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Sample records for superstar difference score

  1. Superstars without talent? The Yule distribution controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, Laura; Voorneveld, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Chung and Cox (1994) provided an intuitively appealing stochastic model indicating that superstars may exist regardless of talent, giving rise to the Yule distribution. We adopt a different empirical approach and test its goodness of fit using a parametric bootstrap and several powerful test statist

  2. Superstar Extinction. NBER Working Paper No. 14577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Pierre; Zivin, Joshua S. Graff; Wang, Jialan

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the magnitude of spillovers generated by 161 academic "superstars" onto their collaborators' research output. These life scientists died while still being actively engaged in science, thus providing an exogenous source of variation in the structure of their collaborators' coauthorship networks. Following the death of a superstar, we…

  3. Supergalactic winds driven by multiple superstar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Muñoz-Tunón, C

    2003-01-01

    We present two dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of free expanding supergalactic winds, taking into consideration strong radiative cooling. Our main premise is that supergalactic winds are powered by collections of superstar clusters. Every individual superstar cluster is a source of a high metallicity radiative supersonic outflow (paper I, 2003, ApJ, 590, 791). The interaction of winds from neighboring knots of star formation is shown to lead to a collection of stationary oblique shocks and crossing shocks, able to structure the general outflow into a network of dense and cold, kpc long filaments that originate near the base of the outflow. The shocks also lead to extended regions of diffuse soft X-ray emission and furthermore, to channel the outflow with a high degree of collimation into the intergalactic medium.

  4. Lifshitz and Schrödinger vacua, superstar resolution in gauged maximal supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.

    2014-02-01

    We consider the subset of gauged maximal supergravities that consists of the SO( n + 1) gauge fields A ij and the scalar deformation T ij of the S n in the spherical reduction of M-theory or type IIB. We focus on the Abelian Cartan subgroup and the diagonal entries of T ij . The resulting theories can be viewed as the STU models with additional hyperscalars. We find that the theories with only one or two such vectors can be generalized naturally to arbitrary dimensions. The same is true for the D = 4 or 5 Einstein-Maxwell theory with such a hyperscalar. The gauge fields become massive, determined by stationary points of the hyperscalars a la the analogous Abelian Higgs mechanism. We obtain classes of Lifshitz and Schrödinger vacua in these theories. The scaling exponent z turns out to be rather restricted, taking fractional or irrational numbers. Tweaking the theories by relaxing the mass parameter or making a small change of the superpotential, we find that solutions with z = 2 can emerge. In a different application, we find that the resolution of superstar singularity in the STU models by using bubbling-AdS solitons can be generalized to arbitrary dimensions in our theories. In particular, we obtain the smooth AdS solitons that can be viewed as the resolution of the Reissner-Nordstrøm superstars in general dimensions.

  5. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  6. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  7. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  8. Grades and Test Scores: Accounting for Observed Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…

  9. Breast cancer acute radiotherapy morbidity evaluated by different scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Escarlata; Núñez, M Isabel; Guerrero, M Rosario; del Moral, Rosario; de Dios Luna, Juan; del Mar Rodríguez, M; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Villalobos, Mercedes; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2002-05-01

    Reporting of the outcome of radiotherapy is not satisfactory without a description of the treatment-related side effects. The purposes of this paper were: (1) to evaluate the frequency and the severity of collateral skin reactions in a group of breast cancer patients; (2) to report the acute reactions using some current scoring systems and to compare the application of them, and (3) to investigate the variation between intra- and interobservers using these different scales. We studied 108 breast cancer patients who, after surgical treatment, received adjuvant radiotherapy. Clinical skin evaluation was always performed by the same radiotherapist the last day of treatment, and the collateral radiation effects were photographed at that moment to facilitate later evaluations by another two expert doctors. Normal tissue damage was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The European Organisation for Research, and Treatment of Cancer/ (RTOG/EORTC), the Danish, the European, and the Biomed2 side-effect scales. The most frequent acute complications found were erythema (91.7%), dry desquamation (29.6%) and moist desquamation (35.2%). The reactions were classified as severe in 13.9, 23, 18.5 and 13% of the patients with each of the different systems used, respectively. The concordance between the scoring of radiation-induced side effects on the skin assessed by direct observation of the patients or by examination of the photographic document was sufficient. This is a warrant of accuracy in the evaluation of acute normal tissue lesions. Our results allow us to state the advantage of the RTOG system over the others in terms of evaluating the acute effects produced by radiotherapy of women with breast cancer.

  10. Traditional difference-score analyses of reasoning are flawed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the belief bias effect in syllogistic reasoning have relied on three traditional difference score measures: the logic index, belief index, and interaction index. Dube, Rotello, and Heit (2010, 2011) argued that the interaction index incorrectly assumes a linear receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Here, all three measures are addressed. Simulations indicated that traditional analyses of reasoning experiments are likely to lead to incorrect conclusions. Two new experiments examined the role of instructional manipulations on the belief bias effect. The form of the ROCs violated assumptions of traditional measures. In comparison, signal detection theory (SDT) model-based analyses were a better match for the form of the ROCs, and implied that belief bias and instructional manipulations are predominantly response bias effects. Finally, reanalyses of previous studies of conditional reasoning also showed non-linear ROCs, violating assumptions of traditional analyses. Overall, reasoning research using traditional measures is at risk of drawing incorrect conclusions.

  11. Clinical Survival of Rebonded Brackets with Different ARI Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ahangar Atashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bracket debonding is one of the most common events in orthodontics. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively compare clinical survival of rebonded brackets with different ARI scores with new brackets rebonding. Materials and Methods: The subjects in the present study consisted of 74 patients with 76 debonded brackets on maxillary first and second premolars. After refreshing the bracket base of the debonded brackets, they were assigned in two groups: group A with 27 brackets of ARI≥4 and group B with 28 brackets of ARI≤2. In 21 cases, new brackets were used (group C. The frequency of the debonding in each rebonded group during treatment was calculated in intervals of 6,12,18 mounths after onset of bracket rebonding . Chi-squared test was used to compare the frequency of debonded brackets. Results: The frequency of debonded brackets was significantly higher in group B (ARI≤2 than those of groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. The number of debonded brackets were not significantly different between groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. Conclusion: Rebonding strength of debonded brackets in those that the failure is presented between adhesive and enamel (ARI≥4 could be clinically acceptable with no need to use new brackets.    Key words: dental bonding; orthodontic brackets; prevalence

  12. Considering ERP difference scores as individual difference measures: Issues with subtraction and alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexandria; Lerner, Matthew D; De Los Reyes, Andres; Laird, Robert D; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in psychophysiological and neural correlates of psychopathology, personality, and other individual differences. Many studies correlate a criterion individual difference variable (e.g., anxiety) with a psychophysiological measurement derived by subtracting scores taken from two within-subject conditions. These subtraction-based difference scores are intended to increase specificity by isolating variability of interest. Using data on the error-related negativity (ERN) and correct response negativity (CRN) in relation to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we highlight several conceptual and practical issues with subtraction-based difference scores and propose alternative approaches based on regression. We show that ERN and CRN are highly correlated, and that the ΔERN (i.e., ERN - CRN) is correlated in opposite directions both with ERN and CRN. Bivariate analyses indicate that GAD is related to ΔERN and ERN, but not CRN. We first show that, by using residualized scores, GAD relates both to a larger ERN and smaller CRN. Moreover, by probing the interaction of ERN and CRN, we show that the relationship between GAD and ERN varies by CRN. These latter findings are not evident when using traditional subtraction-based difference scores. We then completed follow-up analyses that suggested that an increased P300 in anxious individuals gave rise to the apparent anxiety/CRN relationship observed. These findings have important conceptual implications for facilitating the interpretability of results from individual difference studies of psychophysiology.

  13. North from here: The collaboration networks of Finnish metal music genre superstars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    of their record sales – provide evidence that if local networks and buzz are present in the home localities of the bands, as is common in urban environments, they take advantage of these collaboration possibilities. However, bands located in smaller more peripheral localities can substitute for the lack of local......This paper explores the collaboration networks of Finnish metal music genre superstars, the evolution of these networks through time, and the importance of geographical scale in their evolution. The article, therefore, aims to shed light upon how successful creative teams network: locally (local...

  14. A Universal Behavior of Half BPS Probes in the Superstar Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Messamah, Ilies

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we probe the typical states of the superstar ensemble of (hep-th/0508023) using half-BPS states of type-IIB string theory on AdS$_5 \\times$ S$^5$. We find a very simple universal result that has the structure $\\log\\, \\lag\\lag \\y \\; \\y \\rag\\rag_\\calo \\approx \\a\\, h \\, \\log N$, where $h$ is the conformal weight of the probe $\\y$ and $\\a$ is a constant that depends mainly of the shape of the probe $\\y$.

  15. Superstar Exporters: An Empirical Investigation of Strategic Interactions in Danish Export Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    , product and destination. We also obtain detailed information on applied, preferential tariff protection from the MAcMap-HS6 database. We find evidence of strong negative competitive effects of entry: in the absence of strategic competitive effects, firms would be 54.3 percentage points more likely...... to export to a given market. Next, we run two counterfactual exercises. We show that failing to account for the strategic interaction among superstar exporters leads to: (i) overstating the probability that firms would start exporting to a market following tariff elimination by 8 percentage points; and, (ii...

  16. Use of a respiratory clinical score among different providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lenna L; Gallaher, Margaret M; Davis, Robert L; Rutter, Carolyn M; Lewis, Toby C; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2004-03-01

    Respiratory assessment of children with asthma or bronchiolitis is problematic because both the components of the assessment and their relative importance vary among care providers. Use of a systematic standard assessment process and clinical score may reduce interobserver variation. Our objective was to determine observer agreement among physicians (MD), nurses (RN), and respiratory therapists (RT), using a standard respiratory clinical score. A clinical score was developed incorporating four physiologic parameters: respiratory rate, retractions, dyspnea, and auscultation. One hundred and sixty-five provider pairs (e.g., MD-MD, RN-RT) independently assessed a total of 55 patients admitted for asthma, bronchiolitis, or wheezing at an urban tertiary-care hospital. A weighted kappa statistic measured agreement beyond chance. Rater pairs had high observed agreement on total score of 82-88% and weighted kappas ranging from 0.52 (MD-RN; 95% CI, 0.19, 0.79) to 0.65 (RN-RN; 95% CI, 0.46, 0.87). Observed agreement on individual components of the score ranged from 58% (auscultation) to 74% (dyspnea), with unweighted kappas of 0.36 (respiratory rate; 95% CI, 0.26, 0.46) to 0.53 (dyspnea; 95% CI, 0.41, 0.65). In conclusion, this respiratory clinical score demonstrates good interobserver agreement between MDs, RNs, and RTs. Future research is needed to examine validity and responsiveness in clinical settings. By standardizing respiratory assessments, use of a clinical score may facilitate care coordination by physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists and thereby improve care of children hospitalized with asthma and bronchiolitis.

  17. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  18. Sex Differences in Arithmetical Performance Scores: Central Tendency and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, R.; Hurks, P. P. M.; Meijs, C.; Wassenberg, R.; Jolles, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze sex differences in arithmetical performance in a large-scale sample of 390 children (193 boys) frequenting grades 1-9. Past research in this field has focused primarily on average performance, implicitly assuming homogeneity of variance, for which support is scarce. This article examined sex differences in…

  19. Winds driven by super-star clusters: The self-consistent radiative solution

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, S A; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary

    2004-01-01

    Here we present a self-consistent stationary solution for spherically symmetric winds driven by massive star clusters under the impact of radiative cooling. We demonstrate that cooling may modify drastically the distribution of temperature if the rate of injected energy approaches a critical value. We also prove that the stationary wind solution does not exist whenever the energy radiated away at the star cluster center exceeds ~ 30% of the energy deposition rate. Finally we thoroughly discuss the expected appearance of super-star cluster winds in the X-ray and visible line regimes. The three solutions here found: the quasi-adiabatic, the strongly radiative wind and the inhibited stationary solution, are then compared to the winds from Arches cluster, NGC 4303 central cluster and to the supernebula in NGC 5253.

  20. On the Extreme Positive Feedback Star-Forming Mode from Massive and Compact Superstar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Munoz-Tunon, A R; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Munoz-Tunon, Ary Rodriguez Gonzalez & Casiana

    2005-01-01

    The force of gravity acting within the volume occupied by young, compact and massive superstar clusters, is here shown to drive in situ all the matter deposited by winds and supernovae into several generations of star formation. These events are promoted by radiative cooling which drains the thermal energy of the ejected gas causing its accumulation to then rapidly exceed the gravitational instability criterion. A detailed account of the integrated ionizing radiation and mechanical luminosity as a function of time is here shown to lead to a new stationary solution. In this, the mass deposition rate $\\dot M$, instead of causing a wind as in the adiabatic solution, turns into a positive feedback star-forming mode equal to the star formation rate. Some of the implications of this extreme positive feedback mode are discussed.

  1. Lifshitz and Schrodinger Vacua, Superstar Resolution in Gauged Maximal Supergravities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hai-Shan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the subset of gauged maximal supergravities that consists of the SO(n+1) gauge fields A^{ij} and the scalar deformation T^{ij} of the S^n in the spherical reduction of M-theory or type IIB. We focus on the Abelian Cartan subgroup and the diagonal entries of T^{ij}. The resulting theories can be viewed as the STU models with additional hyperscalars. We find that the theories with only one or two such vectors can be generalized naturally to arbitrary dimensions. The same is true for the D=4 or 5 Einstein-Maxwell theory with such a hyperscalar. The gauge fields become massive, determined by stationary points of the hyperscalars a la the analogous Abelian Higgs mechanism. We obtain classes of Lifshitz and Schrodinger vacua in these theories. The scaling exponent z turns out to be rather restricted, taking fractional or irrational numbers. Tweaking the theories by relaxing the mass parameter or making a small change of the superpotential, we find that solutions with z=2 can emerge. In a different appli...

  2. Superstar Inventors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Kappen, Philip; Zander, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a people-centric perspective on the geographical dispersion of technological renewal in the multinational corporation (MNC). We contend that a large proportion of all foreign technological advancements can be attributed to a handful of individual inventors, suggesting a blockb...... a people-centric perspective on the sources of sustained competitive advantage of the MNC, the management of geographically dispersed capabilities in the multinational network, and the geographical sources of technological renewal in the MNC....... at the subsidiary level show that the distribution of technological activity and contribution to the overall multinational group is significantly skewed; the paper then empirically explores the assumption that a similar distribution also applies at the level of individual inventors. The results point to a pattern...

  3. Differences Between the "Chinese AMS Score" and the Lake Louise Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jialin; Gu, Haoran; Luo, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    The Chinese AMS score (CAS) is used in clinical medicine and research to diagnosis acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the Lake Louise Score (LLS) is the well-accepted standard for diagnosing AMS. The difference between the CAS and LLS questionnaires is that the CAS considers more nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in AMS prevalence according to the LLS and CAS criteria. We surveyed 58 males who traveled from Chongqing (300 m) to Lhasa (3658 m) via the Qinghai-Tibet train. Cases of AMS were diagnosed using LLS and CAS questionnaires in a few railway stations at different evaluation areas along the road. We subsequently evaluated discrepancies in values related to the prevalence of AMS determined using the 2 types of questionnaires (CAS and LLS). The prevalence of CAS-diagnosed AMS indicated that the percentage of AMS cases among the 58 young men was 29.3% in Golmud, 60.3% in Tanggula, 63.8% in Lhasa, 22.4% on the first day after arrival in Lhasa, 27.6% on the second day, 24.1% on the third day, and 12.1% on the fourth day. The prevalence of LLS-diagnosed AMS in Golmud was 10.3%, 38% in Lhasa, and 6.9% on day 1, the prevalence in each station was lower than that as assessed by the CAS. Our experimental data indicate that AMS diagnoses ascertained using the CAS indicate a higher AMS prevalence than those ascertained using the LLS. Through statistical analysis, the CAS seems capable of effectively diagnosing AMS as validated by LLS (sensitivity 61.8%, specificity 92.7%).

  4. Impact assessment with different scoring tools: How well do alien amphibian assessments match?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Kumschick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of alien species’ impacts can aid policy making through evidence based listing and management recommendations. We highlight differences and a number of potential difficulties with two scoring tools, the Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa (EICAT and the Generic Impact Scoring System (GISS using amphibians as a case study. Generally, GISS and EICAT assessments lead to very similar impact levels, but scores from the schemes are not equivalent. Small differences are attributable to discrepancies in the verbal descriptions for scores. Differences were found in several impact categories. While the issue of disease appears to be related to uncertainties in both schemes, hybridisation might be inflated in EICAT. We conclude that GISS scores cannot directly be translated into EICAT classifications, but they give very similar outcomes and the same literature base can be used for both schemes.

  5. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2010-01-01

    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  6. The pressure confined wind of the massive and compact superstar cluster M82-A1

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2007-01-01

    The observed parameters of the young superstar cluster M82-A1 and its associated compact HII region are here shown to indicate a low heating efficiency or immediate loss, through radiative cooling, of a large fraction of the energy inserted by stellar winds and supernovae during the early evolution of the cluster. This implies a bimodal hydrodynamic solution which leads to a reduced mass deposition rate into the ISM, with a much reduced outflow velocity. Furthermore, to match the observed parameters of the HII region associated to M82-A1, the resultant star cluster wind is here shown to ought to be confined by a high pressure interstellar medium. The cluster wind parameters, as well as the location of the reverse shock, its cooling length and the radius of the standing outer HII region are derived analytically. All of these properties are then confirmed with a semi-analytical integration of the flow equations, which provides us also with the run of the hydrodynamic variables as a function of radius. The impac...

  7. Interobserver Variability in Injury Severity Scoring After Combat Trauma: Different Perspectives, Different Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    asymmetrically distributed around their medians by using the Shapiro–Wilk test . Therefore, medians were Figure 1 Injury scoring processes. Note: AIS...Medicine Volume 15, Edition 2/Summer 2015 compared by using the sign test . Reliability analysis was performed by grouping the scores according to...Injury severity scor - ing: influence of trauma surgeon involvement on accuracy. JTrauma Nurs. 2003;10:43–47. 28. Waydhas C, Nast-Kolb D, Trupka A

  8. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  9. Assessor-related factors and score differences between ethnically diverse Dutch police applicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); H. van Loon (Heleen); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined the effects of demographic and perceived similarity between assessors and applicants on assessors’ evaluations of Dutch ethnic majority and minority applicants. Results showed that demographic similarity did not explain score differences between ethnic groups.

  10. On the extreme stationary outflows from super-star clusters: from superwinds to supernebulae and further massive star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Rodríguez-Gónzalez, A; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2004-01-01

    The properties of star cluster winds in the supercritical, catastrophic cooling regime are discussed. We demonstrate that strong radiative cooling may inhibit superwinds and, after a rapid phase of accumulation of the ejected material within the star-forming volume, a new stationary isothermal regime, supported by the ionizing radiation from the central cluster, is established. The expected appearance of this core/halo supernebula in the visible line regime and possible late evolutionary tracks for super-star cluster winds, in the absence of ionizing radiation, are thoroughly discussed.

  11. Role of the Egami Score in Predicting Intravenous Immunoglobulin Resistance in Kawasaki Disease Among Different Ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Raskin, Alexander; Gudausky, Todd M; Kirkpatrick, Edward

    Early treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is necessary to help reduce the risk of coronary artery abnormalities, such as coronary artery aneurysms and to help alleviate symptoms, in Kawasaki disease. Some patients, however, do not respond to an initial dose of IVIG and require additional doses. Prediction of these IVIG nonresponders may be of assistance in altering initial therapy to make it more effective. The Egami score has been validated in the Japanese population to predict IVIG nonresponders but has shown to be ineffective in US populations. This study evaluates the Egami score in a Midwest US population, subdividing patients by race and the diagnosis of typical or atypical type of Kawasaki disease. Patients were included in the study if they met criteria for Kawasaki disease and received IVIG in the inpatient setting. A total of 182 patients were studied, and in all studied groups, the Egami score had poor sensitivity at predicting IVIG nonresponders. Sensitivity of the score differed between races and differed between typical and atypical Kawasaki disease. The Egami score, as well as other systems, have been validated to predict IVIG nonresponders. These, however, lack sensitivity in the US population. Other scores developed in the United States have also lacked sensitivity, likely due to the absence of race or Kawasaki disease classification as variables. The development of a sensitive scoring system to predict IVIG nonresponders in US populations will require the incorporation of race and Kawasaki disease classification, factors that seem to alter IVIG response.

  12. Sex differences on Purpose-In-Life Test total and factorial scores among spanish undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences on Purpose-In-Life Test [PIL] (Crumbaugh & Maholic, 1969) total and factorial scores associated to sex, among 309 spanish undergratudates (207 women, 102 men), range 18 to 45 years. PIL Spanish version is used (Noblejas de la Flor, 1994). PIL evalues life meaning achievement vs. existential vacuum. Women achieve higher means on PIL total and factorial scores, and estatistical analysis show that sex is significantly associated to total PIL sc...

  13. Individual differences in left parietal white matter predict math scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejko, Anna A; Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Mathematical skills are of critical importance, both academically and in everyday life. Neuroimaging research has primarily focused on the relationship between mathematical skills and functional brain activity. Comparatively few studies have examined which white matter regions support mathematical abilities. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test whether individual differences in white matter predict performance on the math subtest of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Grades 10 and 11 PSAT scores were obtained from 30 young adults (ages 17-18) with wide-ranging math achievement levels. Tract based spatial statistics was used to examine the correlation between PSAT math scores, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). FA in left parietal white matter was positively correlated with math PSAT scores (specifically in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left superior corona radiata, and left corticospinal tract) after controlling for chronological age and same grade PSAT critical reading scores. Furthermore, RD, but not AD, was correlated with PSAT math scores in these white matter microstructures. The negative correlation with RD further suggests that participants with higher PSAT math scores have greater white matter integrity in this region. Individual differences in FA and RD may reflect variability in experience dependent plasticity over the course of learning and development. These results are the first to demonstrate that individual differences in white matter are associated with mathematical abilities on a nationally administered scholastic aptitude measure.

  14. Male-female differences in Scoliosis Research Society-30 scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Savage, Jason W; Schwartz, Daniel G; Carreon, Leah Y; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Richards, Benjamin Stephens; Lenke, Lawrence G; Emans, John B; Parent, Stefan; Sarwark, John F

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort study. To compare functional outcomes between male and female patients before and after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). There is no clear consensus in the existing literature with respect to sex differences in functional outcomes in the surgical treatment of AIS. A prospective, consecutive, multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical correction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was analyzed retrospectively. All patients completed Scoliosis Research Society-30 (SRS-30) questionnaires before and 2 years after surgery. Patients with previous spine surgery were excluded. Data were collected for sex, age, Risser grade, previous bracing history, maximum preoperative Cobb angle, curve correction at 2 years, and SRS-30 domain scores. Paired sample t tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative scores within each sex. Independent sample t tests were used to compare scores between sexes. A P value of Self-image/appearance had the greatest relative improvement. Males had better self-image/appearance scores preoperatively, better pain scores at 2 years, and better mental health and total scores both preoperatively and at 2 years. Both males and females were similarly satisfied with surgery. Males treated with surgery for AIS report better preoperative self-image, less postoperative pain, and better mental health than females. These differences may be clinically significant. For both males and females, the most beneficial effect of surgery is improved self-image/appearance. Overall, the benefits of surgery for AIS are similar for both sexes.

  15. Validity of different pediatric early warning scores in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) are being advocated for use in the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to compare the validity of different PEWS in a pediatric ED. Methods: Ten different PEWS were evaluated in a large prospective cohort. We included chi

  16. The Use of an Enhanced Polygraph Scoring Technique in Homeland Security: The Empirical Scoring System-Making a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    confidence rating (p value) (Macmillan, & Creelman , 1996). More specifically, as response bias relates to polygraph scoring, the development of the...Macmillan, N., & Creelman , C. (1996). Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of “nonparametric” measures of sensitivity and response bias

  17. Differences in Middle School TCAP Writing Assessment Scores Based on Keyboarding Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the writing assessment scores for each of the four traits--development, focus and organization, language, and conventions--as measured by the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) of students who had a formal keyboarding course compared to those who did not. A…

  18. Sex Differences in the Sleep EEG of Young Adults : Visual Scoring and Spectral Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Bloem, Gerda M.

    1989-01-01

    Baseline sleep of 13 men (mean age of 23.5 years) and 15 women (21.9 years) was analyzed. Visual scoring of the electroencephalograms (EEGs) revealed no significant differences between the sexes in the amounts of slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Spectral analysis, however, detecte

  19. The Relationship of Perfectionism, Depression, and Therapeutic Alliance during Treatment for Depression: Latent Difference Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Lance L.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Zuroff, David C.; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the longitudinal relationship of patient-rated perfectionism, clinician-rated depression, and observer-rated therapeutic alliance using the latent difference score (LDS) analytic framework. Outpatients involved in the Treatment for Depression Collaborative Research Program completed measures of perfectionism and depression at…

  20. Combining scores from different patient reported outcome measures in meta-analyses: when is it justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining outcomes and the use of standardized effect measures such as effect size and standardized response mean across instruments allows more comprehensive meta-analyses and should avoid selection bias. However, such analysis ideally requires that the instruments correlate strongly and that the underlying assumption of similar responsiveness is fulfilled. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between two widely used health-related quality of life instruments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to compare the instruments' responsiveness on a study level. Methods We systematically identified all longitudinal studies that used both the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ through electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PubMed. We assessed the correlation between CRQ (scale 1 – 7 and SGRQ (scale 1 – 100 change scores and compared responsiveness of the two instruments by comparing standardized response means (change scores divided by their standard deviation. Results We identified 15 studies with 23 patient groups. CRQ change scores ranged from -0.19 to 1.87 (median 0.35, IQR 0.14–0.68 and from -16.00 to 3.00 (median -3.00, IQR -4.73–0.25 for SGRQ change scores. The correlation between CRQ and SGRQ change scores was 0.88. Standardized response means of the CRQ (median 0.51, IQR 0.19–0.98 were significantly higher (p Conclusion Investigators should be cautious about pooling the results from different instruments in meta-analysis even if they appear to measure similar constructs. Despite high correlation in changes scores, responsiveness of instruments may differ substantially and could lead to important between-study heterogeneity and biased meta-analyses.

  1. The Interchangeability of CVLT-II and WMS-IV Verbal Paired Associates Scores: A Slightly Different Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruselvam, Indrani; Vogt, Elisabeth M; Hoelzle, James B

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the similarity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) Auditory Memory Index (AMI) scores when California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) scores are substituted for WMS-IV Verbal Paired Associates (VPA) subtest scores. College students (n = 103) were administered select WMS-IV subtests and the CVLT-II in a randomized order. Immediate and delayed VPA scaled scores were significantly greater than VPA substitute scaled scores derived from CVLT-II performance. At the Index level, AMI scores were significantly lower when CVLT-II scores were used in place of VPA scores. It is important that clinicians recognize the accepted substitution of CVLT-II scores can result in WMS-IV scores that are inconsistent with those derived from standard administration. Psychometric issues that plausibly contribute to these differences and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well...... understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  3. Mouse and human intestinal immunity: same ballpark, different players; different rules, same score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, D L; Spencer, J

    2011-03-01

    The study of animal immune physiology and animal models of human disease have accelerated many aspects of translational research by allowing direct, definitive investigations. In particular, the use of mice has allowed genetic manipulation, adoptive transfer, immunization, and focused cell and tissue sampling, which would obviously be unthinkable for studies in humans. However, the disease relevance of some animal models may be uncertain and difficulties in interpretation may occur as a consequence of immunological differences between the two species. In this review, we will consider general differences in the structure and development of human and mouse mucosal lymphoid microenvironments and then discuss species differences in mucosal B- and T-cell biology that relate to the current concepts of intestinal immune function.

  4. Stress Response of Juvenile Green Sea Turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) with Different Fibropapillomatosis Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renan de Deus Santos, Marcelo; Dias Ferreira Júnior, Paulo; Cardoso Nóbrega, Yhuri; Merçon, Julia; Miura Pereira, Tatiana; Carvalho Gomes, Levy

    2017-07-01

    Green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis (FP) occur in some populations worldwide, and the survivability of these individuals may be compromised depending on the disease severity score. Furthermore, populations may be negatively affected in areas with a high prevalence of the disease. The stress responses (corticosterone, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit) to capture and handling were assessed in animals with different FP severity scores. From 18 January 2013 to 31 July 2014, 33 juvenile (sex was not determined) C. mydas were collected from the effluent of a steel mill in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, by casting a net from the bank of a canal in the morning. The body conditions of animals with FP scores of FP2 and FP3 were poor, which suggests that these turtles were unable to adequately feed themselves, and animals with an FP score of FP3 exhibited an impaired corticosterone response. This may compromise the fitness of animals in populations with a high incidence of advanced-stage FP.

  5. Ethnic group differences in cardiovascular risk assessment scores: national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Andrew R H; Bottle, Alex; Soljak, Michael; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    There are marked inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and outcomes between ethnic groups. CVD risk scores are increasingly used in preventive medicine and should aim to accurately reflect differences between ethnic groups. Ethnicity, as an independent risk factor for CVD, can be accounted for in CVD risk scores primarily using two methods, either directly incorporating it as a risk factor in the algorithm or through a post hoc adjustment of risk. We aim to compare these two methods in terms of their prediction of CVD across ethnic groups using representative national data from England. A cross-sectional study using data from the Health Survey for England. We measured ethnic group differences in risk estimation between the QRISK2, which includes ethnicity and Joint British Societies 2 (JBS2) algorithm, which uses post hoc risk adjustment factor for South Asian men. The QRISK2 score produces lower median estimates of CVD risk than JBS2 overall (6.6% [lower quartile-upper quartile (LQ-UQ)=4.0-18.6] compared with 9.3% [LQ-UQ=2.3-16.9]). Differences in median risk scores are significantly greater in South Asian men (7.5% [LQ-UQ=3.6-12.5]) compared with White men (3.0% [LQ-UQ=0.7-5.9]). Using QRISK2, 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI)=16.2-22.0] fewer South Asian men are designated at high risk compared with 8.8% (95% CI=5.9-7.8) fewer in White men. Across all ethnic groups, women had a lower median QRISK2 score (0.72 [LQ-UQ=- 0.6 to 2.13]), although relatively more (2.0% [95% CI=1.4-2.6]) were at high risk than with JBS2. Ethnicity is an important CVD risk factor. Current scoring tools used in the UK produce significantly different estimates of CVD risk within ethnic groups, particularly in South Asian men. Work to accurately estimate CVD risk in ethnic minority groups is important if CVD prevention programmes are to address health inequalities.

