current status of local supersymmetry. In the second lecture we focus on D=11 supergravity as the low-energy limit of M-theory and pose the questions: (1) What are the D=11 symmetries? (2) How many supersymmetries can M-theory vacua preserve?
Search for electroweak production of supersymmetry at CMS
Liu, Miaoyuan
2017-01-01
We report on searches for supersymmetry via pair production of partners of electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons. The searches use proton-proton collision data recorded in 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The results are interpreted in terms of several simplified models of supersymmetry.
Miller
2011-01-01
The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec
Experimental Status of Supersymmetry after the LHC Run-I
Autermann, Christian
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have searched for signals of new physics, in particular for supersymmetry. The data collected until 2012 at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV and integrated luminosities of 5 fb^-1 and 20 fb^-1, respectively, agree with the expectation from standard model processes. Constraints on supersymmetry have been calculated and interpreted in different models. Limits on supersymmetry particle masses at the TeV scale have been derived and interpreted generally in the context of simplified model spectra. The constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model is disfavored by the experimental results. Natural supersymmetry scenarios with low supersymmetry particle masses remain possible in multiple regions, for example in those with compressed spectra, that are difficult to access experimentally. The upgraded LHC operating at 13 TeV is gaining sensitivity to the remaining unexplored SUSY parameter space.
Experimental status of supersymmetry after the LHC Run-I
Autermann, Christian
2016-09-01
The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN have searched for signals of new physics, in particular for supersymmetry. The data collected until 2012 at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV and integrated luminosities of 5 fb-1 and 20 fb-1, respectively, agree with the expectation from standard model processes. Constraints on supersymmetry have been calculated and interpreted in different models. Limits on supersymmetry particle masses at the TeV scale have been derived and interpreted generally in the context of simplified model spectra. The constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model is disfavored by the experimental results. Natural supersymmetry scenarios with low supersymmetry particle masses remain possible in multiple regions, for example in those with compressed spectra, that are difficult to access experimentally. The upgraded LHC operating at √{ s } = 13 TeV is gaining sensitivity to the remaining unexplored SUSY parameter space.
Mediation of supersymmetry breaking in extra dimensions
Scrucca, C A
2004-01-01
I review the mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking mediation that occur in sequestered models, where the visible and the hidden sectors are separated by an extra dimension and communicate only via gravitational interactions. By locality, soft breaking terms are forbidden at the classical level and reliably computable within an effective field theory approach at the quantum level. I present a self-contained discussion of these radiative gravitational effects and the resulting pattern of soft masses, and give an overview of realistic model building based on this set-up. I consider both flat and warped extra dimensions, as well as the possibility that there be localized kinetic terms for the gravitational fields.
Searches for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS Experiment
Lee, Lawrence; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches used proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 13 TeV, and involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons as well as long-lived particle signatures.
Tree Level Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nardecchia, Marco, E-mail: marco.nardecchia@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)
2010-11-01
We propose a new scheme in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the MSSM sfermions by GUT gauge interactions at the tree level. The (positive) contribution of MSSM fields to Str(M{sup 2}) is automatically compensated by a (negative) contribution from heavy fields. Sfermion masses are flavour universal, thus solving the supersymmetric flavour problem. In the simplest SO(10) embedding, the ratio of different sfermion masses is predicted and differs from mSugra and other schemes, thus making this framework testable at the LHC. Gaugino masses are generated at the loop level but enhanced by model dependent factors.
Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)
2014-03-27
We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.
Symmetries, Supersymmetries, and Pairing in Nuclei
Balantekin, A B
2011-01-01
These summer school lectures cover the use of algebraic techniques in various subfields of nuclear physics. After a brief description of groups and algebras, concepts of dynamical symmetry, dynamical supersymmetry, and supersymmetric quantum mechanics are introduced. Appropriate tools such as quasiparticles, quasispin, and Bogoliubov transformations are discussed with an emphasis on group theoretical foundations of these tools. To illustrate these concepts three physics applications are worked out in some detail: i) Pairing in nuclear physics; ii) Subbarrier fusion and associated group transformations; and iii) Symmetries of neutrino mass and of a related neutrino many-body problem.
Supersymmetry in Lorentzian Curved Spaces and Holography
Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Zaffaroni, Alberto
2012-01-01
We consider superconformal and supersymmetric field theories on four-dimensional Lorentzian curved space-times, and their five-dimensional holographic duals. As in the Euclidean signature case, preserved supersymmetry for a superconformal theory is equivalent to the existence of a charged conformal Killing spinor. Differently from the Euclidean case, we show that the existence of such spinors is equivalent to the existence of a null conformal Killing vector. For a supersymmetric field theory with an R-symmetry, this vector field is further restricted to be Killing. We demonstrate how these results agree with the existing classification of supersymmetric solutions of minimal gauged supergravity in five dimensions.
Search for Supersymmetry at the LHC
Autermann, Christian
2016-01-01
Searches for supersymmetry at the ATLAS and CMS experiments are discussed. The analyzed data were recorded at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of up to 3 fb$^{-1}$ per experiment. No physics beyond the standard model has been observed. Different inclusive and specialized analysis strategies targeting various signal scenarios are introduced. The analysis sensitivities are summarized as exclusion contours for different simplified signal model spectra and compared to the previous 8 TeV results.
Electroweak Supersymmetry (EWSUSY) in the NMSSM
Cheng, Taoli; Li, Tianjun
2013-01-01
To explain all the available experimental results, we have proposed the Electroweak Supersymmetry (EWSUSY) previously, where the squarks and/or gluino are heavy around a few TeVs while the sleptons, sneutrinos, Bino, Winos, and/or Higgsinos are light within one TeV. In the Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), we perform the systematic \\chi^2 analyses on parameter space scan for three EWSUSY scenarios: (I) R-parity conservation and one dark matter candidate; (II) R-parity con...
Living Dangerously with Low-Energy Supersymmetry
Giudice, Gian Francesco
2006-01-01
We stress that the lack of direct evidence for supersymmetry forces the soft mass parameters to lie very close to the critical line separating the broken and unbroken phases of the electroweak gauge symmetry. We argue that the level of criticality, or fine-tuning, that is needed to escape the present collider bounds can be quantitatively accounted for by assuming that the overall scale of the soft terms is an environmental quantity. Under fairly general assumptions, vacuum-selection considerations force a little hierarchy in the ratio between m_Z^2 and the supersymmetric particle square masses, with a most probable value equal to a one-loop factor.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2013-07-01
We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.
Finding the Higgs Boson through Supersymmetry
De Campos, F; Magro, M B; Restrepo, D; Valle, J W F
2008-01-01
The study of displaced vertices containing two b--jets may provide a double discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): we show how it may not only reveal evidence for supersymmetry, but also provide a way to uncover the Higgs boson necessary in the formulation of the electroweak theory in a large region of the parameter space. We quantify this explicitly using the simplest minimal supergravity model with bilinear breaking of R-parity, which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino masses and mixings seen in neutrino oscillation experiments.
Surfactant effect on the bubble motions and bubbly flow structures in a vertical channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takagi@mach.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2009-12-15
It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters. (invited paper)
Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Fukuta, Masato; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2009-12-01
It is well known that a small amount of surfactant can drastically change the motion of a single bubble and this causes a dramatic change of the whole bubbly flow structure. In our previous studies using upward vertical channel flows, it was shown that surfactant influences the shear-induced lift and the lateral migration of a bubble, which causes bubble accumulation and clustering near the wall. In this paper, the dependence of surfactant concentration on the motions of a 1 mm bubble rising through the laminar shear flow is investigated using 1-, 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100. The results are compared with the numerical ones, which show quantitative agreement on the lift and drag forces. Furthermore, we analyze the experimental data for the condition of bubble clustering in upward channel flows with the consideration of contaminant level in tap water. The results indicate that lower contaminant level and higher shear rate cause the significant bubble migration toward the wall, which leads to the formation of bubble clusters.
Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid
Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.
2017-09-01
In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Supersymmetry on curved spaces and superconformal anomalies
Cassani, Davide
2013-01-01
We study the consequences of unbroken rigid supersymmetry of four-dimensional field theories placed on curved manifolds. We show that in Lorentzian signature the background vector field coupling to the R-current is determined by the Weyl tensor of the background metric. In Euclidean signature, the same holds if two supercharges of opposite R-charge are preserved, otherwise the (anti-)self-dual part of the vector field-strength is fixed by the Weyl tensor. As a result of this relation, the trace and R-current anomalies of superconformal field theories simplify, with the trace anomaly becoming purely topological. In particular, in Lorentzian signature, or in the presence of two Euclidean supercharges of opposite R-charge, supersymmetry of the background implies that the term proportional to the central charge c vanishes, both in the trace and R-current anomalies. This is equivalent to the vanishing of a superspace Weyl invariant. We comment on the implications of our results for holography.
Differential Poisson Sigma Models with Extended Supersymmetry
Arias, Cesar; Torres-Gomez, Alexander
2016-01-01
The induced two-dimensional topological N=1 supersymmetric sigma model on a differential Poisson manifold M presented in arXiv:1503.05625 is shown to be a special case of the induced Poisson sigma model on the bi-graded supermanifold T[0,1]M. The bi-degree comprises the standard N-valued target space degree, corresponding to the form degree on the worldsheet, and an additional Z-valued fermion number, corresponding to the degree in the differential graded algebra of forms on M. The N=1 supersymmetry stems from the compatibility between the (extended) differential Poisson bracket and the de Rham differential on M. The latter is mapped to a nilpotent vector field Q of bi-degree (0,1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M), and the covariant Hamiltonian action is Q-exact. New extended supersymmetries arise as inner derivatives along special bosonic Killing vectors on M that induce Killing supervector fields of bi-degree (0,-1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M).
Large-field inflation and supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian; Heurtier, Lucien [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). CPht
2014-07-15
Large-field inflation is an interesting and predictive scenario. Its non-trivial embedding in supergravity was intensively studied in the recent literature, whereas its interplay with supersymmetry breaking has been less thoroughly investigated. We consider the minimal viable model of chaotic inflation in supergravity containing a stabilizer field, and add a Polonyi field. Furthermore, we study two possible extensions of the minimal setup. We show that there are various constraints: first of all, it is very hard to couple an O'Raifeartaigh sector with the inflaton sector, the simplest viable option being to couple them only through gravity. Second, even in the simplest model the gravitino mass is bounded from above parametrically by the inflaton mass. Therefore, high-scale supersymmetry breaking is hard to implement in a chaotic inflation setup. As a separate comment we analyze the simplest chaotic inflation construction without a stabilizer field, together with a supersymmetrically stabilized Kaehler modulus. Without a modulus, the potential of such a model is unbounded from below. We show that a heavy modulus cannot solve this problem.
Supersymmetry searches in ATLAS at the LHC
Romero Adam, Elena; Bernabeu Alberola, Jose
This Thesis presents two different SUSY searches in strong production using ATLAS data. The first analysis presented, searches for Supersymmetry in final states containing seven or more jets (multijets), one isolated lepton (electron or muon) and missing transverse energy (ETmiss). The search is based on data from the full 2011 data-taking period, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7/fb and a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 7 TeV. The results of this analysis are interpreted in the context of a bilinear R-parity violating (bRPV) mSUGRA/CMSSM model. The second analysis is a search for Supersymmetry in final states characterised by a Z boson that decays to an electron or a muon pair, large ETmiss and jets. The proton-proton collision data used in this search were collected at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 8 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3/fb. The results are interpreted in the context of a GGM supersymmetric model.
Kinematic Dynamo, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Chaos
Ovchinnikov, Igor V
2015-01-01
The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as t...
D-branes, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Neutrinos
Seo, Jihye
2010-01-01
This thesis studies meta- and exactly stable supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in heterotic and type IIB string theories and constructs an F-theory Grand Unified Theory model for neutrino physics in which neutrino mass is determined by the supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Focussing attention on heterotic string theory compactified on a 4-torus, stability of non-supersymmetric states is studied. A non-supersymmetric state with robust stability is constructed, and its exact stability is proven in a large region of moduli space of T^4 against all the possible decay mechanisms allowed by charge conservation. Using string-string duality, the results are interpreted in terms of Dirichlet-branes in type IIA string theory compactified on an orbifold limit of a K3 surface. In type IIB string theory, metastable and exactly stable non-supersymmetric systems are constructed using D-branes and Calabi-Yau geometry. Branes and anti-branes wrap rigid and separate 2-spheres inside a non-compact Calabi-Yau three-fold: supersy...
Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan
2016-01-01
In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun
2015-01-01
Strain-induced deformations in graphene are predicted to give rise to large pseudomagnetic fields. We examine theoretically the case of gas-inflated bubbles to determine whether signatures of such fields are present in the local density of states. Sharp-edged bubbles are found to induce Friedel...
Single bubble sonoluminescence
Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef
2002-01-01
Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light ten
Single bubble sonoluminescence
Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef
2002-01-01
Single-bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically driven gas bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. Detailed experiments have demonstrated the unique properties of this system: the spectrum of the emitted light
Bubble collision with gravitation
Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study vacuum bubble collisions with various potentials including gravitation, assuming spherical, planar, and hyperbolic symmetry. We use numerical calculations from double-null formalism. Spherical symmetry can mimic the formation of a black hole via multiple bubble collisions. Planar and especially hyperbolic symmetry describes two bubble collisions. We study both cases, when two true vacuum regions have the same field value or different field values, by varying tensions. For the latter case, we also test symmetric and asymmetric bubble collisions, and see details of causal structures. If the colliding energy is sufficient, then the vacuum can be destabilized, and it is also demonstrated. This double-null formalism can be a complementary approach in the context of bubble collisions.
Salamh, Paul A; Kolber, Morey
2014-01-01
To investigate the reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC90) and concurrent validity of a gravity-based bubble inclinometer (inclinometer) and iPhone® application for measuring standing lumbar lordosis. Two investigators used both an inclinometer and an iPhone® with an inclinometer application to measure lumbar lordosis of 30 asymptomatic participants. ICC models 3,k and 2,k were used for the intrarater and interrater analysis, respectively. Good interrater and intrarater reliability was present for the inclinometer with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of 0.90 and 0.85, respectively and the iPhone® application with ICC values of 0.96 and 0.81. The minimal detectable change (MDC90) indicates that a change greater than or equal to 7° and 6° is needed to exceed the threshold of error using the iPhone® and inclinometer, respectively. The concurrent validity between the two instruments was good with a Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.86 for both raters. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement identified differences ranging from 9° greater in regards to the iPhone® to 8° less regarding the inclinometer. Both the inclinometer and iPhone® application possess good interrater reliability, intrarater reliability and concurrent validity for measuring standing lumbar lordosis. This investigation provides preliminary evidence to suggest that smart phone applications may offer clinical utility comparable to inclinometry for quantifying standing lumbar lordosis. Clinicians should recognize potential individual differences when using these devices interchangeably.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De-wen Yuan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to investigate single bubble evolution, a boiling phase change model in subcooled flow boiling is proposed in this paper, and VOF model combined with phase change model is adopted to simulate the single bubble growth and movement. The effects of flow velocity, liquid subcooling, wall superheat, and vapor-liquid contact angle are considered in this model. The predicted bubble growth curve agrees well with the experimental result. Based on the analysis of bubble shape evolution and temperature field, it is found that the average bubble growth rate, flow velocity, and dynamic contact angle have significant effect on the bubble shape evolution during the bubble growth and movement while the temperature gradient in superheated liquid does not change with bubble growing. The character of dynamic contact angle during bubble growth and movement is also obtained in different working condition.
Effect of bubble size on nanofiber diameter in bubble electrospinning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren Zhong-Fu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer bubbles are widely used for fabrication of nanofibers. Bubble size affects not only bubble's surface tension, but also fiber's morphology. A mathematical model is established to reveal the effect of bubble size on the spinning process, and the experiment verification shows the theoretical analysis is reliable.
Type 1 2HDM as Effective Theory of Supersymmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵华
2012-01-01
It is generally believed that the low energy effective theory of the minimal supersymmetric standard model is the type 2 two Higgs doublet model. We will show that the type 1 two Higge doublet model can also be as the effective of supersymmetry in a specific ease with high scale supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation. If the other electroweak doublet obtain the vacuum expectation value after the electroweak symmetry breaking, the Higgs spectrum is quite different. A remarkable feature is that the physical Higgs boson mass can be 125 GeV unlike in the ordinary models with high scale supersymmetry in which the Higgs mass is generally around 140 GeV.
Octonionic Realizations of 1-dimensional Extended Supersymmetries. A Classification
Carrion, H L; Toppan, F
2003-01-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N=8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned.
Octonionic realizations of 1-dimensional extended supersymmetries. A classification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrion, H.L.; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: hleny@cbpf.br; mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br
2002-12-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N = 8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned. (author)
Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Harigaya
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei–Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.
Bubble Effect in Heterogeneous Nuclear Fuel Solution System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU; Xiao-ping; LUO; Huang-da; ZHANG; Wei; ZHU; Qing-fu
2013-01-01
Bubble effect means system reactivity changes due to the bubble induced solution volume,neutron leakage and absorption properties,neutron energy spectrum change in the nuclear fuel solution system.In the spent fuel dissolver,during uranium element shearing,the oxygen will be inlet to accelerate the
Natural Supersymmetry and Unification in Five Dimensions
Abdalgabar, Ammar; Deandrea, Aldo; McGarrie, Moritz
2015-01-01
We explore unification and natural supersymmetry in a five dimensional extension of the standard model in which the extra dimension may be large, of the order of 1-10 TeV. Power law running generates a TeV scale A_ term allowing for the observed 125 GeV Higgs and allowing for stop masses below 2 TeV, compatible with a natural SUSY spectrum. We supply the full one-loop RGEs for various models and use metastability to give a prediction that the gluino mass should be lighter than 3.5 TeV for A_t <= 2.5 TeV, for such a compactification scale, with brane localised 3rd generation matter. We discuss why models in which the 1st and 2nd generation of matter fields are located in the bulk are likely to be ruled out. We also look at electroweak symmetry breaking in these models.
Supersymmetry in 6d Dirac Action
Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tatsumi, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We investigate a 6d Dirac fermion on a rectangle. It is found that the 4d spectrum is governed by $N = 2$ supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Then we demonstrate that the supersymmetry is very useful to classify all allowed boundary conditions and to expand the 6d Dirac field in Kaluza-Klein modes. A striking feature of the model is that even though the 6d Dirac fermion has non-vanishing bulk mass, the 4d mass spectrum can contain degenerate massless chiral fermions, which may provide a hint to solve the generation problem of the quarks and leptons. It is pointed out that zero energy solutions are not affected by the presence of the boundaries, while the boundary conditions work well for determining the positive energy solutions.
Missing Energy and Jets for Supersymmetry Searches
Bern, Z; Dixon, L J; Cordero, F Febres; Hoeche, S; Ita, H; Kosower, D A; Maitre, D; Ozeren, K J
2013-01-01
We extend our investigation of backgrounds to new physics signals, following CMS's data-driven search for supersymmetry at the LHC. The aim is to use different sets of cuts in gamma + 3-jet production to predict the irreducible Z + 3-jet background (with the Z boson decaying to neutrinos) to searches with missing transverse energy + 3-jet signal topologies. We compute ratios of Z + 3-jet to gamma + 3-jet production cross sections and kinematic distributions at next-to-leading order (NLO) in alpha_s. We compare these ratios with those obtained using a parton shower matched to leading-order matrix elements (ME+PS). This study extends our previous work [arXiv:1106.1423 [hep-ph
Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification
Mohapatra, Rabindra N.
2012-07-01
I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.
Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification
Mohapatra, Rabindra N
2012-01-01
I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.