  6. Espectatorialidade e Materialidade na Televisão Multiplataforma: uma análise do programa Superstar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ribeiro de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tensionando as relações entre tecnologia, materialidade e cognição, o presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a recepção televisiva combinada com a navegação simultânea na Internet em outros dispositivos. A proposta é investigar os possíveis impactos que a televisão multiplataforma gera na experiência subjetiva, sensorial e cognitiva dos telespectadores, recondicionando hábitos e comportamentos. Para elucidar as questões que se colocam, elege-se como objeto de estudo o programa SuperStar. O artigo propõe uma análise do modo como a alteração do status material dos dispositivos pode influenciar as relações que o telespectador estabelece com o meio televisivo.

  7. A Simulation Study on the Performance of the Simple Difference and Covariance-Adjusted Scores in Randomized Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Research by Huck and McLean (1975) demonstrated that the covariance-adjusted score is more powerful than the simple difference score, yet recent reviews indicate researchers are equally likely to use either score type in two-wave randomized experimental designs. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to examine the conditions under which the…

  8. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  9. Determining minimally important score differences in scales of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Hasle, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the following MID values for the COPSOQ scales: ''Quantitative demands'', 0.3 SD; ''Influence'', 0.2 SD; ''Predictability'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from colleagues'', 0.3 SD; ''Social support from supervisor'', 0.7 SD; and ''Job satisfaction'', 0.4 SD. For all other COPSOQ scales, where we do not have anchor......). On the basis of the population survey, the MID for each COPSOQ scale was calculated as one-half of a standard deviation (0.5 SD). For the core COPSOQ scales on ''Quantitative demands'', ''Influence at work'', ''Predictability'', ''Social support (from colleagues and supervisors, respectively)'', and ''Job...... satisfaction'', the MIDs were evaluated in the intervention study, where score differences for the scales were linked to the respondents' global self-evaluation of the impact of the interventions. The scales were scored from 0 to 100 in both studies. RESULTS: The MIDs calculated as 0.5 SD were, on average, 9...

  10. How credit scores can make a difference for your revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Garett

    2008-02-01

    Questions an organization should consider before implementing credit scoring include: What action will be taken once a score is obtained? Should the score impact the workflow? Are the appropriate tools available to alter the workflow? How will accounts receivable staff be redirected or allocated? What is the risk tolerance for scoring mistakes?

  11. Strategy for development of generic drug superstars in China%发展我国仿制药大品种的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟萍; 宋瑞霖; 王一涛; 史录文

    2011-01-01

    培养仿制药大品种是振兴民族制药企业的可行途径之一.文中通过分析印度和美国仿制药行业发展壮大的过程和原因,探讨发展我国仿制药大品种的对策,提出塑造仿制药大品种需要的支持政策,包括影响仿制药质量和疗效的监管认证程序,以及在供销环节对企业的鼓励政策.%Developing our own generic drug superstars is one of the ways to vitalize our national pharmaceutical industry. After a systematic analysis of the success of Indian and American generic drug industries, we concluded a development model of generic drug superstars. Besides, we brought up several major policies for the development of our own generic drug superstars, including the supervision policy on drug quality and drug clinical outcomes, and the encouragement policy on drug supply and sales.

  12. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  13. Latent Difference Score Modeling: A Flexible Approach for Studying Informant Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter; Sentse, Miranda; Jongerling, Joran

    2017-04-13

    The current study proposes a flexible approach to studying informant discrepancies: Latent Difference Scores modeling (LDS). The LDS approach is demonstrated using an empirical example in which associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent discrepant parenting perceptions, and concurrent and later adolescent externalizing behaviors, were investigated. Early adolescents (N = 477, aged 12-15 years), mothers (N = 470), and fathers (N = 440) filled out questionnaires about mothers' and fathers' parenting. Results using the LDS approach are compared to results obtained by the 2 existing approaches for informant discrepancies: Observed Difference Scores modeling (ODS) and Polynomial Regression Analyses (PRA). Results from the LDS approach show that adolescents perceive their mothers' and fathers' parenting less favorably than mothers and fathers themselves, and that stronger mother-adolescent discrepancies are consistently related to stronger father-adolescent discrepancies. Parent-adolescent discrepancies were concurrently associated with more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, but not longitudinally. Results generalized across the 2 discrepancy approaches, but only very few significant associations were found in the PRA. Advantages and limitations of all 3 approaches to studying informant discrepancies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  15. Predicting gender differences as latent variables: summed scores, and individual item responses: a methods case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Danny O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling latent variables such as physical disability is challenging since its measurement is performed through proxies. This poses significant methodological challenges. The objective of this article is to present three different methods to predict latent variables based on classical summed scores, individual item responses, and latent variable models. Methods This is a review of the literature and data analysis using "layers of information". Data was collected from the North Carolina Back Pain Project, using a modified version of the Roland Questionnaire. Results The three models are compared in relation to their goals and underlying concepts, previous clinical applications, data requirements, statistical theory, and practical applications. Initial linear regression models demonstrated a difference in disability between genders of 1.32 points (95% CI 0.65, 2.00 on a scale from 0–23. Subsequent item analysis found contradictory results across items, with no clear pattern. Finally, IRT models demonstrated three items were demonstrated to present differential item functioning. After these items were removed, the difference between genders was reduced to 0.78 points (95% CI, -0.99, 1.23. These results were shown to be robust with re-sampling methods. Conclusions Purported differences in the levels of a latent variable should be tested using different models to verify whether these differences are real or simply distorted by model assumptions.

  16. Validation of semi-automatic scoring of dicentric chromosomes after simulation of three different irradiation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, H; Ainsbury, E; Barnard, S; Barrios, L; Barquinero, J F; Beinke, C; Deperas, M; Gregoire, E; Koivistoinen, A; Lindholm, C; Moquet, J; Oestreicher, U; Puig, R; Rothkamm, K; Sommer, S; Thierens, H; Vandersickel, V; Vral, A; Wojcik, A

    2014-06-01

    Large scale radiological emergencies require high throughput techniques of biological dosimetry for population triage in order to identify individuals indicated for medical treatment. The dicentric assay is the "gold standard" technique for the performance of biological dosimetry, but it is very time consuming and needs well trained scorers. To increase the throughput of blood samples, semi-automation of dicentric scoring was investigated in the framework of the MULTIBIODOSE EU FP7 project, and dose effect curves were established in six biodosimetry laboratories. To validate these dose effect curves, blood samples from 33 healthy donors (>10 donors/scenario) were irradiated in vitro with ⁶⁰Co gamma rays simulating three different exposure scenarios: acute whole body, partial body, and protracted exposure, with three different doses for each scenario. All the blood samples were irradiated at Ghent University, Belgium, and then shipped blind coded to the participating laboratories. The blood samples were set up by each lab using their own standard protocols, and metaphase slides were prepared to validate the calibration curves established by semi-automatic dicentric scoring. In order to achieve this, 300 metaphases per sample were captured, and the doses were estimated using the newly formed dose effect curves. After acute uniform exposure, all laboratories were able to distinguish between 0 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 2.0, and 4.0 Gy (p dicentric distribution enabled the detection of the partial body samples; however, this result was clearly dose-dependent. For partial body exposures, only a few dose estimates were in the range of ± 0.5 Gy of the given dose, but an improvement could be achieved with higher cell numbers. The new method of semi-automation of the dicentric assay was introduced successfully in a network of six laboratories. It is therefore concluded that this method can be used as a high-throughput screening tool in a large-scale radiation accident.

  17. How different from random are docking predictions when ranked by scoring functions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Oliva, Baldomero

    2010-01-01

    Docking algorithms predict the structure of protein-protein interactions. They sample the orientation of two unbound proteins to produce various predictions about their interactions, followed by a scoring step to rank the predictions. We present a statistical assessment of scoring functions used...

  18. The Reliability of a Criterion-Referenced Composite with the Parts of the Composite Having Different Cutting Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Nambury S.

    1982-01-01

    Rajaratnam, Cronbach and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests and Raju's coefficient beta are generalized to estimate the reliability of a composite of criterion-referenced tests, where the parts have different cutting scores. (Author/GK)

  19. Joint awareness in different types of knee arthroplasty evaluated with the Forgotten Joint score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Emmanuel; Opsomer, Gaetan; Koninckx, Angelique; Houssiau, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the 'Forgotten Joint' score (FJS-12), a 12-item questionnaire designed to analyze the patient's ability to forget the joint in everyday life, in French and to compare the results of this Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) score in patients who had other than total joint arthroplasties. The score was compared in 122 patients that had either medial unicompartmental (N=51), patellofemoral (N=21) or total knee arthroplasty (N=50). After having validated the FJS-12 in French, a similar PRO was observed in unicompartmental and postero-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Patellofemoral resurfacing had a significantly lower score than the two other types of arthroplasty, which can be explained by a significantly younger and smaller patient group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students: psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hitomi U; Koide, Norio; Ochi, Koji; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2009-09-01

    To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.

  1. Bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits on four different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, J L; Shaw, D J; Meredith, A L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of four diet regimes (extruded diet with ad lib hay, muesli with ad lib hay, ad lib hay only, ad lib muesli only) on bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits. Thirty-two Dutch rabbits were studied over 9 months. Bodyweight and body condition score were recorded weekly. All groups gained weight with age, but relative to the ad lib hay only group (mean, 1 · 77 ± 0 · 13 kg), after 9 months rabbits in the ad lib muesli only group were 146% heavier (2 · 59 ± 0 · 32 kg); extruded diet with ad lib hay group 125% heavier (2 · 21 ± 0 · 10 kg); and muesli with ad lib hay group 123% heavier (2 · 18 ± 0 · 13 kg). Median body condition score of the ad lib muesli only group was obese (4 · 5) and was higher than that in both the extruded diet with ad lib hay and muesli with ad lib hay (median = 3 · 5) groups (P lib hay and muesli with ad lib hay groups had above-ideal body condition score despite having bodyweights within the breed standard range. The ad lib hay only group had a median body condition score of 3 (ideal). There was an overall positive correlation between body condition score and weight (qs = 0 · 814, P < 0 · 001). The feeding of muesli without hay should be avoided, to prevent obesity. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Jong, Pim A. de; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Schilham, Arnold M.R.; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleys, Ronald L.A.W. [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy, Utrecht (Netherlands); Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Buls, Nico; Mey, Johan de [UZ Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    To analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels using unenhanced prospectively ECG-triggered protocols. Tube voltage was 120 kV and tube current differed between protocols. CT data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and reduced dose CT data with IR. CCS was quantified with Agatston scores, calcification mass and calcification volume. Differences were analysed with the Friedman test. Fourteen hearts showed coronary calcifications. Dose reduction with FBP did not significantly change Agatston scores, calcification volumes and calcification masses (P > 0.05). Maximum differences in Agatston scores were 76, 26, 51 and 161 units, in calcification volume 97, 27, 42 and 162 mm{sup 3}, and in calcification mass 23, 23, 20 and 48 mg, respectively. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes with significant differences for one vendor (P < 0.05). Median relative differences between reference FBP and reduced dose IR for Agatston scores remained within 2.0-4.6 %, 1.0-5.3 %, 1.2-7.7 % and 2.6-4.5 %, for calcification volumes within 2.4-3.9 %, 1.0-5.6 %, 1.1-6.4 % and 3.7-4.7 %, for calcification masses within 1.9-4.1 %, 0.9-7.8 %, 2.9-4.7 % and 2.5-3.9 %, respectively. IR resulted in increased, decreased or similar calcification masses. CCS derived from standard FBP acquisitions was not affected by radiation dose reductions up to 80 %. IR resulted in a trend towards lower Agatston scores and calcification volumes. (orig.)

  3. Resolving Differences among Methods of Establishing Confidence Limits for Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutting, Joseph J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic theory underlying confidence limits and presents reasons why psychologists should incorporate confidence ranges in their psychodiagnostic reports. Four methods for establishing confidence limits are compared. Three of the methods involve estimated true scores, and the fourth is the standard error of measurement…

  4. Addictive severity in cocaine addicts measured with the EuropASI: differences between composite scores and severity ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Secades-Villa, Roberto; José Santonja Gómez, Francisco; Zacarés Romaguera, Francisco; García-Rodríguez, Olaya

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present the addiction severity profile in a sample of 202 cocaine addicts, using the composite scores for each area of the EuropASI (European version of the ASI), which are compared with the severity ratings obtained through interviewers' subjective assessments. The results showed that the areas of the EuropASI which reflected the greatest severity according to the composite scores were, in the following order: employment/support, family/social situation, use of alcohol and psychiatric state. The results obtained with the composite scores show discrepancies with those obtained from the severity rating. Statistically significant differences were found in the areas of alcohol (Z = -6.205; p composite scores, since severity ratings depend totally on the interviewer's judgement, and do not appear to constitute a sound measure for estimating therapeutic change.

  5. Scores on Riley's stuttering severity instrument versions three and four for samples of different length and for different types of speech material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Helena; Mirawdeli, Avin; Costelloe, Sarah; Cavenagh, Penny; Davis, Stephen; Howell, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Riley stated that the minimum speech sample length necessary to compute his stuttering severity estimates was 200 syllables. This was investigated. Procedures supplied for the assessment of readers and non-readers were examined to see whether they give equivalent scores. Recordings of spontaneous speech samples from 23 young children (aged between 2 years 8 months and 6 years 3 months) and 31 older children (aged between 10 years 0 months and 14 years 7 months) were made. Riley's severity estimates were scored on extracts of different lengths. The older children provided spontaneous and read samples, which were scored for severity according to reader and non-reader procedures. Analysis of variance supported the use of 200-syllable-long samples as the minimum necessary for obtaining severity scores. There was no significant difference in SSI-3 scores for the older children when the reader and non-reader procedures were used. Samples that are 200-syllables long are the minimum that is appropriate for obtaining stable Riley's severity scores. The procedural variants provide similar severity scores.

  6. Applicability of different scoring systems in outcome prediction of patients with mixed drug poisoning-induced coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Eizadi Mood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed drugs poisoning (MDP is common in the emergency departments. Because of the limited number of intensive care unit beds, recognition of risk factors to divide the patients into different survival groups is necessary. Poisoning due to ingestion of different medications may have additive or antagonistic effects on different parameters included in the scoring systems; therefore, the aim of the study was to compare applicability of the different scoring systems in outcomes prediction of patients admitted with MDP-induced coma. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 93 patients with MDP-induced coma. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II, Modified APACHE II Score (MAS, Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scores (MEES and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were recorded for all patients on admission (time 0 and 24 h later (time 24 . The outcome was recorded in two categories: Survived with or without complication and non-survived. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC. Results: The mortality rate was 9.7%. Mean of each scoring system was statistically significant between time 0 and time 24 in the survivors. However, it was not significant in non-survivors. Discrimination was excellent for GCS 24 (0.90±0.05, APACHE II 24 (0.89±0.01, MAS 24 (0.86±0.10, and APACHE II 0 (0.83±0.11 AUC. Conclusion: The GCS 24 , APACHE II 24 , MAS 24 , and APACHE II 0 scoring systems seem to predict the outcome in comatose patients due to MDP more accurately. GCS and MAS may have superiority over the others in being easy to perform and not requiring laboratory data.

  7. The Standard Error of a Proportion for Different Scores and Test Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Walker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Smith's (2003 proposed standard error of a proportion index..associated with the idea of reliability as sufficiency of information. A detailed table..indexing all of the standard error values affiliated with assessments that range from 5 to..100 items, where students scored as low as 50% correct and 50% incorrect to as high as..95% correct and 5% incorrect, calculated in increments of 1 percentage point, is..presented, along with distributional qualities. Examples using this measure for classroom..teachers and higher education instructors of assessment are provided.

  8. Measuring the differences in pairs' marital forgiveness scores: construct validity and links with relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, Asli

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a Turkish version for the Marital Dispositional Forgiveness Scale (MDFS). 104 married couples (M age = 36.6 yr., SD = 9.4) living in Turkey completed the Turkish versions of the MDFS and the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS). Cronbach's coefficients a for negative dimension (wives = .82, husbands = .80) and positive dimension (wives = .80, husbands = .79) were adequate. A correlation between the MDFS and RAS scores indicated significant associations, stronger for the positive dimension than the negative dimension, supporting the external validity of the MDFS.

  9. Applicant and Method Factors Related to Ethnic Score Differences in Personnel Selection: A Study at the Dutch Police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); G. Terlouw (Gert); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to examine applicant and method factors related to ethnic score differences on a cognitive ability test, a personality test, an assessment center (AC), an employment interview, and a final employment recommendation in the context of police officer selection (N =

  10. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  11. Incorporating Learning Characteristics into Automatic Essay Scoring Models: What Individual Differences and Linguistic Features Tell Us about Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a novel approach to automatically assessing essay quality that combines natural language processing approaches that assess text features with approaches that assess individual differences in writers such as demographic information, standardized test scores, and survey results. The results demonstrate that combining text…

  12. Applicant and Method Factors Related to Ethnic Score Differences in Personnel Selection: A Study at the Dutch Police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); G. Terlouw (Gert); H.T. van der Molen (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to examine applicant and method factors related to ethnic score differences on a cognitive ability test, a personality test, an assessment center (AC), an employment interview, and a final employment recommendation in the context of police officer selection (N =

  13. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  14. The role of physical activity and fitness on the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: effect of different scores. The AFINOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, D; Eisenmann, J C; Moya, J M; Gómez-Martínez, S; Marcos, A; Veiga, O L

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with different continuous metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in adolescents. A cross-sectional sub-sample of 202 adolescents (99 girls), aged 13-17 years, were selected from the AFINOS Study. Body mass index, sum of 6 skindfold, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol, and HDL-cholesterol levels were determined. Moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) were assessed by the ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and CRF was estimated by the 20-m shuttle run test. Three continuous MetS scores were calculated according to the methodology of the Corpus Christi Child Heart Study (CCCHS), the Aerobic Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS), and the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). VPA and MVPA were significantly related with CRF. Only CRF, and not patterns of PA, was inversely and independently associated with the three MetS scores although with different magnitudes (ranged: beta = 0.22 to 0.36, p < 0.05). A significant VPA x CRF interaction (p = 0.011) was found using the ACLS MetS score. Trends across VPA-CRF groups were significantly different with ACLS and EYHS (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, respectively), but not with CCCHS (p = 0.313) continuous MetS scores. These findings support the key role of CRF on the MetS and the relevance of PA, especially VPA, to provide CRF in adolescents. A unified pediatric definition of MetS might minimize the discrepancies among studies.

  15. Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes Between Unicompartmental and Total Knee Arthroplasties: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man S; Koh, In J; Choi, Young J; Lee, Jong Y; In, Yong

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the patient-reported outcomes regarding joint awareness, function, and satisfaction after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We identified all patients who underwent a UKA or TKA at our institution between September 2011 and March 2014, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Propensity score matching was performed for age, gender, body mass index, operation side, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score. One hundred UKAs to 100 TKAs were matched. Each knee was evaluated according to the WOMAC score, Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), High Flexion Knee Score (HFKS) and patient's satisfaction at postoperative 2 years. There was no significant difference in WOMAC score at postoperative 2 years between UKA and TKA groups. However, the FJS of the UKA group was significantly higher than that of the TKA group (67.3 ± 19.8 and 60.6 ± 16.6, respectively; P = .011). The HFKS was also significantly higher in the UKA group compared with the TKA group (34.4 ± 6.4 and 31.3 ± 5.2, respectively; P < .001). Eighty-six percent of all patients who underwent UKA were satisfied compared with 71% of those who underwent TKA (P = .027). Patients who underwent UKA had higher FJS, HFKS, and satisfaction rate when compared with patients who underwent TKA, indicating that UKA facilitated less knee awareness and better function and satisfaction than TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS in 200 victims of different trauma mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DURANTE ALVAREZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile and mortality associated with the Revised Trauma Score (RTS in trauma victims treated at a university hospital. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study of trauma protocols (prospectively collected from December 2013 to February 2014, including trauma victims admitted in the emergency room of the Cajuru University Hospital. We set up three groups: (G1 penetrating trauma to the abdomen and chest, (G2 blunt trauma to the abdomen and chest, and (G3 traumatic brain injury. The variables we analyzed were: gender, age, day of week, mechanism of injury, type of transportation, RTS, hospitalization time and mortality. Results: we analyzed 200 patients, with a mean age of 36.42 ± 17.63 years, and 73.5% were male. The mean age was significantly lower in G1 than in the other groups (p <0.001. Most (40% of the visits occurred on weekends and the most common pre-hospital transport service (58% was the SIATE (Emergency Trauma Care Integrated Service. The hospital stay was significantly higher in G1 compared with the other groups (p <0.01. Regarding mortality, there were 12%, 1.35% and 3.95% of deaths in G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The median RTS among the deaths was 5.49, 7.84 and 1.16, respectively, for the three groups. Conclusion: the majority of patients were young men. RTS was effective in predicting mortality in traumatic brain injury, however failing to predict it in patients suffering from blunt and penetrating trauma.

  17. The impact of reading self-efficacy and task value on reading comprehension scores in different item formats

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that students with low self-efficacy will struggle with complex reading tasks in assessment situations. In this study we examined whether perceived reading self-efficacy and reading task value uniquely predicted reading comprehension scores in two different item formats in a sample of fifth-grade students. Results showed that, after controlling for variance associated with word reading ability, listening comprehension, and nonverbal ability through hierarchical multiple ...

  18. Gender differences in autobiographical narratives: he shoots and scores; she evaluates and interprets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew; Schoppel, Kyle; Scheiderer, Emily

    2012-08-01

    Research on autobiographical narratives consistently demonstrates that whereas women's narratives emphasize evaluative information, men's narratives are factually oriented. These narrative differences might reflect gender differences in either the autobiographical knowledge base or the way information from the knowledge base is selected when a narrative is constructed. The present experiment evaluated these two (potentially complementary) hypotheses by assessing memory soon after an event and after a period of 6 weeks, using both open-ended (narrative) and factually oriented (questionnaire) measures. Consistent with past literature, women told longer, richer, more evaluative narratives than did men. However, men recalled more factual information both initially and after 6 weeks and also constructed narratives that were more factually oriented. These data suggest that men and women value factual information differently and that these differences influence both the contents of the autobiographical knowledge base and the way that information in the knowledge base is used to construct personal narratives.

  19. Analysis of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in 200 victims of different trauma mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Bruno Durante; Razente, Danilo Mardegam; Lacerda, Daniel Augusto Mauad; Lother, Nicole Silveira; VON-Bahten, Luiz Carlos; Stahlschmidt, Carla Martinez Menini

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the epidemiological profile and mortality associated with the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in trauma victims treated at a university hospital. we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study of trauma protocols (prospectively collected) from December 2013 to February 2014, including trauma victims admitted in the emergency room of the Cajuru University Hospital. We set up three groups: (G1) penetrating trauma to the abdomen and chest, (G2) blunt trauma to the abdomen and chest, and (G3) traumatic brain injury. The variables we analyzed were: gender, age, day of week, mechanism of injury, type of transportation, RTS, hospitalization time and mortality. we analyzed 200 patients, with a mean age of 36.42 ± 17.63 years, and 73.5% were male. The mean age was significantly lower in G1 than in the other groups (p sexo, idade, dia da semana, mecanismo de trauma, tipo de transporte, RTS, tempo de internamento e mortalidade. analisou-se 200 pacientes, com média de idade de 36,42 ± 17,63 anos, sendo 73,5% do sexo masculino. A média de idade no G1 foi significativamente menor do que nos demais grupos (p <0,001). A maioria (40%) dos atendimentos ocorreu nos finais de semana e o serviço de transporte pré-hospitalar mais frequente (58%) foi o SIATE (Serviço Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência). O tempo de internamento foi significativamente maior no G1, em comparação aos demais grupos (p <0,01). Quanto à mortalidade, houve 12%, 1,35% e 3,95% de óbitos nos grupos G1, G2 e G3, respectivamente. A mediana do RTS entre os óbitos foi 5,49, 7,84 e 1,16, respectivamente, para os três grupos. a maioria dos pacientes eram homens jovens. O RTS mostrou-se efetivo na predição de mortalidade no trauma cranioencefálico, entretanto falhou ao analisar pacientes vítimas de trauma contuso e penetrante.

  20. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement and Retention Scores: A Case of Problem-Based Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajai, John T.; Imoko, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess gender differences in mathematics achievement and retention by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The design of the study was pre-posttest quasi-experimental. Four hundred and twenty eight senior secondary one (SS I) students using multistage sampling from ten grant-aided and government schools were involved in…

  1. An Empirical Examination of Sex Differences in Scoring Preschool Children's Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine M.; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Roseth, Cary; Solberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in adults' observations and ratings of children's aggression was studied in a sample of preschool children (N=89, mean age=44.00 months, SD=8.48). When examining the direct observations made by trained observers, male observers, relative to female observers, more frequently recorded aggressive bouts, especially of boys. On rating…

  2. Explaining the Difference between PISA 2009 Reading Scores in Finland and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the difference between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 reading results for Finland and Estonia using characteristics of teaching and learning, and characteristics of the overall development of these countries. PISA data were collected via a reading test and student questionnaires…

  3. A Different Role for Teachers Unions? Cooperation Brings High Scores in Canada and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power or eviscerate them. One would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions. Are those unions in some way different from American teachers…

  4. Validating the Injury Severity Score (ISS) in different populations: ISS predicts mortality better among Hispanics and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolorunduro, O B; Villegas, C; Oyetunji, T A; Haut, E R; Stevens, K A; Chang, D C; Cornwell, E E; Efron, D T; Haider, A H

    2011-03-01

    The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is the most commonly used measure of injury severity. The score has been shown to have excellent predictive capability for trauma mortality and has been validated in multiple data sets. However, the score has never been tested to see if its discriminatory ability is affected by differences in race and gender. This study is aimed at validating the ISS in men and women and in three different race/ethnic groups using a nationwide database. Retrospective analysis of patients age 18-64 y in the National Trauma Data Bank 7.0 with blunt trauma was performed. ISS was categorized as mild (25). Logistic regression was done to measure the relative odds of mortality associated with a change in ISS categories. The discriminatory ability was compared using the receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC). A P value testing the equality of the ROC curves was calculated. Age stratified analyses were also conducted. A total of 872,102 patients had complete data for the analysis on ethnicity, while 763,549 patients were included in the gender analysis. The overall mortality rate was 3.7%. ROC in Whites was 0.8617, in Blacks 0.8586, and in Hispanics 0.8869. Hispanics have a statistically significant higher ROC (P value ISS possesses excellent discriminatory ability in all populations as indicated by the high ROCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Injury scores and locomotor disorders of Holstein cows in a free-stall facility with different beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cecchin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders in 36 multiparous Holstein cows confined in a free-stall model system with two types of beds at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in the city of Coronel Pacheco / MG. Rubber composite beds and sand beds were compared and the hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders were assessed for severity scores. There was no difference between the scores or hock lesions observed at the beginning and end of the trial period for knee injuries in both beds. The two beds offer the same conditions of comfort, injury rates, and hull health, at least in the short term.

  6. An Examination Of Bahamian Respondents’ Task And Relationship Orientations: Do Males Have A Significantly Different Score Than Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders get things done through building relationships and getting tasks done in a timely manner. The focus on leadership of people in different cultures are of great importance to managers since they want tasks done in a timely manner and healthy relationships maintained with their vendors and customers. To explore the orientation of respondents in the Bahamas, this research focused on the differences of male and female Bahamian respondents. From the responses of 211 individuals in Nassau, it appears that Bahamians have significantly different scores on the relationship and task orientations. They are more relationship-oriented. The responses of 46 males and 165 females demonstrate significant differences based on gender. The information is useful for international managers and expatriates working in the Bahamas. Suggestions for future research and implications are presented.

  7. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  8. The association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Jeong, Dae Keun; Park, Chang Eun; Oh, Hye Jong; Kim, Sung Gil

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome (MetS), metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults. Analyses were restricted to 5147 adults (2162 men; 2985 women) aged 20 and older, using the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. In the non-adjusted model, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were inversely associated with MetS (p = .001) and MSS (p = .009) in men, but positively associated with MetS (p = .002) and MSS (p D levels were inversely associated with MetS (p D concentration in men.

  9. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  10. A comparison of three different scoring methods for self-report measures of psychological aggression in a sample of college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.

  11. Posterior Atrophy and Medial Temporal Atrophy Scores Are Associated with Different Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Lung Hsu

    Full Text Available Whether the occurrence of posterior atrophy (PA and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA was correlated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients are unclear.Patients with probable AD and MCI from a medical center outpatient clinic received attention, memory, language, executive function evaluation and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE. The severity of dementia was rated by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Sum of Box (CDR-SB. The neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI subscale of agitation/aggression and mood symptoms was also applied. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was scored visually for the MTA, PA and white matter hyperintensity (WMH scores.We recruited 129 AD and 31 MCI (mean age 78.8 years, 48% female patients. MMSE scores, memory, language and executive function were all significantly decreased in individuals with AD than those with MCI (p < 0.01. MTA and PA scores reflected significant atrophy in AD compared to MCI; however, the WMH scores did not differ. The MTA scores were significantly correlated with the frontal, parieto-occipital and global WMH scores (p < 0.01 while the PA scores showed a correlation with the parieto-occipital and temporal WMH scores (p < 0.01. After adjusting for age, education, APOE4 gene and diagnostic group covariates, the MTA scores showed a significant association with MMSE and CDR-SB, while the right side PA scores were significantly associated with NPI-agitation/aggression subscales (p < 0.01.Regional atrophy is related to different symptoms in patients with AD or MCI. PA score is useful as a complementary measure for non-cognitive symptom.

  12. Magnitude and direction of missing confounders had different consequences on treatment effect estimation in propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tri-Long; Collins, Gary S; Spence, Jessica; Fontaine, Charles; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Devereaux, Philip J; Landais, Paul; Le Manach, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    Propensity score (PS) analysis allows an unbiased estimate of treatment effects but assumes that all confounders are measured. We assessed the impact of omitting confounders from a PS analysis on clinical decision making. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations on hypothetical observational studies based on virtual populations and on the population from a large randomized trial (CRASH-2). In both series of simulations, PS analysis was conducted with all confounders and with omitted confounders, which were defined to have different strengths of association with the outcome and treatment exposure. After inverse probability of treatment weighting, we calculated the absolute risk differences and numbers needed to treat (NNT). In both series of simulations, omitting a confounder that was moderately associated with the outcome and exposure led to negligible bias on the NNT scale. The bias induced by omitting strongly positive confounding variables remained less than 15 patients to treat. Major bias and reversed effects were found only when omitting highly prevalent, strongly negative confounders that were similarly associated with the outcome and exposure with odds ratios greater than 4.00 (or <0.25). This omission was accompanied by a substantial decrease in analysis power. The omission of strongly negative confounding variables from a PS analysis can lead to incorrect clinical decision making. However, omitting these variables also decreases the analysis power, which may prevent the reporting of significant but misleading effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  14. Densitometer-Specific Differences in the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Lumbar Spine Trabecular Bone Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Gillian; Berger, Claudie; Leslie, William D; Hans, Didier; Langsetmo, Lisa; Hanley, David A; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerrilyn C; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan R; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-12-26

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level texture measure derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images that predicts fractures independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Increased abdominal soft tissue in individuals with elevated body mass index (BMI) absorbs more X-rays during image acquisition for BMD measurement and must be accommodated by the TBS algorithm. We aimed to determine if the relationship between BMI and TBS varied between 2 major manufacturers' densitometers, because different densitometers accommodate soft tissues differently. We identified 1919 women and 811 men, participants of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, aged ≥40 yr with lumbar spine DXA scans acquired on GE Lunar (4 centers) or Hologic (3 centers) densitometers at year 10 of follow-up. TBS was calculated for L1-L4 (TBS iNsight® software, version 2.1). A significant negative correlation between TBS and BMI was observed when TBS measurements were performed on Hologic densitometers in men (Pearson r = -0.36, p Pearson r = -0.33, p correlations were not seen when TBS was measured on GE Lunar densitometers (Pearson r = 0.00 in men, Pearson r = -0.02 in women). Age-adjusted linear regression models confirmed significant interactions between BMI and densitometer manufacturer for both men and women (p correlations were observed between BMD and BMI on both Hologic and GE Lunar densitometers in men and women. In conclusion, BMI significantly affects TBS values in men and women when measured on Hologic but not GE Lunar densitometers. This finding has implications for clinical and research applications of TBS, especially when TBS is measured sequentially on DXA densitometers from different manufacturers or when results from different machines are pooled for analysis.

  15. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Mai, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio M; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 × CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm(-1)) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤ 2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable.

  16. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  17. Different MMSE Score Is Associated with Postoperative Delirium in Young-Old and Old-Old Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meijuan; Zhu, Yingbo; Li, Cheng; Li, Guodong; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong; Shen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium is one of the most common postoperative complications in geriatric patients. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) assesses cognitive function in patients and is associated with postoperative delirium. However, whether there is an age-dependent relationship between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium remains unknown. Methods We therefore set out to investigate the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium in young-old (≤80 year-old, 75.46±4.69 years, 27.0% male, n = 63) and old-old (>80 year-old, 84.51±3.46 years, 20.9% male, n = 67) participants, who had repairs of hip fractures under general anesthesia. The Confusion Assessment Method and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale were administrated before surgery, and on the first, second and fourth days after surgery, to assess the incidence and severity of the delirium, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the optimal cutoff score of MMSE in predicting postoperative delirium. Results Thirty-four (26.2%) of 130 patients (80.12±6.12 years, 23.8% male) developed postoperative delirium. Preoperative MMSE scores were negatively associated with higher incidences and greater severity of postoperative delirium. The optimal cutoff scores of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium for young-old and old-old participants were 18.4 and 21.4, with a sensitivity of 60% and 83.8%, and a specificity of 92.5% and 62.8%, respectively. Conclusion The data demonstrated the optimal cutoff score of MMSE associated with postoperative delirium in young-old adults might be lower than that in old-old adults. Pending further investigation, these findings suggest that the association between preoperative MMSE score and postoperative delirium is age-dependent. PMID:26460750

  18. Apgar score

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003402.htm Apgar score To use the sharing features on this page, ... birth. Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. How the Test is Performed The ...

  19. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  20. Analysis of Grid-Scored Sandwich Structures of Different Curvatures and Grid Sizes For Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Steffen; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Lund, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    The stress and strain field developed locally in-situ the core of grid-scored sandwich structures in wind turbine blades is investigated. Due to the many singularities occurring from the “tri-material corners”, a full 3D analysis of the sandwich structure in terms of the Finite Element Method...

  1. Differences in Mathematics Scores between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen Ann

    2007-01-01

    While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the "whole" child, that math achievement scores are significantly…

  2. The impact of CT radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction algorithms from four different vendors on coronary calcium scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, M.J.; Takx, R.A.P.; Jong, P.A. de; Budde, R.P.; Bleys, R.L.; Das, M.; Wildberger, J.E.; Prokop, M.; Buls, N.; Mey, J. de; Schilham, A.M.; Leiner, T.

    2014-01-01

    o analyse the effects of radiation dose reduction and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on coronary calcium scoring (CCS).Fifteen ex vivo human hearts were examined in an anthropomorphic chest phantom using computed tomography (CT) systems from four vendors and examined at four dose levels us

  3. The Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author reports secondary analyses that examine the bidirectional effects of the duration of early poverty on children's reading and home environment scores. The author focuses on three specific questions: (1) Does the duration of early childhood poverty affect children's reading scores…

  4. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  5. Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Multiple informants commonly disagree when reporting child and family behavior. In many studies of informant discrepancies, researchers take the difference between two informants' reports and seek to examine the link between this difference score and external constructs (e.g., child maladjustment). In this paper, we review two reasons why…

  6. The Differences between High-Score Group and Low-Score Group In Modifiable Learner Variables%英语专业高/低分学生学习者可控因素的差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 侯润颖

    2013-01-01

    The research reports a study on the differences between high-score group and low-score group in modifiable learner variables such as level of effort, learning motivations, learning beliefs and learning strategies. The subjects for the survey are 96 English majors. Statistical results show that: 1) Students from low-score group seem to spend more time learning English every week; their intrinsic motivations are significantly stronger than those of high-score group, whereas there is no big difference in extrinsic motivations. 2) Students from two groups are significantly different in management belief, form- focused belief and meaning-focused belief. 3) Students from two groups display significant differences in management strategies, form-focused strat⁃egies and meaning-focused strategies, and the high-score group tends to make more frequent use.%  该研究以96名英语专业大学生为研究对象进行了问卷调查,分析了高分组与低分组学生在努力程度、学习动机、学习观念及学习策略等学习者可控因素方面的差异。研究发现,1)低分组每周课外学习英语的时间显著高于高分组,深层动机均值显著低于高分组,表层动机方面则与高分组没有显著差异;2)高分组在管理观念、形式操练观念和功能操练观念上的均值显著高于低分组,依赖母语观念不存在显著差异;3)高分组使用管理策略、形式操练策略和功能操练策略的频率显著高于低分组,而在依赖母语策略使用上则没有显著差异。

  7. Impact of different scoring algorithms applied to multiple-mark survey items on outcome assessment: an in-field study on health-related knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnich, A; Panatto, D; Arata, L; Bevilacqua, I; Apprato, L; Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D

    2015-01-01

    Health-related knowledge is often assessed through multiple-choice tests. Among the different types of formats, researchers may opt to use multiple-mark items, i.e. with more than one correct answer. Although multiple-mark items have long been used in the academic setting - sometimes with scant or inconclusive results - little is known about the implementation of this format in research on in-field health education and promotion. A study population of secondary school students completed a survey on nutrition-related knowledge, followed by a single- lecture intervention. Answers were scored by means of eight different scoring algorithms and analyzed from the perspective of classical test theory. The same survey was re-administered to a sample of the students in order to evaluate the short-term change in their knowledge. In all, 286 questionnaires were analyzed. Partial scoring algorithms displayed better psychometric characteristics than the dichotomous rule. In particular, the algorithm proposed by Ripkey and the balanced rule showed greater internal consistency and relative efficiency in scoring multiple-mark items. A penalizing algorithm in which the proportion of marked distracters was subtracted from that of marked correct answers was the only one that highlighted a significant difference in performance between natives and immigrants, probably owing to its slightly better discriminatory ability. This algorithm was also associated with the largest effect size in the pre-/post-intervention score change. The choice of an appropriate rule for scoring multiple- mark items in research on health education and promotion should consider not only the psychometric properties of single algorithms but also the study aims and outcomes, since scoring rules differ in terms of biasness, reliability, difficulty, sensitivity to guessing and discrimination.

  8. Evaluation of Divided Doses of Scored Tablets and Non-scored Tablets Produced by Different Manufacturers%不同厂家刻痕片及非刻痕片分剂量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 杨亚勇; 詹金陶; 刘其东

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价对不同厂家复方卡托普利片和复方对乙酰氨基酚片(Ⅱ)的刻痕片及非刻痕片采用3种方法的分剂量情况,促进合理用药.方法:以分剂量准确性、期望重量与实际重量差值(d)、重量损失百分比、等分片脆碎度为指标,采用手掰、剪刀、切药器3种方法对A厂(有刻痕)、B厂(无刻痕)的复方卡托普利片及C厂(无刻痕)、D厂(有刻痕)的复方对乙酰氨基酚片(Ⅱ)进行分剂量评价.结果:除D厂(3种方法)、C厂(切药器法)外,其余厂家或方法分剂量准确性均不符合《欧洲药典》第6版的规定.与手掰法比较,C厂剪刀法d值明显降低(P<0.05);与剪刀法比较,D厂切药器法d值明显降低(P<0.01).3种方法间比较分剂量后重量损失百分比均具有统计学意义(P均<0.01),其中剪刀法>切药器法(除B厂外)>手掰法.等分片脆碎度结果表明,A厂切药器法不合格,B厂3种方法均不合格,其余厂家或方法均合格.结论:刻痕片较非刻痕片更适合分剂量,具体分剂量方法需根据药片物理参数情况进行选择.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the subdivision of scored tablets and non-scored tablet of Compound captopril tablets and Compound paracetamol tablets ( II ) from different manufacturers with 3 methods, to promote the rational use of medicines. METHODS: Using subdivision accuracy, difference between expected mass and real mass (d value), loss of mass and friability as index, the subdivision of Compound captopril tablets from manufacturer A (scored tablet) and manufacturer B (non-scored tablet) and Compound paracetamol tablets (II) from manufacturer C (non-scored tablet) and manufacturer D (scored tablet) were evaluated with hand, scissors and tablet cutters. RESULTS: Except manufacturer D (3 methods) and manufacturer C (tablet cutter), others could not comply with the specification of Ph. Eur. (6th edition). Compared with manual splitting, d value of manufacturer C decreased

  9. Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maureen Ann

    2007-01-01

    While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child wh...

  10. Differences in Mathematics Scores Between Students Who Receive Traditional Montessori Instruction and Students Who Receive Music Enriched Montessori Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Maureen Ann

    2007-01-01

    While a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance the value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized. If research of students in the school system indicates that learning through the arts can benefit the ‘whole’ child, that math achievement scores are significantly higher for those students studying music, and if Montessori education produces a more academically accomplished child, then what is the potential for the child wh...

  11. Using 3–6 differences in essential fatty acids rather than 3/6 ratios gives useful food balance scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lands Bill

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vitamin-like omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids are converted in the body to a large family of hormones which act at selective receptors that occur on nearly every cell and tissue. A relative omega-3 deficit allows overabundant actions of omega-6 hormones to develop into health disorders. People need simple, explicit information on the balance of essential fatty acids in their foods to avoid accumulating unintended imbalances in their tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Results We developed an Omega 3–6 Balance Food Score that summarizes in a single value the balance among eleven omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids in a food. The value allows a quantitative estimate of the impact of each food item on the proportions of omega-3 and omega-6 that will accumulate in the 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids of blood, which is an important health risk assessment biomarker. Conclusions The impact of an individual food item upon a useful health risk assessment biomarker is easily evident in a simple, explicit value for the balance among eleven essential fatty acids nutrients. Foods with more positive Omega 3–6 Balance Food Scores will increase the percent of omega-3 in the biomarker, whereas those with more negative Scores will increase the percent of omega-6 in the biomarker.

  12. Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Mahmutyaziciglu, Kamran; Davsancimath, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, 67600, Zonguldak (Turkey); Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent [Department of Pulmonology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Soeguet, Ayhan; Tomac, Nazan [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Cinar, Fikret; Uzun, Lokman [Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, (Turkey)

    2004-05-01

    Cephalometry is useful as a screening test for anatomical abnormalities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). To evaluate comprehensively the cephalo metric features of children with OSAS, with or without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) severity. The study population consisted of 39 children, aged 4-12 years, with OSAS. Cephalometry was analysed using 11 measurements of the bony structures, their relationships and the size of the airways. Additionally, adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy were graded. Cranial base angles (BaSN and BaSPNS) were found to correlate with increasing levels of AHI scores (P<0.001). Protrusion of the maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) did not correlate with AHI scores (P>0.05). The length of the mandibular plane (GnGo) and the minimal posterior airway space (MPAS) were inversely correlated with AHI scores (P<0.001). There was positive correlation between MPAS and GnGo (r=0.740, P<0.001), and negative correlation between MPAS and gonial angle (ArGoGn) (r=-0.541, P<0.001). There was significant correlation between cephalometric data and adenotonsillar hypertrophy concerning BaSN, BaSPNS, ArGoGn, GnGoH, BaN-GnGo, MPAS, GnGO and MPH. (orig.)

  13. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as your ... the syringe, but is blue; her one minute Apgar score would be 8—two points off because she ...

  14. General health status and intelligence scores of children of mothers with acromegaly do not differ from those of healthy mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, Ozlem; Dogangun, Burak; Ozcabi, Bahar; Kural, Hanife Ugur; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Pamukcu, Fatma Colkesen; Bektas, Elif; Poyraz, Burc Cagri; Buber, Hakan; Evliyaoglu, Olcay; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    To determine the physical status and intelligence scores of children of acromegalic mothers and to compare them with those of children from mothers without acromegaly. Six women with acromegaly who became pregnant under follow-up between 2010 and 2014 and their 16 children (group A) were assessed and compared with 16 children of healthy women (group B) and 15 children of women with prolactinoma (group C). The physical examinations of children were performed by the department of pediatric endocrinology and intelligence quotient (IQ) testing was undertaken by adult and pediatric psychiatry departments, using appropriate scales for their ages. Six of the 16 children (girls/boys: 7/9) were born after the diagnosis of acromegaly. Five of the 6 pregnancies occured when the patients were taking somatostatin analogs, none continued taking the drugs during pregnancy. The mean IQ of groups A, B, and C were 106.4 ± 12.5, 105.3 ± 12.5, and 103.2 ± 16.1 respectively (p > 0.05). The mean ages, birth percentiles, recent weight and height standard deviation scores were similar between groups (p > 0.05). Two siblings from group A and 1 child from group B were large for gestational age at birth. At recent follow-up, two children from group A were found tall for their age and one from group C was short for his age and was placed under the care of pediatric endocrinology clinic. Pregnancies in acromegaly seems to be uneventful and the general health status and IQ scores of children from women with and without acromegaly were found similar.

  15. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Z Jie; Jian-Y Zhang; Li-H Zhao; Qiu-G Maand Cheng Ji

    2014-01-01

    Background:This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical Methods:Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results:Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P<0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P<0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME=6.57111+0.51475 GE-0.10003 NDF+0.13380 ADF+0.07057 fat-0.57029 ash-0.02437 L (R2=0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME=7.92283+0.51475 GE-0.10003 NDF+0.13380 ADF+0.07057 fat-0.57029 ash-0.02437 L (R2=0.70). Conclusions:This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  16. Comparison of the Body Condition Score and Body Measurements of Purebred and Crossbred Kids Fattening in Different Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Tüfekci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study was aimed to crossbred male kids of the Hair goat and Saanen x Hair kids (G1 body condition score and compare their body size intensive, semi-intensive and extensive conditions. In the research, 30 Hair goat and 30 Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred single male kids was used. When the research findings were evaluated, in terms of body condition scores of 30, 60 and 90th days high values in the semi-intensive were detected in fattening Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids. However, at the end of fattening in semi-intensive fattening group of Hair goat it is determined that the value of the highest condition score. This situation is thought to be caused by more growth of environment and width measurements in Hair goat kids in the later stages of fattening according to the Saanen x Hair goats (G1 crossbred. In study in terms of body length during whole fattening, in terms of the height at the withers data obtained from the 60th and 90th day was found statistically significant. At the end of the fattening in semi-intensive fattening group of Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred it was observed to have higher body length and height at the withers value of crossbred kids. When chest width measurements between paddles in kids were examined, in all periods seems to be an increase in Hair goat kids than the Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids. At the end of fattening in terms of height rump Hair goats has shown higher values than Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids but the highest values of the semi-intensive group has shown. As a result, semi-intensive feeding group of kids of body condition score and body size was higher than intensive and extensive fattening group kids, in terms of length and height measurements Saanen x Hair goat (G1 crossbred kids in terms of width and environmental measures has shown higher values than Hair goat kids.

  17. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  18. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor…

  19. The criterion-related validity of the Northwick Park Dependency Score as a generic nursing dependency instrument for different rehabilitation patient groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.; Tiesinga, L. J.; van der Schans, C. P.; Middel, B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the criterion or concurrent validity of the Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS) for determining nursing dependence in different rehabilitation groups, with the Barthel Index (BI) and the Care Dependency Scale (C D S). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Centre for Re

  20. Sequential Temporal Dependencies in Associations between Symptoms of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Application of Bivariate Latent Difference Score Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; McArdle, John J.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Doron-LaMarca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid conditions that may arise following exposure to psychological trauma. This study examined their temporal sequencing and mutual influence using bivariate latent difference score structural equation modeling. Longitudinal data from 182 emergency room patients revealed level of…

  1. The Politics of Achievement Gaps: U.S. Public Opinion on Race-Based and Wealth-Based Differences in Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valant, Jon; Newark, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers' and policymakers' efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public's views on achievement gaps have received little attention from…

  2. An analysis of differences of post artwork scores between a science intervention in a traditional classroom versus an intervention in an outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Maria

    Outdoor education has been presented as one alternative to classroom based instruction to increase student knowledge retention and interest. This mixed method study used pre and post drawings to determine the difference in scores of two groups of college students. One group of 19 students attended a lesson in a classroom and a second group of 19 students participated in an outdoor lesson. A dependent t test showed that post artwork scores of both groups increased significantly after their intervention * p = assessment of learning is possible.

  3. Comparison of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP frequency in colon cancer using different probe- and gene-specific scoring alternatives on recommended multi-gene panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. RESULTS: For 47 samples (71%, the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20% consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13% investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using 'the most stringent' as compared to 'the least stringent' criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; p<0.005 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: A statistical significant variation in the frequency of CIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition

  4. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    to use in clinical practice by the GP or the patient herself, could just as well as FRAX® be used to identify women with increased risk of fracture. SUMMARY: Comparison of FRAX® and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE) in predicting fractures indicate that FRAX® did not perform better...... returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3...... 3years follow-up FRAX® did not perform better in the fracture risk prediction compared with simpler tools such as OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE or age alone in a screening scenario where BMD was not measured. These findings suggest that simpler models based on fewer risk factors, which would be easier...

  5. Do preschool special education services make a difference in kindergarten reading and mathematics skills?: A propensity score weighting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L; Field, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the average treatment effect of preschool special education services on children's kindergarten academic skills. Using data from a nationally representative sample of United States children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined the effectiveness of preschool special education services by comparing reading and math outcomes for children who received special education services at preschool-age to a propensity-score-weighted sample of children who did not receive these services. Results indicated that the receipt of these special education services had a statistically significant moderate negative effect on children's kindergarten skills in both reading (d=-0.21) and mathematics (d=-0.29). These findings have implications for the implementation and evaluation of services for young children experiencing developmental delays or disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental involvement, child effort, and the development of immigrant boys' and girls' reading and mathematics skills: A latent difference score growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5(th)-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls. For both boys and girls, child effort in reading appears to be strongly linked to better reading and mathematics skills at kindergarten and to subsequent improvement between grades. The positive associations of parental involvement and child's effort with test scores were greater during earlier years than during later years for boys, whereas there was no difference in the association over time for girls.

  7. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  8. Score distribution of the scoliosis research society health-related quality of life in different subgroups of adolescent subjects unaffected by scoliosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Du, Yuanli; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire performance in normal adolescents without scoliosis to establish a normative baseline useful for evaluating the discriminate validity of the SRS-22 in primary adolescent scoliosis; and (2) investigate impact of age and sex on SRS-22 in an adolescent population unaffected by scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire is widely used to measure health-related quality of life of patients with spinal disease including scoliosis and lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, normal data, which are very important, when comparing patients and nonpatients, are few, little, and there are few studies about factors that may affect SRS questionnaire performance. The adolescent population was from 14 schools located in 7 provinces. A total of 2008 adolescents (961 females, 1026 males, 21 unknown; mean age, 14.3 yr; range, 11-20) completed the simplified Chinese version of SRS-22 questionnaire and demographic questions. Surveys were stratified into 8 age-sex groups for analysis: male/female; 12 to 13.4, 13.5 to 14.9, 15 to 15.9, and more than 16 years of age. Post hoc testing and the Tukey least significant difference were used to compare differences between any 2 of the 4 age groups. Self-image scores in males were higher than those in females (P < 0.01). Pain domain scores were significantly higher in males than those in females in the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old subgroup, whereas other subgroups showed no obvious differences. The function domain scores in males who were aged 15 to 15.9 years and those older than 16 years were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mental health domain scores among age-sex subgroups, with the exception of the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old group. This is the first study to characterize the sex and age influence on the SRS-22 scores in normal population. Age and sex have an important

  9. Differences in Patient Health Questionnaire and Aachen Depression Item Bank scores between tablet versus paper-and-pencil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Glaesmer, Heide; Boecker, Maren; Forkmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    To extend knowledge about measurement equivalence of depression measures assessed by tablet and paper-pencil administration, the present study evaluated the effect of mode of administration (MoA) on scale and item level for the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB) in elderly patients. Primary care patients (N = 193, ≥60 years) were assessed following a crossover design in Leipzig, Germany. All participants filled out the PHQ-9 and the ADIB in both MoAs under study. Effects of MoA were analyzed by intra-class correlation, mixed-effects regression, and differential item functioning (DIF). Additionally, detection rates between both MoAs were compared using receiver operating characteristics analysis compared to a diagnostic interview (SCID-I, N = 163). No effect of MoA was found in the PHQ-9 on scale score or item level. Two ADIB items showed DIF according to MoA. In terms of discriminatory power, MoA did not influence detection rates of both instruments. In summary, our findings suggest that no severe effect of mode of administration on self-report assessments of depression should be expected. It can be concluded that tablets provide a valid way to electronically assess depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Yet changes in item presentation can influence the psychometric properties and require equivalence testing using sophisticated analyses on item level such as DIF.

  10. The difference in enhancement patterns of prostate cancer with different Gleason scores%不同Gleason评分前列腺癌超声造影表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费翔; 唐杰; 李岩密; 张艳; 石怀银

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同Gleason评分前列腺癌的超声造影表现差异.方法 65例经直肠前列腺超声引导下穿刺活检确诊为前列腺癌的患者纳入本研究.穿刺前首先先进行经直肠前列腺超声造影与超声引导下前列腺穿刺活检.根据前列腺癌Gleason分级分为Gleason评分≥4+3组(35例)和Gleason评分≤3+4组(30例).记录两组前列腺癌超声造影表现并进行统计分析.结果 33.3%(10/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与62.9%(22/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影表现为快速增强(P=0.018),30.0%(9/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与68.6%(24/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影表现为高增强(P=0.002),80.0%(28/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影可以观察到不对称血管结构的存在,33.3%(10/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影表现存在不对称血管结构(P=0.000),54.3%(19/35)Gleason评分≥4+3与13.3%(4/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影表现为快退(P=0.001),53.3%(16/30)Gleason评分≤3+4的前列腺癌造影后病灶边界清楚,91.4%(32/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺癌造影后病灶边界清楚(P=0.001).43.3%(13/30)Gleason评分≤3+4与80.0%(28/35)Gleason评分≥4+3的前列腺造影呈不均匀性增强(P=0.002).结论 不同Gleason 评分的前列腺癌超声造影表现存在差异,通过观察超声造影表现差异对判断前列腺癌的Gleason分级具有一定临床价值.%Objective To compare enhancement patterns in prostate cancer ( PCa ) with different Gleason scores ( GS ) by contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound ( CETRUS ). Methods A total of 65 conspicuous prostatic cancers detected by transrectal ultrasound ( TRUS ) were enrolled in this study. Each patient had successive grey-scale TRUS, CETRUS, and targeted-biopsy of prostate under ultrasound guidance on the same day. Patients were classified into two groups of PCa with GS≤3 +4 =7 ( n = 30 ) and PCa with GS≥4 +3 =7 ( n = 35 ) according to the pathological findings. The videotapes

  11. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  12. Effect of serum lipid level change on 10-year coronary heart risk distribution estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores during one-year treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nevena Eremić; Derić, Mirjana; Dejanović, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    This study was done in order to evaluate the effect of serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on 10-year coronary heart disease risk distribution change. This study included 110 subjects of both genders (71 female and 39 male), aged 29 to 73, treated at the Outpatient Department of Atherosclerosis Prevention, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Centre Vojvodina. The 10-year coronary heart disease risk was estimated on first examination and after one-year treatment by means of Framingham, PROCAM and SCORE coronary risk scores and their modifications (Framingham Adult Treatment Panel III, Framingham Weibul, PROCAM NS and PROCAM Cox Hazards). Age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking, positive family history and left ventricular hypertrophy are risk factors involved in the estimation of coronary heart disease besides lipid parameters. There were no significant differences in nutritional status, smoking habits, systolic and diastolic pressure, and no development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular incidents during one-year follow. However, a significant reduction in cholesterol level (p risk (Framingham- p Framingham ATP III- p Framingham Weibul- p SCORE- p risk category (Framingham- p Framingham ATP III- p Framingham Weibul- p SCORE- p risk at the beginning of the study. Our results show that the correction of lipid level after one-year treatment leads to a significant redistribution of 10-year coronary heart disease risk estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores. This should stimulate patients and doctors to persist in prevention measures.

  13. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pz-score differences remained significant in all age groups z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  14. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  15. Visual pain score during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy using no anaesthesia or three different types of local anaesthetic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Cenk; Canat, Lutfi; Bayram, Guner; Gokhan, Atis; Samet, Gungor; Caskurlu, Turhan

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the pain score during transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy using three different anaesthetic applications and no anaesthesia. One-hundred men undergoing TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were prospectively enrolled in this study. Patients were randomized to four groups. Group 1 (n = 25) received no anaesthesia, group 2 (n = 25) was administered a perianal lidocaine injection, group 3 (n = 25) was administered a periprostatic lidocaine injection, and group 4 (n = 25) was administered a combination of perianal-intrarectal lidocaine-prilocaine cream. The anaesthetic application was given 5 min before the procedure. All patients were asked to indicate the level of pain experienced on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during three situations, including when the TRUS probe was inserted and 15 min and 2 weeks after biopsy. Mean pain scores were similar in all groups at the time of probe insertion. Mean pain scores showed statistically significant differences between group 1 and the other groups, except for group 4, 15 min after the procedure. Group 3 showed better pain control 15 min after biopsy and this difference was statistically significant (p biopsy may be advocated. The application of periprostatic lidocaine seems to be the most advantageous method for lowering the perception of pain.

  16. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  17. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Felix Fischer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs. When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org , which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Results Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP, Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE and Maximum likelihood (ML methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. Conclusions This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9 and Anxiety (GAD-7 scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  18. www.common-metrics.org: a web application to estimate scores from different patient-reported outcome measures on a common scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Rose, Matthias

    2016-10-19

    Recently, a growing number of Item-Response Theory (IRT) models has been published, which allow estimation of a common latent variable from data derived by different Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs). When using data from different PROs, direct estimation of the latent variable has some advantages over the use of sum score conversion tables. It requires substantial proficiency in the field of psychometrics to fit such models using contemporary IRT software. We developed a web application ( http://www.common-metrics.org ), which allows estimation of latent variable scores more easily using IRT models calibrating different measures on instrument independent scales. Currently, the application allows estimation using six different IRT models for Depression, Anxiety, and Physical Function. Based on published item parameters, users of the application can directly estimate latent trait estimates using expected a posteriori (EAP) for sum scores as well as for specific response patterns, Bayes modal (MAP), Weighted likelihood estimation (WLE) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods and under three different prior distributions. The obtained estimates can be downloaded and analyzed using standard statistical software. This application enhances the usability of IRT modeling for researchers by allowing comparison of the latent trait estimates over different PROs, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression (PHQ-9) and Anxiety (GAD-7) scales, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and others. Advantages of this approach include comparability of data derived with different measures and tolerance against missing values. The validity of the underlying models needs to be investigated in the future.