Physics Beyond the Standard Model: Supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nojiri, M.M.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Tsukuba, Graduate U. Adv. Studies /Tokyo U.; Plehn, T.; /Edinburgh U.; Polesello, G.; /INFN, Pavia; Alexander, John M.; /Edinburgh U.; Allanach, B.C.; /Cambridge U.; Barr, Alan J.; /Oxford U.; Benakli, K.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Boudjema, F.; /Annecy, LAPTH; Freitas, A.; /Zurich U.; Gwenlan, C.; /University Coll. London; Jager, S.; /CERN /LPSC, Grenoble
2008-02-01
This collection of studies on new physics at the LHC constitutes the report of the supersymmetry working group at the Workshop 'Physics at TeV Colliders', Les Houches, France, 2007. They cover the wide spectrum of phenomenology in the LHC era, from alternative models and signatures to the extraction of relevant observables, the study of the MSSM parameter space and finally to the interplay of LHC observations with additional data expected on a similar time scale. The special feature of this collection is that while not each of the studies is explicitly performed together by theoretical and experimental LHC physicists, all of them were inspired by and discussed in this particular environment.
Gravitino condensation, supersymmetry breaking and inflation
Houston, N
2015-01-01
Motivated by dualistic considerations of the reality of quark condensation in quantum chromodynamics, and the connections of supergravity to the exotic physics of string and M-theory, in this thesis we investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry via gravitino condensation. We firstly demonstrate non-perturbative gravitino mass generation via this mechanism in flat spacetime, and from this derive the condensate mode wavefunction renormalisation. By then calculating the full canonically normalised one-loop effective potential for the condensate mode about a de Sitter background, we demonstrate that, contrary to claims in the literature, this process may both occur and function in a phenomenologically viable manner. In particular, we find that outside of certain unfortunate gauge choices, the stability of the condensate is intimately tied via gravitational degrees of freedom to the sign of the tree-level cosmological constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy density liberated may provide the n...
Born-Infeld action and Supersymmetry
Silva, G A
2000-01-01
In the thesis we analize different problems related to the supersymmetric extension of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. In chapter 2 we introduce the DBI action and show how it appears in string theory, we discuss also it's connection with Dp-branes. Chapter 3 is a self contained introduction to supersymmetry, with emphasis on BPS states. In chapter 4 we construct the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Born-Infeld-Higgs in three space-time dimensions and discuss it's BPS states and Bogomol'nyi bounds. In chapter 5 we construct the N=1 supersymmetric extension of the non-abelian Born-Infeld theory in four space-time dimensions. Chapter 6 deals with the analisis of BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action and their interpretation in superstring theory. Chapter 7 is devoted to the conclusions. Three appendix complete the work.
Nonlinear (Super)Symmetries and Amplitudes
Kallosh, Renata
2016-01-01
There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E_{7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N\\geq 5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.
Influence of surfactant conditions on the structure of an upward bubbly channel flow
Ogasawara, Toshiyuki
2005-11-01
We investigated an upward bubbly channel flow and the effects of surfactant on its flow structure experimentally. 3-Pentanol and Triton X-100 are used as surfactants. By the addition of small amount of surfactant, bubble coalescences are prevented and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles are obtained. Under all of our experimental conditions, the added surfactants do not influence the single-phase turbulence. On the other hand, small amount of surfactant drastically changes the whole flow structure of bubbly flow. On the low concentration of 3-Pentanol (21-63ppm), bubbles strongly migrate towards the wall and these highly accumulated bubbles on the wall form crescent-like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. However, in 3-Pentanol solution of higher concentration (˜168ppm) or in the 2ppm Triton X-100 solution, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles is weaken and the bubbles are distributed uniformly in the channel. In the surfactant solution, the slip velocity on the bubble surface retards and the bubble rising velocity decreases (Marangoni effect). The change of boundary condition on the bubble surface affects not only drag force but shear-induced lift force. It is indicated that this change of shear-induced lift force greatly relates to the lateral migration of bubbles and the disaggregation of the bubble clusters. We also measured the turbulent properties using LDV and discuss the flow structure.
Modification of Shape Oscillations of an Attached Bubble by Surfactants
Tihon J.; Vejražka J.; Vobecká L.
2013-01-01
Surface-active agents (surfactants, e.g. washing agents) strongly modifies properties of gas-liquid interface. We have carried out extensive experiments, in which we study effect of surfactants on the shape oscillations of a bubble, which is attached at a tip of a capillary. In the experiments, shape oscillations of a bubble are invoked by a motion of a capillary, to which the bubble is injected. Decaying oscillations are recorded and their frequency and damping are evaluated. By changing the...
Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Nomura, Yasunori
2006-02-21
Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe .ne-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large {Alpha} term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
Supersymmetry, Naturalness, and Signatures at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitano, Ryuichiro; Nomura, Yasunori
2006-02-10
Weak scale supersymmetry is often said to be fine-tuned, especially if the matter content is minimal. This is not true if there is a large A term for the top squarks. We present a systematic study on fine-tuning in minimal supersymmetric theories and identify low energy spectra that do not lead to severe fine-tuning. Characteristic features of these spectra are: a large A term for the top squarks, small top squark masses, moderately large tan {beta}, and a small {mu} parameter. There are classes of theories leading to these features, which are discussed. In one class, which allows a complete elimination of fine-tuning, the Higgsinos are the lightest among all the superpartners of the standard model particles, leading to three nearly degenerate neutralino/chargino states. This gives interesting signals at the LHC--the dilepton invariant mass distribution has a very small endpoint and shows a particular shape determined by the Higgsino nature of the two lightest neutralinos. We demonstrate that these signals are indeed useful in realistic analyses by performing Monte Carlo simulations, including detector simulations and background estimations. We also present a method that allows the determination of all the relevant superparticle masses without using input from particular models, despite the limited kinematical information due to short cascades. This allows us to test various possible models, which is demonstrated in the case of a model with mixed moduli-anomaly mediation. We also give a simple derivation of special renormalization group properties associated with moduli mediated supersymmetry breaking, which are relevant in a model without fine-tuning.
A Supersymmetric Composite Model with Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Kitazawa, N; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Okada, Nobuchika
1997-01-01
We present a supersymmetric composite model with dynamical supersymmetry breaking. The model is based on the gauge group $SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_H \\times SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y$. Supersymmetry is dynamically broken by the non-perturbative effect of the $SU(2)_S$ `supercolor' interaction. The large top Yukawa coupling is naturally generated by the $SU(2)_H$ `hypercolor' interaction as recently proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the standard model sector by a new mechanism. The electroweak symmetry breaking is caused by the radiative correction due to the large top Yukawa coupling with the supersymmetry breaking. This is the `radiative breaking scenario', which originates from the dynamics of the supercolor and hypercolor gauge interactions.
Cyclic Family Symmetry and Lepton Hierarchy in Supersymmetry
Du, Dongsheng; Chun LIU
1995-01-01
A cyclic symmetry among the left-handed doublets of the three families is proposed. This symmetry can naturally result in a realistic hierarchical pattern of the fermion masses within the framework of supersymmetry with nonvanishing sneutrino vacuum expectation values.
N = (4,4 Supersymmetry and T-Duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malin Göteman
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A sigma model with four-dimensional target space parametrized by chiral and twisted chiral N =(2,2 superfields can be extended to N =(4,4 supersymmetry off-shell, but this is not true for a model of semichiral fields, where the N = (4,4 supersymmetry can only be realized on-shell. The two models can be related to each other by T-duality. In this paper we perform a duality transformation from a chiral and twisted chiral model with off-shell N = (4,4 supersymmetry to a semichiral model. We find that additional non-linear terms must be added to the original transformations to obtain a semichiral model with N =(4,4 supersymmetry, and that the algebra closes on-shell as a direct consequence of the T-duality.
Cliffordized NAC supersymmetry and PT-symmetric Hamiltonians
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br
2007-07-01
It is shown that non-anti commutative supersymmetry can be described through a Cliffordization of the superspace fermionic coordinates. A NAC supersymmetric quantum mechanical model is shown to be a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian. (author)
Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai
2002-01-01
Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)
Lee, Albert W. M.; Wong, A.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Zhou, Ning-Huai
2002-01-01
Describes a laboratory experiment in which common chemical gases are trapped inside soap bubbles. Examines the physical and chemical properties of the gases such as relative density and combustion. (Author/MM)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Government adopts regulations to control real estate prices A mid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real
The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniadis, Ignatios [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France)
2015-12-15
We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R - λ){sup 2} = 0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories. (orig.)
The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniadis, Ignatios, E-mail: antoniad@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlestrasse 5, 3012, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula, E-mail: chrysoula@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France)
2015-12-09
We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R-λ){sup 2}=0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories.
A topological bound for electroweak vortices from supersymmetry
Edelstein, J D; Edelstein, Jose D; Nunez, Carlos
1995-01-01
We study the connection between N=2 supersymmetry and a topological bound in a two-Higgs doublet system having an SU(2)\\times U(1)_Y\\times U(1)_{Y^{\\prime}} gauge group. We derive Bogomol'nyi equations from supersymmetry considerations showing that they hold provided certain conditions on the coupling constants, which are a consequence of the huge symmetry of the theory, are satisfied. Certain interesting limiting cases of our model are analysed.
Anomalous U(1) as a mediator of Supersymmetry Breaking
Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex
1996-01-01
We point out that an anomalous gauge U(1) symmetry is a natural candida= te for being the mediator and messenger of supersymmetry breaking. It facilitate= s dynamical supersymmetry breaking even in the flat limit. Soft masses are induced by both gravity and the U(1) gauge interactions giving an unusual= mass hierarchy in the sparticle spectrum which suppresses flavor violations. T= his scenario does not suffer from the Polonyi problem.
Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider
Roy, Arunava
2008-01-01
We show how to differentiate the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model from black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black holes are simulated with the CATFISH generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, demonstrates that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.
Mass Formulae for Broken Supersymmetry in Curved Space-Time
Ferrara, Sergio
2016-01-01
We derive the mass formulae for ${\\cal N}=1$, $D=4$ matter-coupled Supergravity for broken (and unbroken) Supersymmetry in curved space-time. These formulae are applicable to de Sitter configurations as is the case for inflation. For unbroken Supersymmetry in anti-de Sitter (AdS) one gets the mass relations modified by the AdS curvature. We compute the mass relations both for the potential and its derivative non-vanishing.
Majorana Fermions, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Born-Infeld Theory
Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen
2015-01-01
This review is devoted to highlight some aspects of the relevance of Majorana fermions in rigid supersymmetry breaking in four spacetime dimensions. After introducing some basic facts on spinors, and on their symmetries and reality properties, we consider Goldstino actions describing partial breaking of rigid supersymmetry, then focussing on Born-Infeld non-linear theory, its duality symmetry, and its supersymmetric extensions, also including multi-field generalizations exhibiting doubly self-duality.
Supersymmetry searches with ATLAS: overview and latest results
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. The ATLAS experiment searches for signs of supersymmetry in a large variety of signatures involving events with abnormal production of missing transverse momentum, jets, leptons, photons, third generation fermions, gauge bosons or massive long-lived particles. The talk presents the latest results obtained in these searches.
Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation
1971-01-01
These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Jim Chanos,founder of the U.S. hedge fund Kynikos Associates,characterized the prop-erty bubble in China as "Dubai times 1,000-or worse." Many Chinese economists agree. Yi Xianrong,a senior researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,said the property bubble in China was far worse than the Dubai crisis in an interview with the Beijing-based International Herald Leader. Edited excerpts follow:
Methane bubbling: from speculation to quantification
Grinham, A. R.; Dunbabin, M.; Yuan, Z.
2013-12-01
Rates of methane bubbling (ebullition) represent a notoriously difficult emission pathway to quantify with highly variable spatial and temporal changes. However, the importance of bubbling fluxes in terms of total emissions is increasingly recognised from a number of different globally relevant natural systems including lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. This represents a critical challenge to current survey efforts to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the uncertainty associated with bubbling fluxes. A number of different methods have been proposed to overcome this challenge including bubble traps, floating chambers, echo sounders, laser spectrography and camera systems. Each method has relative merits and deficiencies with all trading-off the ability to directly quantify methane and provide spatial and temporal coverage. Here we present a novel method that allows direct measurement of methane bubble concentration as well as the ability to persistently monitor a wide spatial area. Central to the monitoring system is an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) and an Optical Methane Detector (OMD). The ASV is equipped with solar panels and uses electric motors for propulsion to allow persistent environmental monitoring. The OMD has a path length of 1.3 m and 7 Hz sampling so a typical mission of 3 hours at 1 m s-1 covers an area in excess of 10 000 m2 and over 65 000 data points. The system was assessed on four sub-tropical freshwater reservoirs of varying surface area (0.5 to 100 km2), age (2 to 65 y) and catchment land use (40 to 90% natural vegetation cover). Each reservoir had unique challenges in terms of navigation and field conditions to test feasibility of this method. Deployment length varied from a single day to over 4 months to test method durability. In addition to ASV bubble surveys, floating static chambers were deployed to determine diffusive fluxes. Localised instantaneous bubble flux rates within a single reservoir ranged over three orders of
Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Borst, Walter L; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K
2006-04-15
Soap bubbles provide a fascinating tool that is little used analytically. With a very low liquid volume to surface area ratio, a soap bubble can potentially provide a very useful interface for preconcentration where mass transfer to an interfacial surface is important. Here we use an automated system to create bubbles of uniform size and film thickness. We utilize purified Triton-X 100, a nonionic surfactant, to make soap bubbles. We use such bubbles as a gas-sampling interface. Incorporating hydrogen peroxide into the bubble provides a system where electrical conductance increases as the bubble is exposed to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas. We theoretically derive the conductance of a hollow conducting spherical thin film with spherical cap electrodes. We measure the film thickness by incorporating a dye in the bubble making solution and laser transmission photometry and find that it agrees well with the geometrically computed thickness. With the conductance of the bubble-making soap solution being measured by conventional methods, we show that the measured values of the bubble conductance with known bubble and electrode dimensions closely correspond to the theoretically computed value. Finally, we demonstrate that sub-ppm levels of SO(2) can readily be detected by the conductivity change of a hydrogen peroxide-doped soap bubble, measured in situ, when the gas flows around the bubble.
Stochastic modelling for financial bubbles and policy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Fry
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we draw upon the close relationship between statistical physics and mathematical finance to develop a suite of models for financial bubbles and crashes. By modifying previous approaches, we are able to derive novel analytical formulae for evaluation problems and for the expected timing of future change points. In particular, we help to explain why previous approaches have systematically overstated the timing of changes in market regime. The list of potential empirical applications is deep and wide ranging, and includes contemporary housing bubbles, the Eurozone crisis and the Crash of 2008.
Bubble migration in a compacting crystal-liquid mush
Boudreau, Alan
2016-04-01
Recent theoretical models have suggested that bubbles are unlikely to undergo significant migration in a compaction crystal mush by capillary invasion while the system remains partly molten. To test this, experiments of bubble migration during compaction in a crystal-liquid mush were modeled using deformable foam crystals in corn syrup in a volumetric burette, compacted with rods of varying weights. A bubble source was provided by sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer®). Large bubbles (>several crystal sizes) are pinched by the compacting matrix and become overpressured and deformed as the bubbles experience a load change from hydrostatic to lithostatic. Once they begin to move, they move much faster than the compaction-driven liquid. Bubbles that are about the same size as the crystals but larger than the narrower pore throats move by deformation or breaking into smaller bubbles as they are forced through pore restrictions. Bubbles that are less than the typical pore diameter generally move with the liquid: The liquid + bubble mixture behaves as a single phase with a lower density than the bubble-free liquid, and as a consequence it rises faster than bubble-free liquid and allows for faster compaction. The overpressure required to force a bubble through the matrix (max grain size = 5 mm) is modest, about 5 %, and it is estimated that for a grain size of 1 mm, the required overpressure would be about 25 %. Using apatite distribution in a Stillwater olivine gabbro as an analog for bubble nucleation and growth, it is suggested that relatively large bubbles initially nucleate and grow in liquid-rich channels that develop late in the compaction history. Overpressure from compaction allows bubbles to rise higher into hotter parts of the crystal pile, where they redissolve and increase the volatile content of the liquid over what it would have without the bubble migration, leading to progressively earlier vapor saturation during crystallization of the interstitial liquid
Colliding with a crunching bubble
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freivogel, Ben; Freivogel, Ben; Horowitz, Gary T.; Shenker, Stephen
2007-03-26
In the context of eternal inflation we discuss the fate of Lambda = 0 bubbles when they collide with Lambda< 0 crunching bubbles. When the Lambda = 0 bubble is supersymmetric, it is not completely destroyed by collisions. If the domain wall separating the bubbles has higher tension than the BPS bound, it is expelled from the Lambda = 0 bubble and does not alter its long time behavior. If the domain wall saturates the BPS bound, then it stays inside the Lambda = 0 bubble and removes a finite fraction of future infinity. In this case, the crunch singularity is hidden behind the horizon of a stable hyperbolic black hole.
Lighten up Your Lesson: Matter, Optics, and Bubbles
Maxwell, Jeffrey S.; He, Beixin Julie; deProphetis, Wendy; Gimm, J. Aura
2006-01-01
This article discusses how soap bubbles can be used to teach scientific principles such as phases of matter and the reflection of light. The study of soap bubbles addresses the National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8 related to the properties and changes of properties in matter. The exercises suggested here can be flexible in terms of…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QU Jian-wu; MURAI Yuichi; YAMAMOTO Fujio
2005-01-01
Bubble-bubble interaction in free rising bubbly flows is experimentally investigated in the present study.The velocity vectors of the bubbles are measured by a stereoscopic bubble-tracking technique and then the relative velocity vectors of two nearest-neighbor bubbles are calculated with high statistical reliability.With the measurement data at Reynolds number ranging from 5 to 75, the vertical attraction and the horizontal repulsion are confirmed for Re＜10 as known by the past study based on Navier-Stokes simulation.The new finding of the present measurement is that the bubbles of Re＞30 have repulsive velocity bothin the horizontal and the vertical directions as those rise closely.Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of the bubble-bubble interaction is discussed with the data analysis of the interaction vector fields.
Solares, H A Ayala; Hüntemeyer, P
2015-01-01
The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. Recent publications show that the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles is well described by a power law with an exponential cutoff in the energy range of 100MeV to 500GeV. Observing the Fermi Bubbles at higher gamma-ray energies will help constrain the origin of the bubbles. A steeper cutoff will favor a leptonic model. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located 4100m above sea level in Mexico, is designed to measure high-energy gamma rays between 100GeV to 100TeV. With...
Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles
Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew
2014-05-01
Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique
Between soap bubbles and vesicles: The dynamics of freely floating smectic bubbles
Stannarius, Ralf; May, Kathrin; Harth, Kirsten; Trittel, Torsten
2013-03-01
The dynamics of droplets and bubbles, particularly on microscopic scales, are of considerable importance in biological, environmental, and technical contexts. We introduce freely floating bubbles of smectic liquid crystals and report their unique dynamic properties. Smectic bubbles can be used as simple models for dynamic studies of fluid membranes. In equilibrium, they form minimal surfaces like soap films. However, shape transformations of closed smectic membranes that change the surface area involve the formation and motion of molecular layer dislocations. These processes are slow compared to the capillary wave dynamics, therefore the effective surface tension is zero like in vesicles. Freely floating smectic bubbles are prepared from collapsing catenoid films and their dynamics is studied with optical high-speed imaging. Experiments are performed under normal gravity and in microgravity during parabolic flights. Supported by DLR within grant OASIS-Co.
Bubble coalescence dynamics and supersaturation in electrolytic gas evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stover, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.
1996-08-01
The apparatus and procedures developed in this research permit the observation of electrolytic bubble coalescence, which heretofore has not been possible. The influence of bubble size, electrolyte viscosity, surface tension, gas type, and pH on bubble coalescence was examined. The Navier-Stokes equations with free surface boundary conditions were solved numerically for the full range of experimental variables that were examined. Based on this study, the following mechanism for bubble coalescence emerges: when two gas bubbles coalesce, the surface energy decreases as the curvature and surface area of the resultant bubble decrease, and the energy is imparted into the surrounding liquid. The initial motion is driven by the surface tension and slowed by the inertia and viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The initial velocity of the interface is approximately proportional to the square root of the surface tension and inversely proportional to the square root of the bubble radius. Fluid inertia sustains the oblate/prolate oscillations of the resultant bubble. The period of the oscillations varies with the bubble radius raised to the 3/2 power and inversely with the square root of the surface tension. Viscous resistance dampens the oscillations at a rate proportional to the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square of the bubble radius. The numerical simulations were consistent with most of the experimental results. The differences between the computed and measured saddle point decelerations and periods suggest that the surface tension in the experiments may have changed during each run. By adjusting the surface tension in the simulation, a good fit was obtained for the 150-{micro}m diameter bubbles. The simulations fit the experiments on larger bubbles with very little adjustment of surface tension. A more focused analysis should be done to elucidate the phenomena that occur in the receding liquid film immediately following rupture.