  19. Frequencies of T-Score Differences between Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Summary Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Milton E.; Tiedemann-Fuller, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    A table is provided giving observed difference frequencies for caregiver versus teacher ratings of children on the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales per the original normative samples. The table permits accurate evaluation of the empirical rarity of specific cross-informant…

  20. Frequencies of T-Score Differences between Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Summary Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Milton E.; Tiedemann-Fuller, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    A table is provided giving observed difference frequencies for caregiver versus teacher ratings of children on the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales per the original normative samples. The table permits accurate evaluation of the empirical rarity of specific cross-informant…

  1. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  2. Fluids administration and coagulation characteristics in patients with different model for end-stage liver disease scores undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; ZHANG Li-ping; YANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    Background There have been many studies investigating the impact of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score on predicting post-transplant outcome. But it is unclear whether MELD is correlated to intraoperative fluid therapy and coagulation status. We investigated the relationship between the severity of liver diseases as measured by MELD score and intraoperative fluid requirements and the changes of coagulation characteristics. Methods Ninety patients were included in this retrospective study. The patients were stratified into three groups according to the MELD scores: <15 (low), 15-25 (medium) and >25 (high). Intraoperatively, volume was restored with allogeneic and/or salvaged red blood cells (RBC), fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), platelet and other types of fluids according to hemodynamic data, hematocrit, and clotting data. Intraoperative coagulation data, blood requirements and other fluids administered were compared among the 3 groups. Results Before surgery, in addition to the three variables used to calculate MELD scores in other baseline laboratory values, including ratio of activated partial thromboplastin time (R-APTT), D-Dimer, hematocrit, platelet and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly different among the 3 groups. The blood loss increased with increasing MELD. The volume of RBC (allogeneinc, salvaged and total), FFP, platelet and the total volume of transfusion were also significantly different among the three groups (P<0.01). The requirements for prothrombin complex and fibrinogen showed a similar pattern. During operation, the changing trends of each coagulation variable were different. Compared with baseline, during each intraoperative stage, INR and R-APPT increased in the low MELD group. While in the medium MELD and high MELD groups, INR did not changed significantly during the operation, and R-APPT significantly increased only after reperfusion. Conclusions This study provided some useful information for perioperative

  3. Propensity score-matched analysis of effects of clinical characteristics and treatment on gender difference in outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, François; Meneveau, Nicolas; Seronde, Marie-France; Descotes-Genon, Vincent; Chopard, Romain; Janin, Sebastien; Briand, Florent; Guignier, Alexandre; Ecarnot, Fiona; Bassand, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-15

    The greater mortality observed in women compared to men after acute myocardial infarction remains unexplained. Using an analysis of pairs, matched on a conditional probability of being male (propensity score), we assessed the effect of the baseline characteristics and management on 30-day mortality. Consecutive patients were included from January 2006 to December 2007. Two propensity scores (for being male) were calculated, 1 from the baseline characteristics and 1 from both the baseline characteristics and treatment. Two matched cohorts were composed using 1:1 matching and computed using the best 8 digits of the propensity score. Paired analyses were performed using conditional regression analysis. During the study period, 3,510 patients were included in the registry; 1,119 (32%) were women. Compared to the men, the women were 10 years older, had more co-morbidities, less often underwent angiography and reperfusion, and received less medical treatment. The 30-day mortality rate was 12.3% (130 of 1,060) for the women and 7.2% (167 of 2,324) for the men (p <0.001). The 2 matched populations represented 1,298 and 1,168 patients. After matching using the baseline characteristics, the only difference in treatment was a lower rate of angiography and reperfusion, with a trend toward greater 30-day mortality in women. After matching using both baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was similar for the men and women, suggesting that the increased use of invasive procedures in women could potentially be beneficial. In conclusion, compared to men, the 30-day mortality is greater in women and explained primarily by differences in baseline characteristics and to a lesser degree by differences in management. The difference in the use of invasive procedures persisted after matching by characteristics. In contrast, after matching using the baseline characteristics and treatment, the 30-day mortality was comparable across the genders.

  4. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery....

  5. 不同病因慢性咳嗽的咳嗽程度比较%Cough score in patients with different etiology of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 赖克方; 罗炜; 刘春丽; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同病因慢性咳嗽患者咳嗽程度的异同及可能的影响因素.方法 按慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序进行病因诊断,收集单一病因慢性咳嗽患者150例,通过咳嗽积分评价,比较不同病因患者日间及夜间咳嗽程度的差异及其与年龄、性别、病程的关系.结果 纳入患者包括鼻后滴流综合征24例,咳嗽变异型哮喘26例、胃食管反流性咳嗽20例,嗜酸细胞性支气管炎31例,变应性咳嗽30例及感染后咳嗽19例.各组间的日间咳嗽积分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).咳嗽变异型哮喘组的夜间积分明显高于鼻后滴流综合征、胃食管反流性咳嗽、嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎、变应性咳嗽及感染后咳嗽组(均P<0.01).分别对日间咳嗽积分和夜间咳嗽积分进行有序分类logistic回归分析,显示年龄与日间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.05),性别与夜间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.01).结论 不同病因慢性咳嗽的日间咳嗽程度类似,但咳嗽变异型哮喘夜间咳嗽程度显著高于其他病因的咳嗽.%Objective To investigate the severity of cough in patients with different etiology of chronic cough and its related factors. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with chronic cough were recruited. The diagnosis of the patients was as follows: 24 cases with post nasal drip syndrome (PNDs), 26 cough variant asthma (CVA), 20 gastroesophageal reflux-induced cough (GERC), 31 eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), 30 atopic cough (AC) and 19 cough post infection (CPI). The severity of cough at daytime and night-time were scored by the doctor and the patient at the first visit. The correlation between cough score and age, gender and course duration of patients was analyzed. Results There was no significantly difference of cough score at daytime among different groups. Cough score at night in CVA group was significantly higher than that of other five groups (all P <0.01). Regression analysis showed that cough score at daytime

  6. A critical study of different Monte Carlo scoring methods of dose average linear-energy-transfer maps calculated in voxelized geometries irradiated with clinical proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Carabe, A

    2015-04-07

    We compare unrestricted dose average linear energy transfer (LET) maps calculated with three different Monte Carlo scoring methods in voxelized geometries irradiated with proton therapy beams with three different Monte Carlo scoring methods. Simulations were done with the Geant4 (Geometry ANd Tracking) toolkit. The first method corresponds to a step-by-step computation of LET which has been reported previously in the literature. We found that this scoring strategy is influenced by spurious high LET components, which relative contribution in the dose average LET calculations significantly increases as the voxel size becomes smaller. Dose average LET values calculated for primary protons in water with voxel size of 0.2 mm were a factor ~1.8 higher than those obtained with a size of 2.0 mm at the plateau region for a 160 MeV beam. Such high LET components are a consequence of proton steps in which the condensed-history algorithm determines an energy transfer to an electron of the material close to the maximum value, while the step length remains limited due to voxel boundary crossing. Two alternative methods were derived to overcome this problem. The second scores LET along the entire path described by each proton within the voxel. The third followed the same approach of the first method, but the LET was evaluated at each step from stopping power tables according to the proton kinetic energy value. We carried out microdosimetry calculations with the aim of deriving reference dose average LET values from microdosimetric quantities. Significant differences between the methods were reported either with pristine or spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). The first method reported values systematically higher than the other two at depths proximal to SOBP by about 15% for a 5.9 cm wide SOBP and about 30% for a 11.0 cm one. At distal SOBP, the second method gave values about 15% lower than the others. Overall, we found that the third method gave the most consistent

  7. What Have the Difference Scores Not Been Telling Us? A Critique of the Use of Self-Ideal Discrepancy in the Assessment of Body Image and Evaluation of an Alternative Data-Analytic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; van den Berg, Patricia; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Difference scores are often used as a means of assessing body image satisfaction using silhouette scales. Unfortunately, difference scores suffer from numerous potential methodological problems, including reduced reliability, ambiguity, confounded effects, untested constraints, and dimensional reduction. In this article, the methodological…

  8. [Scoring--criteria for operability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestern, H J

    1997-01-01

    For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.

  9. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  10. Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design.

  11. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition: evidence from a cohort of Ethiopian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Admassu, Bitiya; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Gregers S

    2015-09-01

    A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) <115 mm and weight-for-height z score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well understood. We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. At all ages, length showed consistently strong positive correlations with the MUAC but not with the WLZ. Adjustment for length reduced observed correlation coefficients of FM and FFM with the MUAC but increased those for the WLZ. At all ages, both length-adjusted FM and FFM showed an independent association with the WLZ and MUAC with higher regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly

  12. Does ECG influence the conception rate Nelore cows presenting different body condition scores submitted to the same timed-AI protocol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Aline Ribeiro Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conception rate (CR of multiparous Nelore cows presenting different body condition scores (BCS, which were submitted to the same Timed-AI protocol with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG. A total of 1574 cows were inseminated, between 40 and 50 days postpartum. During insemination (timed-AI, all data regarding to bull (n=8, inseminator (n=3 and BCS (1 to 5 were recorded. The pregnancy diagnosis was performed, by ultrasonography, 40 days after timed-AI. No effect (P>0.05 of inseminator or bull was observed. No statistical difference was also observed between the groups of animals with different BCS. The animals with lower BCS (Group 1 = BCS 1.5 to 2.0; n = 139 had a CR of 47.4%. The animals with BCS from 2.5 to 2.75 (Group 2; n = 741 and BCS from 3.0 to 3.25 (Group 3; n = 463 had a CR of 47.6% and 51.2%, respectively. The animals with higher BCS (Group 4 = BCS 3.5 to 4.0; n = 231 had a CR of 45.3% (P > 0.05. It was concluded that conception rates were similar between the animals presenting different BCS in the herd, likely because the eCG minimized the effects of low LH pulsatility in animals presenting reduced nutritional condition. However, other studies are recommended to verify the real need of using eCG in animals with body condition exceeding 3.5.

  13. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis : a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Blok, Bertil F.; Heesakkers, John P.; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A.; Donders, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  14. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.; Blok, B.F.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Heerings, M.; Lemmens, W.A.J.G.; Donders, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with

  15. Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI: utility for differentiating non-cancerous prostate from prostate cancer and differentiating prostate cancers with different Gleason scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Andreas; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis; Vargas, Hebert Alberto [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York City, NY (United States); Gondo, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Eastham, James [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Urology, New York City, NY (United States); Veeraraghavan, Harini; Fehr, Duc [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York City, NY (United States); Zheng, Junting; Goldman, Debra; Moskowitz, Chaya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York City, NY (United States); Fine, Samson W.; Reuter, Victor E. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York City, NY (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate Haralick texture analysis of prostate MRI for cancer detection and differentiating Gleason scores (GS). One hundred and forty-seven patients underwent T2- weighted (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI. Cancers ≥0.5 ml and non-cancerous peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zone tissue were identified on T2WI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, using whole-mount pathology as reference. Texture features (Energy, Entropy, Correlation, Homogeneity, Inertia) were extracted and analysed using generalized estimating equations. PZ cancers (n = 143) showed higher Entropy and Inertia and lower Energy, Correlation and Homogeneity compared to non-cancerous tissue on T2WI and ADC maps (p-values: <.0001-0.008). In TZ cancers (n = 43) we observed significant differences for all five texture features on the ADC map (all p-values: <.0001) and for Correlation (p = 0.041) and Inertia (p = 0.001) on T2WI. On ADC maps, GS was associated with higher Entropy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0225; 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0069) and lower Energy (GS 6 vs. 7: p = 0.0116, 6 vs. >7: p = 0.0039). ADC map Energy (p = 0.0102) and Entropy (p = 0.0019) were significantly different in GS ≤3 + 4 versus ≥4 + 3 cancers; ADC map Entropy remained significant after controlling for the median ADC (p = 0.0291). Several Haralick-based texture features appear useful for prostate cancer detection and GS assessment. (orig.)

  16. Value of Different Scoring Methods for Surgical Risk Assessment of Patients with Gastrointestinal Malignancies%不同评分方法对胃肠恶性肿瘤病人手术风险评估的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文明; 严想元

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较APACHE APACHE Ⅱ 评分与POSSUM评分对胃肠恶性肿瘤患者手术风险评估的价值.方法:100例胃肠恶性肿瘤患者,术前1d、术后1d分别用APACHE APACHE Ⅱ 评分系统与POSSUM评分系统对患者进行评估,统计患者术后实际并发症发生率及死亡率,计算两种不同评分方法O/E值.结果:术前1d、术后1d APACHE APACHE Ⅱ 评分与POSSUM评分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),APACHE II评分与POSSUM评分之间呈正相关;APACHE APACHE Ⅱ 评分对并发症、死亡发生预测O/E值分别为1.11、0.43,POSSUM评分对并发症、死亡发生预测O/E值分别为0.94、0.72.结论:POSSUM评分相对APACHE APACHE Ⅱ 评分,在胃肠恶性肿瘤患者手术风险(并发症及死亡率)评估上更有优势.%Objective: To compare the value of APACHE Ⅱ APACHE and POSSUM score in the surgical risk assessment of patients with malignant gastrointestinal tumor.Methods: 100 cases of patients with gastrointestinal tract malignant tumor, 1 day before operation, postoperative 1D, respectively with APACHE APACHE Ⅱ score system and POSSUM scoring system for patients evaluated, statistics of patients with postoperative complications occurred and the mortality rate calculated two different scoring methods O/E values.Results:At 1 day before operation, postoperative 1D APACHE APACHE Ⅱ score and POSSUM scoring, the difference has statistical significance (P<0.05), there was a positive correlation between the APACHE II score and POSSUM scoring; APACHE IAPACHE Ⅱ score of complications and mortality prediction of O/E values were 1.11, 0.43, POSSUM scoring of complications and death prediction of O/E values of 0.94, 0.72, respectively.Conclusions:The POSSUM score relative to the APACHE Ⅱ APACHE score was more advantageous in the assessment of surgical risks (complications and mortality) in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.

  17. Analysis on the Functional Orientation and Operating Mechanism of the Teaching Superstars' Studio in Vocational Education%职教名师工作室功能定位与运行保障机制浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文晶

    2015-01-01

    职教名师具有浓厚的学识底蕴和师德修养,精湛的教学技艺,较高的教学质量和较强的科研探索能力,但是职业院校目前缺乏发挥职教名师作用的功能定位与组织保障机制,导致职教名师的作用很难发挥出来. 分析职教名师的内涵及职责作用,在专业层面、院校层面、省(市)层面和国家层面建立职教名师发展团队,重点建设名师工作室,明确其目标及功能定位,探索名师工作室运行保障机制,发挥职教名师的独特优势,推动教师队伍整体素质提升.%Vocational Education teaching superstars possess strong knowledge backgrounds and professional eth-ics, excellent teaching skills, high teaching quality and strong ability toresearch and explore, but currently vo-cational colleges are lack ofthe functional orientation and organization guarantee mechanism which could develop the Vocational Education teachers' role, resulting in that the vocational education teachers' role is difficult to play. Analyze theconnotation and function of vocational teaching teachers, establish Vocational Educationteachers' s team in the respect of professional level, institutional level, the provincial ( municipal) level and national lev-el, focus on the construction of teacher studios, clear the objectives and functions orientation, explore thesafe-guard mechanismof the teacher studio operation, exploit the unique advantage of Vocational Education teachers, promote and strengthen the overall quality ofteachers.

  18. Coronary Artery Calcification Scoring with State-of-the-Art CT Scanners from Different Vendors Has Substantial Effect on Risk Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Takx, Richard A. P.; Leiner, Tim; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Das, Marco; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Prokop, Mathias; Buls, Nico; de Mey, Johan; Schilham, Arnold M. R.; de Jong, Pim A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intervendor variability of Agatston scoring determined with state-of-the-art computed tomographic (CT) systems from the four major vendors in an ex vivo setup and to simulate the subsequent effects on cardiovascular risk reclassification in a large populationbased cohort.

  19. Inverse association of p16 INK4a and p14 ARF methylation of the CDKN2a locus in different Gleason scores of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, B; Sommerer, F; Palisaar, R-J; Noldus, J; Vogt, M; Nambiar, S; Tannapfel, A; Mirmohammadsadegh, A; Neid, M

    2011-12-01

    Promoter hypermethylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in the regulation of several key modulators of prostate carcinoma progression. Recent studies suggest that the polycomb-group (PcG) protein BMI1 may have an impact on epigenetic regulation of several targets, including the CDKN2a locus. In this study, we investigated the association of BMI1 expression, promoter methylation of CDKN2a (p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and TMS1 with pathological variables (Gleason score, TNM stage, perineural invasion) in prostate cancer (PCa). Methylation of p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF) revealed an inverse association with Gleason score 7b and Gleason score 6. No significant association could be demonstrated for BMI1 -overexpression and promoter methylation of p16(INK4a), p14(ARF) and TMS1 as well as pT category. Our data suggest that the CDKN2a locus is a switch in PCa with methylation of p16(INK4a) being a marker for more aggressive tumours of Gleason score 7b, but no association with BMI overexpression was observed.

  20. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  1. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Confidence scores for prediction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; van de Wiel, MA

    2011-01-01

    modelling strategy is applied to different training sets. For each modelling strategy we estimate a confidence score based on the same repeated bootstraps. A new decomposition of the expected Brier score is obtained, as well as the estimates of population average confidence scores. The latter can be used...... to distinguish rival prediction models with similar prediction performances. Furthermore, on the subject level a confidence score may provide useful supplementary information for new patients who want to base a medical decision on predicted risk. The ideas are illustrated and discussed using data from cancer...

  3. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    significance. Fetal breathing movements, amniotic fluid volume, and the non-stress test are the most powerful variables. For example, when the biophysical profile score is 2, the perinatal mortality varies between 428/1000 with only fetal movement present to 66/1000 if the non-stress test is reactive and all of the ultrasound parameters are absent (Manning 1990b. Some authors have, therefore, proposed utilization of a modified biophysical profile that incorporates only the non-stress test and amniotic fluid volume (Miller 1996. Although the positive predictive value of these 2 tests is equivalent to a biophysical profile score of 6, the perinatal mortality is still increased over a normal test score of 8 or 10 (Manning 1990b. The false positive rate with the modified biophysical profile score is also substantially higher. "nConclusions: The fetus expresses its well being or compromised status through a number of different biophysical activities that are controlled by different central nervous system centers. The utilization of the biophysical score for antepartum surveillance in high-risk patients has resulted in a reduction in perinatal mortality when compared to historical controls. The appropriate management of the viable fetus with an abnormal biophysical profile score may also decrease long-term neurological morbidity (Manning 1998. "nIt is unlikely that in the future additional variables will be added to the biophysical profile score. However, perhaps the incorporation of the fetal state (i.e., eye movements and Doppler flow studies of specific fetal vessels (umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus will be incorporated into a complete assessment of the fetal condition "n "nTable 1. Components of the 30 Minute Biophysical Profile Score "nComponent "nDefinition "nFetal movements "n> 3 body or limb movements "nFetal tone "nOne episode of active extension and flexion of the limbs; opening and closing of hand "nFetal breathing movements "n>1

  4. Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery: Protocol of a Prospective Observational Trial to Evaluate the Prognostic Value of Different Nutritional Scores in Pancreatic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Pascal; Haller, Sebastian; Dörr-Harim, Colette; Bruckner, Thomas; Ulrich,Alexis; Hackert, Thilo; Diener, Markus K; Knebel, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of patients’ preoperative nutritional status on their clinical outcome has already been proven. Therefore, patients with malnutrition are in need of additional therapeutic efforts. However, for pancreatic surgery, evidence suggesting the adequacy of existing nutritional assessment scores to estimate malnutrition associated with postoperative outcome is limited. Objective The aim of the observational trial “Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery (NURIMAS) Pancreas...

  5. Classification of current scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  6. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  7. Test Scoring [book review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

  8. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  9. Subgroup Balancing Propensity Score

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, JING; Zhang, Junni L; Li, Fan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the estimation of subgroup treatment effects with observational data. Existing propensity score matching and weighting methods are mostly developed for estimating overall treatment effect. Although the true propensity score should balance covariates for the subgroup populations, the estimated propensity score may not balance covariates for the subgroup samples. We propose the subgroup balancing propensity score (SBPS) method, which selects, for each subgroup, to use either the ...

  10. Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for "non-native speakers" of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the "Genuine Index" (GI). This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality.

  11. Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for “non-native speakers” of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the “Genuine Index” (GI). Methodology This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Results Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Conclusions Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality. PMID:28212419

  12. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  13. Exploring the Variability in the Validity of SAT Scores and High School GPA for Predicting First-Year College Grades at Different Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial variability in the degree to which the SAT and high school grade point average (HSGPA) predict first-year college performance at different institutions. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of multilevel modeling as a tool to uncover institutional characteristics that are associated with this variability. In a model that…

  14. Comparação entre diferentes escores de risco de mortalidade em unidade de tratamento intensivo neonatal Comparison between different mortality risk scores in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Schlabendorff Zardo

    2003-10-01

    494 newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a general hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, immediately after delivery, between March 1997 and June 1998. Birthweight and scores were evaluated in terms of the variable "death while in NICU". Exclusion criteria were: discharge or death less than 24 hours after admission, admission not immediately following delivery, incomplete study protocol, and congenital malformations incompatible with survival. For CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies evaluation purposes, only patients born weighing up to 1,500 g were considered. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were calculated for SNAP (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology , SNAP-PE (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology - Perinatal Extension, SNAP II, SNAP-PE II , and CRIB scores, as well as for birthweight. RESULTS: Of the 494 patients studied, 44 died (8.9% mortality. Of the 102 patients born weighing up to 1,500 g, 32 (31.3% died. The area below the ROC curves ranged from 0.81 to 0.94. There were no statistically significant differences between the areas obtained for all scores evaluated. All mortality risk scores evaluated performed better than birthweight, especially on newborns with birthweight =1,500 g. CONCLUSIONS: All neonatal mortality scores had better performance and were superior to birthweight as measures of in-hospital mortality risk for newborns admitted to NICU.

  15. 高考成绩的城乡差异及其发展趋势分析%Analysis of Urban-rural Differences and Development Trends on College Entrance Examination Scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金波; 杨军

    2015-01-01

    By taking samples from college entrance examination students in the past few years randomly, analysis has been done to find the differences and development trends on college entrance examination scores of urban and rural students. Data shows that urban students'performance is significantly better than rural students'in total scores, the proportion of above average score and concentration ratio of scores. Compared to the data before and after the new curriculum reform, the gap of Chinese subject between urban and rural regions has narrowed, while that of other subjects has no great change as well as total scores in Liberal Arts and Science. But after the new curriculum reform, the gap between urban and rural is widening and reaching the highest level in the past two years except Chinese which is relatively stable. Compared to the differences between urban and rural students, the Science students have greater differences than Arts students.%随机抽取历年高考学生样本,分析城乡学生在高考成绩上存在的差异及发展趋势.显示城镇学生在文(理)科总分,总分平均分以上的人数比例,分数的集中度等方面均明显高于农村学生;新课程改革前后的城乡差距除语文学科有所缩小外,其他学科和文(理)科总分的变化不明显,但新课程改革后的城乡差距除语文学科相对稳定外,其他学科均存在扩大的趋势,并且在近二年来达到了最高水平;相比于文科生的城乡差异,理科生的差异更大.

  16. Credit Scoring Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.

  17. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  18. EXPLORACIÓN DE DIFERENCIAS NORMATIVAS EN EL SISTEMA DE CALIFICACIÓN CUALITATIVA PARA EL TEST GESTÁLTICO DE BENDER MODIFICADO/ EXPLORING NORMATIVE DIFFERENCES IN QUALITATIVE SCORING SYSTEM FOR MODIFIED THE BENDER GESTALT TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente estudio explora la magnitud de las diferencias en los puntajes del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa parael Test Gestáltico de Bender Modificado, usando diferente información normativa proveniente de Perú, Estados Unidos yChina. En una muestra de 324 niños(as peruanos entre 5 y 6 años de edad, se analizaron las potenciales diferencias en ladensidad, tendencia central, dispersión y clasificaciones de rendimiento visomotor. Se hallaron grandes diferenciasnormativas, y por lo tanto, el desempeño en los participantes se vio altamente sobreestimado o subestimado dependiendode la norma usada. Se discute el impacto de estos resultados en la apropiada práctica evaluativa en niños.ABSTRACTThis study explores the magnitude of difference in scores from Qualitative Scoring System to Bender Gestalt TestModified using different normative data from Peru, USA and China. In a sample of 324 children (boys and girls between5 and 6 ages, we analyzed the potential differences in density, central tendency, dispersion and visual motor performanceclassifications. It was found large normative differences, and therefore, performance in participants was highlyoverestimated or underestimated depending on the standard used. It discusses the impact of these results in the appropriateassessment practice in children.

  19. 老年髋部骨折预后预测:两种评分的差异%Predicting the prognosis of elderly hip fracture:Difference in two kinds of scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮; 杨铁毅; 郝玮; 张岩; 刘粤; 范鑫斌

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Patients with elder hip fracture has more complications, poor affordability and high perioperative risk, so the preoperative ful preparation and evaluation are needed. OBJECTIVE:To predict the accuracy of the prognosis of elderly patients with hip fracture through comparing the difference between American Society of Anesthesiologists score and Daping orthopedics operation risk scoring system for senile patients. METHODS:A retrospective study was performed on 300 cases with elderly hip fracture selected from January 2011 to December 2012 from Department of Orthopedics, Gongli Hospital of Pudong. American Society of Anesthesiology score and Daping orthopedics operation risk scoring system for senile patients were conducted before treatment, and the predictive values of two scoring systems on the incidence of complications and mortality were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:According to the American Society of Anesthesiology score and Daping orthopedics operation risk scoring system for senile patients, 148 cases and 97 cases had complications respectively. On the contrary, the actual number of complications was 89. The former predicted value was significantly higher than the actual value, and there was no significant difference between the latter forecast value and the actual value. The numbers of death predicted by American Society of Anesthesiology score and Daping orthopedics operation risk scoring system for senile patients were 27 cases and six cases, but the actual number of death was three cases, indicating that former predicted value was significantly higher than the actual value, and there was no significant difference between the latter predicted value and the actual value. The American Society of Anesthesiology score has a certain errors in predicting the postoperative complications and mortality of patients with elderly hip fractures, but it is simple and useful in clinic. The Daping orthopedics operation risk scoring system for senile

  20. 不同评分系统对严重外伤患者预后的评估价值对比%Comparison of appraisal value in different scoring for the prognosis of patients with severe trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付杰; 欧阳洁淼; 孙文会; 吴国平

    2014-01-01

    目的:对比不同评分系统对严重外伤患者预后的评估价值。方法对海南医学院附属医院于2012年9月至2013年9月收治的400例严重外伤患者分别进行急性生理和慢性健康状况评分Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ评分)、改良早期预警评分(MEWS)及简单临床评分(SCS),对比三种评分系统对患者预后的评估效果。结果随着病死率的上升,三种评分亦随之逐渐升高。APACHEⅡ评分的误差值最小(0.026),MEWS评分的误差值最大(0.034);APACHE评Ⅱ分的ROC曲线下面积最大(0.866),MEWS评分的曲线下面积最小(0.749)。结论 MEWS评分、APACHEⅡ评分及SCS评分均可以有效地对严重外伤患者的预后进行评估,但APACHEⅡ评分的评估准确度最高,MEWS评分准确度最低。而SCS评分系统操作方便、快速、准确度较好,更有利于早期对严重外伤患者预后的评估。%Objective To compare the appraisal values in different scoring for the prognosis of patients with severe trauma. Methods A total of 400 cases of patients with severe trauma from September 2012 to September 2013 in the Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University were graded by acute physiology and chronic health eval-uation (APACHEⅡ), modified early warning score (MEWS) and simple clinical scoring (SCS). And then the effects of evaluation in three kinds of scoring systems for the prognosis of patients were compared. Results With the case fa-tality rate increasing, the scores of three kinds of scoring system were also increased as well. APACHEⅡshowed the minimal error value (0.026), while MEWS showed the maximal error value (0.034). The area under ROC curve of APACHEⅡ was maximal (0.866), while the area under ROC curve of MEWS was least (0.749). Conclusion All these three score systems can effectively predict the outcomes of patients with severe trauma, and the assessing accura-cy is highest in APACHEⅡand lowest in MEWS. SCS scoring system is accurate and easy

  1. Globalization, Superstars, and the Importance of Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Michael; Tapia, Mikel; Warzynski, Frederic

    We develop a simple model of the effects of reputation on wine prices. An increasing fraction of consumers who are "naïve" (less well informed about wine quality) results in a stronger sensitivity of wine prices to ratings of quality. We then use data on prices and Robert Parker's ratings of wine...

  2. The curse of the superstar CEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rakesh

    2002-09-01

    When struggling companies look for a new chief executive today, the one quality they prize above all others is charisma. But once they've recruited a larger-than-life leader, they often find that their troubles only get worse. Indeed, as the author's new research painfully reveals, the widespread belief in the powers of charismatic CEOs can be problematic. Why? First, Khurana says, there's no conclusive evidence that charismatic leadership affects an organization's performance. And yet--as Kodak's story over the past decade reveals--when a company is faltering, boards feel compelled to oust the incumbent chief executive and bring in a corporate savior. Second, the insistence on finding a charismatic leader, combined with the undefinable nature of charisma, results in selection processes that are overly conservative and even irrational. Boards end up considering only candidates who have already achieved the rank of CEO or president at a high-performing, high-profile company, even if they are not right for the job. Third, charismatic leaders deliberately destabilize organizations. This can result in a more vibrant company, as it did at General Electric during Jack Welch's tenure, but it can also leave a troubled legacy for the organization to overcome, as GE, Ford, and Enron have all found. Faith in a company, a product, or an idea can unleash tremendous innovation and productivity. But the extravagant hopes invested in charismatic CEOs resemble not mature faith but a belief in magic. If we are willing to reconsider our notion of leadership, this age of faith can be followed by an era of faith and reason.

  3. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  4. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  5. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  6. 学习策略性别差异与日语口语成绩的关系研究%A Study of Gender Differences of Language Learning Strategies and Its Relationships with Japanese Oral Test Scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施敏洁; 王君

    2012-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to strategies and Japanese oral test scores of 90 significant gender differences can be found on analysis indicate that certain gender differences and Japanese oral test scores exist. investigate the relationship between language learning Japanese majors. The results show that no statistically language learning strategies. Correlation and regressional of the relationships between language learning strategies%文章以90名日语专业的学生为被试对象,运用定量研究方法,调查了不同性别日语学习者的学习策略和口语成绩之间的关系,并用SPSS对统计数据进行了分析。结果表明,男女在学习策略使用频率上没有显著差异,学习策略的使用与口语成绩的关系上有一定的性别差异。

  7. An Analysis of Language Coding Ability Difference Between High/Low Score Group Students%英语高/低分组语言编码能力差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽林; 黄琴

    2016-01-01

    文章采取量性研究和质性研究相结合的方式,以长沙两所高校的200名大三学生为调查对象,通过问卷调查和半开放式访谈采集数据,用SPSS20.0的描述性统计分析、T检验、相关关系来分析高低分组语言编码能力差异,继而对这种差异的原因进行探究。研究结果表明:高分组学生和低分组学生在语言编码能力上有不同的倾向,针对调查所发现的两组学生的差异,对其原因进行了分析。%In this research ,200 students of grade three in two universities in Changsha are selected as subjects .With both the quantitative and qualitative methods ,the differences of lan-guage coding ability between high and low group students are analyzed by using questionnaire and taking semi-open interviews .The data are treated with descriptive statistics analysis , T-test and correlation by SPSS 20.0.Then,the writers explore the reasons for these differences . The results shows that the high score and low score group students have different tendencies in language coding abilities .And finally the writers analyze the reasons to the differences between the two groups found in the survey .

  8. Random Walk Picture of Basketball Scoring

    CERN Document Server

    Gabel, Alan

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.

  9. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  10. Scoring functions for AutoDock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anthony D; Reilly, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Automated docking allows rapid screening of protein-ligand interactions. A scoring function composed of a force field and linear weights can be used to compute a binding energy from a docked atom configuration. For different force fields or types of molecules, it may be necessary to train a custom scoring function. This chapter describes the data and methods one must consider in developing a custom scoring function for use with AutoDock.

  11. Tensorial Orientation Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Orientation scores are representations of images built using filters that only select on orientation (and not on the magnitude of the frequency). Importantly, they allow (easy) reconstruction, making them ideal for use in a filtering pipeline. Traditionally a specific set of orientations has to be c

  12. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  13. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  14. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  15. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  16. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Messina, Carmelo; Petrini, Marcello [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo [IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 x CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100 % LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8 % CoV and 2.1 % LSC for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.3 % for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 % for BMD, 1.9 % and 5.2 %, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7 % and 2.0 %, for BMD; 2.0 % and 5.4 % for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95 %) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98 %) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. (orig.)

  17. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  18. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Smyth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  19. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  20. Short-term precision assessment of trabecular bone score and bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with different scan modes: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandirali, Michele; Poloni, Alessandro; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Messina, Carmelo; Papini, Giacomo Davide Edoardo; Petrini, Marcello; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Di Leo, Giovanni; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We estimated the in vivo reproducibility of trabecular bone score (TBS) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using different imaging modes to be compared to that of bone mineral density (BMD). We enrolled 30 patients for each imaging mode: fast-array, array, high definition. Each patient underwent two DXA examinations with in-between repositioning. BMD and TBS were obtained according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between root mean square standard deviation and mean, percent least significant change (LSC) as 2.77 × CoV, reproducibility as the complement to 100% LSC. Fast-array imaging mode resulted in 0.8% CoV and 2.1% LSC for BMD, 1.9% and 5.3% for TBS, respectively; array imaging mode resulted in 0.7% and 2.0% for BMD, 1.9% and 5.2%, for TBS; high-definition imaging mode resulted in 0.7% and 2.0%, for BMD; 2.0% and 5.4% for TBS, respectively. Reproducibility of TBS (95%) was significantly lower than that of BMD (98%) (p < 0.012). Difference in reproducibility among the imaging modes was not significant for either BMD or TBS (p = 0.942). While TBS reproducibility was significantly lower than that of BMD, differences among imaging modes were not significant for both TBS and BMD. • TBS is an emerging tool for assessing BMD. • TBS reproducibility is lower than that of BMD. • Differences between imaging modes are not significant for either TBS or BMD.

  1. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  2. Propensity score weighting with multilevel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landrum, Mary Beth

    2013-08-30

    Propensity score methods are being increasingly used as a less parametric alternative to traditional regression to balance observed differences across groups in both descriptive and causal comparisons. Data collected in many disciplines often have analytically relevant multilevel or clustered structure. The propensity score, however, was developed and has been used primarily with unstructured data. We present and compare several propensity-score-weighted estimators for clustered data, including marginal, cluster-weighted, and doubly robust estimators. Using both analytical derivations and Monte Carlo simulations, we illustrate bias arising when the usual assumptions of propensity score analysis do not hold for multilevel data. We show that exploiting the multilevel structure, either parametrically or nonparametrically, in at least one stage of the propensity score analysis can greatly reduce these biases. We applied these methods to a study of racial disparities in breast cancer screening among beneficiaries of Medicare health plans.

  3. A Bayesian Approach to Learning Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Şeyda; Rudin, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    We present a Bayesian method for building scoring systems, which are linear models with coefficients that have very few significant digits. Usually the construction of scoring systems involve manual effort-humans invent the full scoring system without using data, or they choose how logistic regression coefficients should be scaled and rounded to produce a scoring system. These kinds of heuristics lead to suboptimal solutions. Our approach is different in that humans need only specify the prior over what the coefficients should look like, and the scoring system is learned from data. For this approach, we provide a Metropolis-Hastings sampler that tends to pull the coefficient values toward their "natural scale." Empirically, the proposed method achieves a high degree of interpretability of the models while maintaining competitive generalization performances.

  4. Fingerprinting of music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  5. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  6. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  7. Automated Quantitative Analysis of p53, Cyclin D1, Ki67 and pERK Expression in Breast Carcinoma Does Not Differ from Expert Pathologist Scoring and Correlates with Clinico-Pathological Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, Jamaica D. [Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Varma, Sonal [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Day, Andrew G. [Kingston General Hospital, Kingston K7L 2V7 (Canada); Sangrar, Waheed [Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Rajput, Ashish B. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Raptis, Leda H.; Squire, Jeremy [Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Madarnas, Yolanda [Department of Oncology, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); SenGupta, Sandip K. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Elliott, Bruce E., E-mail: elliottb@queensu.ca [Division of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2012-07-18

    There is critical need for improved biomarker assessment platforms which integrate traditional pathological parameters (TNM stage, grade and ER/PR/HER2 status) with molecular profiling, to better define prognostic subgroups or systemic treatment response. One roadblock is the lack of semi-quantitative methods which reliably measure biomarker expression. Our study assesses reliability of automated immunohistochemistry (IHC) scoring compared to manual scoring of five selected biomarkers in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 63 human breast cancer cases, and correlates these markers with clinico-pathological data. TMA slides were scanned into an Ariol Imaging System, and histologic (H) scores (% positive tumor area x staining intensity 0–3) were calculated using trained algorithms. H scores for all five biomarkers concurred with pathologists’ scores, based on Pearson correlation coefficients (0.80–0.90) for continuous data and Kappa statistics (0.55–0.92) for positive vs. negative stain. Using continuous data, significant association of pERK expression with absence of LVI (p = 0.005) and lymph node negativity (p = 0.002) was observed. p53 over-expression, characteristic of dysfunctional p53 in cancer, and Ki67 were associated with high grade (p = 0.032 and 0.0007, respectively). Cyclin D1 correlated inversely with ER/PR/HER2-ve (triple negative) tumors (p = 0.0002). Thus automated quantitation of immunostaining concurs with pathologists’ scoring, and provides meaningful associations with clinico-pathological data.

  8. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.

    1975-01-01

    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  9. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  10. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  11. Comparison of two different teaching patterns about scores of interns in thoracic surgical department%两种教学模式下胸外科实习医生学习结果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓宏; 陈玲; 庞作良

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of PBL teaching pattern and LBL one on interns in clinical practice of thoracic oncological surgery .Methods Two different classes of clinical medical specialty in Xinjiang Medical University were selected as study target .The class with 46 students accepted PBL teaching pattern ( Problem-based learning group ) and the other class with 43 students accepted LBL teaching pattern ( Lecture-based learning group ) . The effectiveness of these two different teaching group were compared . Results Those average scores of problem-finding, problem-solving, specific knowledge understanding , clinical skills applying , doctor-patient relationship treating and doctor-nurse relationship treating in PBL group are significantly higher than those of LBL group .Conclusions The teaching pattern of PBL can improve the effectiveness of medical student's learning in the clinical practice of thoracic oncological surgery , enhance their capability of patients treatment .The PBL teaching method in practice of thoracic oncological surgery has certain promotion value .%目的:探讨基于问题式的教学模式(PBL)和传统讲授式教学模式(LBL)在胸部肿瘤外科临床实习学生带教中的效果。方法选择2013级新疆医科大学厚博学院5年制临床医学专业的两个不同班级作为研究对象,其中一个班级有学生46人,按PBL教学模式给予带教,另外一个班级有学生43人,按传统LBL教学模式给予带教,实习结束后进行2个班级学生实习效果的比较。结果 PBL教学模式班级学生发现问题、解决问题、专业知识掌握、临床技能掌握及医患关系和医护关系处理方面的成绩均优于传统LBL教学模式班级。结论 PBL教学模式不仅能够提高学生的学习成绩和能力,同时还能增强学生的临床操作技能,值得在胸部肿瘤外科临床实习带教中推广应用。

  12. Qualidade nutricional e escore químico de aminoácidos de diferentes fontes protéicas Nutritional quality and chemical score of amino acids from different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Vieira Pires

    2006-03-01

    , the qualitative aspect should be taken into account, i.e. its nutritional value, which will depend on its composition, digestibility, bioavailability of essential amino acids, absence of toxicity, and of antinutritional factors. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the digestibility in vivo, the chemical score of amino acids (EQ, and the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS of the following protein resources: frog meat without bone, frog meat with bone, mechanically separated frog meat (CMS, beef meat, egg powder, casein, wheat, corn, conventional soybean, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase free soybean (KTI-LOX- soybean, textured soybean protein (PTS and beans. Animal proteins presented higher digestibility values than those from vegetables. Frog meat without bone was the protein with the highest protein digestibility of all proteins studied, not differing from casein, CMS, beef and frog meat with bone. Comparing animal proteins, the one of egg powder was the one which presented the lowest digestibility. No animal protein presented essential limiting amino acids when compared to those of FAO/WHO. Beans, conventional soybean, KTI-LOX- soybean and PTS presented sulfurized amino acids (methione+cysteine as limiting ones. Whereas for wheat and corn, the most limiting amino acid was lysine. KTI-LOX- soybean presented higher PDCAAS values than those of conventional soybean, presenting a possible increase in genetically improved soybean and processed soybean protein quality.

  13. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. L. Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow in relation to hospital death. Results: The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively, as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively. Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98, similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99 - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92, well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08. This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively, differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%, which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion: Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  14. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  15. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Quiroga

    Full Text Available Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized. Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address.

  16. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Villarreal, Marcos A

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address.

  17. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Zhu, Min; Mindrila, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and…

  18. Statistical Assessment of Estimated Transformations in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; González, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Equating methods make use of an appropriate transformation function to map the scores of one test form into the scale of another so that scores are comparable and can be used interchangeably. The equating literature shows that the ways of judging the success of an equating (i.e., the score transformation) might differ depending on the adopted…

  19. Jade God In [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Eiji Simurra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work ‘Jade God In’ for solo piano is a working in progress in which the aim is to research different sonorities coming from a single piano gesture: the arpeggios. From the timbral point of view on the work this particular music technique is the support tool for brightness and darkness sonorities. The work is dedicated to the Brazilian composer Felipe Ribeiro and the Greek pianist and composer Ermis Theodorakis performed it.

  20. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    OpenAIRE

    Christine DiStefano; Min Zhu; Diana Mindrila

    2009-01-01

    Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s). This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  1. Understanding and Using Factor Scores: Considerations for the Applied Researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine DiStefano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Following an exploratory factor analysis, factor scores may be computed and used in subsequent analyses. Factor scores are composite variables which provide information about an individual's placement on the factor(s. This article discusses popular methods to create factor scores under two different classes: refined and non-refined. Strengths and considerations of the various methods, and for using factor scores in general, are discussed.

  2. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  3. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is c

  4. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  5. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…

  6. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  7. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  8. Sex and Background Factors: Effect on ASAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond J.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets from Australia were analyzed using a causal model to determine the possible causes of sex differences in ASAT scores. Observed differences could be explained in terms of differences in students' English scores, the time the students spent studying mathematics, and their confidence in success. (Author/MLW)

  9. Track score processing of multiple dissimilar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Patsikas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a data fusion problem when a number of different types of sensors are deployed in the vicinity of a ballistic missile launch is studied. An objective of this thesis is to calculate a scoring function for each sensor track, and the track file with the best (optimum) track score can then be used for guiding an interceptor to the threat within the boost phase. Seven active ground-based radars, two space-based passive infrared sensors and two active light detection and rangin...

  10. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  11. Effects of different types of painful procedures on neonatal pain scores and physiological changes%不同类型致痛性操作对新生儿疼痛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银花; 钱丽冰; 陈梦莹; 曹兆兰; 徐玉香; 程锐; 卢官明; 李晓南

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of different types of painful procedures on neonatal pain scores and physiological changes.Methods A prospective study was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit of Nanjing Children's Hospital from March 1,2009 to May 31,2009.Around-theclock bedside data of all painful procedures performed on 108 neonates (46 premature and 62 termbirth infants) from admission to discharge for diagnosis or treatment were collected through video,along with cardiac monitoring.Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS),Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS),Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) and physiological changes (heart rate and blood oxygen saturation) were used to evaluate the pain that neonates experienced.Data were analyzed by Student-t test,Chi-square test and analysis of variance.Results There were 6966 painful procedures on preterm neonates,among which tracheal aspiration (23.6 %,1645/6966),nasal aspiration (18.3%,1278/6966) and intravenous cannulation (17.2%,1195/6966) were the most frequently used.There were 3667 painful procedures on term neonates,among which,intravenous cannulation (27.0%,989/3667),removal of indwelling needle (20.5%,751/3667) and tape removal (18.4%,675/3667)were the most frequently used painful procedures on term ones.For preterm neonates,both NFCS and PIPP showed that tracheal intubation (7.00± 1.66 and 14.08±3.54),femoral venous puncture (6.52±1.66 and 12.15±3.11) and axillary vein puncture (5.75± 1.89 and 11.75±4.19) caused much more pain than other procedures.For term neonates,both NFCS and NIPS indicated that femoral venous puncture (6.68±1.34 and 5.58±1.32),tape removal (6.00±1.41 and 5.67±0.58)and abdominal wall vein puncture (6.00 ± 0.00 and 5.50 ± 0.71) were the top three painful procedures.No differences were found in heart rate and blood oxygen saturation changes caused by different types of painful procedures in term neonates (F=0.186,P=0.836; F=1.672,P=0.198).Conclusions Better pain

  12. Disease severity scoring systems in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Bilaç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoring systems have been developed to interpret the disease severity objectively by evaluating the parameters of the disease. Body surface area, visual analogue scale, and physician global assessment are the most frequently used scoring systems for evaluating the clinical severity of the dermatological diseases. Apart from these scoring systems, many specific scoring systems for many dermatological diseases, including acne (acne vulgaris, acne scars, alopecia (androgenetic alopecia, tractional alopecia, bullous diseases (autoimmune bullous diseases, toxic epidermal necrolysis, dermatitis (atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutismus, connective tissue diseases (dermatomyositis, skin involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (LE, discoid LE, scleroderma, lichen planoplaris, mastocytosis, melanocytic lesions, melasma, onychomycosis, oral lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, nail psoriasis, sarcoidosis, urticaria, and vitiligo, have also been developed. Disease severity scoring methods are ever more extensively used in the field of dermatology for clinical practice to form an opinion about the prognosis by determining the disease severity; to decide on the most suitable treatment modality for the patient; to evaluate the efficacy of the applied medication; and to compare the efficiency of different treatment methods in clinical studies.

  13. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  14. What Is the Apgar Score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... 2 being the best score: A ppearance (skin color) P ulse (heart rate) G rimace response (reflexes) ...

  15. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  16. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-26

    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  17. Validation of a new scoring system: Rapid assessment faecal incontinence score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando; de; la; Portilla; Arantxa; Calero-Lillo; Rosa; M; Jiménez-Rodríguez; Maria; L; Reyes; Manuela; Segovia-González; María; Victoria; Maestre; Ana; M; García-Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To implement a quick and simple test- rapid assessment faecal incontinence score(RAFIS) and show its reliability and validity.METHODS: From March 2008 through March 2010, we evaluated a total of 261 consecutive patients, including 53 patients with faecal incontinence. Demographic and comorbidity information was collected. In a single visit, patients were administered the RAFIS. The results obtained with the new score were compared with those of both Wexner score and faecal incontinence quality of life scale(FIQL) questionnaire. The patient withoutinfluence of the surgeon completed the test. The role of surgeon was explaining the meaning of each section and how he had to fill. Reliability of the RAFIS score was measured using intra-observer agreement and Cronbach’s alpha(internal consistency) coefficient. Multivariate analysis of the main components within the different scores was performed in order to determine whether all the scores measured the same factor and to conclude whether the information could be encompassed in a single factor. A sample size of 50 patients with faecal incontinence was estimated to be enough to detect a correlation of 0.55 or better at 5% level of significance with 80% power.RESULTS: We analysed the results obtained by 53 consecutive patients with faecal incontinence(median age 61.55 ± 12.49 years) in the three scoring systems. A total of 208 healthy volunteers(median age 58.41 ± 18.41 years) without faecal incontinence were included in the study as negative controls. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between "state" and "leaks" was excellent(r = 0.92, P < 0.005). Internal consistency in the comparison of "state" and "leaks" yielded also excellent correlation(Cronbach’s α = 0.93). Results in each score were compared using regression analysis and a correlation value of r = 0.98 was obtained with Wexner score. As regards FIQL questionnaire, the values of "r " for the different subscales of the questionnaire were: "lifestyle" r

  18. Validity of the J-CTO Score and the CL-Score for predicting successful CTO recanalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelker, J E; Bansemir, L; Ott, R; Rock, T; Kroeger, K; Guelker, R; Klues, H G; Shin, D I; Bufe, A

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of total chronic coronary occlusion (CTO) still remains a major challenge in interventional cardiology. To predict the probability of a successful intervention different scoring systems are available. We analyzed in this study the validity of two scoring systems, the Japanese CTO score (J-CTO score) and the newly developed Clinical and Lesion-related score (CL Score). Between 2012 and 2015 we included 379 consecutive patients. They underwent PCI for at least one CTO. Antegrade and retrograde CTO techniques were applied. The retrograde approach was used only after failed antegrade intervention. Patients undergoing CTO PCI were mainly men (84%). The overall procedural success rate was 84% (±0.4). The mean J-CTO score was 2.9 (±1.3) and the mean CL score was 4.3 (±1.7). The CL score predicted more precisely the interventional results than the J-CTO score. Our study suggests that the previously presented CL score is superior to the J-CTO score in identifying CTO lesions with a likelihood for successful recanalization. Generally it appears to be a helpful tool for selecting patients and identifying the appropriate operator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 5种ANCA相关性血管炎活动性评分量表的比较%Comparison of Five Different Disease Activity Scoring Scales for ANCA-associated Vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立民; 吴庆军; 冯胜; 曾小峰

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较5种系统性血管炎活动性评分量表的可靠性及相关性,以指导临床应用.方法 以45例抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体(anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody,ANCA)相关性血管炎(ANCA-associated vasculitis,AAV)患者为研究对象,其中包括韦格纳肉芽肿(wegener's granulomatosis,WG)患者30例和显微镜下多血管炎(microscopic polyangitis,MPA)患者15例.由2名评测者分别根据下述5种目前国际上常用的活动指数评价量表进行计分:伯明翰血管炎活动性评分(the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score,BVAS1994),韦格纳肉芽肿专用的BVAS(the BVAS for Wegener granulomatosis,BVAS/WG) ,BVAS2003,疾病累及范围指数(the Disease Extent Index,DEI),5因子评分(the Five Factor Score,FFS).结果 5种评分量表均有很高的重复信度(ICC 0.97~0.98)和评测者间信度(ICC 0.93~0.98).BVAS1994与BVAS2003(rs=0.961)、BVAS/WG(rs =0.872)、及DEI(rs=0.818),BVAS2003与BVAS/WG(rs=0.872)、DEI(rs=0.826),BVAS/WG与DEI(rs=0.776)间有较高的相关性,P值均小于0.001.FFS与其他评分量表之间无相关性.结论 目前AAV活动性评分量表是可靠、有效的.应用不同评分量表所得数据之间可以相互比较.

  20. Scoring dynamics across professional team sports: tempo, balance and predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing interest in quantifying and modeling the scoring dynamics within professional sports games, relative little is known about what patterns or principles, if any, cut across different sports. Using a comprehensive data set of scoring events in nearly a dozen consecutive seasons of college and professional (American) football, professional hockey, and professional basketball, we identify several common patterns in scoring dynamics. Across these sports, scoring tempo---when scoring events occur---closely follows a common Poisson process, with a sport-specific rate. Similarly, scoring balance---how often a team wins an event---follows a common Bernoulli process, with a parameter that effectively varies with the size of the lead. Combining these processes within a generative model of gameplay, we find they both reproduce the observed dynamics in all four sports and accurately predict game outcomes. These results demonstrate common dynamical patterns underlying within-game scoring dynamics across prof...

  1. Probe into How to Use the Literature Retrieval & Delivery Platforms to Provide Information Service for Arab Research---Base on the Superstar Duxiu, Bailian and Chinese Discovery%利用文献检索平台为阿拉伯研究提供信息服务的对策探讨--以超星读秀、百链云和中文发现为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红燕; 来泽荣

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of the opening strategy of“One Belt and One Road”, the cooperation between Ningxia and Arab countries in the fields of economy and trade, culture, education, and science and technology, etc. is deeper and wider. Under such a background, Ningxia University established Chinese Research Institute of Arab. Based on the Superstar Duxiu, Bailian and Chinese Discovery, this paper probes into how to use the literature retrieval&delivery platforms to provide efficient, multi-channel and comprehensive literature information service for Arab research.%自我国“一带一路”对外开放战略实施以来,宁夏与阿拉伯国家在经贸、文化、教育和科技等领域的合作更加深入和广泛。在此背景下,宁夏大学成立了中国阿拉伯研究院。以超星读秀、百链云和中文发现为例,探讨了如何利用这些文献检索和传递服务平台,为阿拉伯研究提供高效率、多途径和全方位的文献信息服务。

  2. Calgary score and modified Calgary score in the differential diagnosis between neurally mediated syncope and epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Runmei; Wang, Shuo; Zhu, Liping; Wu, Lijia; Lin, Ping; Li, Fang; Xie, Zhenwu; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the value of Calgary score and modified Calgary score in differential diagnosis between neurally mediated syncope and epilepsy in children. 201 children experienced one or more episodes of loss of consciousness and diagnosed as neurally mediated syncope or epilepsy were enrolled. Calgary score, modified Calgary score and receiver-operating characteristic curve were used to explore the predictive value in differential diagnosis. There were significant differences in median Calgary score between syncope [-4.00 (-6, 1)] and epilepsy [2 (-3, 5)] (z = -11.63, P epilepsy were 91.46 and 95.80 %, suggesting a diagnosis of epilepsy. There were significant differences in median modified Calgary score between syncope [-4.00 (-6, 1)] and epilepsy [3 (-3, 6)] (z = -11.71, P epilepsy. The sensitivity and specificity of modified Calgary score and Calgary score did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). Calgary score and modified Calgary score could be used to differential diagnosis between syncope and epilepsy in children.

  3. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  4. The comparison of the predictive value of different trauma scores on the head injury prognosis%不同创伤评分法对颅脑损伤预后预测价值的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈光建; 邹咏文; 许民辉

    2001-01-01

    目的 比较格拉斯哥昏迷评分(GCS)、修正的创伤记分(RTS)、急性生理和既往健康状况评定Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)系统在颅脑损伤预后预测中的价值,探索适合颅脑损伤预后预测的创伤评分。 方法 回顾性分析1994~2000年116例颅脑损伤患者的临床资料,采用Spearman 等级相关分析,观察入院时GCS、RTS、APACHEⅡ与预后的相关关系。以GOS Ⅰ~Ⅲ级为危险事件,GCS、呼吸频率、收缩压、年龄、既往健康状况等为变量进行Logistic回归分析,判定半年预后独立的预计指标。 结果 GCS、RTS、APACHEⅡ均与预后显著相关(r分别为0.660,0.676和-0.578);Logistic回归分析表明,GCS、年龄为独立的预后预计指标。 结论 RTS系统并未表现出比GCS系统更大的优越性。APACHE Ⅱ适当地与GCS结合应用,可提高对颅脑损伤预后预测的准确性。%Objective To compare the predictive value of Glasgow coma scale (GCS), revised trauma score (RTS) and acute phsiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHEⅡ) system on head injury prognosis, and selectscoring systems apt to predicting prognosis of the head injury.  Methods The data of 116 case of head injury were reviewed. The correlation between the score of GCS, RTS, or APACHEⅡ and the patients' prognosis was determined by Spearman rank relation test on admission. Then, the logistic regression analysis was administered, in which GOS I~Ⅲ in half year were regarded as risk event. The independent predictive varieties were determined from following varieties: GCS, systolic pressure, respiratory rate, age, and chronic health condition.  Results GCS, RTS and APACHEⅡ were significantly related with the prognosis (r=0.660,0.676 and -0.578, respectively). GCS and age were independent predictive indexes.  Conclusions RTS system doesn't show the superiority to GCS system. The predictive accuracy may improve if GCS system is

  5. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  6. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  7. Right tail increasing dependence between scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M.; García, Jesús E.; González-López, V. A.; Romano, N.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the behavior of the conditional probability Prob(U > u|V > v) of two records coming from students of an undergraduate course, where U is the score of calculus I, scaled in [0, 1] and V is the score of physics scaled in [0, 1], the physics subject is part of the admission test of the university. For purposes of comparison, we consider two different undergraduate courses, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, during nine years, from 2003 to 2011. Through a Bayesian perspective we estimate Prob(U > u|V > v) year by year and course by course. We conclude that U is right tail increasing in V, in both courses and for all the years. Moreover, over these nine years, we observe different ranges of variability for the estimated probabilities of electrical engineering when compared to the estimated probabilities of mechanical engineering.

  8. Sampling time error in EuroSCORE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael; Fabri, Brian; Pullan, Mark; Chalmers, John

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal variation in mortality after cardiac surgery exists. EuroSCORE II accrued data over a 12-week period from May to July 2010. We investigated whether the accrual period for EuroSCORE II had a different mortality rate compared with the rest of the year. We found in a study population of 18,706 that the accrual period of EuroSCORE II may introduce bias into the predicted mortality, potentially reducing the accuracy of the new model.

  9. Scoring systems for predicting mortality after liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Chih Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation can prolong survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. We have proposed that the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score calculated on post-transplant day 7 has a great discriminative power for predicting 1-year mortality after liver transplantation. The Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA score, a modified SOFA score, is a newly developed scoring system exclusively for patients with end-stage liver disease. This study was designed to compare the CLIF-SOFA score with other main scoring systems in outcome prediction for liver transplant patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 323 patients who had received liver transplants in a tertiary care university hospital from October 2002 to December 2010. Demographic parameters and clinical characteristic variables were recorded on the first day of admission before transplantation and on post-transplantation days 1, 3, 7, and 14. RESULTS: The overall 1-year survival rate was 78.3% (253/323. Liver diseases were mostly attributed to hepatitis B virus infection (34%. The CLIF-SOFA score had better discriminatory power than the Child-Pugh points, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score, RIFLE (risk of renal dysfunction, injury to the kidney, failure of the kidney, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease criteria, and SOFA score. The AUROC curves were highest for CLIF-SOFA score on post-liver transplant day 7 for predicting 1-year mortality. The cumulative survival rates differed significantly for patients with a CLIF-SOFA score ≤8 and those with a CLIF-SOFA score >8 on post-liver transplant day 7. CONCLUSION: The CLIF-SOFA score can increase the prediction accuracy of prognosis after transplantation. Moreover, the CLIF-SOFA score on post-transplantation day 7 had the best discriminative power for predicting 1-year mortality after liver transplantation.

  10. The Utility of Scoring Systems in Predicting Early and Late Mortality in Alcoholic Hepatitis: Whose Score Is It Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naaventhan Palaniyappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH is a distinct clinical entity in the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease with a high short-term mortality. Several scoring systems are being used to assess the severity of AH but the ability of these scores to predict long-term survival in these patients is largely unknown. Aims. We aim to assess the utility of five different scoring systems Child Pugh (CP, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD, Maddrey’s discriminant function (mDF, Glasgow AH score (GAHS, and age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score in predicting shot-term and long-term survival in patients with AH. Methods. Patients with histological evidence of AH were identified from our database. The clinical and biochemical parameters were used to calculate the 5 different scores. The prognostic utility of these scores was determined by generating an ROC curve for survival at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Results and Conclusions. All 5 scores with the exception of CP score have a similar accuracy in predicting the short-term prognosis. However, they are uniformly poor in predicting longer-term survival with AUROC not exceeding 0.74. CP score is a very poor predictor of survival in both short and long term. Abstinence from alcohol was significantly (<0.05 associated with survival at 1 year.

  11. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  12. Scoring ordinal variables for constructing composite indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Manisera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide composite indicators of latent variables, for example of customer satisfaction, it is opportune to identify the structure of the latent variable, in terms of the assignment of items to the subscales defining the latent variable. Adopting the reflective model, the impact of four different methods of scoring ordinal variables on the identification of the true structure of latent variables is investigated. A simulation study composed of 5 steps is conducted: (1 simulation of population data with continuous variables measuring a two-dimensional latent variable with known structure; (2 draw of a number of random samples; (3 discretization of the continuous variables according to different distributional forms; (4 quantification of the ordinal variables obtained in step (3 according to different methods; (5 construction of composite indicators and verification of the correct assignment of variables to subscales by the multiple group method and the factor analysis. Results show that the considered scoring methods have similar performances in assigning items to subscales, and that, when the latent variable is multinormal, the distributional form of the observed ordinal variables is not determinant in suggesting the best scoring method to use.

  13. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self...... that a compatible integration of global and local goals in the ludonarrative contributes to a motivational-emotional reinforcement that can be gained through musical feedback. Shedding light on the implications of music dramaturgy within a semantic ecology paradigm, the perception of varying relational attributes...