Explicitly Broken Supersymmetry with Exactly Massless Moduli
Dong, Xi; Zhao, Yue
2014-01-01
There is an avatar of the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM in 3-dimensional supersymmetry. We propose a solution to this problem in AdS$_3$ based on the AdS/CFT correspondence. The bulk theory is a supergravity theory in which U(1) $\\times$ U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. Since the R-charges of scalar and spinor differ, this generates a SUSY breaking shift of their masses. The Ward identity facilitates the calculation of these mass shifts to any desired order in the strength of the deformation. Moduli fields are massless $R$-neutral bulk scalars with vanishing potential in the undeformed theory. These properties are maintained to all orders in the deformation despite the fact that moduli couple in the bulk to loops of R-char...
Electroweak Supersymmetry (EWSUSY) in the NMSSM
Cheng, Taoli
2013-01-01
To explain all the available experimental results, we have proposed the Electroweak Supersymmetry (EWSUSY) previously, where the squarks and/or gluino are heavy around a few TeVs while the sleptons, sneutrinos, Bino, Winos, and/or Higgsinos are light within one TeV. In the Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), we perform the systematic \\chi^2 analyses on parameter space scan for three EWSUSY scenarios: (I) R-parity conservation and one dark matter candidate; (II) R-parity conservation and multi-component dark matter; (III) R-parity violation. We obtain the minimal \\chi^2/(degree of freedom) of 10.2/15, 9.6/14, and 9.2/14 respectively for Scenarios I, II, and III. Considering the constraints from the LHC neutralino/chargino and slepton searches, we find that the majority of viable parameter space prefered by the muon anomalous magnetic moment has been excluded except for the parameter space with moderate to large \\tan\\beta (\\ge 8). Especially, the most favorable parameter space has relatively ...
Searching for Supersymmetry with the ATLAS detector
White, Martin J
2006-01-01
This thesis presents a new method by which one may use data from the ATLAS detector of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to measure the parameters of the theory of supersymmetry (SUSY). The technique uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm to combine measurements of exclusive variables, in the form of kinematic endpoints that arise in the invariant mass distributions of leptons and jets given out in sparticle decay chains, with inclusive data, in the form of the cross-section of events passing a missing transverse energy cut. This improves the precision of sparticle mass measurements (beyond that obtained using exclusive data alone), whilst also enabling experimental uncertainties to be handled in an intuitive fashion. The method is demonstrated on an mSUGRA benchmark model, and is also used to constrain a model with a greater number of parameters. Throughout, an attempt is made to break some of the unrealistic assumptions that characterise current SUSY search techniques, and to this end it is succ...
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice at the LHC
Conley, John A; Hewett, JoAnne L; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G
2010-01-01
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters, $\\sim 100$, in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC ($\\sqrt s=14$ TeV, 1 fb$^{-1}$) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard MET and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of $\\sim 71$k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 MET analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these $\\sim 71$k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then s...
Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Triendl, Hagen Mathias
2010-08-15
This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)
Electric dipole moments in natural supersymmetry
Nakai, Yuichiro; Reece, Matthew
2017-08-01
We discuss electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the framework of CP-violating natural supersymmetry (SUSY). Recent experimental results have significantly tightened constraints on the EDMs of electrons and of mercury, and substantial further progress is expected in the near future. We assess how these results constrain the parameter space of natural SUSY. In addition to our discussion of SUSY, we provide a set of general formulas for two-loop fermion EDMs, which can be applied to a wide range of models of new physics. In the SUSY context, the two-loop effects of stops and charginos respectively constrain the phases of A t μ and M 2 μ to be small in the natural part of parameter space. If the Higgs mass is lifted to 125 GeV by a new tree-level superpotential interaction and soft term with CP-violating phases, significant EDMs can arise from the two-loop effects of W bosons and tops. We compare the bounds arising from EDMs to those from other probes of new physics including colliders, b → sγ, and dark matter searches. Importantly, improvements in reach not only constrain higher masses, but require the phases to be significantly smaller in the natural parameter space at low mass. The required smallness of phases sharpens the CP problem of natural SUSY model building.
Synchronous observation of rising soluble bubble through quiescent solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yifu ZHANG; Shuai TIAN; Weizhong LI; Yongchen SONG
2009-01-01
An experimental method using computer image processing technology (CIPT) was proposed to observe and investigate the velocity, deformation, heat and mass transfer, etc. of a rising soluble gas (CO2) bubble through a quiescent hot water. A model was set up to describe the behavior of the bubble in a visual experi-mental system in which a high-speed camera rose instantaneously with the movement of the bubble. A series of trajectory videos about the bubble were recorded by a computer linked to the camera. The trajectory, volume changes and rate of mass transfer of the bubble were obtained by the CIPT. It is found that the single bubble follows a rolling trajectory at the initial stage when there is mass transfer. With the volume decreasing, the disturbed behavior of the bubble becomes tempered. When the rising velocity of the bubble reaches the maximum, the velocity is nearly at a constant. The experimental and analysis results show that this method is useful for the research on the mass transfer and the movement of rising bubbles in liquid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahreini, Mohammad, E-mail: m.bahreini1990@gmail.com; Ramiar, Abas, E-mail: aramiar@nit.ac.ir; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ranjbar@nit.ac.ir
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1998-07-22
For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legoll, F. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1998-07-22
For nuclei with very high electrical charge, the Coulomb field is expected to drive the protons away from the centre to the surface of the nucleus. Such a nucleus would be no more compact but look like a bubble. The goal of this work is to confirm this idea. We are interested in only the ground state of spherical nuclei. We use the Skyrme potential with the Sly4 parametrization to calculate the mean-field Hamiltonian. Paring correlations are described by a surface-active delta paring interaction. In its ground state the nucleus {sup A=900} X{sub Z=274} is shown to be a bubble. Another stable state is found with a little higher energy: it is also a bubble. (author) 11 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.
The significance of multiple scattering in bubble measurements near the sea surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Leif Bjørnø; Bjørnø, Irina K.
1996-01-01
The acoustic interactions between gas bubbles in bubble plumes formed near the sea surface may significantly change the propagation and attenuation conditions for acoustical signals in the sea. The scattering properties of the bubble plumes have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farooqi Ahmad Salam
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Bubble flow reactors (BFR are commonly used for various industrial processes in the field of oil and gas production, pharmaceutical industries, biochemical and environmental engineering etc. The operation and performance of these reactors rely heavily on a range of hydrodynamic parameters; prominent among them are geometric configurations including gas injection geometry, operating conditions, mass transfer etc. A huge body of literature is available to describe the optimum design and performance of bubbly flow reactors with conventional bubble injection. Attempts were made to modify gas injection for improved efficiency of BFR’s. However, here instead of modifying the geometry of the gas injection, an attempt has been made to generate swirl bubbles for gaining larger mass transfer between gas and liquid. Here an exceptionally well thought strategies have been used in our numerical simulations towards the design of swirl injection mechanism, whose paramount aspect is to inhibit the rotary liquid motion but facilitates the swirl movement for bubbles in nearly stationary liquid. Our comprehension here is that the swirl motion can strongly affect the performance of bubbly reactor by identifying the changes in hydrodynamic parameters as compared to the conventional bubbly flows. In order to achieve this bubbly flow, an experimental setup has been designed as well as computational fluid dynamic (CFD code was used with to highlight a provision of swirl bubble injection by rotating the sparger plate.
Solares, H. A. Ayala; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; collaboration, for the HAWC
2015-01-01
The Fermi Bubbles, which comprise two large and homogeneous regions of spectrally hard gamma-ray emission extending up to $55^{o}$ above and below the Galactic Center, were first noticed in GeV gamma-ray data from the Fermi Telescope in 2010. The mechanism or mechanisms which produce the observed hard spectrum are not understood. Although both hadronic and lep- tonic models can describe the spectrum of the bubbles, the leptonic model can also explain similar structures observed in microwave d...
A Composite Model of Quarks with the `Effective Supersymmetry'
Okada, N.
1998-04-01
We present a composite model of quarks with `effective supersymmetry'. The model is based on the gauge group (SU(2)S × SU(2)M) × (SU(2)U × SU(2)C × SU(2)T) × SU(5)SM , where SU(5)SM is the standard model gauge group. In the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector based on the gauge group SU(2)S × SU(2)M , supersymmetry is dynamically broken. The preon sector is constructed by the model proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The fermion mass hierarchy among the up-type quarks originates from the SU(2)U × SU(2)C × SU(2)T gauge dynamics. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the minimal supersymmetric standard model sector by the `preon' superfields which compose the quarks in the first two generations. To obtain an experimentally acceptable mass spectrum, the scalar quarks in the first two generations need masses of order 10 TeV, while the other superpartners need masses less than 1 TeV. Therefore, the mass spectrum in our model is one example of the `effective supersymmetry' model proposed by Cohen, Kaplan and Nelson.
A Composite Model of Quarks with the "Effective Supersymmetry"
Okada, N
1998-01-01
We present a composite model of quarks with the `effective supersymmetry'. The model is based on the gauge group $(SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_M) \\times (SU(2)_U standard model gauge group. In the dynamical supersymmetry breaking sector based on the gauge group $ SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_M $, the supersymmetry is dynamically broken. The preon sector is constructed by the model proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The fermion mass hierarchy among the up-type quarks originates from the $ SU(2)_U \\times SU(2)_C \\times SU(2)_T $ gauge dynamics. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the minimal supersymmetric standard model sector by the `preon' superfields which compose the quarks in the first two generations. To obtain the experimentally acceptable mass spectrum, the scalar quarks in the first two generations have masses of order 10 TeV, while the other superpartners have masses of order 100 GeV. Therefore, the mass spectrum in our model is one of the type of the `effective supersymmetry' model proposed by Cohen, Kaplan a...
In Situ Measurement of Local Hydrogen Production Rate by Bubble-Evolved Recording
Xiaowei Hu; Liejin Guo; Yechun Wang
2013-01-01
Hydrogen visibly bubbles during photocatalytic water splitting under illumination with above-bandgap radiation, which provides a direct measurement of local gas-evolving reaction rate. In this paper, optical microscopy of superfield depth was used for recording the hydrogen bubble growth on Cd0.5Zn0.5S photocatalyst in reaction liquid and illuminated with purple light. By analyzing change of hydrogen bubble size as a function of time, we understood that hydrogen bubble growth experienced two ...
Laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of turbulent bubbly channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
So, S.; Takagi, S.; Matsumoto, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Morikita, H. [Morikita Shuppan Co. Ltd, 1-4-11,Fujimi Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0071 (Japan)
2002-07-01
Measurements of the turbulence properties of gas-liquid bubbly flows with mono-dispersed 1-mm-diameter bubbles are reported for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size and liquid-phase velocity were measured using image-processing and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively. A description is given of the special arrangements for two-dimensional LDV needed to obtain reliable bubbly flow data, in particular the configuration of the optical system, the distinction of signals from the bubbles and liquid phase. To create the mono-dispersed bubbles, a small amount of surfactant (3-pentanol of 20 ppm) was added to the flow. Whilst this caused a drastic change in bubble size distribution and flow field, it did not affect the turbulence properties of the single-phase flow. In this study, experiments with three different bulk Reynolds numbers (1,350, 4,100, 8,200) were conducted with void fractions less than 1.2%. In all three cases, there was a very high accumulation of bubbles near the wall with bubble slip at the wall. The mean velocity profile of the liquid phase was steeper near the wall owing to the driving force of buoyant bubbles, and the streamwise turbulent intensity in the vicinity of the wall was enhanced. Furthermore the mean velocity profiles of the liquid phase were flattened in the wide region around the channel center. This region was lifted up by the bubble sheet near the wall, giving it a plug-like flow structure. In addition, the turbulent fluctuation and Reynolds stress in the liquid phase are very much suppressed in this region. This strong preferential accumulation near the wall produces the dramatic change of the whole flow structure. (orig.)
Laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of turbulent bubbly channel flow
So, S.; Morikita, H.; Takagi, S.; Matsumoto, Y.
2002-05-01
Measurements of the turbulence properties of gas-liquid bubbly flows with mono-dispersed 1-mm-diameter bubbles are reported for upward flow in a rectangular channel. Bubble size and liquid-phase velocity were measured using image-processing and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively. A description is given of the special arrangements for two-dimensional LDV needed to obtain reliable bubbly flow data, in particular the configuration of the optical system, the distinction of signals from the bubbles and liquid phase. To create the mono-dispersed bubbles, a small amount of surfactant (3-pentanol of 20 ppm) was added to the flow. Whilst this caused a drastic change in bubble size distribution and flow field, it did not affect the turbulence properties of the single-phase flow. In this study, experiments with three different bulk Reynolds numbers (1,350, 4,100, 8,200) were conducted with void fractions less than 1.2%. In all three cases, there was a very high accumulation of bubbles near the wall with bubble slip at the wall. The mean velocity profile of the liquid phase was steeper near the wall owing to the driving force of buoyant bubbles, and the streamwise turbulent intensity in the vicinity of the wall was enhanced. Furthermore the mean velocity profiles of the liquid phase were flattened in the wide region around the channel center. This region was lifted up by the bubble sheet near the wall, giving it a plug-like flow structure. In addition, the turbulent fluctuation and Reynolds stress in the liquid phase are very much suppressed in this region. This strong preferential accumulation near the wall produces the dramatic change of the whole flow structure.
Homology of Lie algebra of supersymmetries and of super Poincare Lie algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Movshev, M.V. [Department of Mathematics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3651 (United States); Schwarz, A., E-mail: schwarz@math.ucdavis.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Xu, Renjun [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2012-01-11
We study the homology and cohomology groups of super Lie algebras of supersymmetries and of super Poincare Lie algebras in various dimensions. We give complete answers for (non-extended) supersymmetry in all dimensions {<=}11. For dimensions D=10,11 we describe also the cohomology of reduction of supersymmetry Lie algebra to lower dimensions. Our methods can be applied to extended supersymmetry Lie algebras.
The Early Years: Blowing Bubbles
Ashbrook, Peggy
2016-01-01
Blowing bubbles is not only a favorite summer activity for young children. Studying bubbles that are grouped together, or "foam," is fun for children and fascinating to many real-world scientists. Foam is widely used--from the bedroom (mattresses) to outer space (insulating panels on spacecraft). Bubble foam can provide children a…
Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies
Fry, John
2014-01-01
In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.
Supersymmetry without prejudice at the LHC
Conley, John A.; Gainer, James S.; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G.
2011-07-01
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC (sqrt{s}=14 TeV, 1 fb-1) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard transverse missing energy and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of ˜71k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 missing energy analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these 71k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then show that, requiring all sparticle masses to lie below 1(3) TeV, almost all (two-thirds) of the pMSSM model points are discovered with a significance S>5 in at least one of these 11 analyses assuming a 50% systematic error on the SM background. If this systematic error can be reduced to only 20% then this parameter space coverage is increased. These results are indicative that the ATLAS SUSY search strategy is robust under a broad class of Supersymmetric models. We then explore in detail the properties of the kinematically accessible model points which remain unobservable by these search analyses in order to ascertain problematic cases which may arise in general SUSY searches.
Supersymmetry Without Prejudice at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Conley, John A.; /Bonn U.; Gainer, James S.; /Argonne /Northwestern U.; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Le, My Phuong; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2011-08-19
The discovery and exploration of Supersymmetry in a model-independent fashion will be a daunting task due to the large number of soft-breaking parameters in the MSSM. In this paper, we explore the capability of the ATLAS detector at the LHC ({radical}s = 14 TeV, 1 fb{sup -1}) to find SUSY within the 19-dimensional pMSSM subspace of the MSSM using their standard transverse missing energy and long-lived particle searches that were essentially designed for mSUGRA. To this end, we employ a set of {approx} 71k previously generated model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space that satisfy all of the existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Employing ATLAS-generated SM backgrounds and following their approach in each of 11 missing energy analyses as closely as possible, we explore all of these 71k model points for a possible SUSY signal. To test our analysis procedure, we first verify that we faithfully reproduce the published ATLAS results for the signal distributions for their benchmark mSUGRA model points. We then show that, requiring all sparticle masses to lie below 1(3) TeV, almost all(two-thirds) of the pMSSM model points are discovered with a significance S > 5 in at least one of these 11 analyses assuming a 50% systematic error on the SM background. If this systematic error can be reduced to only 20% then this parameter space coverage is increased. These results are indicative that the ATLAS SUSY search strategy is robust under a broad class of Supersymmetric models. We then explore in detail the properties of the kinematically accessible model points which remain unobservable by these search analyses in order to ascertain problematic cases which may arise in general SUSY searches.
ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES: Searching for Supersymmetry at the LHC
2003-01-01
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 February 2003 ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Searching for Supersymmetry at the LHC by F. Gianotti, CERN-EP and G. Ridolfi, Univ. Di Genova, Italy We will review the general motivations for proposing non-standard descriptions of fundamental interactions. We will give a simple and pedagogical presentation of the theoretical foundations of Supersymmetry, and we will describe the main features of a realistic supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. We will present the phenomenology expected in several motivated scenarios. We will then review the present status of the experimental searches for Supersymmetry at LEP and Tevatron, and discuss prospects at future machines with emphasis on the LHC. We will outline the search strategies and the analysis methods, and compare the sensitivity and reach of the various machines.
Supersymmetry Breaking due to Moduli Stabilization in String Theory
Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A
2011-01-01
We consider the phenomenological consequences of fixing compactification moduli. In the simplest KKLT constructions, stabilization of internal dimensions is rather soft: weak scale masses for moduli are generated, and are of order m_\\sigma ~ m_{3/2}. As a consequence one obtains a pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses found in gravity and/or anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) models. These models may lead to destabilization of internal dimensions in the early universe, unless the Hubble constant during inflation is very small. Fortunately, strong stabilization of compactified dimensions can be achieved by a proper choice of the superpotential (e.g in the KL model with a racetrack superpotential). This allows for a solution of the cosmological moduli problem and for a successful implementation of inflation in supergravity. We show that strong moduli stabilization leads a very distinct pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses. In general, we find that soft scalar masses remain of order ...
Inverse Supersymmetry Breaking in S1 × R3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilis Oikonomou
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of hard supersymmetry breaking terms in a N = 1, d = 4 supersymmetric model, in S1 × R3 spacetime topology. It is shown that when the radius of the compact dimension is large supersymmetry is unbroken, and dynamically breaks as the radius decreases. We point out that this resembles the inverse symmetry breaking of continuous symmetries at finite temperature (however, in the case of supersymmetry, the role of the temperature is played by the compact dimension’s radius. Furthermore, we also find a universality in the dependence of the critical length Lc as a function of a coupling g3, after comparing all cases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turcan, Romeo V.
that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...
1965-01-01
The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.
Microfluidic "blinking" bubble pump
Yin, Zhizhong; Prosperetti, Andrea
2005-01-01
The paper reports data obtained on a simple micropump, suitable for electrolytes, based on the periodic growth and collapse of a single vapor bubble in a microchannel. With a channel diameter of the order of 100 µm, pumping rates of several tens of µl/min and pressure differences of several kPa are
Agresto, John
2011-01-01
The author expresses his doubt that the general higher education bubble will burst anytime soon. Although tuition, student housing, and book costs have all increased substantially, he believes it is still likely that the federal government will continue to pour billions into higher education, largely because Americans have been persuaded that it…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LAN XINZHEN
2010-01-01
@@ Amid concerns surrounding the presence of housing bubbles across China,the Chinese Government is taking action to secure and stabilize the real estate market.In the past month,the government launched a series of regulatory policies aimed at cooling the overheated market.