  14. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  15. Differences in performance indicator between winning and losing team in formative stages according to sex and final score differences DIFERENCIAS EN LOS INDICADORES DE RENDIMIENTO ENTRE LOS EQUIPOS GANADORES Y PERDEDORES EN ETAPAS DE FORMACIÓN EN BALONMANO EN FUNCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Y LA DIFERENCIA FINAL DE GOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro García Martín

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze an u´14 handball competition in function of gender and final score differences, trying to identify performance indicators that differentiate winning teams from losing team in the 2011 Spanish Championship.An amount of 47 masculine and 45 feminine matches from the 2011 Spanish u´14 Championship were analyzed.The analysis was developed with specific software SPSS 17.0 for Windows. A cluster analysis was carried out in function of the final score differences, as well as a t test for independent samples or a Mann- Whitney U in relation of normality, random and  homoscedasticity tests.Results show that, in both competitions, winning teams reach more goals from 6 m line, fewer errors in pass-reception, as well as better values of Offensive Efficacy Coefficient (OEC and Offensive Realization Coefficcient (ORC versus looser teams. Failed and stopped shoots from free throw line differentiate winner teams is male competitions. The amount of possession, penalty goals and steps differentiate winner teams from looser ones in female competitions. Results highlight how important are the physical condition and the individual technic for this ages.Key words: Win-lose, U14, Sport performanceEn este estudio se analizó la competición infantil de balonmano en función del género y la diferencia final de goles, identificando los indicadores de rendimiento que diferencian a los equipos ganadores de los perdedores en el Campeonato de España de Selecciones Autonómicas 2011.La muestra fue de 47 partidos en la competición masculina y de 45 en la femenina. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante el SPSS 17.0 para Windows. Se realizó un clúster para agrupar los partidos en función del resultado final, y se aplicó la prueba t para muestras independientes o la U de Mann-Whitney según los resultados de las pruebas de normalidad, aleatoriedad y homocedasticidad.Los resultados reflejan que, en ambas competiciones, los equipos

  16. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  17. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  18. Genetic effect on apgar score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Franchi-Pinto

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients for one- and five-min Apgar scores of 604 twin pairs born at a southeastern Brazilian hospital were calculated, after adjusting these scores for gestational age and sex. The data support a genetic hypothesis only for 1-min Apgar score, probably because it is less affected by the environment than 4 min later, after the newborns have been under the care of a neonatology team. First-born twins exhibited, on average, better clinical conditions than second-born twins. The former showed a significantly lower proportion of Apgar scores under seven than second-born twins, both at 1 min (17.5% vs. 29.8% and at 5 min (7.2% vs. 11.9%. The proportion of children born with "good" Apgar scores was significantly smaller among twins than among 1,522 singletons born at the same hospital. Among the latter, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores under seven were exhibited by 9.2% and 3.4% newborns, respectively.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para os índices de Apgar 1 e 5 minutos após o nascimento de 604 pares de gêmeos em uma maternidade do sudeste brasileiro, depois que esses índices foram ajustados para idade gestacional e sexo. Os dados obtidos apoiaram a hipótese genética apenas em relação ao primeiro índice de Apgar, provavelmente porque ele é menos influenciado pelo ambiente do que 4 minutos depois, quando os recém-nascidos já estiveram sob os cuidados de uma equipe de neonatologistas. Os gêmeos nascidos em primeiro lugar apresentaram, em média, melhor estado clínico que os nascidos em segundo lugar, visto que os primeiros mostraram uma proporção de índices de Apgar inferiores a 7 significativamente menor do que os nascidos em segundo lugar, tanto um minuto (17,5% contra 29,8% quanto cinco minutos após o nascimento (7,2% contra 11,9%. A proporção de recém-nascidos com índices de Apgar que indicam bom prognóstico foi significativamente menor nos gêmeos do que em 1.522 conceptos

  19. SCORING IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS: WHEN IMAGING IS APPROPRIATE?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuteanu, B; Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi; Mihai, Cătălina; Dranga, Mihaela; Negru, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent presentation to the emergency departments with a rising incidence and a great variability in clinical severity and outcome. The aim of this review is to offer a succinct presentation on acute pancreatitis scoring systems and the use of different imaging methods in severity prediction: Ranson criteria, Glasgow criteria, Hong Kong Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), computed tomography scoring systems, Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score, Panc 3, Japanese Severity Score (JSS), Harmless Acute Pancreatitis Score (HAPS), Pancreatitis Outcome Prediction (POP), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). This article also describes the Revised Atlanta Classification of AP (2012) and the correlation with computed tomography.

  20. Examining Classification Criteria: A Comparison of Three Cut Score Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This study compared 3 different methods of creating cut scores for a screening instrument, T scores, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and the Rasch rating scale method (RSM), for use with the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Teacher Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents (Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007).…

  1. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited outc

  2. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited

  3. Modelling the predictive performance of credit scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Shen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article discussed the importance of rigour in credit risk assessment.Research purpose: The purpose of this empirical paper was to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems in Taiwan.Motivation for the study: Corporate lending remains a major business line for financial institutions. However, in light of the recent global financial crises, it has become extremely important for financial institutions to implement rigorous means of assessing clients seeking access to credit facilities.Research design, approach and method: Using a data sample of 10 349 observations drawn between 1992 and 2010, logistic regression models were utilised to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems.Main findings: A test of Goodness of fit demonstrated that credit scoring models that incorporated the Taiwan Corporate Credit Risk Index (TCRI, micro- and also macroeconomic variables possessed greater predictive power. This suggests that macroeconomic variables do have explanatory power for default credit risk.Practical/managerial implications: The originality in the study was that three models were developed to predict corporate firms’ defaults based on different microeconomic and macroeconomic factors such as the TCRI, asset growth rates, stock index and gross domestic product.Contribution/value-add: The study utilises different goodness of fits and receiver operator characteristics during the examination of the robustness of the predictive power of these factors.

  4. Sleep scoring using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzhina, Marina; Janoušek, Oto; Kolářová, Jana; Nováková, Marie; Honzík, Petr; Provazník, Ivo

    2012-06-01

    Rapid development of computer technologies leads to the intensive automation of many different processes traditionally performed by human experts. One of the spheres characterized by the introduction of new high intelligence technologies substituting analysis performed by humans is sleep scoring. This refers to the classification task and can be solved - next to other classification methods - by use of artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are parallel adaptive systems suitable for solving of non-linear problems. Using ANN for automatic sleep scoring is especially promising because of new ANN learning algorithms allowing faster classification without decreasing the performance. Both appropriate preparation of training data as well as selection of the ANN model make it possible to perform effective and correct recognizing of relevant sleep stages. Such an approach is highly topical, taking into consideration the fact that there is no automatic scorer utilizing ANN technology available at present.

  5. The effects of demographic features on differences in sensitivity between PCL-C and SCL-90 scores in a follow-up study in secondary school students in the Wenchuan earthquake region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng Su; Li, Ting; Li, Juan; Hu, Xiao Qin; Liu, Zhi Yue; Yuan, Ping

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the sensitivity of effect factors between the PCL-C and the SCL-90, to provide evidence for social psychological crisis screening and post-trauma interventions. We administered the PCL-C and SCL-90 to screen for PTSD and other psychological problems among students who survived the disaster and continued their school studies. The surveys were carried out 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the earthquake. A bivariate 2-level logistic model was used to explore the different levels of sensitivity among students. The factors influencing the relationships between PTSD and depression, and between PTSD and anxiety were examined. We analyzed data from 1 677 students, revealing that female students in higher grades were more likely to exhibit symptoms of depression, rather than PTSD, compared with the control group (males in lower grades), and the difference was significant (Pcrisis interventions. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of New Ballards score and Parkins score for gestational age estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Kavita; d'Lima, Annely; Nesargi, Saudamini; Rao, Suman; Bhat, Swarnarekha

    2013-08-01

    This prospective analytical study was done to compare the accuracy of New Ballards score (NBS) and Parkins score (PS) in assessing the gestational age (GA) in newborns. The GA of 284 babies was assessed by the NBS and PS within 24 hours of birth. The two methods of assessment were compared using the Bland Altmann Plot. The mean difference between the two measurements was 1.530576. 95% of the values lay within the limits of agreement which are -1.82982 and 4.890974. The two methods are found to be in acceptable agreement. Parkins score enables us to easily assess the gestational age of babies within ±12 days, especially in sick and preterm babies.

  7. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  8. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Tasca, M A; Brasili, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring.

  9. The Kernel Levine Equipercentile Observed-Score Equating Function. Research Report. ETS RR-13-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the observed-score equating methods for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design, there are 3 fundamentally different ways of using the information provided by the anchor scores to equate the scores of a new form to those of an old form. One method uses the anchor scores as a conditioning variable, such as the Tucker…

  10. The Washback Effect of Automated Essay Scoring on Undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dao-yu; YAO Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the washback effect that automated essay scoring has on undergraduates of China. The main pur-pose of this study is to explore the effect that the automated essay scoring has on the writing ability of undergraduates. There are some significant differences in scores of composition between the experimental group and the control group. It is found that the holistic scores of the experimental group are higher than those of the control group. Some striking differences are found in syn-tactic fluency and complexity. It is found that the experimental group is more complex in syntactic fluency and complexity than the control group. The research indicates that, under the proper guidance of teachers, the AES can effectively improve the writ-ing scores of undergraduates.

  11. The Alvarado score for predicting acute appendicitis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Alvarado score can be used to stratify patients with symptoms of suspected appendicitis; the validity of the score in certain patient groups and at different cut points is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the discrimination (diagnostic accuracy) and calibration performance of the Alvarado score. Methods A systematic search of validation studies in Medline, Embase, DARE and The Cochrane library was performed up to April 2011. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the score at the two cut-off points: score of 5 (1 to 4 vs. 5 to 10) and score of 7 (1 to 6 vs. 7 to 10). Calibration was analysed across low (1 to 4), intermediate (5 to 6) and high (7 to 10) risk strata. The analysis focused on three sub-groups: men, women and children. Results Forty-two studies were included in the review. In terms of diagnostic accuracy, the cut-point of 5 was good at 'ruling out' admission for appendicitis (sensitivity 99% overall, 96% men, 99% woman, 99% children). At the cut-point of 7, recommended for 'ruling in' appendicitis and progression to surgery, the score performed poorly in each subgroup (specificity overall 81%, men 57%, woman 73%, children 76%). The Alvarado score is well calibrated in men across all risk strata (low RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; intermediate 1.09, 0.86 to 1.37 and high 1.02, 0.97 to 1.08). The score over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in children in the intermediate and high risk groups and in women across all risk strata. Conclusions The Alvarado score is a useful diagnostic 'rule out' score at a cut point of 5 for all patient groups. The score is well calibrated in men, inconsistent in children and over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in women across all strata of risk. PMID:22204638

  12. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  13. The HEART score for chest pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, B.E.

    2012-01-01

    The HEART score was developed to improve risk stratification in chest pain patients in the emergency department (ED). This thesis describes series of validation studies of the HEART score and sub studies for individual elements of the score. The predictive value of the HEART score for the occurrence

  14. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  15. Comparison between needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy samples in assessing Gleason score and modified Gleason score in prostatic adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu DOĞAN GÜN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histologic grading is an important predictor of prostatic disease stage and prognosis. We aimed to assess the degree of concordance between pathologic characteristics of the specimens obtained from biopsy and radical prostatectomy materials.Gleason scores and modified Gleason scores calculated for 25 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma from both needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens were analyzed.Mean Gleason scores for biopsy and radical specimens were 6.4 (SD:±0.7 and 6.64 (SD:±1.3; and corresponding modified Gleason scores were 7.32 (SD:±1.43 and 7.32 (SD:±0.98, respectively. The Gleason scores of biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens were identical in 48% (12/25 of the cases, while 32% (8/25 of the biopsy specimens were over-and 20% (5/25 of them were undergraded. While assessing modified Gleason scores, the exact degree of concordance of biopsy specimens with radical prostatectomy materials was 56% (14/25 and of the 11 (44% cases not correlated exactly, 6 (24% were over- and 5 (20% were undergraded. When the exact, over- and underestimated scores of Gleason and modified Gleason grading systems were compared statistically, no difference between two groups was seen (p>0.05. Overgrading errors were found to be more than undergrading errors for both of the scoring systems. Using either the modified Gleason or traditional Gleason scoring

  16. Score lists in multipartite hypertournaments

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzada, Shariefuddin; Iványi, Antal

    2010-01-01

    Given non-negative integers $n_{i}$ and $\\alpha_{i}$ with $0 \\leq \\alpha_{i} \\leq n_i$ $(i=1,2,...,k)$, an $[\\alpha_{1},\\alpha_{2},...,\\alpha_{k}]$-$k$-partite hypertournament on $\\sum_{1}^{k}n_{i}$ vertices is a $(k+1)$-tuple $(U_{1},U_{2},...,U_{k},E)$, where $U_{i}$ are $k$ vertex sets with $|U_{i}|=n_{i}$, and $E$ is a set of $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples of vertices, called arcs, with exactly $\\alpha_{i}$ vertices from $U_{i}$, such that any $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$ subset $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$ of $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}$, $E$ contains exactly one of the $(\\sum_{1}^{k} \\alpha_{i})!$ $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples whose entries belong to $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for $k$ lists of non-negative integers in non-decreasing order to be the losing score lists and to be the score lists of some $k$-partite hypertournament.

  17. Disclosure Risk from Factor Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drechsler Jörg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote access can be a powerful tool for providing data access for external researchers. Since the microdata never leave the secure environment of the data-providing agency, alterations of the microdata can be kept to a minimum. Nevertheless, remote access is not free from risk. Many statistical analyses that do not seem to provide disclosive information at first sight can be used by sophisticated intruders to reveal sensitive information. For this reason the list of allowed queries is usually restricted in a remote setting. However, it is not always easy to identify problematic queries. We therefore strongly support the argument that has been made by other authors: that all queries should be monitored carefully and that any microlevel information should always be withheld. As an illustrative example, we use factor score analysis, for which the output of interest - the factor loading of the variables - seems to be unproblematic. However, as we show in the article, the individual factor scores that are usually returned as part of the output can be used to reveal sensitive information. Our empirical evaluations based on a German establishment survey emphasize that this risk is far from a purely theoretical problem.

  18. Functional movement screen scores in a group of running athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Parkerson-Mitchell, Amy J; Hildebrand, Laurie D; Teague, Connie

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mean values of the functional movement screen (FMS) in a group of long-distance runners. The secondary aims were to investigate whether the FMS performance differed between sexes and between young and older runners. Forty-three runners, 16 women (mean age = 33.5 years, height = 165.2 cm, weight = 56.3 kg, and body mass index [BMI] = 20.6) and 27 men (mean age = 39.3 years, height = 177.6 cm, weight = 75.8 kg, and BMI = 24.2) performed the FMS. All the runners were injury-free and ran >30 km·wk. Independent t-tests were performed on the composite scores to examine the differences between men and women and also between young (40 years). Contingency tables (2 × 2) were developed for each of the 7 screening tests to further look at the differences in groups for each single test. The χ values were calculated to determine significant differences. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the composite score between women and men. There were significant differences between the sexes in the push-up and straight leg test scores, with the women scoring better on each test. A significant difference was found in the composite scores between younger and older runners (p score differences were found for the squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge tests with the younger runners scoring better. This study provided mean values for the FMS in a cohort of long-distance runners. These values can be used as a reference for comparing FMST scores in other runners who are screened with this tool.

  19. Comparison of five actigraphy scoring methods with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Boudebesse, Carole; Leboyer, Marion; Begley, Amy; Wood, Annette; Miewald, Jean; Hall, Martica; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David; Germain, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare five actigraphy scoring methods in a sample of 18 remitted patients with bipolar disorder. Actigraphy records were processed using five different scoring methods relying on the sleep diary; the event-marker; the software-provided automatic algorithm; the automatic algorithm supplemented by the event-marker; visual inspection (VI) only. The Algorithm and the VI methods differed from the other methods for many actigraphy parameters of interest. Particularly...

  20. The Effect of Logical Choice Weight and Corrected Scoring Methods on Multiple Choice Agricultural Science Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Ajayi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the effect of logical choice weight and corrected scoring methods on multiple choice Agricultural science test scores the study also investigated the interaction effect of logical choice weight and corrected scoring methods in schools ,and types of school in multiple choice agricultural science test. The researcher used a combination of survey type and one short experimental design. The sample for the study consisted of 600 students selected by stratified random sampling techniques in south western Nigeria. Overall performance of students in percentage, and correlation was analyzed. The hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that there was a significant difference in the academic performance of students in logical choice weight and corrected scoring methods in multiple choice agricultural science test scores. The result also shown that there was no interaction effect on the two scoring methods in the type of schools, the location of schools in multiple choices agricultural science test. The study revealed that logical choice weight scoring method was the best method that favoured the scoring of the students’ scripts in multiple choices agricultural science test. On the basis of these findings, logical choice weight should be introduced to the teachers to use in the classroom as a new method of scoring multiple choice agricultural science the logical choice weight method is recommended in the ministry of education, in Examination Division, and to junior secondary schools for scoring JSS (3 three multiple choice test. Examination bodies such as West Africa Examination Council (WAEC, National Examination Council (NECO, Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB should adopt the use of logical choice weight method in scoring multiple choice tests. The method could be used in tertiary institutions for post ‘JAMB’ Unify Matriculation Examination (UME test. It is also

  1. The effect of different modes of the prostate biopsy on the Gleason score of prostate cancer%不同模式经直肠超声前列腺穿刺活检对前列腺癌Gleason评分影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳鹏; 冯蕾; 孙琰; 林翠云; 张庶; 虞青; 夏要友; 陈坤; 陆健斐

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同模式经直肠超声前列腺穿刺活检对前列腺癌(prostate cancer, PCA)Gleason评分的影响。方法对95例已确诊的PCA进行回顾性研究,不同模式的经直肠前列腺穿刺活检共4组,即系统穿刺活检组(SB组)28例,仅行对比增强靶向活检组(CEUS组)15例,仅行弹性成像靶向活检组(UE组)28例,CEUS联合UE靶向活检组(CUES+UE组)24例。将得到的Gleason评分进行组间比较。结果 SB组与CEUS组之间、CEUS组与UE组间、CEUS+UE组两两之间的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),而UE组、CUES+UE组与SB组的Gleason评分的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论与经直肠超声引导下前列腺系统活检相比,经直肠超声弹性成像技术、经直肠对比增强超声联合超声弹性成像技术引导的前列腺靶向活检有助于得到较高的前列腺组织Gleason评分。%Objective To investigate the effect of different patterns of the prostate biopsy on Gleason score of prostate cancer (PCA).Methods A total of 95 patients with different biopsy patterns were randomly divided into 4 groups including sysmetic biopsy group(SB, 28 cases), contrast enhanced ultrasound group (CEUS, 15 cases), ultrasonic elastography group (UE, 28 cases), the group of CEUS combined with UE (CUES+UE, 24 cases). The Gleason scores were comparatively analyzed between groups.Results There was no significant difference in Gleason score between SB group and CEUS group, as well as CEUS group, UE group and CEUS+UE group (P>0.05), whereas there were significant differences(P<0.05) between SB group and UE group, CUES+UE group respectively.Conclusion CEUS combined with UE and UE targeted biopsy was superior to SB in obtaining higher Gleason score.

  2. What diagnoses may make patients more seriously ill than they first appear? Mortality according to the Simple Clinical Score Risk Class at the time of admission compared to the observed mortality of different ICD9 codes identified on death or discharge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2009-01-01

    The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) determined at the time of admission places acutely ill general medical patients into one of five risk classes associated with an increasing risk of death within 30 days. The cohort of acute medical patient that the SCS was derived from had, on average, four combinations of 74 groupings of ICD9 codes. This paper reports the ICD9 codes associated with the different SCS risk classes and identifies those ICD9 codes with a greater observed mortality than that of other patients in the same SCS risk class.

  3. Consider Propensity Scores to Compare Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The underlying question when comparing treatments is usually whether an individual would do better with treatment X than they would with treatment Y. But there are often practical and theoretical problems in giving people both treatments and comparing the data. This paper presents the use of propensity score matching as a methodology that can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments. The method is applied to answer two questions: (1 - Should examinees take a college admissions test near or a few years after graduation?- and (2 - Do accommodated students receive an unfair advantage?- Data from a large admission testing program is used.

  4. Exploding superstars understanding supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Mazure, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The exceptional cosmic history and the fabulous destinies of exploding stars – supernovae and gamma-ray bursters – are highly fertile areas of research and are also very special tools to further our understanding of the universe. In this book, cosmologists Dr Alain Mazure and Dr Stéphane Basa throw light on the assemblage of facts, hypotheses and cosmological conclusions and show how these ‘beacons’ illuminate their immediate surroundings and allow us to study the vast cosmos, like searchlights revealing the matter comprising our universe.

  5. Makeup like a superstar: Deep Localized Makeup Transfer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Si; Ou, Xinyu; Qian, Ruihe; Wang, Wei; Cao, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Localized Makeup Transfer Network to automatically recommend the most suitable makeup for a female and synthesis the makeup on her face. Given a before-makeup face, her most suitable makeup is determined automatically. Then, both the beforemakeup and the reference faces are fed into the proposed Deep Transfer Network to generate the after-makeup face. Our end-to-end makeup transfer network have several nice properties including: (1) with complete functio...

  6. Development and testing of a portfolio evaluation scoring tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowicz, Karen A

    2010-02-01

    This study focused on development of a portfolio evaluation tool to guide the assignment of valid and reliable scores. Tool development was facilitated by a literature review, guidance of a faculty committee, and validation by content experts. Testing involved a faculty team that evaluated 60 portfolios. Calculation of interrater reliability and a paired-samples t test were used to judge effectiveness. Interrater reliability was 0.78 for overall scores, 0.81 for the seven program outcomes criteria scores, and more than 0.65 for scores assigned by 11 of 13 pairs of raters. There were no significant differences between raters' scores in 10 of 13 pairs. The portfolio evaluation tool demonstrated high reliability and should be tested by other schools using portfolio evaluation.

  7. External validation of the HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lee; Gomes, Marcelo P V; Al Solaiman, Firas; St John, Julie; Ozaki, Asuka; Raju, Manjunath; Dhariwal, Manoj; Kim, Esther S H

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be challenging. The HIT Expert Probability (HEP) Score has recently been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of HIT. We sought to externally and prospectively validate the HEP score. We prospectively assessed pre-test probability of HIT for 51 consecutive patients referred to our Consultative Service for evaluation of possible HIT between August 1, 2012 and February 1, 2013. Two Vascular Medicine fellows independently applied the 4T and HEP scores for each patient. Two independent HIT expert adjudicators rendered a diagnosis of HIT likely or unlikely. The median (interquartile range) of 4T and HEP scores were 4.5 (3.0, 6.0) and 5 (3.0, 8.5), respectively. There were no significant differences between area under receiver-operating characteristic curves of 4T and HEP scores against the gold standard, confirmed HIT [defined as positive serotonin release assay and positive anti-PF4/heparin ELISA] (0.74 vs 0.73, p = 0.97). HEP score ≥ 2 was 100 % sensitive and 16 % specific for determining the presence of confirmed HIT while a 4T score > 3 was 93 % sensitive and 35 % specific. In conclusion, the HEP and 4T scores are excellent screening pre-test probability models for HIT, however, in this prospective validation study, test characteristics for the diagnosis of HIT based on confirmatory laboratory testing and expert opinion are similar. Given the complexity of the HEP scoring model compared to that of the 4T score, further validation of the HEP score is warranted prior to widespread clinical acceptance.

  8. Does Weight Affect Children's Test Scores and Teacher Assessments Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to…

  9. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  10. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) summary scores: comparison of the Recent Status Scores of the ASI-6 and the Composite Scores of the ASI-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Cécile M; Cacciola, John S; Alterman, Arthur I

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics and the validity of the Recent Status Scores (RSSs), the new summary scores generated by the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6), are compared to the fifth version of the ASI summary scores, the Composite Scores (CSs). A sample of 82 randomly selected patients from substance abuse treatment programs were interviewed with the ASI-6, the ASI-5 and were administered a validity battery of questionnaires that included measures corresponding to each of the ASI domains. Each ASI-6 RSS was significantly correlated with its corresponding ASI-5 CS. The intercorrelations among the RSSs are low and none of these correlations were statistically different from the intercorrelations among CSs. In five of the seven areas, the ASI-6 RSSs were more highly correlated to the corresponding validity measures than were the ASI-5 CSs. The ASI-6 offers more comprehensive content in its scales than do those derived with earlier ASIs.

  11. 不同程度脑白质损害老年患者认知评分与神经解剖指标的关系%The relationship between cognitive score and neuroanatomy indexes in elderly patients with white matter lesions of different degrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月菊; 李鹏; 侯宝元; 董凌燕; 李虹; 李建中

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析不同程度脑白质损害(WML)老年患者认知评分及神经解剖指标的特点及其相互关系.方法 根据Fazekas分级标准将151例老年患者分为WML 0级组62例、WML 1级组46例、WML 2级组43例,分析各组患者蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)和神经解剖结构的差异及其相互关系.结果 与WML 0级组和WML 1级组比较,WML 2级组患者各项MoCA评分明显降低(P<0.01).控制各项脑神经解剖结构指标后,WML分级与MoCA总分显著相关(r=-0.448,P=0.000).WML 2级组与WML 0级组比较,尾状核指数扩大、海马沟回比扩大、腔隙性脑梗死数目增多为独立危险因素.执行功能与皮质下萎缩(P<0.01)、颞叶萎缩及腔隙性脑梗死数目增多(P<0.05)显著相关.结论 轻度WML 患者认知功能及脑解剖结构无明显改变,中、重度WML 患者多领域认知功能出现明显损害同时伴有广泛的脑萎缩,且WML导致的认知障碍独立于脑萎缩,提示额叶皮质-皮质下环路的破坏及对执行功能的影响是中、重度WML患者的显著特征.%Objective To analyse the characteristics of neuroanatomy indexes and the relationship between cognitive score and neuroanatomy indexes in elderly people with cerebral white matter lesions(WML) of different degrees. Methods 151 old patients with WML of different severities were rated with the Fazekas scale and divided into WML 0 level(62 cases),WML 1 level(46 cases) and WML 2 level(43 cases) groups. The differences in MoCA score and neuroanatomy structures in different groups were analyzed. Results Compared with WML 0 level group, WML 1 level group had no significant difference in each MoCA score. However the MoCA score of WML 2 level group was significantly decreased compared with WML 0 level group and WML 1 level group (P < 0.01). After controlling various neuroanatomy indexes,WML grade was still signifi cantly correlated with cognitive score (r =- 0. 448,P = 0. 000). Compared with WML 0 level

  12. Translation and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana Lucia Pastore E; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Pecora, José Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese and verification of its measurement properties, reproducibility, and validity. In 2012, the new version of the Knee Society Score was developed and validated. This scale comprises four separate subscales: (a) objective knee score (seven items: 100 points); (b) patient satisfaction score (five items: 40 points); (c) patient expectations score (three items: 15 points); and (d) functional activity score (19 items: 100 points). A total of 90 patients aged 55-85 years were evaluated in a clinical cross-sectional study. The pre-operative translated version was applied to patients with TKA referral, and the post-operative translated version was applied to patients who underwent TKA. Each patient answered the same questionnaire twice and was evaluated by two experts in orthopedic knee surgery. Evaluations were performed pre-operatively and three, six, or 12 months post-operatively. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two applications. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. The ICC found no difference between the means of the pre-operative, three-month, and six-month post-operative evaluations between sub-scale items. The Brazilian Portuguese version of The 2011 KS Score is a valid and reliable instrument for objective and subjective evaluation of the functionality of Brazilian patients who undergo TKA and revision TKA.

  13. The scoring bias in reverse docking and the score normalization strategy to improve success rate of target fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiyao; Zhao, Liang; Hu, Jianxing; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2017-01-01

    Target fishing often relies on the use of reverse docking to identify potential target proteins of ligands from protein database. The limitation of reverse docking is the accuracy of current scoring funtions used to distinguish true target from non-target proteins. Many contemporary scoring functions are designed for the virtual screening of small molecules without special optimization for reverse docking, which would be easily influenced by the properties of protein pockets, resulting in scoring bias to the proteins with certain properties. This bias would cause lots of false positives in reverse docking, interferring the identification of true targets. In this paper, we have conducted a large-scale reverse docking (5000 molecules to 100 proteins) to study the scoring bias in reverse docking by DOCK, Glide, and AutoDock Vina. And we found that there were actually some frequency hits, namely interference proteins in all three docking procedures. After analyzing the differences of pocket properties between these interference proteins and the others, we speculated that the interference proteins have larger contact area (related to the size and shape of protein pockets) with ligands (for all three docking programs) or higher hydrophobicity (for Glide), which could be the causes of scoring bias. Then we applied the score normalization method to eliminate this scoring bias, which was effective to make docking score more balanced between different proteins in the reverse docking of benchmark dataset. Later, the Astex Diver Set was utilized to validate the effect of score normalization on actual cases of reverse docking, showing that the accuracy of target prediction significantly increased by 21.5% in the reverse docking by Glide after score normalization, though there was no obvious change in the reverse docking by DOCK and AutoDock Vina. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of score normalization to eliminate the scoring bias and improve the accuracy of target

  14. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  15. Development of a spot reliability evaluation score for DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yonehiro; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tateno, Yoshio; Kawai, Jun

    2005-05-09

    We developed a reliability index named SRED (Spot Reliability Evaluation Score for DNA microarrays) that represents the probability that the calibrated gene expression level from a DNA microarray would be less than a factor of 2 different from that of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays whose dynamic quantification range is treated statistically to be similar to that of the DNA microarray. To define the SRED score, two parameters, the reproducibility of measurement value and the relative expression value were selected from nine candidate parameters. The SRED score supplies the probability that the expression level in each spot of a microarray is less than a certain-fold different compared to other expression profiling data, such as QRT-PCR. This score was applied to approximately 1,500,000 points of the expression profile in the RIKEN Expression Array Database.

  16. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  17. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KO...

  18. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    2002-01-01

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with diffi

  19. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  20. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  1. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  2. Semiparametric score sevel susion: Gaussian sopula approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanyo, N.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Score level fusion is an appealing method for combining multi-algorithms, multi- representations, and multi-modality biometrics due to its simplicity. Often, scores are assumed to be independent, but even for dependent scores, accord- ing to the Neyman-Pearson lemma, the likelihood ratio is the opti

  3. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  4. Evaluation of prognostic factors and scoring system in colonic perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Horiuchi; Yuji Watanabe; Takashi Doi; Kouichi Sato; Syungo Yukumi; Motohira Yoshida; Yuji Yamamoto; Hiroki Sugishita; Kanji Kawachi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the significance of scoring systems assessing severity and prognostic factors in patients with colonic perforation.METHODS: A total of 26 patients (9 men, 17 women;mean age 72.7±11.6 years) underwent emergency operation for colorectal perforation in our institution between 1993 and 2005. Several clinical factors were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluationⅡ (APACHE Ⅱ),Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI) and peritonitis index of Altona (PIA Ⅱ) scores were calculated preoperatively.RESULTS: Overall postoperative mortality rate was 23.1% (6 patients). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed low blood pressure, low serum protein and high serum creatinine preoperatively, and low blood pressure, low white blood cell count, low pH,low PaO2/FiO2, and high serum creatinine postoperatively.APACHE Ⅱ score was significantly lower in survivors than in non-survivors (10.4±3.84 vs19.3±2.87, P= 0.00003). Non-survivors tended to display high MPI score and low PIA Ⅱ score, but no significant difference was identified.CONCLUSION: Pre- and postoperative blood pressure and serum creatinine level appear related to prognosis of colonic perforation. APACHE Ⅱ score is most associated with prognosis and scores ≥ 20 are associated with significantly increased mortality rate.