1972-01-01
Looking up into the interior of BEBC bubble chamber from the expansion cylinder. At the top of the chamber two fish-eye lenses are installed and three other fish-eye ports are blanked off. In the centre is a heat exchanger.
Scanning bubble chamber pictures
1974-01-01
These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.
Collider interplay for supersymmetry, Higgs and Dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Vries, K. de [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Lab., London (United Kingdom); Ellis, J. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Guha, S. [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); BITS Pilani, Goa (India); Marrouche, J. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Lab., London (United Kingdom); CERN, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, K.A.; Zheng, Jiaming [Univ. of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2015-10-15
We discuss the potential impacts on the CMSSM of future LHC runs and possible e{sup +}e{sup -} and higher-energy proton-proton colliders, considering searches for supersymmetry via E{sub T} events, precision electroweak physics, Higgs measurements and dark matter searches. We validate and present estimates of the physics reach for exclusion or discovery of supersymmetry via E{sub T} searches at the LHC, which should cover the low-mass regions of the CMSSM parameter space favoured in a recent global analysis. As we illustrate with a low-mass benchmark point, a discovery would make possible accurate LHC measurements of sparticle masses using the MT2 variable, which could be combined with cross-section and other measurements to constrain the gluino, squark and stop masses and hence the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m{sub 0}, m{sub 1/2} and A{sub 0} of the CMSSM. Slepton measurements at CLIC would enable m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2} to be determined with high precision. If supersymmetry is indeed discovered in the low-mass region, precision electroweak and Higgs measurements with a future circular e{sup +}e{sup -} collider (FCC-ee, also known as TLEP) combined with LHCmeasurements would provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level. If supersymmetry is not discovered at the LHC, it is likely to lie somewhere along a focus-point, stopcoannihilation strip or direct-channel A/H resonance funnel. We discuss the prospects for discovering supersymmetry along these strips at a future circular proton-proton collider such as FCC-hh. Illustrative benchmark points on these strips indicate that also in this case FCC-ee could provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level. (orig.)
Insights in hydrodynamics of bubbling fluidized beds at elevated pressure by DEM-CFD approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zahra Mansourpour; Sedighe Karimi; Reza Zarghami; Navid Mostoufi; Rahmat Sotudeh-Gharebagh
2010-01-01
A numerical simulation was conducted to study the effect of pressure on bubble dynamics in a gas-solid fluidized bed. The gas flow was modeled using the continuum theory and the solid phase, by the dis-crete element method (DEM). To validate the simulation results, calculated local pressure fluctuations were compared with corresponding experimental data of 1-mm polyethylene particles. It was shown that the model successfully predicts the hydrodynamic features of the fluidized bed as observed in the experiments. Influence of pressure on bubble rise characteristics such as bubble rise path, bubble sta-bility, average bubbles diameter and bubble velocity through the bed was investigated. The simulation results are in conformity with current hydrodynamic theories and concepts for fluidized beds at high pressures. The results show further that elevated pressure reduces bubble growth, velocity and stability and enhances bubble gyration through the bed, leading to change in bed flow structure.
In Situ Measurement of Local Hydrogen Production Rate by Bubble-Evolved Recording
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaowei Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen visibly bubbles during photocatalytic water splitting under illumination with above-bandgap radiation, which provides a direct measurement of local gas-evolving reaction rate. In this paper, optical microscopy of superfield depth was used for recording the hydrogen bubble growth on Cd0.5Zn0.5S photocatalyst in reaction liquid and illuminated with purple light. By analyzing change of hydrogen bubble size as a function of time, we understood that hydrogen bubble growth experienced two periods, which were inertia effect dominated period and diffusion effect dominated period, respectively. The tendency of hydrogen bubble growth was similar to that of the gas bubble in boiling, while the difference in bubble diameter and growth time magnitude was great. Meanwhile, we obtained the local hydrogen production rate on photocatalyst active site by measuring hydrogen bubble growth variation characteristics. This method makes it possible to confirm local actual hydrogen evolution rate quantitatively during photocatalytic water splitting.
Spatial-temporal dynamics of cavitation bubble clouds in 1.2 MHz focused ultrasound field.
Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaojing; Wan, Mingxi
2006-09-01
Cavitation bubbles have been recognized as being essential to many applications of ultrasound. Temporal evolution and spatial distribution of cavitation bubble clouds induced by a focused ultrasound transducer of 1.2 MHz center frequency are investigated by high-speed photography. It is revealed that at a total acoustic power of 72 W the cavitation bubble cloud first emerges in the focal region where cavitation bubbles are observed to generate, grow, merge and collapse during the initial 600 micros. The bubble cloud then grows upward to the post-focal region, and finally becomes visible in the pre-focal region. The structure of the final bubble cloud is characterized by regional distribution of cavitation bubbles in the ultrasound field. The cavitation bubble cloud structure remains stable when the acoustic power is increased from 25 W to 107 W, but it changes to a more violent form when the acoustic power is further increased to 175 W.
Characteristics of bubble plumes, bubble-plume bubbles and waves from wind-steepened wave breaking
Leifer, I.; Caulliez, G.; Leeuw, G. de
2007-01-01
Observations of breaking waves, associated bubble plumes and bubble-plume size distributions were used to explore the coupled evolution of wave-breaking, wave properties and bubble-plume characteristics. Experiments were made in a large, freshwater, wind-wave channel with mechanical wind-steepened w
Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column: draft
Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2009-01-01
The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob
Bubble dynamics and bubble-induced turbulence of a single-bubble chain
Lee, Joohyoung; Park, Hyungmin
2016-11-01
In the present study, the bubble dynamics and liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles injected from a single nozzle have been experimentally investigated. Using a high-speed two-phase particle image velociemtry, measurements on the bubbles and liquid-phase velocity field are conducted in a transparent tank filled with water, while varying the bubble release frequency from 0.1 to 35 Hz. The tested bubble size ranges between 2.0-3.2 mm, and the corresponding bubble Reynolds number is 590-1100, indicating that it belongs to the regime of path instability. As the release frequency increases, it is found that the global shape of bubble dispersion can be classified into two regimes: from asymmetric (regular) to axisymmetric (irregular). In particular, at higher frequency, the wake vortices of leading bubbles cause an irregular behaviour of the following bubble. For the liquid phase, it is found that a specific trend on the bubble-induced turbulence appears in a strong relation to the above bubble dynamics. Considering this, we try to provide a theoretical model to estimate the liquid-phase turbulence induced by a chain of bubbles. Supported by a Grant funded by Samsung Electronics, Korea.
Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles
Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de
2006-01-01
Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical
Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column
Bai, W.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2010-01-01
The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical prob
Bubbles generated from wind-steepened breaking waves: 1. Bubble plume bubbles
Leifer, I.; Leeuw, G. de
2006-01-01
Measurements of bubble plumes from paddle-amplified, wind stress breaking waves were made in a large wind-wave channel during the LUMINY experiment in fresh (but not clean) water. Bubble plumes exhibited considerable variability with respect to dynamics, bubble size distribution, and physical extent
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huayi Yu
2011-01-01
There is some disagreement in the published literature regarding the definition and the measurement of housing bubbles in China. Extending the analytical framework of Black et al. （2006）, the present paper measures the housing bubbles of China＇s 35 major cities from the second quarter of 1999 to the second quarter of 2010. The results indicate that the housing bubbles in China＇s 35 major cities were relatively small in the sample interval, but the bubbles in eastern metropolises, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hangzhou and Ningbo, have been relatively big since 2005. The changing tendency of housing bubbles in most cities highly corresponds with the changes in real estate policies. This paper decomposes the housing bubbles of the 35 cities, and finds a great proportion of irrational bubbles rather than rational intrinsic bubbles generated by price speculation. Based on empirical analysis, this paper proposes policy recommendations for preventing the generation and expansion of housing bubbles.
Supersymmetry breaking effects by analytic continuation into superspace
Rattazzi, Riccardo
1999-01-01
I consider theories where supersymmetry breaking is communicated by renormalizable interactions and generated by the vacuum expectation value of a chiral superfield X=M+ theta /sup 2/F. I show that soft terms for the observable fields can be obtained by continuing the renormalization group and the matching procedure into superspace. The superspectrum is just determined by anomalous dimensions and beta functions, with no need to further compute any Feynman diagrams. This method greatly simplifies calculations that are rather involved if performed in components. For illustration I reproduce known results for theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. I then use the method to obtain new results of phenomenological importance. (15 refs).
On rigid supersymmetry and notions of holomorphy in five dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yiwen [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Schmude, Johannes [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)
2015-11-06
We study the equations governing rigid N=1 supersymmetry in five dimensions. If the supersymmetry spinor satisfies a reality condition, these are foliations admitting families of almost complex structures on the leaves. In other words, all these manifolds have families of almost Cauchy-Riemann (CR) structures. After deriving integrability conditions under which circumstances the almost CR structure defines a CR manifold or a transversally holomorphic foliation (THF), we discuss implications on localization. We also discuss potential global obstructions to the existence of solutions.
Mass formulae for broken supersymmetry in curved space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, U.C.L.A, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Proeyen, Antoine van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium)
2016-11-15
We derive the mass formulae for N = 1, D = 4 matter-coupled Supergravity for broken (and unbroken) Supersymmetry in curved space-time. These formulae are applicable to De Sitter configurations as is the case for inflation. For unbroken Supersymmetry in anti-de Sitter (AdS) one gets the mass relations modified by the AdS curvature. We compute the mass relations both for the potential and its derivative non-vanishing. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
θ13 and the Higgs Mass from High Scale Supersymmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chun; ZHAO Zhen-Hua
2013-01-01
In the framework in which supersymmetry is used for understanding fermion masses rather than stabilizing the electroweak scale,we elaborate on the phenomenological analysis for the neutrino physics.A relatively large sin θ13(∽)0.13 is naturally obtained.The model further predicts vanishingly small CP violation in neutrino oscillations.While the high scale supersymmetry generically results in a Higgs mass of about 141 GeV,our model reduces this mass to 126 GeV via introducing SU(2)L triplet fields which make the electroweak vacuum metastable (with a safe lifetime) and also contribute to neutrino masses.
Supersymmetry Breaking by the Right-Handed Tau Neutrino
Halyo, Edi
2011-01-01
We describe supersymmetry breaking by the F-term of a heavy right-handed tau neutrino with a VEV. Due to the the tau neutrino Yukawa coupling, the neutralino, chargino and scalar mass matrices and the weak currents are modified. In addition, there are new cubic and quartic scalar and trilinear R parity violating interactions. For large $\\tan \\beta$ these effects may be quite large. The scenario requires low energy supersymmetry breaking with generic values of $F \\sim 10^{10}$~GeV.
Supersymmetry breaking in the Nambu - Jona-Lasinio approach
Peschanski, R; Peschanski, R; Savoy, C A
1995-01-01
Gaugino condensation in the hidden sector of supergravity models is described within a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type of approach by minimization of a one-loop scalar potential. The essential ingredients of the mechanism are auxiliary superfields whose v.e.v. generate gaugino condensation and supersymmetry breaking, introduced through Lagrange multipliers. For phenomenologically acceptable values of the gauge couplings, gaugino condensation is disfavoured in this approach. For completeness, it is shown that supersymmetry breaking would occur for a stronger coupling, but at a scale inconsistent with the expectations.
Holomorphic Bisectional Curvatures, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis
Dutta, Bhaskar
2012-01-01
Working in $D=4, N=1$ supergravity, we utilize relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures of Kahler manifolds to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. We show the following No-Go result: Affleck-Dine baryogenesis cannot be performed if the holomorphic sectional curvature at the origin is isotropic in tangent space; as a special case, this rules out spaces of constant holomorphic sectional curvature (defined in the above sense) and in particular maximally symmetric coset spaces. We also investigate scenarios where inflationary supersymmetry breaking is identified with the supersymmetry breaking responsible for mass splitting in the visible sector, using conditions of sequestering to constrain manifolds where inflation can be performed.
Spinon excitations in the spin-1 XXZ chain and hidden supersymmetry
Matsui, Chihiro
2016-01-01
We study spinon excitations of the integrable spin-1 (Fateev-Zamolodchikov; FZ) chain and their relation to the hidden supersymmetry. Using the notion of the supercharges earlier introduced to the spin chains, which change the system length by one, we found that they nontrivially act on one of two kinds of the degrees of freedom for the FZ chain. Their actions were obtained to be the same as those of the supercharges defined on the supersymmetric sine-Gordon model, the low-energy effective field theory of the FZ chain. Moreover, we construct the eigenstates which are invariant under the supersymmetric Hamiltonian given as the anti-commutator of the supercharges.
Bubble Dynamics and Shock Waves
2013-01-01
This volume of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library is concerned with the interplay between bubble dynamics and shock waves. It is divided into four parts containing twelve chapters written by eminent scientists. Topics discussed include shock wave emission by laser generated bubbles (W Lauterborn, A Vogel), pulsating bubbles near boundaries (DM Leppinen, QX Wang, JR Blake), interaction of shock waves with bubble clouds (CD Ohl, SW Ohl), shock propagation in polydispersed bubbly liquids by model equations (K Ando, T Colonius, CE Brennen. T Yano, T Kanagawa, M Watanabe, S Fujikawa) and by DNS (G Tryggvason, S Dabiri), shocks in cavitating flows (NA Adams, SJ Schmidt, CF Delale, GH Schnerr, S Pasinlioglu) together with applications involving encapsulated bubble dynamics in imaging (AA Doinikov, A Novell, JM Escoffre, A Bouakaz), shock wave lithotripsy (P Zhong), sterilization of ships’ ballast water (A Abe, H Mimura) and bubbly flow model of volcano eruptions ((VK Kedrinskii, K Takayama...
Leifer, Ira; Chernykh, Denis; Shakhova, Natalia; Semiletov, Igor
2017-06-01
Sonar surveys provide an effective mechanism for mapping seabed methane flux emissions, with Arctic submerged permafrost seepage having great potential to significantly affect climate. We created in situ engineered bubble plumes from 40 m depth with fluxes spanning 0.019 to 1.1 L s-1 to derive the in situ calibration curve (Q(σ)). These nonlinear curves related flux (Q) to sonar return (σ) for a multibeam echosounder (MBES) and a single-beam echosounder (SBES) for a range of depths. The analysis demonstrated significant multiple bubble acoustic scattering - precluding the use of a theoretical approach to derive Q(σ) from the product of the bubble σ(r) and the bubble size distribution where r is bubble radius. The bubble plume σ occurrence probability distribution function (Ψ(σ)) with respect to Q found Ψ(σ) for weak σ well described by a power law that likely correlated with small-bubble dispersion and was strongly depth dependent. Ψ(σ) for strong σ was largely depth independent, consistent with bubble plume behavior where large bubbles in a plume remain in a focused core. Ψ(σ) was bimodal for all but the weakest plumes. Q(σ) was applied to sonar observations of natural arctic Laptev Sea seepage after accounting for volumetric change with numerical bubble plume simulations. Simulations addressed different depths and gases between calibration and seep plumes. Total mass fluxes (Qm) were 5.56, 42.73, and 4.88 mmol s-1 for MBES data with good to reasonable agreement (4-37 %) between the SBES and MBES systems. The seepage flux occurrence probability distribution function (Ψ(Q)) was bimodal, with weak Ψ(Q) in each seep area well described by a power law, suggesting primarily minor bubble plumes. The seepage-mapped spatial patterns suggested subsurface geologic control attributing methane fluxes to the current state of subsea permafrost.
Partial coalescence from bubbles to drops
Zhang, F. H.
2015-10-07
The coalescence of drops is a fundamental process in the coarsening of emulsions. However, counter-intuitively, this coalescence process can produce a satellite, approximately half the size of the original drop, which is detrimental to the overall coarsening. This also occurs during the coalescence of bubbles, while the resulting satellite is much smaller, approximately 10 %. To understand this difference, we have conducted a set of coalescence experiments using xenon bubbles inside a pressure chamber, where we can continuously raise the pressure from 1 up to 85 atm and thereby vary the density ratio between the inner and outer fluid, from 0.005 up to unity. Using high-speed video imaging, we observe a continuous increase in satellite size as the inner density is varied from the bubble to emulsion-droplet conditions, with the most rapid changes occurring as the bubble density grows up to 15 % of that of the surrounding liquid. We propose a model that successfully relates the satellite size to the capillary wave mode responsible for its pinch-off and the overall deformations from the drainage. The wavelength of the primary wave changes during its travel to the apex, with the instantaneous speed adjusting to the local wavelength. By estimating the travel time of this wave mode on the bubble surface, we also show that the model is consistent with the experiments. This wavenumber is determined by both the global drainage as well as the interface shapes during the rapid coalescence in the neck connecting the two drops or bubbles. The rate of drainage is shown to scale with the density of the inner fluid. Empirically, we find that the pinch-off occurs when 60 % of the bubble fluid has drained from it. Numerical simulations using the volume-of-fluid method with dynamic adaptive grid refinement can reproduce these dynamics, as well as show the associated vortical structure and stirring of the coalescing fluid masses. Enhanced stirring is observed for cases with second
Gravitinos and hidden supersymmetry at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobrovskyi, Sergei
2012-08-15
We investigate phenomenological consequences of locally supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis, leptogenesis and dark matter constraints. An unequivocal prediction of local supersymmetry is the existence of the gravitino, the spin-3/2 superpartner of the graviton. Due to its extremely weak couplings, decays involving the gravitino in the initial or the final state may cause problems in the early universe. One class of models solving the gravitino problem makes the gravitino either the heaviest or the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), while predicting a higgsino-like neutralino as the LSP or the next-to-lightest superparticle (NLSP), respectively. In both cases the LHC phenomenology is determined by the higgsino states. The mass degeneracy between the charged and neutral states, together with very heavy colored states, prevent an early discovery at the LHC, especially if one demands a lightest Higgs mass compatible with the recent LHC signal excess. Another class of models, in which the gravitino is also a dark matter candidate, introduces a small violation of R-parity to render the cosmology consistent. In this case, the phenomenology at the LHC is determined by the R-parity violating decays of the NLSP which can be a bino-like or a higgsino-like neutralino or a stau. Using a novel approach to describing bilinear R-parity violation, we compute decay rates of the gravitino and the possible NLSP. Due to a connection between the gravitino and neutralino decay widths, we can predict the neutralino NLSP decay length at the LHC directly from the recent Fermi-LAT results for decaying dark matter searches. The decays of the NLSP in the detectors distort the missing transverse energy (MET) signature, which complicates the searches relying on it, while creating a new secondary vertex signature. We conclude that for gluino and squark masses accessible at the LHC, searches based on secondary vertices can probe values of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven P. Wrenn, Stephen M. Dicker, Eleanor F. Small, Nily R. Dan, Michał Mleczko, Georg Schmitz, Peter A. Lewin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses various interactions between ultrasound, phospholipid monolayer-coated gas bubbles, phospholipid bilayer vesicles, and cells. The paper begins with a review of microbubble physics models, developed to describe microbubble dynamic behavior in the presence of ultrasound, and follows this with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict inertial cavitation profiles. Predicted sensitivities of inertial cavitation to changes in the values of membrane properties, including surface tension, surface dilatational viscosity, and area expansion modulus, indicate that area expansion modulus exerts the greatest relative influence on inertial cavitation. Accordingly, the theoretical dependence of area expansion modulus on chemical composition - in particular, poly (ethylene glyclol (PEG - is reviewed, and predictions of inertial cavitation for different PEG molecular weights and compositions are compared with experiment. Noteworthy is the predicted dependence, or lack thereof, of inertial cavitation on PEG molecular weight and mole fraction. Specifically, inertial cavitation is predicted to be independent of PEG molecular weight and mole fraction in the so-called mushroom regime. In the “brush” regime, however, inertial cavitation is predicted to increase with PEG mole fraction but to decrease (to the inverse 3/5 power with PEG molecular weight. While excellent agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved, it is shown that the calculated inertial cavitation profiles depend strongly on the criterion used to predict inertial cavitation. This is followed by a discussion of nesting microbubbles inside the aqueous core of microcapsules and how this significantly increases the inertial cavitation threshold. Nesting thus offers a means for avoiding unwanted inertial cavitation and cell death during imaging and other applications such as sonoporation. A review of putative sonoporation mechanisms is then presented
Bubble colloidal AFM probes formed from ultrasonically generated bubbles.