  5. 不同分层标准SYNTAX积分对经皮冠状动脉介入治疗复杂冠心病患者的预测价值%Predictive Values of Different SYNTAX Scores in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complicated Coronary Artery Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高阅春; 陈方; 玉献鹏; 何继强; 吴长燕; 张晓玲; 李宇; 罗亚玮; 张宇晨; 张维东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the predictive values of different SYNTAX scores in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for complicated coronary artery disease. Methods SYNTAX scores were retrospectively calculated in 190 patients with three - vessel or left - main coronary artery disease from January 2007 to December 2008. Follow - up was carried out by telephone or outpatient visits. The research endpoints included major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events ( MACCE ), a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction ( MI ), stroke, and repeat revascularization. MACCE rates according to different stratification of SYNTAX scores were recorded respectively. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% Cis and control the confounding factors. Area under receiving operator curve ( AUROC ) were calculated to compare the predictive values of these two different stratifications. Results The MACCE rates of low ( 0 ~ 20. 5 ), intermediate ( 21. 0 ~ 31. 0 ), and high ( ≥31.5) tertiles according to SYNTAX score of our study population were 9. 1% , 16. 2% , and 30. 9% , respectively ( Log rank P = 0. 006 ), multivariable analyses [ HR = 2. 07, 95% CI (1.25, 3.44), P=0.005]; the AUROC was 0. 667 [95%CI (0.564, 0.770), P=0.004]. The MACCE rates of low (0~ 22 ), intermediate (23 ~ 32 ), and high ( ≥ 33 ) tertiles according to SYNTAX scores of SYNTAX study were 15. 7% 、 12. 9% , and 28. 6% respectively [ Log rank P =0.09, multivariable analyses HR = 1. 47, 95% CI ( 0. 94, 2. 32 ), P = 0. 10 ]; the AUROC was 0. 593 [ 95 % CI ( 0. 475, 0. 710 ), P = 0. 11 ]. Conclusion SYNTAX score tertiles according to o-verall SYNTAX score distribution of our study population ( 0 ~ 20. 5, 21. 0 ~ 31. 0, ≥ 31. 5 ) can be an independent predictor of MACCE. However, SYNTAX score tertiles according to SYNTAX study ( 0 -22, 23-32, ≥33 ) fail to predict MACCE occurrence of our study population.%目的 比较不同分层标

  6. Committee Opinion No. 644: The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  7. Calibration of unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores to Movement Disorder Society-unified Parkinson's disease rating scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Tilley, Barbara C

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop formulas to convert the UPDRS to Movement Disorder Society (MDS)-UPDRS scores. The MDS-UPDRS is a revision of the UPDRS with sound clinimetric properties. Reliable formulas to recalculate UPDRS scores into MDS-UPDRS equivalents are pivotal to the practical transition and definitive adoption of the MDS-UPDRS. UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS scores were collected on 875 PD patients. A developmental sample was used to regress UPDRS scores on corresponding MDS-UPDRS scores based on three H & Y groupings (I/II, III, and IV/V). Regression weighting factors and intercept terms provided formulas for UPDRS conversions to be tested in a validation sample. Concordance between the true MDS-UPDRS Part scores and those derived from the formulas was compared using Bland-Altman's plots and Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). Significant concordance between UPDRS-estimated MDS-UPDRS scores was achieved for Parts II (Motor Experiences of Daily Living) (LCC = 0.93) and III (Motor Examination) (LCC = 0.97). The formulas resulted in mean differences between the true MDS-UPDRS and estimated MDS-UPDRS scores of less than 1 point for both Parts II and III. Concordance was not achieved for Parts I and IV (Non-motor Experiences of Daily Living and Complications of Therapy). Formulas allow archival UPDRS Parts II and III individual patient data to be accurately transferred to MDS-UPDRS scores. Because Part I collects data on much more extensive information than the UPDRS, and because Part IV is structured differently in the two versions, old ratings for these parts cannot be converted. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Changes of current perception threshold of different nerve fibers in children with tactile sensory integration dysfunction and its relationships with sensory integrative score%触觉感觉统合失调儿童不同神经纤维电流感觉阈值变化及与感觉统合评分的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志英; 薛波; 方旭忠; 刘秀红; 张崔娟; 薛晓焕; 包华

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察触觉感觉统合失调( tSID)儿童神经纤维电流感觉阈值( CPT)变化及其与感觉统合评分的关系。方法应用感觉神经定量分析仪检测45例tSID儿童(观察组)及96例正常儿童(对照组)正中神经( C7)、尺神经(C8)、腓浅神经(L4)的CPT,分析CPT与感觉统合评分的关系。结果2000 Hz刺激强度下测得C7、C8、L4的CPT,观察组高于对照组(P均<0.05);观察组2000 Hz与250、5 Hz的CPT比较,P均<0.01;观察组C8的感觉异常率最高。观察组2000、250 Hz的CPT与感觉统合评分呈负相关(P均<0.05)。结论 tSID儿童不同神经纤维的CPT发生变化,不同神经纤维存在不同的异常,其CPT与感觉统合评分存在相关性,2000 Hz的CPT可作为客观、量化评估tSID儿童感觉异常的有效指标。%Objective To observe the changes of current perception threshold ( CPT) in different nerve fiber tracts of children with tactile sensory integrative dysfunction (tSID), and to investigate its its relationships with sensory integrative score. Methods CPT of median nerve C7, ulnar nerve C8 and superficial peroneal nerve L4 from 45 children with tSID ( observation group) and 96 healthy children ( control group) were detected by quantitative sensory nerve testing apparatus, and the relationships between sensory integrative score and CPT were also analyzed. Results Under the condition of 2 000 Hz, CPT of C7, C8 and L4 of the observation group were higher than those of the control group (all P<0. 05). The CPT de-tected on the conditions of 2 000 Hz, 250 Hz and 5 Hz were statistically significant (all P<0. 05). The hypaesthesia of C8 was remarkable, and CPT under the condition of 2 000 Hz and 250 Hz was negatively correlated with the sensory integrative score (all P<0. 05). Conclusions CPT change in different nerve fiber tracts of children with tSID. The disorder of different nerve fibers is different, and its CPT is correlated with the sensory integrative score. CPT under

  9. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicewander, W Alan

    2017-04-06

    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  11. Empathy Score among Student Residence Assistants in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahini, Najmeh; Rezayat, Kambiz Akhavane; Behdani, Fatemeh; Shojaei, Seyed Reza Habibzadeh; Rezayat, Amir Akhavan; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Empathy, an essential component of the physician–patient relationship, may be linked to positive patient outcomes. This study aimed to determine the empathy score among student residence assistants (RAs). Methods In this descriptive design (cross-sectional study), 102 Iranian RAs participated in the study during 2015, completing the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSPE). Data collection was analyzed using SPSS version 17. MANOVA, independent-samples t-test, Spearman correlation and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data analysis. Results Mean score of JSE in the sample was 87.06 (±15.14). The mean scores for perspective taking, compassionate care, and standing in the patients shoes were 38.90 (±13.11), 39.27 (±7.94), and 8.89 (±2.80) respectively. Among the three specialties, (psychiatric, internal medicine, surgery) results showed significant differences in total empathy score (p=0.001) and perspective taking score (p= 0.008). Conclusions this study showed significant differences in total empathy score and perspective taking in three specialties. We suggest that the curriculum in Iranian RAs include more teaching on empathy and communicational skills. PMID:28163848

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  13. Clinical utility of metabolic syndrome severity scores: considerations for practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Gurka, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup. These scores are correlated with long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical use of scores like these provide a potential opportunity to identify patients at highest risk, motivate patients toward lifestyle change, and follow treatment progress over time.

  14. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  15. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  16. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  17. Effect of different concentrate levels in the pre and post parturition period on milk production and body score of dairy cowsEfeito de diferentes níveis de concentrado no período pré e pós-parto sobre a produção de leite e escore corporal de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes Seneda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of concentrate supplement in the pre and post-parturition periods on milk production and body score of dairy cow. 54 cows in a completely randomized design, distributed in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 treatments, 2 periods and 9 repetitions for treatment, were used. The treatments with different levels of concentrate supplement (in dry basis in the pre-parturition periods (PRE, were: PRE1 = 0% of the body weight (BW; PRE2 = 0.5% of the BW; PRE3 = 1.0% of the BW; and in the post-parturition (POS, were: POS1 = 1kg for each 2.5 kg of produced milk; POS2 = 1kg for each 2.0kg of produced milk and POS3 = 1kg for each 1.5kg of produced milk, above 6 kg of milk a day. The milk weight and body condition scores were evaluated every seven days. There was not significant difference among the treatments of PRÉ period for milk production, however, it was verified that the increase in the PRE supplementation, improved the average body condition of animals in post parturition period. In the treatments of POS period, there was positive and increasing effect with the increasing supplementation level, on milk production and medium body score of the animals. Improvement was not observed in the milk production with the increase of supplement in the PRE period, but in the POS period there was higher milk production with the increase supplement. There were not correlation among pre-parturition treatments and milk production, but there was correlation of these with body score to the parturition (r=0.66. There was correlation of supplement levels in the post parturition with medium body score (0.36 and with milk production (0.32. It can be concluded that the increasing supplement level in the pre-parturition period improves the body score but not the milk production of the animals. The increase of supplement in the post parturition period gets better so much the body

  18. 缺血性心肌病不同类型心力衰竭患者冠状动脉 SYNTAX 积分比较%Comparison of coronary SYNTAX score in different types of heart failure with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何喜民; 陈林; 张云波; 冯旭霞; 罗江宾; 王天松

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the ischemic cardiomyopathy clinical characteristics of different types of heart failure and coronary SYNTAX score. Methods This retrospective analysis included 128 cases who were diagnosed as ischemic cardiomyopathy with heart failure hospitalized in the People's Hospital of Sanya during January 2010 to December 2014.Depending on the difference of clinical characteristics, the 128 cases were divided into HF -REF (75 cases) and HF -PEF (53 cases) .The clinical features, plasma BNP, echocardiography and coronary SYNTAX score difference were analyzed in both groups.Results The duration of disease, old myocardial infarction rate, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ( LVEDD) , left ventricular systolic diameter ( LVESD) , New York Heart Association functional class, multi-vessel disease, plasma BNP, coronary SYNTAX score and many other parameters were compared, and these indexes were significantly higher in HF-REF group than those in HF-PEF group.Multivariate correlation analysis showed that coronary SYNTAX score and duration of disease, NYHA class, plasma BNP was positively correlated, and the correlation coefficient was 0.227,0.443 and 0.513, respectively(P 0.05).Conclusion Compared with HF-REF patients, HF-PEF patients with short duration, mild coronary artery stenosis and patient's condition, the prognosis is good.Complex severity of coronary artery disease is a key factor for the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy heart failure.%目的:比较缺血性心肌病( ICM )不同类型心力衰竭患者临床特点及冠状动脉SYNTAX积分的差异。方法回顾性分析2010-01~2014-12在三亚市人民医院心内科因心力衰竭住院诊断为ICM并完成冠状动脉造影的128例患者临床资料,将其分为左心室射血分数( LVEF)降低的心力衰竭又称收缩性心力衰竭( HF-REF)和LVEF保留的心力衰竭又称舒张性心力衰竭( HF-PEF),其中HF-PEF 53例,HF-REF 75例。分

  19. Forecasting the value of credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring system plays an important role in banking sector. This process is important in assessing the creditworthiness of customers requesting credit from banks or other financial institutions. Usually, the credit scoring is used when customers send the application for credit facilities. Based on the score from credit scoring, bank will be able to segregate the "good" clients from "bad" clients. However, in most cases the score is useful at that specific time only and cannot be used to forecast the credit worthiness of the same applicant after that. Hence, bank will not know if "good" clients will always be good all the time or "bad" clients may become "good" clients after certain time. To fill up the gap, this study proposes an equation to forecast the credit scoring of the potential borrowers at a certain time by using the historical score related to the assumption. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of the forecast scoring. Result shows the forecast scoring is highly accurate as compared to actual credit scoring.

  20. Assessing the repeatability and reproducibility of the Leg Score: a Dutch Claw Health Scoring System for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauer, M; Middelesch, H; Bartels, C J M; Frankena, K; Verhoeff, J; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    The optimal moment for trimming the claws of all dairy cows in a herd was investigated by assessing the external rotation of the hind claws of individual cows relative to the spinal column. This leg score consisted of three independent descriptors: 1 (good/normal), 2 (moderately deviant), and 3 (severely deviant). This study assessed the repeatability and the reproducibility of the leg score system, and the consistency of the advice given subsequently about trimming of the hind claws of all cows in the herd. Repeatability was assessed for 52 cows that were scored twice on the same day by 11 observers; the kappa value ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 (mean: 0.36). The probability of the same result for both assessments ranged from 0.49 to 0.80 (mean: 0.61). Claw trimming was advised if at least 20% of the cows had a leg score of 3. On the basis of the scores, 3 observers consistently advised trimming of the hind claws of all the cows in the herd, and 6 observers consistently advised against the need for trimming in the short term; 2 observers had an inconsistent advice. The reproducibility of the scoring system was assessed in two dairy herds (62 and 50 cows). Eight observers evaluated the leg score of the cows of both herds on the same day. The mean kappa value of the leg score for all pairs of different observers (A-B, A-C etcetera) was 0.24 [-0.08-0.49]. In conclusion, the leg score is not a reliable method for determining the optimal moment for claw trimming in dairy cattle. The reasons for the inconsistent observations require further investigation.

  1. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  2. Comparing Propensity Score Methods in Balancing Covariates and Recovering Impact in Small Sample Educational Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Clement A.; Tang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score applications are often used to evaluate educational program impact. However, various options are available to estimate both propensity scores and construct comparison groups. This study used a student achievement dataset with commonly available covariates to compare different propensity scoring estimation methods (logistic…

  3. Discrepancy between clinician and research assistant in TIMI score calculation (TRIAGED CPU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian T; Mancini, Michelino

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU) to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider.

  4. The relationship between second-year medical students' OSCE scores and USMLE Step 1 scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven R; Volkan, Kevin; Hamann, Claus; Duffey, Carol; Fletcher, Suzanne W

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and standardized tests is not well known. We linked second-year medical students' physical diagnosis OSCE scores from 1998, 1999 and 2000 (n = 355) with demographic information, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores. The correlation coefficient for the total OSCE score with USMLE Step 1 score was 0.41 (p USMLE Step 1 score. OSCE station scores accounted for approximately 22% of the variability in USMLE Step 1 scores. A second-year OSCE in physical diagnosis is correlated with scores on the USMLE Step 1 exam, with skills that foreshadow the clinical clerkships most predictive of USMLE scores. This correlation suggests predictive validity of this OSCE and supports the use of OSCEs early in medical school.

  5. The examination of the relationship between YGS scores and music field scores in music teaching programme with special talent examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Sağer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Every year, with special aptitude exams students are taken to undergraduate programs as a music teacher in Turkey .Although applications for these exam show differences according to the difficulty level of the questions and evaluations criterias, all the areas that would be measured show similarities to each other. The areas showing the similarity are classified as Musical hearing-reading-writing fields (MİOY , musical playing area and musical singing area. Special Ability Test score (ÖYSP Transition to Higher Education Exam scores, as well as forming the points (YGS-P and the weighted scores of Secondary Education (AOBP takes place mainly among the scores of the candidates. It is used according to the circumstances of different coefficients Placement Scores (YP in the calculation. The types of score that form YGS-P and ÖYS, which mainly affect the placemet of the students to the university, the relationship between the musical areas in ÖYSP and all correlations of the areas to each other have been seen as a basical problem of this study.761 candidates who auditioned for Music Education Program in the years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic Inonu University Faculty of Education constitutes the study group . As a result of the analysis made, between the MİOY scores and YGS-P there is a meaningful relationship in positive direction and low level (r =. 08, p <. 05 In adddition, There are positive correlation and low level (r=.32, p<.01; between the musical play and MİOY area points, playing field between the musical scores of MİOY there are positive direction, the low level (r = .21, p <.05 relationship, and it has been found that there is meaningful relationship between musical play area and the Musical direction at a high level. (r=.79, p<.01

  6. Should Alvarado and Ohmann scores be real indicators for diagnosis of appendicitis and severity of inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Eyüp Murat; Kapçı, Mücahit; Çelik, Sebahattin; Manoğlu, Berke; Avcil, Mücahit; Karacan, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain seen in surgical clinics. Although it can be easily diagnosed, the picture may be confusing, particularly in premenopausal women and the elderly. The present study is an evaluation of 2 of the current scoring systems with respect to accurate diagnosis of the disease and indication of inflammation severity. A total of 105 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis were included in the study. Subsequent to Alvarado and Ohmann scoring, ultrasonography image was obtained and appendectomy was performed. A unique intraoperative severity scoring system was used to measure severity of inflammation and to compare Alvarado and Ohmann scoring system results to assess accuracy of predictive value for acute appendicitis. Moderate positive correlation was found between Alvarado score and Ohmann score (r=0.508; pappendicitis based on histopathological results was statistically significant (p=0.027), while rate of Ohmann score was not statistically significant (p=0.807). Correlation between both scores and grading of inflammation performed during the operation was weak, but statistical significance was observed between Alvarado scoring system and intraoperative severity scoring (r=0.30; p=0.002). No statistical difference was observed between Ohmann scoring and intraoperative severity scoring (r=0.09; p=0.384). Alvarado score is better able to predict acute appendicitis and provide an idea of severity of inflammation. Ohmann score is more useful to provide guidance and eliminate acute appendicitis from consideration when conditions are more uncertain and obscured.

  7. Pemphigus Vulgaris Activity Score and Assessment of Convergent Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheyda Chams-Davatchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease with different phenotypes. The evaluation of therapeutic interventions requires a reliable, valid and feasible to use measurement. However, there is no gold standard to measure the disease activity in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to introduce the pemphigus vulgaris activity score (PVAS measurement and to assess the convergent validity with the experts’ opinion of disease activity. In PVAS scoring, the distribution of pemphigus vulgaris antigen expression in different anatomical regions is taking in to account with special consideration of the healing process. PVAS is a 0-18 scale, based on the extent of mucocutaneous involvement, type of lesion and the presence of Nikolsky’s sign. The sum of the scores of total number of lesions, number of different anatomic regions involvement and Nikolsky’s sign is weighted by the type of lesion. In the present study, PVAS was assessed in 50 patients diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by one dermatologist. Independently, five blinded experts scored all the patients through physician’s global assessment (PGA. The convergent validity with experts’ opinion was assessed. The Spearman coefficient of correlation showed the acceptable value of 0.751 (95%CI: 0.534- 0.876. PVAS is a valid, objective and simple-to-use scoring measurement. It showed a good correlation with PGA of pemphigus disease activity in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris

  8. Pemphigus vulgaris activity score and assessment of convergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Rahbar, Ziba; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Akhyani, Maryam; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Balighi, Kamran

    2013-05-07

    Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease with different phenotypes. The evaluation of therapeutic interventions requires a reliable, valid and feasible to use measurement. However, there is no gold standard to measure the disease activity in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to introduce the pemphigus vulgaris activity score (PVAS) measurement and to assess the convergent validity with the experts' opinion of disease activity. In PVAS scoring, the distribution of pemphigus vulgaris antigen expression in different anatomical regions is taking in to account with special consideration of the healing process. PVAS is a 0-18 scale, based on the extent of mucocutaneous involvement, type of lesion and the presence of Nikolsky's sign. The sum of the scores of total number of lesions, number of different anatomic regions involvement and Nikolsky's sign is weighted by the type of lesion. In the present study, PVAS was assessed in 50 patients diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by one dermatologist. Independently, five blinded experts scored all the patients through physician's global assessment (PGA). The convergent validity with experts' opinion was assessed. The Spearman coefficient of correlation showed the acceptable value of 0.751 (95%CI: 0.534- 0.876). PVAS is a valid, objective and simple-to-use scoring measurement. It showed a good correlation with PGA of pemphigus disease activity in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

  9. Pneumonia severity scores in resource poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rylance

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical prognostic scores are increasingly used to streamline care in well-resourced settings. The potential benefits of identifying patients at risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome, delivering appropriate higher level clinical care, and increasing efficiency are clear. In this focused review, we examine the use and applicability of severity scores applied to patients with community acquired pneumonia in resource poor settings. We challenge clinical researchers working in such systems to consider the generalisability of existing severity scores in their populations, and where performance of scores is suboptimal, to promote efforts to develop and validate new tools for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems.

  10. Security Risk Scoring Incorporating Computers' Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Weintraub

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A framework of a Continuous Monitoring System (CMS is presented, having new improved capabilities. The system uses the actual real-time configuration of the system and environment characterized by a Configuration Management Data Base (CMDB which includes detailed information of organizational database contents, security and privacy specifications. The Common Vulnerability Scoring Systems' (CVSS algorithm produces risk scores incorporating information from the CMDB. By using the real updated environmental characteristics the system enables achieving accurate scores compared to existing practices. Framework presentation includes systems' design and an illustration of scoring computations.

  11. Coronary artery calcium score: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The coronary artery calcium score plays an Important role In cardiovascular risk stratification, showing a significant association with the medium- or long-term occurrence of major cardiovascular events. Here, we discuss the following: protocols for the acquisition and quantification of the coronary artery calcium score by multidetector computed tomography; the role of the coronary artery calcium score in coronary risk stratification and its comparison with other clinical scores; its indications, interpretation, and prognosis in asymptomatic patients; and its use in patients who are symptomatic or have diabetes. PMID:28670030

  12. [The cardiovascular surgeon and the Syntax score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sánchez, Mario; Soulé-Egea, Mauricio; Herrera-Alarcón, Valentín; Barragán-García, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax score has been established as a tool to determine the complexity of coronary artery disease and as a guide for decision-making among coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine what the Syntax score is, and how the surgeon should integrate the information in the selection and treatment of patients. We reviewed the results of the SYNTAX Trial, the clinical practice guidelines, as well as the benefits and limitations of the score. Finally we discuss the future directions of the Syntax score.

  13. Gait asymmetry: composite scores for mechanical analyses of sprint running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exell, T A; Gittoes, M J R; Irwin, G; Kerwin, D G

    2012-04-01

    Gait asymmetry analyses are beneficial from clinical, coaching and technology perspectives. Quantifying overall athlete asymmetry would be useful in allowing comparisons between participants, or between asymmetry and other factors, such as sprint running performance. The aim of this study was to develop composite kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores to quantify athlete asymmetry during maximal speed sprint running. Eight male sprint trained athletes (age 22±5 years, mass 74.0±8.7 kg and stature 1.79±0.07 m) participated in this study. Synchronised sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected via a CODA motion analysis system, synchronised to two Kistler force plates. Bilateral, lower limb data were collected during the maximal velocity phase of sprint running (velocity=9.05±0.37 ms(-1)). Kinematic and kinetic composite asymmetry scores were developed using the previously established symmetry angle for discrete variables associated with successful sprint performance and comparisons of continuous joint power data. Unlike previous studies quantifying gait asymmetry, the scores incorporated intra-limb variability by excluding variables from the composite scores that did not display significantly larger (pcomposite scores and the magnitude of asymmetry observed for each measure varied on an individual participant basis. The new composite scores indicated the inter-participant differences that exist in asymmetry during sprint running and may serve to allow comparisons between overall athlete asymmetry with other important factors such as performance.

  14. Composite MRI scores improve correlation with EDSS in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, A H; Datta, S; Juneja, V; Nelson, F; Wolinsky, J S; Cutter, G; Narayana, P A

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative measures derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely investigated as non-invasive biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the correlation of single measures with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is poor, especially for studies with large population samples. To explore the correlation of MRI-derived measures with EDSS through composite MRI scores. Magnetic resonance images of 126 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were segmented into white and gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, T2-hyperintense lesions, gadolinium contrast-enhancing lesions, T1-hypointense lesions ('black holes': BH). The volumes and average T2 values for each of these tissues and lesions were calculated and converted to a z-score (in units of standard deviation from the mean). These z-scores were combined to construct composite z-scores, and evaluated against individual z-scores for correlation with EDSS. Composite scores including relaxation times of different tissues and/or volumetric measures generally correlated more strongly with EDSS than individual measures. The maximum observed correlation of a composite with EDSS was r = 0.344 (p EDSS.

  15. The Speech Recognition Score Differences between Two Ears after Using Monaural Ampliifcation in Patients with Bilateral Symmetrical Hearing Loss%对称性聋患者单耳助听后双耳言语识别率差别探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管锐瑞; 王永华; 王一鸣; 郭浩伟; 金冬冬

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过检测对称性聋患者单耳助听后双耳言语识别率的差别来进一步研究听觉剥夺效应。方法选取右耳助听4~5年的双耳对称性感音神经性聋患者15名,在标准隔声室中,测试其双耳的纯音气导和骨导听阈,然后再采用汉语普通话单音节词表分别进行左右裸耳言语识别率测试,并将所得数据进行对比研究。结果15名受试者右耳配戴助听器前及配戴4~5年后两耳间平均听阈无显著性差异(P>0.05);受试者右耳助听前及助听4~5年后左、右耳平均听阈前后无显著性差异(P>0.05);右耳助听4~5年后,受试者左、右耳裸耳言语识别率存在显著性差异(t=2.76, P=0.020.05). After using a hearing aid for 4-5 years, there was no significant difference in the unaided hearing thresholds between the left and the right ear of the subjects(P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the unaided hearing threshold before and 4-5 year after using a hearing aid for both left and right ear(P>0.05). After using a hearing aid for 4-5 years, there was a significant difference in the speech recognition scores between the left ear and the right ear without a hearing aid(t=2.76,P=0.02<0.05).Conclusion The pure-tone hearing thresholds of the patients with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss show no significant changes after using a hearing aid in one ear, while the speech recognition scores of the unaided ear decrease significantly.

  16. Evaluation of scoring systems in predicting acute appendicitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macco, Sven; Vrouenraets, Bart C; de Castro, Steve M M

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis can be difficult to diagnose, especially in children. Appendicitis scoring systems have been developed as a diagnostic tool to improve the decision-making process in patients with suspected acute appendicitis. This study evaluates the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score, Alvarado score, and Pediatric Appendicitis Score in children suspected of acute appendicitis. Data were collected retrospectively. All children younger than 18 years suspected of acute appendicitis who presented to the emergency department between January 2006 and June 2014 were included in this study. Variables were registered to evaluate 3 different appendicitis scoring systems. The diagnostic performance of the 3 scores was analyzed using the area under the receiver-operating curve and by calculating the diagnostic performances at different cut-off points. The present study included 747 consecutive children. There were 399 boys (53%) and 348 girls (47%) with a mean age of 11 years (range, 1-17 years). In total, 269 children (36%) were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The area under the receiver-operating curve of the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score was 0.90, the Alvarado score was 0.87, and the Pediatric Appendicitis Score was 0.82 (P Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score were better at predicting an acute appendicitis than that of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score. In children with a low-risk acute appendicitis, false negative rates of 14% for the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response, 7% for the Alvarado, and 18% for the Pediatric Appendicitis Score were measured. In this study, the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score had the highest discriminating power and outperformed the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score in predicting acute appendicitis in children. Excluding acute appendicitis safely in children with the scoring systems still remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of visualized area percentage assessment of cleansing score and computed assessment of cleansing score for capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hong-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of visualized area percentage assessment of cleansing score (AAC and computed assessment of cleansing score (CAC of these two small bowel cleanliness scores systems for capsule endoscopy (CE. Materials and Methods: The reliability and consistency of the AAC and CAC scores were evaluated by comparing the scores by two examiners (one expert, one without any training in CE. Reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and consistency was determined using the kappa statistic. Results: The inter-observer agreement was excellent for both the AAC and CAC scores. For AAC, the ICC was 0.791 (95% confidence interval: 0.677-0.868, and for CAC the ICC was 1.000. Using 1.5 as the cutoff, there was no significant difference between AAC and CAC results by the expert examiner (kappa = 0.756, P = 0.000 or the non-expert examiner (kappa = 0.831, P = 0.000. Evaluation of small bowel cleanliness using AAC took 15-30 min, and evaluation using CAC took about 2-3 min. The overall adequacy assessment (OAA using the AAC was not significantly different between the two examiners (χ2 = 0.586, P = 0.444. There were also no significant differences between the OAA using the AAC and the OAA using the CAC by the expert examiner (χ2 = 1.730, P = 0.188 or the non-expert examiner (χ2 = 1.124, P = 0.289. Conclusion: Both of these scores for assessment of small bowel cleanliness can be useful in clinical practice, but the CAC is simpler to use.