Vakarelski, Ivan U; Lee, Judy; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz
2008-02-05
Here we introduce a simple and effective experimental approach to measuring the interaction forces between two small bubbles (approximately 80-140 microm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions on the scale of micrometers to nanometers. The colloidal probe technique using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles of various sizes. By using an ultrasonic source, we generated numerous small bubbles on a mildly hydrophobic surface of a glass slide. A single bubble picked up with a strongly hydrophobized V-shaped cantilever was used as the colloidal probe. Sample force measurements were used to evaluate the pure water bubble cleanliness and the general consistency of the measurements.
Intertwining operator method and supersymmetry for effective mass Schroedinger equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzko, A.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); JIPENP, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)], E-mail: suzko@cv.jinr.ru; Schulze-Halberg, A. [Mathematics Department, University of Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima 28045 (Mexico)], E-mail: xbat@ucol.mx
2008-09-08
By application of the intertwining operator method to Schroedinger equations with position-dependent (effective) mass, we construct Darboux transformations, establish the supersymmetry factorization technique and show equivalence of both formalisms. Our findings prove equivalence of the intertwining technique and the method of point transformations.
N=4 supersymmetry on a space-time lattice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catterall, Simon; Schaich, David; Damgaard, Poul H.
2014-01-01
Maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions can be formulated on a space-time lattice while exactly preserving a single supersymmetry. Here we explore in detail this lattice theory, paying particular attention to its strongly coupled regime. Targeting a theory with gauge group SU...
Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter ? Conference MT17
2001-01-01
The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the hierarchy problem. SUSY enlarges the space-time symmetry of physical laws, by connecting the realms of particles and fields. It predicts a variety of new species of particles at the energy scale around 1 TeV - waiting to be discovered at the LHC.
Supersymmetry status and phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Alexander Belyaev
2009-01-01
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has a great chance to finally reveal supersymmetry which remains a compelling theory for over 30 years in spite of lack of its discovery. It might be around the corner the present LHC era with sensitive dark matter search experiments and international linear collider hopefully coming up in the near future.
BPS black holes, supersymmetry and orbits of exceptional groups
Ferrara, Sergio
1999-01-01
We report on duality invariant constraints, which allow a classification of BPS black holes preserving different fractions of supersymmetry. We then relate this analysis to the orbits of the exceptional groups $E_{6(6)}, E_{7(7)}$, relevant for black holes in five and four dimensions.
On Action Invariance under Linear Spinor-Vector Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazunari Shima
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We show explicitly that a free Lagrangian expressed in terms of scalar, spinor, vector and Rarita-Schwinger (RS fields is invariant under linear supersymmetry transformations generated by a global spinor-vector parameter. A (generalized gauge invariance of the Lagrangian for the RS field is also discussed.
Tera Scale Remnants of Unification and Supersymmetry at Planck Scale
Kawamura, Yoshiharu
2013-01-01
We predict new particles at the Tera scale based on the assumptions that the standard model gauge interactions are unified around the gravitational scale with a big desert and new particles originate from hypermultiplets as remnants of supersymmetry, and propose a theoretical framework at the Tera scale and beyond, that has predictability.
Extremal projectors for contragredient Lie (super)symmetries (short review)
Tolstoy, V N
2010-01-01
A brief review of the extremal projectors for contragredient Lie (super)symmetries (finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras, basic classical Lie superalgebras, infinite-dimensional affine Kac-Moody algebras and superalgebras, as well as their quantum $q$-analogs) is given. Some bibliographic comments on the applications of extremal projectors are presented.
Supersymmetry and Branes in M-theory Plane-waves
Kim, N; Kim, Nakwoo; Yee, Jung-Tay
2003-01-01
We study brane embeddings in M-theory plane-waves and their supersymmetry. The relation with branes in AdS backgrounds via the Penrose limit is also explored. Longitudinal planar branes are originated from AdS branes while giant gravitons of AdS spaces become spherical branes which are realized as fuzzy spheres in the massive matrix theory.
Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000
2000-01-01
The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.
Unbroken supersymmetry in the Aharonov-Casher effect
Bruce, S A
1999-01-01
We consider the problem of the bound states of a spin 1/2 chargless particle in a given Aharonov-Casher configuration. To this end we recast the description of the system in a supersymmetric form. Then the basic physical requirements for unbroken supersymmetry are established. We comment on the possibility of neutron confinement in this system.
Spectrum of elementary particles in a model of hadron supersymmetry
Kiyanov-Charsky, S A
1995-01-01
We investigate a spectrum of the low-energy composite particles with the quantum numbers J^p=0^\\pm,\\frac {1}{2}^\\pm in a SU_{F}(3) model of hadron supersymmetry. We derive the mass spectrum of two, three and four-quark states and determine all free parameters of a theory, including the masses of quarks and diquarks.
Testing Times for Supersymmetry: Looking Under the Lamp Post
Dighe, Amol; Patel, Ketan M; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup
2013-01-01
We make a critical study of two highly-constrained models of supersymmetry --- the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (cMSSM), and the non-universal Higgs mass model (NUHM) --- in the light of the 125-126 GeV Higgs boson, the first observation of $B_s \\to \\mu\\mu$ at the LHCb, and the updated $B \\to \\tau \
Collider Interplay for Supersymmetry, Higgs and Dark Matter
Buchmueller, O; Ellis, J; Guha, S; Marrouche, J; Olive, K A; de Vries, K; Zheng, Jiaming
2015-01-01
We discuss the potential impacts on the CMSSM of future LHC runs and possible electron-positron and higher-energy proton-proton colliders, considering searches for supersymmetry via MET events, precision electroweak physics, Higgs measurements and dark matter searches. We validate and present estimates of the physics reach for exclusion or discovery of supersymmetry via MET searches at the LHC, which should cover the low-mass regions of the CMSSM parameter space favoured in a recent global analysis. As we illustrate with a low-mass benchmark point, a discovery would make possible accurate LHC measurements of sparticle masses using the MT2 variable, which could be combined with cross-section and other measurements to constrain the gluino, squark and stop masses and hence the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m_0, m_{1/2} and A_0 of the CMSSM. Slepton measurements at CLIC would enable m_0 and m_{1/2} to be determined with high precision. If supersymmetry is indeed discovered in the low-mass region, precisi...
Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics
Rados, Novica
Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2009-01-01
The Chinese stock and property markets have been outperforming expectations, fueled by an unprecedented surge in bank lending. Xie Guozhong, an economist and board member of Rosetta Stone Advisors, argues the robust Chinese economic figures are only propped up by bubbles, whose bursting will lead to a hard landing for the economy. Xie published his opinion in a related article in Caijing Magazine. Edited excerpts follow:
Kang, Shih-Tsung; Huang, Yi-Luan; Yeh, Chih-Kuang
2014-03-01
This study investigated the manipulation of bubbles generated by acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) under clinically relevant flow conditions. Optical microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound imaging were used to observe bubbles generated by 2-MHz ultrasound pulses at different time points after the onset of ADV. The dependence of the bubble population on droplet concentration, flow velocity, fluid viscosity and acoustic parameters, including acoustic pressure, pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. The results indicated that post-ADV bubble growth spontaneously driven by air permeation markedly affected the bubble population after insonation. The bubbles can grow to a stable equilibrium diameter as great as twice the original diameter in 0.5-1 s, as predicted by the theoretical calculation. The growth trend is independent of flow velocity, but dependent on fluid viscosity and droplet concentration, which directly influence the rate of gas uptake by bubbles and the rate of gas exchange across the wall of the semipermeable tube containing the bubbles and, hence, the gas content of the host medium. Varying the acoustic pressure does not markedly change the formation of bubbles as long as the ADV thresholds of most droplets are reached. Varying pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency markedly reduces the number of bubbles. Lengthening pulse duration favors the production of large bubbles, but reduces the total number of bubbles. Increasing the PRF interestingly provides superior performance in bubble disruption. These results also suggest that an ADV bubble population cannot be assessed simply on the basis of initial droplet size or enhancement of imaging contrast by the bubbles. Determining the optimal acoustic parameters requires careful consideration of their impact on the bubble population produced for different application scenarios.
Shrinking equatorial plasma bubbles
Narayanan, V. L.; Gurubaran, S.; Shiokawa, K.; Emperumal, K.
2016-07-01
The formation of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) associated with spread F irregularities are fairly common phenomenon in the postsunset equatorial ionosphere. These bubbles grow as a result of eastward polarization electric field resulting in upward E × B drift over the dip equator. As they grow they are also mapped to low latitudes along magnetic field lines. The EPBs are often observed as airglow depletions in the images of OI 630 nm emission. On occasions the growth of the features over the dip equator is observed as poleward extensions of the depletions in all-sky images obtained from low latitudes. Herein, we present interesting observations of decrease in the latitudinal extent of the EPBs corresponding to a reduction in their apex altitudes over the dip equator. Such observations indicate that these bubbles not only grow but also shrink on occasions. These are the first observations of shrinking EPBs. The observations discussed in this work are based on all-sky airglow imaging observations of OI 630.0 nm emission made from Panhala (11.1°N dip latitude). In addition, ionosonde observations made from dip equatorial site Tirunelveli (1.1°N dip latitude) are used to understand the phenomenon better. The analysis indicates that the speed of shrinking occurring in the topside is different from the bottomside vertical drifts. When the EPBs shrink, they might decay before sunrise hours.
Experimental Study on Rising Velocity of Different Nitrogen Bubbles in of Circular Pipe
Zhang, Hua; Liu, Yiping; Wang, Jing
2007-06-01
Nitrogen bubble rising velocity in bottom of circular pipe has been studied by virtual experiment with high-speed camera. The obtained images are processed systematically. Based on Cole's and Mendelson's empirical formula of bubble rising velocity, fitting formula of nitrogen bubble rising velocity in bottom of circular pipe has been acquired through analyzing nitrogen bubble rising velocity. The treatment results of experimental data show that the rising velocity is related with the diameter of bubbles. And rising velocity of slug bubble is relative to L/D and change law is found. Through this experiment, we research rising velocity's change law, which is the spade work to study propagation mechanism of nitrogen slug bubble in circular pipe.
Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries Modeling Studies of Particulate Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillip A. Gauglitz; Guillermo Terrones; Susan J. Muller; Morton M. Denn; William R. Rossen
2002-01-07
The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined.
Bulk gauge fields in warped space and localized supersymmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacko, Z.; Ponton, Eduardo
2003-11-01
We consider five dimensional supersymmetric warped scenarios in which the Standard Model quark and lepton fields are localized on the ultraviolet brane, while the Standard Model gauge fields propagate in the bulk. Supersymmetry is assumed to be broken on the infrared brane. The relative sizes of supersymmetry breaking effects are found to depend on the hierarchy between the infrared scale and the weak scale. If the infrared scale is much larger than the weak scale the leading supersymmetry breaking effect on the visible brane is given by gaugino mediation. The gaugino masses at the weak scale are proportional to the square of the corresponding gauge coupling, while the dominant contribution to the scalar masses arises from logarithmically enhanced radiative effects involving the gaugino mass that are cutoff at the infrared scale. While the LSP is the gravitino, the NLSP which is the stau is stable on collider time scales. If however the infrared scale is close to the weak scale then the effects of hard supersymmetry breaking operators on the scalar masses can become comparable to those from gaugino mediation. These operators alter the relative strengths of the couplings of gauge bosons and gauginos to matter, and give loop contributions to the scalar masses that are also cutoff at the infrared scale. The gaugino masses, while exhibiting a more complicated dependence on the corresponding gauge coupling, remain hierarchical and become proportional to the corresponding gauge coupling in the limit of strong supersymmetry breaking. The scalar masses are finite and a loop factor smaller than the gaugino masses. The LSP remains the gravitino.
Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng
2011-01-01
The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...
Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng
2011-01-01
The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...
Electrowetting of a soap bubble
Arscott, Steve
2013-01-01
A proof-of-concept demonstration of the electrowetting-on-dielectric of a sessile soap bubble is reported here. The bubbles are generated using a commercial soap bubble mixture - the surfaces are composed of highly doped, commercial silicon wafers covered with nanometre thick films of Teflon. Voltages less than 40V are sufficient to observe the modification of the bubble shape and the apparent bubble contact angle. Such observations open the way to inter alia the possibility of bubble-transport, as opposed to droplet-transport, in fluidic microsystems (e.g. laboratory-on-a-chip) - the potential gains in terms of volume, speed and surface/volume ratio are non-negligible.
Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux
Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves
2016-09-01
Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.
Droplets, Bubbles and Ultrasound Interactions.
Shpak, Oleksandr; Verweij, Martin; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel
2016-01-01
The interaction of droplets and bubbles with ultrasound has been studied extensively in the last 25 years. Microbubbles are broadly used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications, for instance, as ultrasound contrast agents. They have a similar size as red blood cells, and thus are able to circulate within blood vessels. Perfluorocarbon liquid droplets can be a potential new generation of microbubble agents as ultrasound can trigger their conversion into gas bubbles. Prior to activation, they are at least five times smaller in diameter than the resulting bubbles. Together with the violent nature of the phase-transition, the droplets can be used for local drug delivery, embolotherapy, HIFU enhancement and tumor imaging. Here we explain the basics of bubble dynamics, described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, bubble resonance frequency, damping and quality factor. We show the elegant calculation of the above characteristics for the case of small amplitude oscillations by linearizing the equations. The effect and importance of a bubble coating and effective surface tension are also discussed. We give the main characteristics of the power spectrum of bubble oscillations. Preceding bubble dynamics, ultrasound propagation is introduced. We explain the speed of sound, nonlinearity and attenuation terms. We examine bubble ultrasound scattering and how it depends on the wave-shape of the incident wave. Finally, we introduce droplet interaction with ultrasound. We elucidate the ultrasound-focusing concept within a droplets sphere, droplet shaking due to media compressibility and droplet phase-conversion dynamics.
Bubble Size Distribution in a Vibrating Bubble Column
Mohagheghian, Shahrouz; Wilson, Trevor; Valenzuela, Bret; Hinds, Tyler; Moseni, Kevin; Elbing, Brian
2016-11-01
While vibrating bubble columns have increased the mass transfer between phases, a universal scaling law remains elusive. Attempts to predict mass transfer rates in large industrial scale applications by extrapolating laboratory scale models have failed. In a stationary bubble column, mass transfer is a function of phase interfacial area (PIA), while PIA is determined based on the bubble size distribution (BSD). On the other hand, BSD is influenced by the injection characteristics and liquid phase dynamics and properties. Vibration modifies the BSD by impacting the gas and gas-liquid dynamics. This work uses a vibrating cylindrical bubble column to investigate the effect of gas injection and vibration characteristics on the BSD. The bubble column has a 10 cm diameter and was filled with water to a depth of 90 cm above the tip of the orifice tube injector. BSD was measured using high-speed imaging to determine the projected area of individual bubbles, which the nominal bubble diameter was then calculated assuming spherical bubbles. The BSD dependence on the distance from the injector, injector design (1.6 and 0.8 mm ID), air flow rates (0.5 to 5 lit/min), and vibration conditions (stationary and vibration conditions varying amplitude and frequency) will be presented. In addition to mean data, higher order statistics will also be provided.
Dynamic Bubble Behaviour during Microscale Subcooled Boiling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hao; PENG Xiao-Feng; David M.Christopher
2005-01-01
@@ Bubble cycles, including initiation, growth and departure, are the physical basis of nucleate boiling. The presentinvestigation, however, reveals unusual bubble motions during subcooled nucleate boiling on microwires 25 orl00μm in diameter. Two types of bubble motions, bubble sweeping and bubble return, are observed in theexperiments. Bubble sweeping describes a bubble moving back and forth along the wire, which is motion parallelto the wire. Bubble return is the bubble moving back to the wire after it has detached or leaping above thewire. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the driving mechanisms forboth bubble sweeping and return. Marangoni flow from warm to cool regions along the bubble interface is foundto produce the shear stresses needed to drive these unusual bubble movements.
BUBBLE CHARACTERISTICS IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERTICALLY VIBRO-FLUIDIZED BED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Zhou; Hiroyuki Kage; Hongzhong Li
2005-01-01
Measurement of bubble size and local average bubble rise velocity was carried out in a vertically sinusoidal vibro-fluidized bed. Glass beads of Geldart group B particles were fluidized at different gas velocities, while the bed was vibrated at different frequencies and amplitudes to study their effects on the bubble behavior. This is compared with the case of no vibration in a two-dimensional bed and it is concluded that with vibration the local average bubble size,dbav, decreases significantly, especially at minimum bubbling velocity. The average bubble size increases slightly with increasing vibration frequency and amplitude. The local average bubble rise velocity is higher than that with no vibration,though with increasing vibration frequency and amplitude, it does not change significantly.
Dewitt, K. J.; Brockwell, J. L.
1985-01-01
The long term objective of the experiment is to observe the dissolution of isolated, immobile gas bubbles of specified size and composition in a solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Preliminary bubble dissolution experiment conducted both in the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec drop tower and in normal gravity using SO2 - Toluene system were not completely successful in their objective. The method of gas injection and lack of bubble interface stabiliy experienced due to the extreme solubility of SO in Toluene has the effects of changing the problem from that of bubble dissolution to one of bubble formation stability and subsequent dissolution in a liquid of unknown initial solute concentration. Current work involves further experimentation in order to refine the bubble injection system and to investigate the concept of having a bubble with a critical radius in a state of unstable equilibrium.
Vortex Simulation of the Bubbly Flow around a Hydrofoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomomi Uchiyama
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the two-dimensional simulation for an air-water bubbly flow around a hydrofoil. The vortex method, proposed by the authors for gas-liquid two-phase free turbulent flow in a prior paper, is applied for the simulation. The liquid vorticity field is discrerized by vortex elements, and the behavior of vortex element and the bubble motion are simultaneously computed by the Lagrangian approach. The effect of bubble motion on the liquid flow is taken into account through the change in the strength of vortex element. The bubbly flow around a hydrofoil of NACA4412 with a chord length 100 mm is simulated. The Reynolds number is 2.5×105, the bubble diameter is 1 mm, and the volumetric flow ratio of bubble to whole fluid is 0.048. It is confirmed that the simulated distributions of air volume fraction and pressure agree well with the trend of the measurement and that the effect of angle of attack on the flow is favorably analyzed. These demonstrate that the vortex method is applicable to the bubbly flow analysis around a hydrofoil.
Hwang, P. A.; Savelyev, I. B.; Anguelova, M. D.
2016-05-01
Simultaneous measurements of sea spray aerosol (SSA), wind, wave, and microwave brightness temperature are obtained in the open ocean on-board Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP). These data are analysed to clarify the ocean surface processes important to SSA production. Parameters are formulated to represent surface processes with characteristic length scales spanning a broad range. The investigation reveals distinct differences of the SSA properties in rising winds and falling winds, with higher SSA volume in falling winds. Also, in closely related measurements of whitecap coverage, higher whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed is found in falling winds than in rising winds or in older seas than in younger seas. Similar trend is found in the short scale roughness reflected in the microwave brightness temperature data. In the research of length and velocity scales of breaking waves, it has been observed that the length scale of wave breaking is shorter in mixed seas than in wind seas. For example, source function analysis of short surface waves shows that the characteristic length scale of the dissipation function shifts toward higher wavenumber (shorter wavelength) in mixed seas than in wind seas. Similarly, results from feature tracking or Doppler analysis of microwave radar sea spikes, which are closely associated with breaking waves, show that the magnitude of the average breaking wave velocity is smaller in mixed seas than in wind seas. Furthermore, breaking waves are observed to possess geometric similarity. Applying the results of breaking wave analyses to the SSA and whitecap observations described above, it is suggestive that larger air cavities resulting from the longer breakers are entrained in rising high winds. The larger air cavities escape rapidly due to buoyancy before they can be fully broken down into small bubbles for the subsequent SSA production or whitecap manifestation. In contrast, in falling winds (with mixed seas more likely), the
Vanhille, Christian
2017-01-17
This work deals with a theoretical analysis about the possibility of using linear and nonlinear acoustic properties to modify ultrasound by adding gas bubbles of determined sizes in a liquid. We use a two-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the effect that one and several monodisperse bubble populations confined in restricted areas of a liquid have on ultrasound by calculating their nonlinear interaction. The filtering of an input ultrasonic pulse performed by a net of bubbly-liquid cells is analyzed. The generation of a low-frequency component from a single cell impinged by a two-frequency harmonic wave is also studied. These effects rely on the particular dispersive character of attenuation and nonlinearity of such bubbly fluids, which can be extremely high near bubble resonance. They allow us to observe how gas bubbles can change acoustic signals. Variations of the bubbly medium parameters induce alterations of the effects undergone by ultrasound. Results suggest that acoustic signals can be manipulated by bubbles. This capacity to achieve the modification and control of sound with oscillating gas bubbles introduces the concept of bubbly-liquid-based acoustic metamaterials (BLAMMs).
Supersymmetry Searches in GUT Models with Non-Universal Scalar Masses
Cannoni, M; Gómez, M E; Lola, S; Ruiz de Austri, R
2016-01-01
We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predict the possibility of $\\tilde{t}_1-\\chi$ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing $E_T$...
The Supersymmetry Soft-breaking Lagrangian Where Experiment and String Theory Meet
Kane, G L
2000-01-01
After an introduction recalling that we expect low energy supersymmetry to be part of our description of nature because of considerable indirect evidence and successful predictions, and a discussion of the essential role of data for formulating and testing string theory, these lectures focus on the role of the supersymmetry soft-breaking Lagrangian in connecting experiment and string theory. How to measure tan$\\beta$ and the soft parameters is examined via a number of applications, and the difficulty of measuring tan$\\beta$ at hadron colliders is explained. In each case the important role of soft phases is made explicit, and the true number of parameters is counted. Applications include the chargino and neutralino sectors, the Higgs sector and how its results change when phases are included, measuring the (relative) gluino phase, CP violation in K and B systems and whether all CP violation can be due to soft phases, how to learn if the LSP is the cold dark matter of the universe, and baryogenesis. It is empha...
Supersymmetry searches in GUT models with non-universal scalar masses
Cannoni, M.; Ellis, J.; Gómez, M. E.; Lola, S.; Ruiz de Austri, R.
2016-03-01
We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predicts the possibility of ~t1-χ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing ET, charginos and stops will be able to constrain the different GUT models in complementary ways, as will the Xenon 1 ton and Darwin dark matter scattering experiments and future FERMI or CTA γ-ray searches.
Air–water flow in a vertical pipe: experimental study of air bubbles in the vicinity of the wall
Descamps, M.N.; Oliemans, R.V.A.; Ooms, G.; Mudde, R.F.
2008-01-01
This study deals with the influence of bubbles on a vertical air–water pipe flow, for gas-lift applications. The effect of changing the bubble size is of particular interest as it has been shown to affect the pressure drop over the pipe. Local measurements on the bubbles characteristics in the wall
Explosive micro-bubble actuator
Broek, van den D.M.; Elwenspoek, M.
2008-01-01
Explosive evaporation occurs when a liquid is exposed to extremely high heat-fluxes. Within a few microseconds a bubble in the form vapour film is generated, followed by rapid growth due to the pressure impulse and finally the bubbles collapse. This effect, which already has proven its use in curren
Tuning bubbly structures in microchannels.
Vuong, Sharon M; Anna, Shelley L
2012-06-01
Foams have many useful applications that arise from the structure and size distribution of the bubbles within them. Microfluidics allows for the rapid formation of uniform bubbles, where bubble size and volume fraction are functions of the input gas pressure, liquid flow rate, and device geometry. After formation, the microchannel confines the bubbles and determines the resulting foam structure. Bubbly structures can vary from a single row ("dripping"), to multiple rows ("alternating"), to densely packed bubbles ("bamboo" and dry foams). We show that each configuration arises in a distinct region of the operating space defined by bubble volume and volume fraction. We describe the boundaries between these regions using geometric arguments and show that the boundaries are functions of the channel aspect ratio. We compare these geometric arguments with foam structures observed in experiments using flow-focusing, T-junction, and co-flow designs to generate stable nitrogen bubbles in aqueous surfactant solution and stable droplets in oil containing dissolved surfactant. The outcome of this work is a set of design parameters that can be used to achieve desired foam structures as a function of device geometry and experimental control parameters.
Bubble chamber: colour enhanced tracks
1998-01-01
This artistically-enhanced image of real particle tracks was produced in the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). Liquid hydrogen is used to create bubbles along the paths of the particles as a piston expands the medium. A magnetic field is produced in the detector causing the particles to travel in spirals, allowing charge and momentum to be measured.
Bubble coalescence in breathing DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novotný, Tomas; Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Ambjörnsson, Tobias;
2007-01-01
We investigate the coalescence of two DNA bubbles initially located at weak segments and separated by a more stable barrier region in a designed construct of double-stranded DNA. The characteristic time for bubble coalescence and the corresponding distribution are derived, as well as the distribu...
Observations of the collapses and rebounds of millimeter-sized lithotripsy bubbles.
Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A
2011-11-01
Bubbles excited by lithotripter shock waves undergo a prolonged growth followed by an inertial collapse and rebounds. In addition to the relevance for clinical lithotripsy treatments, such bubbles can be used to study the mechanics of inertial collapses. In particular, both phase change and diffusion among vapor and noncondensable gas molecules inside the bubble are known to alter the collapse dynamics of individual bubbles. Accordingly, the role of heat and mass transport during inertial collapses is explored by experimentally observing the collapses and rebounds of lithotripsy bubbles for water temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 °C and dissolved gas concentrations from 10 to 85% of saturation. Bubble responses were characterized through high-speed photography and acoustic measurements that identified the timing of individual bubble collapses. Maximum bubble diameters before and after collapse were estimated and the corresponding ratio of volumes was used to estimate the fraction of energy retained by the bubble through collapse. The rebounds demonstrated statistically significant dependencies on both dissolved gas concentration and temperature. In many observations, liquid jets indicating asymmetric bubble collapses were visible. Bubble rebounds were sensitive to these asymmetries primarily for water conditions corresponding to the most dissipative collapses.
Single deformable bubble interaction with turbulence in uniform and shear flows
Feng, Jinyong; Bolotnov, Igor
2014-11-01
Combined direct numerical simulation (DNS) and interface tracking method (ITM) approach is utilized to study the effect of bubble deformability on the bubble-induced turbulence. Set of simulations is performed with 5mm diameter bubble in laminar and turbulent flows. Uniform shear and constant mean velocity profiles are used to perform evaluation of bubble-induced turbulence in various cases. The simulation capabilities allow estimating the turbulent kinetic energy before and after the bubble thus providing the information about bubble's influence on the liquid turbulence. The effect of bubble deformability is studied by separately changing the surface tension parameter. The bubble is controlled in one location of the domain using external forces. The force evolution is managed by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The steady-state values of the lateral and stream-wise forces result in the lift and drag force estimates on the bubble. DNS approach allows for comprehensive, well-defined studies of bubble-induced turbulence and interfacial forces by separately varying bubble's deformability, relative velocity, level of turbulence and local shear. This work presents new opportunities for the development of multiphase computational fluid dynamics closure laws. The presented work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1333993.
Triangular bubble spline surfaces.
Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert
2011-11-01
We present a new method for generating a [Formula: see text]-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple [Formula: see text]-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with [Formula: see text]-continuity. For [Formula: see text], we describe the obtained [Formula: see text]-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any [Formula: see text]. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon-Coons interpolation for triangles.Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness.
Extracting Supersymmetry-Breaking Effects from Wave-Function Renormalization
Giudice, Gian Francesco
1998-01-01
We show that in theories in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated by renormalizable perturbative interactions, it is possible to extract the soft terms for the observable fields from wave-function renormalization. Therefore all the information about soft terms can be obtained from anomalous dimensions and beta functions, with no need to further compute any Feynman diagram. This method greatly simplifies calculations which are rather involved if performed in terms of component fields. For illustrative purposes we reproduce known results of theories with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We then use our method to obtain new results of phenomenological importance. We calculate the next-to-leading correction to the Higgs mass parameters, the two-loop soft terms induced by messenger-matter superpotential couplings, and the soft terms generated by messengers belonging to vector supermultiplets.
A Gravity Dual of Metastable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
DeWolfe, Oliver; Mulligan, Michael
2008-01-01
Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to anti-D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M) x SU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.
Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe
Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander
2017-07-01
Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 1 023 g . We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.
Emergent gauge theories and supersymmetry: a QED primer
Chkareuli, J L
2013-01-01
It is well known that spontaneous Lorentz invariance violation (SLIV) in general vector field theories may lead to an appearance of massless Nambu-Goldstone modes which are identified with photons and other gauge fields in the Standard Model. Nonetheless, it may turn out that SLIV is not the only reason for emergent massless photons to appear if spacetime symmetry is further enlarged. In this connection, a special link may be related to supersymmetry that we try to illustrate in this note by the supersymmetric QED example. We argue that a generic source for massless photons could be spontaneously broken supersymmetry rather than physically manifested SLIV. We consider supersymmetric QED model extended by an arbitrary polynomial potential of massive vector superfield that induces the spontaneous SUSY violation in the visible sector. As a consequence, massless photon emerges as a companion of massless photino which is in fact the Goldstone fermion state in the tree approximation. However, being mixed with anoth...
A New Venue of Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking in Supergravity
Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana; Vasihoun, Mahary
2015-01-01
We present a qualitatively new mechanism for dynamical spontaneous breakdown of supersymmetry in supergravity. Specifically, we construct a modified formulation of standard minimal N=1 supergravity as well as of anti-de Sitter supergravity in terms of a non-Riemannian spacetime volume-form (generally covariant integration measure density). The new supergravity formalism naturally triggers the appearance of a dynamically generated cosmological constant as an arbitrary integration constant which signifies spontaneous (dynamical) breaking of supersymmetry. Applying the new formalism to anti-de Sitter supergravity allows us to appropriately choose the above mentioned arbitrary integration constant so as to obtain simultaneously a very small effective observable cosmological constant as well as a large physical gravitino mass as required by modern cosmological scenarios for slowly expanding universe of the present epoch.
Note on moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking and axiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higaki, Tetsutaro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2011-06-15
We study properties of moduli stabilization in the four dimensional N=1 supergravity theory with heavy moduli and would-be saxion-axion multiplets including light string-theoretic axions. We give general formulation for the scenario that heavy moduli and saxions are stabilized while axions remain light, assuming that moduli are stabilized near the supersymmetric solution. One can find stable vacuum, i.e. nontachyonic saxions, in the non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua. We also discuss the cases, where the moduli are coupled to the supersymmetry breaking sector and/or moduli have contributions to supersymmetry breaking. Furthermore we study the models with axions originating from matter-like fields. Our analysis on moduli stabilization is applicable even if there are not light axion multiplets. (orig.)
A Model of Direct Gauge Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murayama, H. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
1997-07-01
We present the first phenomenologically viable model of gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking without a messenger sector or gauge singlet fields. The standard model gauge groups couple directly to the sector which breaks supersymmetry dynamically. Despite the direct coupling, it can preserve perturbative gauge unification thanks to the inverted hierarchy mechanism. There is no dangerous negative contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} , m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} due to two-loop renormalization group equation. The potentially nonuniversal supergravity contribution to m{sup 2}{sub {tilde q}} and m{sup 2}{sub {tilde l}} can be suppressed enough. The model is completely chiral, and one does not need to forbid mass terms for the messenger fields by hand. Cosmology of the model is briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models
Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.
2013-09-01
The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98fb-1. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.
Naturalizing supersymmetry with a two-field relaxion mechanism
Evans, Jason L.; Gherghetta, Tony; Nagata, Natsumi; Thomas, Zachary
2016-09-01
We present a supersymmetric version of a two-field relaxion model that naturalizes tuned versions of supersymmetry. This arises from a relaxion mechanism that does not depend on QCD dynamics and where the relaxion potential barrier height is controlled by a second axion-like field. During the cosmological evolution, the relaxion rolls with a nonzero value that breaks supersymmetry and scans the soft supersymmetric mass terms. Electroweak symmetry is broken after the soft masses become of order the supersymmetric Higgs mass term and causes the relaxion to stop rolling for superpartner masses up to ˜ 109 GeV. This can explain the tuning in supersymmetric models, including split-SUSY models, while preserving the QCD axion solution to the strong CP problem. Besides predicting two very weakly-coupled axion-like particles, the supersymmetric spectrum may contain an extra Goldstino, which could be a viable dark matter candidate.
Supersymmetry reviewed from the past to the future
Louis, J
2003-01-01
The DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, hosted the 10th International Conference on Supersymmetry and Unification of Fundamental Interactions (SUSY02) in June 2002, providing a forum for discussing the present status and future developments of supersymmetry (SUSY). In the week-long meeting organized by Pran Nath of Northeastern University, US, and Peter Zerwas of DESY - theoretical ideas, analyses of experimental data, the expectations for physics at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the proposed tera-electronvolt range electron-positron linear colliders were on the agenda. A lively and exciting atmosphere prevailed, with established practitioners exchanging standard and not-so-standard views on the evolution of particle physics with enthusiastic youngsters. The excitement had its roots in the fascinating prospect of addressing fundamental problems of physics in the new generation of accelerators, and in the well-founded hope of hearing about long- awaited breakthroughs that would answer many of the out...
Black holes in an expanding universe and supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dietmar Klemm
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the supersymmetric solutions to five and six-dimensional minimal (ungauged supergravities for which the bilinear Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is null. We focus on the spacetimes which admit an additional SO(1,1 boost symmetry. Upon the toroidal dimensional reduction along the Killing vector corresponding to the boost, we show that the solution in the ungauged case describes a charged, nonextremal black hole in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW universe with an expansion driven by a massless scalar field. For the gauged case, the solution corresponds to a charged, nonextremal black hole embedded conformally into a Kantowski–Sachs universe. It turns out that these dimensional reductions break supersymmetry since the bilinear Killing vector and the Killing vector corresponding to the boost fail to commute. This represents a new mechanism of supersymmetry breaking that has not been considered in the literature before.
Searches for R-parity-violating supersymmetry at colliders
Sirois, Y
2000-01-01
The search for R-parity-violating supersymmetry at existing colliders is reviewed with emphasis on the sensitivity to the new Yukawa couplings lambda , lambda ' (inducing lepton-number-violating interactions) and lambda " (inducing baryon-number-violating interactions). One dramatic consequence of the existence any such nonvanishing coupling is the instability of supersymmetric matter. The extent to which this affects the sensitivity to other free parameters of minimal supersymmetric models has been extensively studied at LEP and is briefly reviewed. Given that supersymmetric matter has not been observed yet, and since its existence still cannot be ruled out, we concentrate here on the important question of a possible "discovery" of supersymmetry (if it exists) through the R- parity-violating couplings. The case of resonant production of sleptons via lambda ' and squarks via lambda " at the Tevatron, as well as the case of resonant production of sneutrinos at LEP involving lambda , is briefly discussed. A par...
A Gravity Dual of Metastable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeWolfe, Oliver; /Colorado U.; Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2008-02-04
Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M) x SU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.
Primordial Black Holes from Supersymmetry in the Early Universe.
Cotner, Eric; Kusenko, Alexander
2017-07-21
Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model generically predict that in the early Universe a scalar condensate can form and fragment into Q balls before decaying. If the Q balls dominate the energy density for some period of time, the relatively large fluctuations in their number density can lead to formation of primordial black holes (PBH). Other scalar fields, unrelated to supersymmetry, can play a similar role. For a general charged scalar field, this robust mechanism can generate black holes over the entire mass range allowed by observational constraints, with a sufficient abundance to account for all dark matter in some parameter ranges. In the case of supersymmetry the mass range is limited from above by 10^{23} g. We also comment on the role that topological defects can play for PBH formation in a similar fashion.
Optical Conductivity of Topological Surface States with Emergent Supersymmetry
Witczak-Krempa, William; Maciejko, Joseph
2016-03-01
Topological states of electrons present new avenues to explore the rich phenomenology of correlated quantum matter. Topological insulators (TIs) in particular offer an experimental setting to study novel quantum critical points (QCPs) of massless Dirac fermions, which exist on the sample's surface. Here, we obtain exact results for the zero- and finite-temperature optical conductivity at the semimetal-superconductor QCP for these topological surface states. This strongly interacting QCP is described by a scale invariant theory with emergent supersymmetry, which is a unique symmetry mixing bosons and fermions. We show that supersymmetry implies exact relations between the optical conductivity and two otherwise unrelated properties: the shear viscosity and the entanglement entropy. We discuss experimental considerations for the observation of these signatures in TIs.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroyuki Abe
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang–Mills (SYM theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU(NC SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard
2013-01-01
The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.
Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds
Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George
2017-01-01
Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.
The early universe with high-scale supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)
2015-08-15
A small tensor-to-scalar ratio r may lead to distinctive phenomenology of high-scale supersymmetry. Assuming the same origin of SUSY breaking between the inflation and visible sector, we show model independent features. The simplest hybrid inflation, together with a new linear term for the inflaton field which is induced by a large gravitino mass, is shown to be consistent with all experimental data for r of order 10{sup -5}. For superpartner masses far above the weak scale we find that the reheating temperature after inflation might be below the value required by thermal leptogenesis if the inflaton decays to its products perturbatively, but above it if the decay is non-perturbatively instead. Remarkably, the gravitino overproduction can be evaded in such high-scale supersymmetry because of the kinematically blocking effect. (orig.)
Dynamical supersymmetry of the spin particle-magnetic field interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngome, J-P; Horvathy, P A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et de Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, CNRS Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Van Holten, J W, E-mail: juste.ngome@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.f, E-mail: t32@nikhef.n [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-07-16
We study the dynamical and supersymmetries of a fermion in a D = d = 3-dimensional monopole background. The Hamiltonian also involves an additional spin-orbit coupling term, which is parameterized by the gyromagnetic ratio. We construct the superinvariants associated with the system using a SUSY extension of a previously proposed algorithm, based on Grassmann-valued Killing tensors. Conserved quantities arise for certain definite values of the gyromagnetic factor: N=1 SUSY requires g = 2; a Kepler-type dynamical symmetry only arises, however, for the anomalous values g = 0 and g = 4. The two anomalous systems can be unified into an N=2 SUSY system built by doubling the number of Grassmann variables. For D = d = 2, the planar system also exhibits an N=2 supersymmetry without Grassmann variable doubling.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sumita, Keigo
2016-10-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of SU (NC) SYM theory with NF flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on magnetized tori and orbifolds
Abe, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Keigo
2016-01-01
We construct several dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) models within a single ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory, compactified on magnetized tori with or without orbifolding. We study the case that the supersymmetry breaking is triggered by a strong dynamics of $SU(N_C)$ SYM theory with $N_F$ flavors contained in the four-dimensional effective theory. We show several configurations of magnetic fluxes and orbifolds, those potentially yield, below the compactification scale, the field contents and couplings required for triggering DSB. We especially find a class of self-complete DSB models on orbifolds, where all the extra fields are eliminated by the orbifold projection and DSB successfully occurs within the given framework. Comments on some perspectives for associating the obtained DSB models with the other sectors, such as the visible sector and another hidden sector for, e.g., stabilizing moduli, are also given.
A criterion for lattice supersymmetry: cyclic Leibniz rule
Kato, Mitsuhiro; So, Hiroto
2013-01-01
It is old folklore that the violation of Leibniz rule on a lattice is an obstruction for constructing a lattice supersymmetric model. While it is still true for full supersymmetry, we show that a slightly modified form of the Leibniz rule, which we call cyclic Leibniz rule (CLR), is actually a criterion for the existence of partial lattice supersymmetry. In one dimension, we find sets of lattice difference operator and field multiplication smeared over lattice which satisfy the CLR under some natural assumptions such as translational invariance and locality. Thereby we construct a model of supersymmetric lattice quantum mechanics without spoiling locality. The CLR relation is coincident with the condition that the vanishing of the so-called surface term in the construction by lattice Nicolai map. We can construct superfield formalism with arbitrary superpotential. This also enables us to apply safely a localization technique to our model, because the kinetic term and the interaction terms of our model are ind...
Naturalizing Supersymmetry with a Two-Field Relaxion Mechanism
Evans, Jason L; Nagata, Natsumi; Thomas, Zachary
2016-01-01
We present a supersymmetric version of a two-field relaxion model that naturalizes tuned versions of supersymmetry. This arises from a relaxion mechanism that does not depend on QCD dynamics and where the relaxion potential barrier height is controlled by a second axion-like field. During the cosmological evolution, the relaxion rolls with a nonzero value that breaks supersymmetry and scans the soft supersymmetric mass terms. Electroweak symmetry is broken after the soft masses become of order the supersymmetric Higgs mass term and causes the relaxion to stop rolling for superpartner masses up to $\\sim 10^9$ GeV. This can explain the tuning in supersymmetric models, including split-SUSY models, while preserving the QCD axion solution to the strong CP problem. Besides predicting two very weakly-coupled axion-like particles, the supersymmetric spectrum may contain an extra Goldstino, which could be a viable dark matter candidate.
Rigorous buoyancy driven bubble mixing for centrifugal microfluidics.
Burger, S; Schulz, M; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N
2016-01-21
We present batch-mode mixing for centrifugal microfluidics operated at fixed rotational frequency. Gas is generated by the disk integrated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to liquid water (H2O) and gaseous oxygen (O2) and inserted into a mixing chamber. There, bubbles are formed that ascent through the liquid in the artificial gravity field and lead to drag flow. Additionaly, strong buoyancy causes deformation and rupture of the gas bubbles and induces strong mixing flows in the liquids. Buoyancy driven bubble mixing is quantitatively compared to shake mode mixing, mixing by reciprocation and vortex mixing. To determine mixing efficiencies in a meaningful way, the different mixers are employed for mixing of a lysis reagent and human whole blood. Subsequently, DNA is extracted from the lysate and the amount of DNA recovered is taken as a measure for mixing efficiency. Relative to standard vortex mixing, DNA extraction based on buoyancy driven bubble mixing resulted in yields of 92 ± 8% (100 s mixing time) and 100 ± 8% (600 s) at 130g centrifugal acceleration. Shake mode mixing yields 96 ± 11% and is thus equal to buoyancy driven bubble mixing. An advantage of buoyancy driven bubble mixing is that it can be operated at fixed rotational frequency, however. The additional costs of implementing buoyancy driven bubble mixing are low since both the activation liquid and the catalyst are very low cost and no external means are required in the processing device. Furthermore, buoyancy driven bubble mixing can easily be integrated in a monolithic manner and is compatible to scalable manufacturing technologies such as injection moulding or thermoforming. We consider buoyancy driven bubble mixing an excellent alternative to shake mode mixing, in particular if the processing device is not capable of providing fast changes of rotational frequency or if the low average rotational frequency is challenging for the other integrated fluidic operations.
Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?
Dawson, Geoffrey
2013-01-01
In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.
Growing bubbles rising in line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John F. Harper
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.
2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry
Bonezzi, Roberto; Sundell, Per; Torres-Gomez, Alexander
2015-08-01
In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.
The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu; Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)
2014-10-15
We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)].
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Lukierski, J
2002-01-01
We describe generalized D=11 Poincar\\'{e} and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with $OSp(1|64)$ superspinors describing BPS preons. The $\\frac{k}{32}$ BPS states as composed out of $n=32 - k$ preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author$^1$.
Generalized Supersymmetries and Composite Structure in M-Theory
Iajkierski, Jerzy
2002-11-01
We describe generalized D = 11 Poincaré and conformal supersymmetries. The corresponding generalization of twistor and supertwistor framework is outlined with OSp(l|64) superspinors describing BPS preons. The (k)/(32) BPS states as composed out of n = 32 - k preons are introduced, and basic ideas concerning BPS preon dynamics is presented. The lecture is based on results obtained by J.A. de Azcarraga, I. Bandos, J.M. Izquierdo and the author.
Neutrino mass patterns, -parity violating supersymmetry and associated phenomenology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya
2000-01-01
Motivated by the recent super-Kamiokande results on atmospheric neutrinos, we incorporate massive neutrinos, with large angle oscillation between the second and third generations, in a theory with -parity violating supersymmetry. The general features of such a theory are brieﬂy reviewed. We emphasize its testability through the observation of comparable numbers of muons and taus, produced together with the -boson, in decays of the lightest neutralino. A distinctly measurable decay gap is anotherremarkable feature of such a scenario.
Low-energy supersymmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies
Gherghetta, Tony; Poppitz, E R; Gherghetta, Tony; Jungman, Gerard; Poppitz, Erich
1995-01-01
In models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, an anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetry can simultaneously explain the fermion mass hierarchy and the values of the \\mu and B terms. We construct an explicit model where the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the string scale. We show that with our charge assignments, the breaking of the horizontal symmetry generates the correct order of magnitude and correct hierarchy for all Yukawa couplings.
2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonezzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sundell, Per [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Torres-Gomez, Alexander [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile-UACh,Valdivia (Chile)
2015-08-12
In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.
A new kind of graded Lie algebra and parastatistical supersymmetry
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In this paper the usual Z2 graded Lie algebra is generalized to a new form, which may be called Z2,2 graded Lie algebra. It is shown that there exist close connections between the Z2,2 graded Lie algebra and parastatistics, so the Z2,2 can be used to study and analyse various symmetries and supersymmetries of the paraparticle systems.
2D Poisson sigma models with gauged vectorial supersymmetry
2015-01-01
In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.
2D Poisson Sigma Models with Gauged Vectorial Supersymmetry
Bonezzi, Roberto; Torres-Gomez, Alexander
2015-01-01
In this note, we gauge the rigid vectorial supersymmetry of the two-dimensional Poisson sigma model presented in arXiv:1503.05625. We show that the consistency of the construction does not impose any further constraints on the differential Poisson algebra geometry than those required for the ungauged model. We conclude by proposing that the gauged model provides a first-quantized framework for higher spin gravity.
Special geometry of Euclidean supersymmetry I: Vector multiplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortes, V.; Mayer, C.; Saueressig, F.; Mohaupt, T. E-mail: mohaupt@tpi.uni-jena.de
2004-02-01
We construct the general action for Abelian vector multiplets in rigid 4-dimensional Euclidean (instead of Minkowskian) N=2 supersymmetry, i.e., over space-times with a positive definite instead of a Lorentzian metric. The target manifolds for the scalar fields turn out to be para-complex manifolds endowed with a particular kind of special geometry, which we call affine special para-Kahler geometry. We give the precise definition and develop the mathematical theory of such manifolds. The relation to the affine special Kahler manifolds appearing in Minkowskian N=2 supersymmetry is discussed. Starting from the general five-dimensional vector multiplet action we consider dimensional reduction over time and space in parallel, providing a dictionary between the resulting Euclidean and Minkowskian theories. Then we reanalyze supersymmetry in four dimensions and find that any (para-)holomorphic prepotential defines a supersymmetric Lagrangian, provided that we add a specific four-fermion term, which cannot be obtained by dimensional reduction. We show that the Euclidean action and supersymmetry transformations, when written in terms of para-holomorphic coordinates, take exactly the same form as their Minkowskina counterparts. The appearance of a para-complex and complex structure in the Euclidean and Minkowskian theory, respectively, is traced back to properties of the underlying R-symmetry groups. Finally, we indicate how our work will be extended to other types of multiplets and to supergravity in the future and explain the relevance of this project for the study of instantons, solitons and cosmological solutions in supergravity and M-theory. (author)
The anomalous current multiplet in 6D minimal supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuzenko, Sergei M. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, W.A. 6009 (Australia); Novak, Joseph [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Samsonov, Igor B. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, W.A. 6009 (Australia)
2016-02-19
For supersymmetric gauge theories with eight supercharges in four, five and six dimensions, a conserved current belongs to the linear multiplet. In the case of six-dimensional N=(1,0) Poincaré supersymmetry, we present a consistent deformation of the linear multiplet which describes chiral anomalies. This is achieved by developing a superform formulation for the deformed linear multiplet. In the abelian case, we compute a nonlocal effective action generating the gauge anomaly.
Commutator-based linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry
Tsuda, Motomu
2016-01-01
We consider the linearization of $N = 1$ nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) based on a commutator algebra in Volkov-Akulov NLSUSY theory. We show explicitly that $U(1)$ gauge and scalar supermultiplets in addition to a vector supermultiplet with general auxiliary fields in linear SUSY theories are obtained from a same set of bosonic and fermionic functionals (composites) which are expressed as simple products of the powers of a Nambu-Goldstone fermion and a fundamental determinant in the NLSUSY theory.
On the role of the commutator algebra for nonlinear supersymmetry
Shima, Kazunari
2016-01-01
We discuss the closure of commutator algebra for general functionals in terms of Nambu-Goldstone fermions and their derivative terms under nonlinear supersymmetry (NLSUSY) both in flat spacetime and in curved spacetime. We show that the variations of the general functionals (uniquely) determine the general structure of linear supermutiplets with general auxiliary fields for arbitrary $N$ SUSY, where the closure of the commutator algebra for NLSUSY plays a crucial role.
An introduction to symmetry and supersymmetry in quantum field theory
Lopuszánski, Jan T
1991-01-01
This is a set of lecture notes given by the author at the Universities of Göttingen and Wroclaw. The text presents the axiomatic approach to field theory and studies in depth the concepts of symmetry and supersymmetry and their associated generators, currents and charges. It is intended as a one-semester course for graduate students in the field of mathematical physics and high energy physics.
Observables in Topological Yang-Mills Theories With Extended Shift Supersymmetry
Constantinidis, C P; Spalenza, W; Constantinidis, Clisthenis P.; Piguet, Olivier; Spalenza, Wesley
2006-01-01
We present a complete classification, at the classical level, of the observables of topological Yang-Mills theories with an extended shift supersymmetry of N generators, in any space-time dimension. The observables are defined as the Yang-Mills BRST cohomology classes of shift supersymmetry invariants. These cohomology classes turn out to be solutions of an N-extension of Witten's equivariant cohomology. This work generalizes results known in the case of shift supersymmetry with a single generator.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model
Steinhauer, Kyle
2014-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model on the lattice using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. We give a complete nonperturbative determination of the ground state structure in the continuum and infinite volume limit. We also present a determination of the particle spectrum in the supersymmetric phase, in the supersymmetry broken phase and across the supersymmetry breaking phase transition. In the supersymmetry broken phase we observe the emergence of the Goldstino particle.
Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in the 2d N=1 Wess-Zumino model
Baumgartner, David; Wenger, Urs
2013-01-01
We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model using Wilson fermions and the fermion loop formulation. We give a complete non-perturbative determination of the ground state structure in the continuum and infinite volume limit. We also present a determination of the particle spectrum in the supersymmetric phase, in the supersymmetry broken phase and across the supersymmetry breaking phase transition. In the supersymmetry broken phase we observe the emergence of the Goldstino particle.
Supersymmetry algebra cohomology. IV. Primitive elements in all dimensions from D= 4 to D= 11
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, Friedemann [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)
2013-05-15
The primitive elements of the supersymmetry algebra cohomology as defined in previous work are derived for standard supersymmetry algebras in dimensions D= 5, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11 for all signatures of the related Clifford algebras of gamma matrices and all numbers of supersymmetries. The results are presented in a uniform notation along with results of previous work for D= 4, and derived by means of dimensional extension from D= 4 up to D= 11.
Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds
Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.
2015-02-01
We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
Position-dependent mass, finite-gap systems, and supersymmetry
Bravo, Rafael
2016-01-01
The ordering problem in quantum systems with position-dependent mass (PDM) is treated by inclusion of the classically fictitious similarity transformation into the kinetic term. This provides a generation of supersymmetry with the first order supercharges from the kinetic term alone, while inclusion of the potential term allows to generate also nonlinear supersymmetry with higher order supercharges. A broad class of finite-gap systems with PDM is obtained by different reduction procedures, and general results on supersymmetry generation are applied to them. We show that elliptic finite-gap systems of Lame and Darboux-Treibich-Verdier types can be obtained by reduction to Seiffert's spherical spiral and Bernoulli lemniscate in the presence of Calogero-like or harmonic oscillator potentials, or by angular momentum reduction of a free motion on some AdS_2-related surfaces in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux. The limiting cases include the Higgs and Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator models as well as a reflectionle...
Position-dependent mass, finite-gap systems, and supersymmetry
Bravo, Rafael; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2016-05-01
The ordering problem in quantum systems with position-dependent mass (PDM) is treated by inclusion of the classically fictitious similarity transformation into the kinetic term. This provides a generation of supersymmetry with the first-order supercharges from the kinetic term alone, while inclusion of the potential term allows us also to generate nonlinear supersymmetry with higher-order supercharges. A broad class of finite-gap systems with PDM is obtained by different reduction procedures, and general results on supersymmetry generation are applied to them. We show that elliptic finite-gap systems of Lamé and Darboux-Treibich-Verdier types can be obtained by reduction to Seiffert's spherical spiral and Bernoulli lemniscate in the presence of Calogero-like or harmonic oscillator potentials, or by angular momentum reduction of a free motion on some AdS2 -related surfaces in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux. The limiting cases include the Higgs and Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator models as well as a reflectionless model with PDM exploited recently in the discussion of cosmological inflationary scenarios.
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention andProject
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Ali, A.; Allanach, B.C.; Arnowitt, R.; Baer, H.A.; Bagger, J.A.; Balazs, C.; Barger, V.; Barnett, M.; Bartl, A.; Battaglia, M.; Bechtle, P.; Belanger, G.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E.L.; Blair, G.; Boos, E.; Carena, M.; Choi, S.Y.; Deppisch, F.; De Roeck, A.; /Lisbon, IST /DESY /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Texas A-M /Florida State
2005-12-02
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desired precision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme by applying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry reference point.
Dilaton Effective Action with $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Supersymmetry
Bobev, Nikolay; Olson, Timothy M
2013-01-01
We clarify the structure of the four-dimensional low-energy effective action that encodes the conformal and $U(1)$ R-symmetry anomalies in an $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric field theory. The action depends on the dilaton, $\\tau$, associated with broken conformal symmetry, and the Goldstone mode, $\\beta$, of the broken $U(1)$ R-symmetry. We present the action for general curved spacetime and background gauge field up to and including all possible four-derivative terms. The result, constructed from basic principles, extends and clarifies the structure found by Schwimmer and Theisen in arXiv:1011.0696 using superfield methods. We show that the Goldstone mode $\\beta$ does not interfere with the proof of the four-dimensional $a$-theorem based on $2 \\to 2$ dilaton scattering. In fact, supersymmetry Ward identities ensure that a proof of the $a$-theorem can also be based on $2 \\to 2$ Goldstone mode scattering when the low-energy theory preserves $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry. We find that even without supersymmetry,...
Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking and its LHC Signatures
Dudas, Emilian; Tziveloglou, Pantelis
2013-01-01
We study the most general extension of the MSSM Lagrangian that includes scenarios in which supersymmetry is spontaneously broken at a low scale f. The spurion that parametrizes supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM is promoted to a dynamical superfield involving the goldstino, with (and without) its scalar superpartner, the sgoldstino. The low energy effective Lagrangian is written as an expansion in terms of m_{SUSY}/sqrt{f}, where m_{SUSY} is the induced supersymmetry breaking scale, and contains, in addition to the usual MSSM Lagrangian with the soft terms, couplings involving the component fields of the goldstino superfield and the MSSM fields. This Lagrangian can provide significant corrections to the usual couplings in the Standard Model and the MSSM. We study how these new corrections affect the Higgs couplings to gauge bosons and fermions, and how LHC bounds can be used in order to constrain f. We also discuss that, from the effective field theory point of view, the couplings of the goldstino interactio...
Low-scale Inflation and Supersymmetry Breaking in Racetrack Models
Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Sinha, Kuver
2009-01-01
In many moduli stabilization schemes in string theory, the scale of inflation appears to be of the same order as the scale of supersymmetry breaking. For low-scale supersymmetry breaking, therefore, the scale of inflation should also be low, unless this correlation is avoided in specific models. We explore such a low-scale inflationary scenario in a racetrack model with a single modulus in type IIB string theory. Inflation occurs near a point of inflection in the K\\"ahler modulus potential. Obtaining acceptable cosmological density perturbations leads to the introduction of magnetized D7-branes sourcing non-perturbative superpotentials. The gravitino mass, m_{3/2}, is chosen to be around 30 TeV, so that gravitinos that are produced in the inflaton decay do not affect big-bang nucleosynthesis. Supersymmetry is communicated to the visible sector by a mixture of anomaly and modulus mediation. We find that the two sources contribute equally to the gaugino masses, while scalar masses are decided mainly by anomaly ...
Tasting the SU(5) nature of supersymmetry at the LHC
Fichet, Sylvain; Stoll, Yannick
2015-01-01
We elaborate on a recently found SU(5) relation confined to the up-(s)quark flavour space, that remains immune to large quantum corrections up to the TeV scale. We investigate the possibilities opened by this new window on the GUT scale in order to find TeV-scale SU(5) tests realizable at the LHC. These SU(5) tests appear as relations among observables involving either flavour violation or chirality flip in the up-(s)quark sector. The power of these tests is systematically evaluated using a frequentist, p-value based criterion. SU(5) tests in the Heavy supersymmetry (SUSY), Natural supersymmetry and Top-charm supersymmetry spectra are investigated. The latter scenario features light stops and scharms and is well-motivated from various five-dimensional constructions. A variety of SU(5) tests is obtained, involving techniques of top polarimetry, charm-tagging, or Higgs detection from SUSY cascade decays. We find that O(10) to O(100) events are needed to obtain 50% of relative precision at 3-sigma significance f...
Soflty broken supersymmetry and the fine-tuning problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foda, O.E.
1984-02-20
The supersymmetry of the simple Wess-Zumino model is broken, in the tree-approximation, by adding all possible parity-even(mass)-dimension 2 and 3 terms. The model is then renormalized using BPHZ and the normal product algorithm, such that supersymmetry is only softly broken (in the original sense of Schroer and Symanzik). We show that, within the above renormalization scheme, none of the added breaking terms give rise to technical fine-tuning problems (defined in the sense of Gildener) in larger models, with scalar multiplets and hierarchy of mass scales, which is in contrast to what we obtain via analytic schemes such as dimensional renormalization, or supersymmetry extension of which. The discrepancy (which can be shown to persist in more general models) originates in the inherent local ambiguity in the finite parts of subtracted Feynman integrals. Emphasizing that the issue is purely technical (as opposed to physical) in origin, and that all physical properties are scheme-independent (as they should be), we conclude that the technical fine-tuning problem, in the specific sense used in this paper, being scheme dependent, is not a well-defined issue within the context of renormalized perturbation theory. 30 references.
Cosmological selection of multi-TeV supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keisuke Harigaya
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We discuss a possible answer to the fundamental question of why nature would actually prefer low-scale supersymmetry, but end up with a supersymmetry scale that is not completely natural. This question is inevitable if we postulate that low-energy supersymmetry is indeed realized in nature, despite the null observation of superparticles below a TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. As we argue in this paper, superparticles masses in the multi-TeV range can, in fact, be reconciled with the concept of naturalness by means of a cosmological selection effect—a selection effect based on the assumption of an exact discrete R-symmetry that is spontaneously broken by gaugino condensation in a pure supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. In such theories, the dynamical scale of the Yang–Mills gauge interactions is required to be higher than the inflationary Hubble scale, in order to avoid the formation of domain walls. This results in a lower limit on the superparticle masses and leads us to conclude that, according to the idea of naturalness, the most probable range of superparticle masses is potentially located at the multi-TeV, if the inflationary Hubble rate is of O(1014 GeV. Our argument can be partially tested by future measurements of the tensor fraction in the Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations.
Ye, Linzheng; Zhu, Xijing; Wang, Lujie; Guo, Ce
2018-01-01
Ultrasonic vibration honing technology is an effective means for materials difficult to machine, where cavitation occurs in grinding fluid under the action of ultrasound. To investigate the changes of single cavitation bubble characteristics in the grinding area and how honing parameters influence bubble characteristics, a dynamic model of single cavitation bubble in the ultrasonic vibration honing grinding area was established. The model was based on the bubble dynamics and considered the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam and honing processing environment. The change rules of bubble radius, temperature, pressure and number of kerosene steam molecules inside the bubble were numerically simulated in the process of bubble moving. The results show that the condensation and evaporation of kerosene steam can help to explain the changes of temperature and pressure inside the bubble. Compared with ultrasonic vibration, the amplitude of bubble radius is greatly suppressed in the ultrasonic honing environment. However, the rate of movement of the bubble is faster. Meanwhile, the minimum values of pressure and temperature are larger, and the number of kerosene steam molecules is less. By studying the effect of honing factors on the movement of the cavitation bubble, it is found that honing pressure has a greater influence on bubble evolution characteristics, while rotation speed of honing head has a minor effect and the reciprocating speed of honing head has little impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sponge Cake or Champagne? Bubbles, Magmatic Degassing and Volcanic Eruptions
Cashman, K.; Pioli, L.; Belien, I.; Wright, H.; Rust, A.
2007-12-01
bubble-rich from bubble-poor melt requires both longer conduits and lateral transport of degassed magma, as seen in violent strombolian eruptions. Flow transitions require coalescence, which is a dynamic process where bubble-bubble interactions are controlled by shear and gravitational (i.e. buoyancy) processes, both of which are strongly dependent on magma rheology. Also common in basaltic magmas that exhibit separated flow are by the simultaneous eruption of crystal-rich (shallow) and crystal-poor (deep) magmas. Upward increases in crystal content within the magma transport system will create rheological changes that may both slow upward bubble migration and change the size and shape of the bubble network (through deformation, coalescence, or bubble splitting). Preliminary experiments further show that abrupt rheological boundaries may concentrate bubbles at the boundary, allowing them to coalesce and move laterally prior to rising through the mush.
Evolution of the plasma bubble in a narrow gap.
Chu, Hong-Yu; Lee, Hung-Ken
2011-11-25
We investigate the evolution of the plasma bubble in a narrow gap. According to the morphological changes, we further show that there are three phases during the evolution for spherical fluctuating, radial fingering, and dense branching plasma bubbles, which are similar to the radial fingering pattern in a Hele-Shaw cell. The dependences of the wavelength of the fingering boundary are experimentally discussed. The dense branching plasma bubble is found with a fractal dimension of D(f)=1.74. The reduced surface tension pressure from the local heatings due to the filamentary discharges is suspected of being responsible for the growth of the radial fingering and the dense branching plasma bubbles.
Matrix formulation of fractional supersymmetry and q-deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benkaddour, I.
2006-02-24
Supersymmetry, which is the only non-trivial Z{sub 2} extension of the Poincare algebra, can be generalized to fractional supersymmetry, when the space time is smaller than 3. Since symmetries play an important role in physics; the principal task of quantum groups consist in extanding these standard symmetries to the deformed ones, which might be used in physics as well. This two aspects will be the main focus of this thesis. In this work, we discuss the matrix formulation of fractional supersymmetry, the q-deformation of KdV hierarchy systems and noncommutative geometry. In the first part fractional supersymmetry generated by more than one charge operator and those which can be described as a matrix model are studied. Using parafermionic field-theoretical methods, the fundamentals of two-dimensional fractional supersymmetry Q{sup k}=P are set up. Known difficulties induced by methods based on the U{sub q}(sl(2)) quantum group representations and noncommutative geometry are avoided in the parafermionic approach. Moreover, we find that fractional supersymmetric algebras are naturally realized as matrix models. The k=3 case is studied in detail. In the second part we will study the q-deformed algebra and the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We construct in this part the algebra of q-deformed pseudo-differential operators, shown to be an essential step toward setting up a q-deformed integrability program. In fact, using the results of this q-deformed algebra, we derive the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We focus in particular on the first leading orders of this q-deformed hierarchy, namely the q-KdV and q-Boussinesq integrable systems. We also present the q-generalisation of the conformal transformations of the currents u{sub n}, n{>=}2, and discuss the primary condition of the fields w{sub n}, n{>=}2, by using the Volterra gauge group transformations for the q-covariant Lax operators. In the last part we will discuss quantum groups and
Préve, Deison; Saa, Alberto
2015-10-01
Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only factor responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume V and with a fixed equatorial perimeter L . It is well known that the sphere is the solution for V =L3/6 π2 , and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for V <α L3/6 π2 , with α ≈0.21 , such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but is rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtaining the global solution for this axisymmetric isoperimetric problem. Our result suggests that deformed bubbles with V <α L3/6 π2 cannot be stable and should not exist in foams, for instance.
Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence
Prakash, Vivek N; Ramos, Fabio Ernesto Mancilla; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2013-01-01
We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the unknown nature of the transition between the classical -5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the -3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, b, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary b from $b = \\infty$ (pseudo-turbulence) to b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude: ~O(0.01, 0.1, 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The experiments are conducted in a multi-phase turbulent water tunnel with air bubbles of diameters 2-4 mm and 3-5 mm. An active-grid is used to generate nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the liquid flow. The liquid speeds and gas void fractions are varied to achieve the above mentioned b...
The Recent Financial Bubble: an Overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thalassinos E.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the recent financial crisis and to make recommendations how to handle it in the best possible way. Financial bubbles, since the great depression, have been analysed and some recommendations have been made taking into account the internationalization of the world economy which behaves like a domino. The recent financial crisis in the sub-prime mortgage market creates new problems in the world market with unforeseen continuances. Deflation has been referred to as a possible continuance after a financial bubble because often but not always deflation follows. Deflation often results in financial and economic crises. Financial and economic crises affect the architecture of the monetary system, while a change in the system may affect the role of the dollar, the euro and the yen.
Partial coalescence of soap bubbles
Harris, Daniel M.; Pucci, Giuseppe; Bush, John W. M.
2015-11-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the merger of a soap bubble with a planar soap film. When gently deposited onto a horizontal film, a bubble may interact with the underlying film in such a way as to decrease in size, leaving behind a smaller daughter bubble with approximately half the radius of its progenitor. The process repeats up to three times, with each partial coalescence event occurring over a time scale comparable to the inertial-capillary time. Our results are compared to the recent numerical simulations of Martin and Blanchette and to the coalescence cascade of droplets on a fluid bath.
Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble
Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi
2015-01-01
Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p
Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts
Zhang, Y.
2009-05-01
Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth
Thermal Phase in Bubbling Geometries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chang-Yong
2008-01-01
We use matrix model to study thermal phase in bubbling half-BPS type IIB geometries with SO(4)×SO(4) symmetry.Near the horizon limit,we find that thermal vacua of bubbling geometries have disjoint parts,and each part is one kind of phase of the thermal system.We connect the thermal dynamics of bubbling geometries with one-dimensional fermions thermal system.Finally,we try to give a new possible way to resolve information loss puzzle.
Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng
2011-01-01
spectroscopy analysis of gases liberated during heating of the glass reveals that small bubbles contain predominantly CH4, CO and CO2, whereas large bubbles bear N2, SO2 and H2S. The methodology utilised in this work can, besides mapping the bubbles in a glass, be applied to shed light on the sources of bubble...
Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.
Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I
2016-02-01
Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.
Bubble Dynamics and Resulting Noise from Traveling Bubble Cavitation.
1982-04-13
has resulted in models which aqree well with bubble dynamics recorded by high speed film . Chahine, et. al. (23) incorporated asymmetric bubble...recording on the tape soundtrack . 3.8 Measurement of Gas Nuclei in Water The role of nuclei density and size in cavitation inception has been the subject...interference between the coherent background and the particle-diffracted radiation exooses photographic film in the far-field of the nuclei. This
A periodic microfluidic bubbling oscillator: insight into the stability of two-phase microflows
Raven, J P; Raven, Jan-Paul; Marmottant, Philippe
2006-01-01
This letter describes a periodically oscillating microfoam flow. For constant input parameters, both the produced bubble volume and the flow rate vary over a factor two. We explicit the link between foam topology alternance and flow rate changes, and construct a retroaction model where bubbles still present downstream determine the volume of new bubbles, in agreement with experiment. This gives insight into the various parameters important to maintain monodispersity and at the same time shows a method to achieve controlled polydispersity.
Effect of gas expansion on the front shape of a Taylor bubble: an experimental contribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santos Laura
2014-03-01
Full Text Available An experimental study where an individual Taylor bubble rises through water with different bubble volume expansion rates is presented with the (front bubble shape determination as main objective. A combination of two techniques, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV and Pulsed Shadowgraphy (PS, was used to collect images for further treatment in order to characterize the liquid flow pattern in front of the bubble and the bubble shape. Processing the images acquired with pulsed illumination from behind the bubble it was possible to define with precision the bubble shape at different stages when it was expanding. The operation conditions used allowed a wide range of volume expansion rates (0 to 28.5 × 10-6 m3/s with a significant effect on the Taylor bubble velocity; increases in bubble velocity up to 21% were observed relatively to constant volume system condition. Nevertheless, it seems that the front shape of Taylor bubbles does not change significantly with the upward liquid flow rates induced by gas expansion, at least for the volume expansion rates used in the experiments.
Dean Baker
2005-01-01
This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.
Kundu, Anup; Das, Gargi; Harikrishnan, G
2011-01-01
In these fluid dynamics videos, we, for the first time, show various interactions of a 'Taylor bubble' with their smaller and differently, shaped counterparts, in a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid, confined in a narrow channel.
Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles' Edges
Kataoka, J; Totani, T; Sofue, Y; Stawarz, L; Takahashi, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Kimura, M; Takei, Y; Cheung, C C; Inoue, Y; Nakamori, T
2013-01-01
We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ~20 ksec pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ~0.1 keV from the Local Bubble (LB), absorbed kT ~0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic Halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ~50% toward the inner regions of the north-east bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear if the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within/around the Galact...
Hydrogen Bubbles as a Visualization Tool for Cylinder Shedding
Sigurdson, Lorenz; Gilbert, Stuart
2004-11-01
We examine the behavior of hydrogen bubbles formed by electrolysis of water on a 2.54 mm cylindrical electrode in a water tunnel. The Reynolds Number based on cylinder diameter varies from 400 to 1100, and tunnel velocities range from 17 to 50 cm/s. At the lowest velocity buoyancy is a strong effect which inhibits accurate flow tracking by the bubbles. This effect largely disappears by 25 cm/s. As the tunnel velocity increases, bubble size decreases, reflected light for photography is reduced, and bubbles begin to track the von Karman vortex street vortex cores near the cylinder. The vortex cores have a sufficiently low pressure to capture the bubbles. Vortex street wavelength is seen to discretely increase as vortices proceed downstream. The location of this scale-change becomes nearer the cylinder as Re increases. Voids of bubbles occur in continuous linear downstream segments originating near the cylinder. They seem to be due to vortex modification in the wake similar to what other cylinder shedding researchers have found.
Parameters Relevant to Bubble Detachment when Gas-injecting into Polymer Melt Flow Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zailiang; CAI Yebin; GUO Mingcheng; PENG Yucheng
2005-01-01
The bubble deformation processes were reported when gas was injected into polymer melt flow field in another paper, the experiments showed that the deformation was severely affected by the volume of the bubble, and in turn, for the different bubbles, several different deformation processes were presented during their movement along the flow channel. In addition, we could find that the magnitude of the bubble volume was dependent upon the pressure difference of the gas injection pressure and the melt pressure. In this paper, more experimental conditions were changed to investigate the parameters relevant to the detachment of bubbles from the injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the pressure difference, the melt flow velocity as well as the melt pressure were all critical for the parameters, such as the bubble detachment time, the maximum bubble diameters and the magnitude of the bubble volume. The morphology changes of bubble were very large when the flow field was abruptly changed, and the situations were more complicated.
Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.
Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert
2016-03-01
The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the
Preve, Deison
2015-01-01
Soap bubbles are thin liquid films enclosing a fixed volume of air. Since the surface tension is typically assumed to be the only responsible for conforming the soap bubble shape, the realized bubble surfaces are always minimal area ones. Here, we consider the problem of finding the axisymmetric minimal area surface enclosing a fixed volume $V$ and with a fixed equatorial perimeter $L$. It is well known that the sphere is the solution for $V=L^3/6\\pi^2$, and this is indeed the case of a free soap bubble, for instance. Surprisingly, we show that for $V<\\alpha L^3/6\\pi^2$, with $\\alpha\\approx 0.21$, such a surface cannot be the usual lens-shaped surface formed by the juxtaposition of two spherical caps, but rather a toroidal surface. Practically, a doughnut-shaped bubble is known to be ultimately unstable and, hence, it will eventually lose its axisymmetry by breaking apart in smaller bubbles. Indisputably, however, the topological transition from spherical to toroidal surfaces is mandatory here for obtainin...
Temperature measurements in cavitation bubbles
Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier
2016-11-01
Cavitation is usually a nearly isothermal process in the liquid phase, but in some specific flow conditions like hot water or cryogenic fluids, significant temperature variations are detected. In addition, a large temperature increase happens inside the cavitation bubbles at the very end of their collapse, due to the fast compression of the gas at the bubble core, which is almost adiabatic. This process is of primary interest in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, where the mechanisms of bubble collapse plays a major role. To investigate the amplitude and the spatial distribution of these temperature variations inside and outside the cavitation bubbles, a system based on cold wires has been developed. They have been tested in a configuration of a single bubble obtained by submitting a small air bubble to a large amplitude pressure wave. Some promising results have been obtained after the initial validation tests. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research Global under Grant N62909-16-1-2116, Dr. Salahuddin Ahmed & Ki-Han Kim program managers.
The wave function of the universe and spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry
Obregón, O; Socorro, J; Tkach, V I
1998-01-01
In this work we define a scalar product ``weighted'' with the scalar factor $R$ and show how to find a normalized wave function for the supersymmetric quantum FRW cosmological model using the idea of supersymmetry breaking selection rules under local n=2 conformal supersymmetry. We also calculate the expectation value of the scalar factor R in this model and its corresponding behaviour.
Supersymmetry from Typicality: TeV-Scale Gauginos and PeV-Scale Squarks and Sleptons
Nomura, Yasunori; Shirai, Satoshi
2014-09-01
We argue that under a set of simple assumptions the multiverse leads to low-energy supersymmetry with the spectrum often called spread or minisplit supersymmetry: the gauginos are in the TeV region with the other superpartners 2 or 3 orders of magnitude heavier. We present a particularly simple realization of supersymmetric grand unified theory using this idea.
Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Nakano, Masaru
2006-01-01
We present a model of gas exsolution and bubble expansion in a melt supersaturated in response to a sudden pressure drop. In our model, the melt contains a suspension of gas bubbles of identical sizes and is encased in a penny-shaped crack embedded in an elastic solid. The suspension is modeled as a three-dimensional lattice of spherical cells with slight overlap, where each elementary cell consists of a gas bubble surrounded by a shell of volatile-rich melt. The melt is then subjected to a step drop in pressure, which induces gas exsolution and bubble expansion, resulting in the compression of the melt and volumetric expansion of the crack. The dynamics of diffusion-driven bubble growth and volumetric crack expansion span 9 decades in time. The model demonstrates that the speed of the crack response depends strongly on volatile diffusivity in the melt and bubble number density and is markedly sensitive to the ratio of crack thickness to crack radius and initial bubble radius but is relatively insensitive to melt viscosity. The net drop in gas concentration in the melt after pressure recovery represents only a small fraction of the initial concentration prior to the drop, suggesting the melt may undergo numerous pressure transients before becoming significantly depleted of gases. The magnitude of pressure and volume recovery in the crack depends sensitively on the size of the input-pressure transient, becoming relatively larger for smaller-size transients in a melt containing bubbles with initial radii less than 10-5 m. Amplification of the input transient may be large enough to disrupt the crack wall and induce brittle failure in the rock matrix surrounding the crack. Our results provide additional basis for the interpretation of volume changes in the magma conduit under Popocatépetl Volcano during Vulcanian degassing bursts in its eruptive activity in April–May 2000.
Takagi, Shu; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2004-11-01
The behaviors of bubbles in an upward channel flow are experimentally investigated. Two kinds of surfactant, 3-pentanol and Triton X-100 are added in the bubbly flow. Addition of surfactant prevents the bubble coalescence and mono-dispersed 1mm spherical bubbles were obtained, although these surfactants do not modify the single-phase turbulence statistics. At the condition of high Reynolds number (Re=8200) with 20-60ppm 3-Pentanol, bubbles migrated towards the wall. These bubbles highly accumulated near the wall and formed crescent like shaped horizontal bubble clusters of 10-40mm length. On the other hand, bubble clusters did not appear in the 2ppm Triton-X100 aqueous solution. By the addition of the small amount of Triton-X100, bubble coalescences were also preventable and the bubble size and its distribution became almost the same as in the case of 60ppm 3-Pentanol aqueous solution. However, the tendency of the lateral migration of bubbles towards the wall weakened and the bubbles did not accumulated near the wall. And this is the main reason of the disapperance of bubble cluster. We discuss this phenomenon, related to the lift force acting on bubbles and particles.
Near-critical-angle scattering for the characterization of clouds of bubbles: particular effects.
Onofri, Fabrice R A; Krzysiek, Mariusz A; Barbosa, Séverine; Messager, Valérie; Ren, Kuan-Fang; Mroczka, Janusz
2011-10-20
We report experimental investigations on the influence of various optical effects on the far-field scattering pattern produced by a cloud of optical bubbles near the critical scattering angle. Among the effects considered, there is the change of the relative refractive index of the bubbles (gas bubbles or some liquid-liquid droplets), the influence of intensity gradients induced by the laser beam intensity profile and by the spatial filtering of the collection optics, the coherent and multiple scattering effects occurring for densely packed bubbles, and the tilt angle of spheroidal optical bubbles. The results obtained herein are thought to be fundamental for the development of future works to model these effects and for the extension of the range of applicability of an inverse technique (referenced herein as the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique), which is used to determine the size distribution and composition of bubbly flows.
Measuring online social bubbles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitar Nikolov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.
Banados and SUSY: On Supersymmetry and Minimal Surfaces of Locally AdS3 Geometries
Colgáin, E Ó
2016-01-01
We extend the classification of supersymmetric locally AdS$_3$ geometries, beyond BTZ black holes, to the Ba\\~nados geometries, noting that supersymmetries are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions to the Hill differential condition. We show that the number of global supersymmetries is an orbit invariant quantity and identify geometries with zero, one, two, three and four global supersymmetries. As an application of our classification, we exploit supersymmetry, which is preserved locally in the bulk, to determine space-like co-dimension two surfaces in AdS$_3$. In the process, we by-pass geodesics or mappings of AdS$_3$, neither of which have an analogue in higher dimensions, to recover known Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi surfaces. Our findings suggest supersymmetry can be exploited to find extremal surfaces in holographic entanglement entropy.
Michael Marinov memorial volume multiple facets of quantization and supersymmetry
Vainshtein, A I
2002-01-01
This book is dedicated to the memory of Michael Marinov, the theorist who, together with Felix Berezin, introduced the classical description of spin by anticommuting Grassmann variables. It contains original papers and reviews by physicists and mathematicians written specifically for the book. These articles reflect the current status and recent developments in the areas of Marinov's research: quantum tunneling, quantization of constrained systems, supersymmetry, and others. The personal recollections included portray the human face of M Marinov, a person of great knowledge and integrity.
Observations on the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Andrianopoli
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We study the partial breaking of N=2 rigid supersymmetry for a generic rigid special geometry of n abelian vector multiplets in the presence of Fayet–Iliopoulos terms induced by the hyper-Kähler momentum map. By exhibiting the symplectic structure of the problem we give invariant conditions for the breaking to occur, which rely on a quartic invariant of the Fayet–Iliopoulos charges as well as on a modification of the N=2 rigid symmetry algebra by a vector central charge.