  18. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  19. Automated essay scoring and the future of educational assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Latifi, Syed; Lai, Hollis; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2014-10-01

    Constructed-response tasks, which range from short-answer tests to essay questions, are included in assessments of medical knowledge because they allow educators to measure students' ability to think, reason, solve complex problems, communicate and collaborate through their use of writing. However, constructed-response tasks are also costly to administer and challenging to score because they rely on human raters. One alternative to the manual scoring process is to integrate computer technology with writing assessment. The process of scoring written responses using computer programs is known as 'automated essay scoring' (AES). An AES system uses a computer program that builds a scoring model by extracting linguistic features from a constructed-response prompt that has been pre-scored by human raters and then, using machine learning algorithms, maps the linguistic features to the human scores so that the computer can be used to classify (i.e. score or grade) the responses of a new group of students. The accuracy of the score classification can be evaluated using different measures of agreement. Automated essay scoring provides a method for scoring constructed-response tests that complements the current use of selected-response testing in medical education. The method can serve medical educators by providing the summative scores required for high-stakes testing. It can also serve medical students by providing them with detailed feedback as part of a formative assessment process. Automated essay scoring systems yield scores that consistently agree with those of human raters at a level as high, if not higher, as the level of agreement among human raters themselves. The system offers medical educators many benefits for scoring constructed-response tasks, such as improving the consistency of scoring, reducing the time required for scoring and reporting, minimising the costs of scoring, and providing students with immediate feedback on constructed-response tasks. © 2014

  20. Comparison of different scoring systems evaluating short-term prognosis of patients with hepatitis B associated acute hepatic failure%不同评分系统对乙肝相关慢加急性肝衰竭患者短期预后评估的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 王凤梅; 阚志超; 李岩; 肖时湘; 刘华; 李莹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assessment short-term prognosis in patients with acute on chronic liver failure , several scoring systems were compared. Methods Two hundred and sixteen patients with acute on chronic liver failure were divided into survival group and death group according to the results of 90 days after admission.CTP , MELD,APACHEⅡ, SOFA and SMSVH score were calculated.After ROC curves were performed ,the areas under the curves of these scoring systems were compared. Results The areas under the ROC curves of MELD, APACHEⅡ, SOFA, CTP and SMSVH were 0.88, 0.76, 0.89,0.79and 0.69,respectively. The areas under the curves of SOFA and MELD were larger than the APACHEⅡ, CTP and SMSVH (P0.05). The area under the curve of CTP was larger than the APACHEⅡ, but there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). The area under the curve of SMSVH were less than 0.7. Conclusions The SOFA, MELD,CTP and APACHEⅡcan predict the short-term prognosis of acute on chronic liver failure. The SOFA and MELD are the best scoring systems.CTP,APACHEⅡ are better than SMSVH. SMSVH fail to predict the prognosis of acute on chronic liver failure.%目的:通过对几种不同评分系统比较,找出更适合乙肝相关慢加急性肝衰竭患者短期预后评估的方法。方法:将142例乙肝相关慢加急性肝衰竭患者根据其3个月后的存活及死亡情况,分为存活组(n=72)及病死组(n=70),分别计算 CTP、MELD、ANN、SOFA 、SMSVH 、LRM 等评分,行 ROC 曲线分析,计算曲线下面积,并进行比较。结果:ROC曲线下面积从大到小分别为ANN、SOFA 、LRM、MELD、CTP、SMSVH ,相应数值分别为0.92、0.89、0.89、0.87、0.78和0.69。ANN、SOFA 、LRM、MELD的AUC之间比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),ANN、SOFA 、LRM、MELD 的 AUC 值> CTP、SMSVH,差异有统计学意义(P 均<0.05), CTP 的 AUC 值>SMSVH,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05

  1. Illustration of SSMD, z score, SSMD*, z* score, and t statistic for hit selection in RNAi high-throughput screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Hit selection is the ultimate goal in many high-throughput screens. Various analytic methods are available for this purpose. Some commonly used ones are z score, z* score, strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD), SSMD*, and t statistic. It is critical to know how to use them correctly because the misusage of them can readily produce misleading results. Here, the author presents basic concepts, elaborates their commonality and difference, describes some common misusage that people should avoid, and uses simulated simple examples to illustrate how to use them correctly.

  2. Comparison of five actigraphy scoring methods with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudebesse, Carole; Leboyer, Marion; Begley, Amy; Wood, Annette; Miewald, Jean; Hall, Martica; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David; Germain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare 5 actigraphy scoring methods in a sample of 18 remitted patients with bipolar disorder. Actigraphy records were processed using five different scoring methods relying on the sleep diary; the event-marker; the software-provided automatic algorithm; the automatic algorithm supplemented by the event-marker; visual inspection (VI) only. The algorithm and the VI methods differed from the other methods for many actigraphy parameters of interest. Particularly, the algorithm method yielded longer sleep duration, and the VI method yielded shorter sleep latency compared to the other methods. The present findings provide guidance for the selection of signal processing method based on sleep parameters of interest, time-cue sources and availability, and related scoring time costs for the study.

  3. Gambling scores in earthquake prediction analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Molchan, G

    2010-01-01

    The number of successes 'n' and the normalized measure of space-time alarm 'tau' are commonly used to characterize the strength of an earthquake prediction method and the significance of prediction results. To evaluate better the forecaster's skill, it has been recently suggested to use a new characteristic, the gambling score R, which incorporates the difficulty of guessing each target event by using different weights for different alarms. We expand the class of R-characteristics and apply these to the analysis of results of the M8 prediction algorithm. We show that the level of significance 'alfa' strongly depends (1) on the choice of weighting alarm parameters, (2) on the partitioning of the entire alarm volume into component parts, and (3) on the accuracy of the spatial rate of target events, m(dg). These tools are at the disposal of the researcher and can affect the significance estimate in either direction. All the R-statistics discussed here corroborate that the prediction of 8.0<=M<8.5 events by...

  4. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; R Degano, Irene; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2017-05-26

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. On k-hypertournament losing scores

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzada, Shariefuddin

    2010-01-01

    We give a new and short proof of a theorem on k-hypertournament losing scores due to Zhou et al. [G. Zhou, T. Yao, K. Zhang, On score sequences of k-tournaments, European J. Comb., 21, 8 (2000) 993-1000.

  6. ON HOW CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AFFECTS TOEFL SCORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of cultur-al background on TOEFL scores.It proceeds from therelation between culture and language,then illus-trates with actual questions from various sections ofTOEFL tests how American cultural background exertsa remarkable influence on TOEFL scores,and con-cludes with revelations with regard to English teachingin this country.

  7. Causal Moderation Analysis Using Propensity Score Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on previous studies in applying propensity score methods to study multiple treatment variables to examine the causal moderator effect. The propensity score methods will be demonstrated in a case study to examine the causal moderator effect, where the moderators are categorical and continuous variables. Moderation analysis is an…

  8. Comparability of IQ scores over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Must, O.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Must, A.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is.79 SD. The mean .16 SD increase in the last 8 years

  9. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  10. Diagnosis. Severity scoring system for paediatric FMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Avi

    2012-04-17

    Severity scoring systems for adult familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are established and used as important clinical and analytical tools in disease management and research. A recent paper highlights the need for a paediatric FMF severity measure. How should such a score be built and what challenges might be faced?

  11. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  12. Starreveld scoring method in diagnosing childhood constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokke, F.T.; Sittig, J.S.; de Bruijn, A.; Wiersma, T.; van Rijn, R.R.; Limpen, J.L.; Houwen, R.H.; Fischer, K.; Benninga, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Four scoring methods exist to assess severity of fecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in constipated patients (Barr-, Starreveld-, Blethyn- and Leech). So far, the Starreveld score was used only in adult patients. To determine accuracy and intra- and inter-observer agreement of the Starrevel

  13. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  14. Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting the Outcome of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding; a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Ebrahimi Bakhtavar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the outcome and severity of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB has significant importance in patient care, disposition, and determining the need for emergent endoscopy. Recent international recommendations endorse using scoring systems for management of non-variceal UGIB patients. To date, different scoring systems have been developed for predicting the risk of 30-day mortality and re-bleeding. We have discussed the screening performance characteristics of Baylor bleeding score, the Rockall risk scoring score, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center predictive index, Glasgow Blatchford score, T-score, and AIMS65 systems, in the present review.Based on the results of this survey, there are only 3 clinical decision rules that can predict the outcome of UGIB patients, independent from endoscopy. Among these, only Glasgow Blatchford score was highly sensitive for predicting the risk of 30-day mortality and re-bleeding, simultaneously. 

  15. Saturation biopsy improves preoperative Gleason scoring of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Philip; Wolf, Susanne; Adam, Alexander; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Ellinger, Jörg; Vorreuther, Roland; Solleder, Gerold; Buettner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the differences between conventional needle biopsy (CB) and saturation biopsy (SB) techniques with regard to the prediction of Gleason score, tumor stage, and insignificant prostate cancer. Data from a total number of 240 patients were analyzed. The main group, consisting of 185 patients, was diagnosed according to a saturation prostate needle biopsy protocol (SB), by which more than 12 cores were taken per biopsy. The control group was diagnosed using CB, by which 12 or less than 12 cores were taken per biopsy (n=55). In the main group, the Gleason score of the biopsy was confirmed in 19.5%, in the control group in 23.5% according to the prostatectomy specimen (p=0.50). Upgrading after the operation was found in 56.7% in the main group and in 60% in the control group (p=0.24). Downgrading after the operation was found in 23.9% in the main group and in 16.3% in the control group (p=0.24). If the Gleason score of the postoperative specimens differed by only one point from the biopsy, we considered this a minor deviation. In the main group, 59% of the carcinomas were preoperatively classified correctly or revealed minor deviation in Gleason scores. In contrast, only 47% of the carcinomas in the control group were assessed correctly or with minor deviation in Gleason scores. Thus, the main group demonstrated a better rate of preoperative prediction in tumor grading assessed by Gleason score (p=0.05). In addition, the Gleason scores of both protocols were assigned to three groups (Gleason 7), and the group changes from the biopsy to the prostatectomy specimen were found to be significantly more frequent in the CB group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two types of biopsy techniques regarding tumor stage or the detection of insignificant carcinomas. The advantage of the extensive prostate needle biopsy technique (SB) is a better preoperative prediction of the Gleason score as well as the risk groups with Gleason scores 7. Both

  16. Effect of Genre on the Generalizability of Writing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Renske; Béguin, Anton; Sanders, Ted; van den Bergh, Huub

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, aspects of the measurement of writing are disentangled in order to investigate the validity of inferences made on the basis of writing performance and to describe implications for the assessment of writing. To include genre as a facet in the measurement, we obtained writing scores of 12 texts in four different genres for each…

  17. Generalizability of writing scores: an application of structural equation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of writing ability is notoriously difficult. Different facets of the assessment seem to influence its outcome. Besides the writer’s writing proficiency, the topic of the assignment, the features or traits scored (e.g., content or language use) and even the way in which these traits ar

  18. Housing Costs, Zoning, and Access to High-Scoring Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The first section of this paper surveys academic research on educational achievement with an emphasis on the relative effects of schools and families in shaping educational outcomes. A methodology section provides a summary of data sources and defines the main variables measured. The paper then examines differences in school test score performance…

  19. Scoring Rod-and-Frame Tests: Quantitative and Qualitative Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Current scoring procedures depend on unrealistic assumptions about subjects' performance on the rod-and-frame test. A procedure is presented which corrects for constant error, is sensitive to response strategy and consistency, and examines qualitative and quantitative aspects of performance and individual differences in laterality bias as defined…

  20. A critical review of predefined diet quality scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, P.M.C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The literature on predefined indexes of overall diet quality is reviewed. Their association with nutrient adequacy and health outcome is considered, but our primary interest is in the make-up of the scores. In total, twenty different indexes have been reviewed, four of which have gained most attenti

  1. A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.

  2. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  3. Accelerated protein structure comparison using TM-score-GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Samudrala, Ram

    2012-08-15

    Accurate comparisons of different protein structures play important roles in structural biology, structure prediction and functional annotation. The root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) after optimal superposition is the predominant measure of similarity due to the ease and speed of computation. However, global RMSD is dependent on the length of the protein and can be dominated by divergent loops that can obscure local regions of similarity. A more sophisticated measure of structure similarity, Template Modeling (TM)-score, avoids these problems, and it is one of the measures used by the community-wide experiments of critical assessment of protein structure prediction to compare predicted models with experimental structures. TM-score calculations are, however, much slower than RMSD calculations. We have therefore implemented a very fast version of TM-score for Graphical Processing Units (TM-score-GPU), using a new and novel hybrid Kabsch/quaternion method for calculating the optimal superposition and RMSD that is designed for parallel applications. This acceleration in speed allows TM-score to be used efficiently in computationally intensive applications such as for clustering of protein models and genome-wide comparisons of structure. TM-score-GPU was applied to six sets of models from Nutritious Rice for the World for a total of 3 million comparisons. TM-score-GPU is 68 times faster on an ATI 5870 GPU, on average, than the original CPU single-threaded implementation on an AMD Phenom II 810 quad-core processor. The complete source, including the GPU code and the hybrid RMSD subroutine, can be downloaded and used without restriction at http://software.compbio.washington.edu/misc/downloads/tmscore/. The implementation is in C++/OpenCL.

  4. Automatic scoring of the severity of psoriasis scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas....... The proposed method provides a solution to the lack of suitable methods to assess the lesion and to evaluate changes during the treatment. An experiment over a collection of psoriasis images is conducted to test the performance of the method. Results show that the obtained scores are highly correlated...

  5. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L. Gauer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method: Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011–2015 at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065. Results: The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001. The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001 and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001. In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24. Discussion: Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student.

  6. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data

    OpenAIRE

    Gauer, Jacqueline L.; Wolff, Josephine M.; Jackson, J. Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK) scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams.Method: Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determi...

  7. Fast network community detection by SCORE

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jiashun

    2012-01-01

    Consider a network where the nodes split into K different communities. The community labels for the nodes are unknown and it is of major interest to estimate them (i.e., community detection). Degree Corrected Block Model (DCBM) is a popular network model. How to detect communities with the DCBM is an interesting problem, where the main challenge lies in the degree heterogeneity. We propose a new approach to community detection which we call the Spectral Clustering On Ratios-of-Eigenvectors (SCORE). Compared to classical spectral methods, the main innovation is to use the entry-wise ratios between the first leading eigenvector and each of the other leading eigenvectors for clustering. The central surprise is, the effect of degree heterogeneity is largely ancillary, and can be effectively removed by taking entry-wise ratios between the leading eigenvectors. The method is successfully applied to the web blogs data and the karate club data, with error rates of 58/1222 and 1/34, respectively. These results are muc...

  8. Application of consensus scoring and principal component analysis for virtual screening against β-secretase (BACE-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to identify novel chemical classes of β-secretase (BACE-1 inhibitors, an alternative scoring protocol, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, was proposed to summarize most of the information from the original scoring functions and re-rank the results from the virtual screening against BACE-1. METHOD: Given a training set (50 BACE-1 inhibitors and 9950 inactive diverse compounds, three rank-based virtual screening methods, individual scoring, conventional consensus scoring and PCA, were judged by the hit number in the top 1% of the ranked list. The docking poses were generated by Surflex, five scoring functions (Surflex_Score, D_Score, G_Score, ChemScore, and PMF_Score were used for pose extraction. For each pose group, twelve scoring functions (Surflex_Score, D_Score, G_Score, ChemScore, PMF_Score, LigScore1, LigScore2, PLP1, PLP2, jain, Ludi_1, and Ludi_2 were used for the pose rank. For a test set, 113,228 chemical compounds (Sigma-Aldrich® corporate chemical directory were docked by Surflex, then ranked by the same three ranking methods motioned above to select the potential active compounds for experimental test. RESULTS: For the training set, the PCA approach yielded consistently superior rankings compared to conventional consensus scoring and single scoring. For the test set, the top 20 compounds according to conventional consensus scoring were experimentally tested, no inhibitor was found. Then, we relied on PCA scoring protocol to test another different top 20 compounds and two low micromolar inhibitors (S450588 and 276065 were emerged through the BACE-1 fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay. CONCLUSION: The PCA method extends the conventional consensus scoring in a quantitative statistical manner and would appear to have considerable potential for chemical screening applications.

  9. Towards On-line Automated Semantic Scoring of English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Described and exemplified a semantic scoring system of students' on-line English-Chinese translation.To achieve accurate assessment, the system adopted a comprehensive method which combines semantic scoring with keyword matching scoring. Four kinds of words-verbs, adjectives, adverbs and "the rest" including nouns, pronouns, idioms, prepositions, etc. , are identified after parsing. The system treats different words tagged with different part of speech differently. Then it calculated the semantic similarity between these words of the standard versions and those of students'translations by the distinctive differences of the semantic features of these words with the aid of HowNet. The first semantic feature of verbs and the last semantic features of adjectives and adverbs are calculated. "The rest" is scored by keyword matching. The experiment results show that the semantic scoring system is applicable in fulfilling the task of scoring students'on-line English-Chinese translations.

  10. Kernel score statistic for dependent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzahn, Dörthe; Friedrichs, Stefanie; Rosenberger, Albert; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-01-01

    The kernel score statistic is a global covariance component test over a set of genetic markers. It provides a flexible modeling framework and does not collapse marker information. We generalize the kernel score statistic to allow for familial dependencies and to adjust for random confounder effects. With this extension, we adjust our analysis of real and simulated baseline systolic blood pressure for polygenic familial background. We find that the kernel score test gains appreciably in power through the use of sequencing compared to tag-single-nucleotide polymorphisms for very rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with <1% minor allele frequency.

  11. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  12. Assessment of canine neonatal viability-the Apgar score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.

  13. Large unbalanced credit scoring using Lasso-logistic regression ensemble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data.

  14. Artificial metaplasticity neural network applied to credit scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Cedeño, Alexis; Marin-de-la-Barcena, A; Jimenez-Trillo, J; Piñuela, J A; Andina, D

    2011-08-01

    The assessment of the risk of default on credit is important for financial institutions. Different Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been suggested to tackle the credit scoring problem, however, the obtained error rates are often high. In the search for the best ANN algorithm for credit scoring, this paper contributes with the application of an ANN Training Algorithm inspired by the neurons' biological property of metaplasticity. This algorithm is especially efficient when few patterns of a class are available, or when information inherent to low probability events is crucial for a successful application, as weight updating is overemphasized in the less frequent activations than in the more frequent ones. Two well-known and readily available such as: Australia and German data sets has been used to test the algorithm. The results obtained by AMMLP shown have been superior to state-of-the-art classification algorithms in credit scoring.

  15. Large unbalanced credit scoring using Lasso-logistic regression ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Xu, Qingsong; Zhou, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various ensemble learning methods with different base classifiers have been proposed for credit scoring problems. However, for various reasons, there has been little research using logistic regression as the base classifier. In this paper, given large unbalanced data, we consider the plausibility of ensemble learning using regularized logistic regression as the base classifier to deal with credit scoring problems. In this research, the data is first balanced and diversified by clustering and bagging algorithms. Then we apply a Lasso-logistic regression learning ensemble to evaluate the credit risks. We show that the proposed algorithm outperforms popular credit scoring models such as decision tree, Lasso-logistic regression and random forests in terms of AUC and F-measure. We also provide two importance measures for the proposed model to identify important variables in the data.

  16. U-Scores for Multivariate Data in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Knut M; Song, Tingting; Anderson, Kent; Daniels, John E

    2008-07-18

    In many sport competitions athletes, teams, or countries are evaluated based on several variables. The strong assumptions underlying traditional 'linear weight' scoring systems (that the relative importance, interactions and linearizing transformations of the variables are known) can often not be justified on theoretical grounds, and empirical 'validation' of weights, interactions and transformations, is problematic when a 'gold standard' is lacking. With μ-scores (u-scores for multivariate data) one can integrate information even if the variables have different scales and unknown interactions or if the events counted are not directly comparable, as long as the variables have an 'orientation'. Using baseball as an example, we discuss how measures based on μ-scores can complement the existing measures for 'performance' (which may depend on the situation) by providing the first multivariate measures for 'ability' (which should be independent of the situation). Recently, μ-scores have been extended to situations where count variables are graded by importance or relevance, such as medals in the Olympics (Wittkowski 2003) or Tour-de-France jerseys (Cherchye and Vermeulen 2006, 2007). Here, we present extensions to 'censored' variables (life-time achievements of active athletes), penalties (counting a win more than two ties) and hierarchically structured variables (Nordic, alpine, outdoor, and indoor Olympic events). The methods presented are not restricted to sports. Other applications of the method include medicine (adverse events), finance (risk analysis), social choice theory (voting), and economy (long-term profit).

  17. Gambling score in earthquake prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2011-03-01

    The number of successes and the space-time alarm rate are commonly used to characterize the strength of an earthquake prediction method and the significance of prediction results. It has been recently suggested to use a new characteristic to evaluate the forecaster's skill, the gambling score (GS), which incorporates the difficulty of guessing each target event by using different weights for different alarms. We expand parametrization of the GS and use the M8 prediction algorithm to illustrate difficulties of the new approach in the analysis of the prediction significance. We show that the level of significance strongly depends (1) on the choice of alarm weights, (2) on the partitioning of the entire alarm volume into component parts and (3) on the accuracy of the spatial rate measure of target events. These tools are at the disposal of the researcher and can affect the significance estimate. Formally, all reasonable GSs discussed here corroborate that the M8 method is non-trivial in the prediction of 8.0 ≤M < 8.5 events because the point estimates of the significance are in the range 0.5-5 per cent. However, the conservative estimate 3.7 per cent based on the number of successes seems preferable owing to two circumstances: (1) it is based on relative values of the spatial rate and hence is more stable and (2) the statistic of successes enables us to construct analytically an upper estimate of the significance taking into account the uncertainty of the spatial rate measure.

  18. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Surgical Apgar Score Predicts Postoperative Complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neurotrauma patients by using an effective scoring system can reduce ... complications was 7.04 while for patients with complications was ... their SAS for purposes of risk stratification; high risk. (0-4), medium .... Deep Venous. Thrombosis. 0.

  1. Multifactor Screener in OPEN: Scoring Procedures & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert a respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for percentage energy from fat, grams of fiber, and servings of fruits and vegetables.

  2. Film scoring today - Theory, practice and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Paula Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers film scoring by taking a closer look at the theoretical discourse throughout the last decades, examining current production practice of film music and showcasing a musical analysis of the film Inception (2010).

  3. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, N J; Prinsen, C A C; Christensen, R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence regarding measurement properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search identified 37 eligible papers evaluating KOOS measurement properties in partici...

  4. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  5. Use score card to boost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Keeping a score card can identify problem areas and track improvements. When specific goals are reached, staff are given rewards such as thank-you letters, tokens, or pizza parties. Staff are kept informed about the results of the score card through bulletin board postings, staff meetings, and the hospital Intranet. Data are collected with manual entry by nursing staff, chart review by performance improvement, and a computerized program.

  6. Pharmacophore-based similarity scoring for DOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Rizzo, Robert C

    2015-01-22

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein-ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK.

  7. Introducing the SKIN score: a validated scoring system to assess severity of mastectomy skin flap necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Hoskin, Tanya L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Boughey, Judy C; Torstenson, Tiffany A; Jacobson, Steven R; Jakub, James W; Degnim, Amy C

    2015-09-01

    With increasing use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) is a clinical problem that deserves further study. We propose a validated scoring system to discriminate MSFN severity and standardize its assessment. Women who underwent skin-sparing (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and IBR from November 2009 to October 2010 were studied retrospectively. A workgroup of breast and plastic surgeons scored postoperative photographs using the skin ischemia necrosis (SKIN) score to assess depth and surface area of MSFN. We evaluated correlation of the SKIN score with reoperation for MSFN and its reproducibility in an external sample of surgeons. We identified 106 subjects (175 operated breasts: 103 SSM, 72 NSM) who had ≥1 postoperative photograph within 60 days. SKIN scores correlated strongly with need for reoperation for MSFN, with an AUC of 0.96 for SSM and 0.89 for NSM. External scores agreed well with the gold standard scores for the breast mound photographs with weighted kappa values of 0.82 (depth), 0.56 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). The agreement was similar for the nipple-areolar complex photographs: 0.75 (depth), 0.63 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). A simple scoring system to assess the severity of MSFN is proposed, incorporating both depth and surface area of MSFN. The SKIN score correlates strongly with the need for reoperation to manage MSFN and is reproducible among breast and plastic surgeons.

  8. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  9. 糖调节受损和糖尿病患者的动脉僵硬度与10年心血管疾病风险评估%Association between pulse wave velocity and the Framingham risk score in patients with different glucose metabolism status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 付强; 魏鹏; 钟健; 朱可

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between different glucose metabolism status and pulse wave velocity(PWV),and to further explore PWV with the Framingham risk score(FRS) of 10-year as predictors of cardiovascular disease(CVD).Methods:A total of 105 subjects were divided into three groups:normal glucose tolerance group (G1,n =47) ; prediabetes group (G2,n =32),and type 2 diabetes mellitus group(G3,n =26).General clinical data of subjects in each group were collected,and biochemical parameters were measured.PWV was measured using the Complior SP (pulse wave velocity determinator).FRS was calculated with the lipids excel spreadsheets from Framingham Heart Study homepage.The correlation of different glucose metabolism status,PWV and FRS in different groups was analyzed and compared.Results:A positive correlation was found between carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and impaired glucose regulation,age,SBP,2hPG,carotid-to-radial pulse wave velocity (cr-PWV).A negative correlation was also evident between cf-PWV and fasting insulin/fasting C-peptide (FIN/Cp).A correlation was found between cr-PWV and sex,or HDL-C (negative).A correlation was also found between FRS and cf-PWV,or FIN/Cp,or Homa-IR(Cp).Conclusion:cf-PWV has a good clinical value as a vascular structure and function indicator for evaluating the 10-year risk of CVD.%目的:探讨不同糖代谢状态患者血管僵硬度与基线资料的相关性,及其对10年心血管疾病发病风险的预测价值.方法:入选研究对象105例,其中正常对照组47例,糖调节受损组32例,糖尿病组26例,收集患者基本资料、总胆固醇、LDL-C、三酰甘油、HDL-C、空腹血糖、空腹胰岛素(fasting insulin,FIN)、空腹C肽(fasting C-peptide,Cp)、HbA1c、颈股脉搏波传导速度(carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity,cf-PWV)、颈桡脉搏波传导速度(carotid-to-radialpulse wave velocity,cr-PWV),行糖耐量试验(oral glucose tolerance test,OGTT)2 h后测血糖(2hPG

  10. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  11. Association of Fellowship Training With Otolaryngology Training Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboyewa, Ibukun; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    No prior studies have evaluated whether residents who pursue fellowship training achieve higher performance on the Otolaryngology Training Examination (OTE) and whether a specific fellowship will demonstrate a correlation with the corresponding specialty-specific OTE score. To determine whether residents pursuing fellowship training achieve higher performance on the OTE and whether fellowship choice is correlated with higher scores on the related subspecialty section of the OTE. This retrospective analysis included 35 residents training in an academic otolaryngology residency program from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2014. The OTE scores for postgraduate years 2 through 5 and the type of fellowship were collected for all residents meeting inclusion criteria. Data were collected from September 1 to October 15, 2014, and analyzed from October 16 to December 1, 2014. Residents were divided by whether they pursued fellowship training and by the type of fellowship chosen. Outcome measures included comparison of scores between residents who pursued vs those who did not pursue fellowship training and comparison of subspecialty OTE scores between residents who pursued the corresponding fellowship and those who did not. Of the 35 residents who met the inclusion criteria (24 men and 11 women), 17 (49%) pursued fellowship training. The 3 most common fellowship choices were facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, pediatric otolaryngology, and rhinology (4 residents each [24%]). For all residents, mean scores on the OTE improved each subsequent training year, but this difference was only significant between postgraduate years 2 and 3 (from 60.9% to 68.6% correct; P otolaryngology, 72.9% vs 71.3% [P = .79]; and for rhinology, 72.2% vs 71.2% [P = .91]). Residents who pursued fellowship training did not achieve higher scores on the OTE in any examination year compared with residents who did not pursue fellowship training and did not achieve higher scores within the OTE

  12. DrugScorePPI knowledge-based potentials used as scoring and objective function in protein-protein docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Krüger

    Full Text Available The distance-dependent knowledge-based DrugScore(PPI potentials, previously developed for in silico alanine scanning and hot spot prediction on given structures of protein-protein complexes, are evaluated as a scoring and objective function for the structure prediction of protein-protein complexes. When applied for ranking "unbound perturbation" ("unbound docking" decoys generated by Baker and coworkers a 4-fold (1.5-fold enrichment of acceptable docking solutions in the top ranks compared to a random selection is found. When applied as an objective function in FRODOCK for bound protein-protein docking on 97 complexes of the ZDOCK benchmark 3.0, DrugScore(PPI/FRODOCK finds up to 10% (15% more high accuracy solutions in the top 1 (top 10 predictions than the original FRODOCK implementation. When used as an objective function for global unbound protein-protein docking, fair docking success rates are obtained, which improve by ∼ 2-fold to 18% (58% for an at least acceptable solution in the top 10 (top 100 predictions when performing knowledge-driven unbound docking. This suggests that DrugScore(PPI balances well several different types of interactions important for protein-protein recognition. The results are discussed in view of the influence of crystal packing and the type of protein-protein complex docked. Finally, a simple criterion is provided with which to estimate a priori if unbound docking with DrugScore(PPI/FRODOCK will be successful.

  13. Prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy Gleason score correlation in heterogenous tumors: proposal for a composite Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Stella, Javier A; Shah, Alpa B; Montoya-Cerrillo, Diego; Williamson, Sean R; Gupta, Nilesh S

    2015-09-01

    When prostate biopsy cores are separately identified in multiple containers, current recommendations are to grade each specimen individually. For treatment algorithms, the highest Gleason score (HGS) is typically used as the overall score, even if a lower score predominates. This practice has the potential to misrepresent the overall cancer in the entire gland for some patients and place them in a higher-grade group. We compare a novel composite Gleason score (CGS), integrating grade patterns from contiguous positive biopsy sites, with HGS to determine correlation with the radical prostatectomy (RP) Gleason score (GS). One hundred needle biopsy cases from 2008 to 2012 with >2 GSs in a biopsy set (eg, 3+3=6, 3+4=7, and 4+3=7) or more than a 1-step difference in GS (eg, 3+4=7 and 4+4=8 without 4+3=7) were analyzed. Grades were assigned using both methods (HGS and CGS) and compared with RPGS. Grade groups I to V were used to define downgrade and upgrade. Comparing HGS with RPGS, 31% remained the same and 69% had a change in GS (87% downgraded and 13% upgraded). Comparing CGS with RPGS, 59% remained the same and 41% had a change in GS (10% downgraded and 90% upgraded). Of the 2 methods, the CGS showed better overall correlation with RP (P2 grades are present in a biopsy set. CGS has a significantly lower rate of downgrade and predicts the RPGS more accurately than HGS.

  14. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score: an extension of the Vasoactive Inotrope Score as a predictor of adverse outcomes after paediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Harish; Gaies, Michael; Ocampo, Elena C; Heinle, Jeffrey S; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Checchia, Paul; Shekerdemian, Lara S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the association between a new vasoactive score - the Total Inotrope Exposure Score - and outcome and the established Vasoactive Inotrope Score in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass DESIGN: The present study was a single-centre, retrospective study. The study was carried out at a 21-bed cardiovascular ICU in a Tertiary Children's Hospital between September, 2010 and May, 2011 METHODS: The Total Inotrope Exposure Score is a new vasoactive score that brings together cumulative vasoactive drug exposure and incorporates dose adjustments over time. The performance of these scores - average, maximum Vasoactive Inotrope Score at 24 and 48 hours, and Total Inotrope Exposure Score - to predict primary clinical outcomes - either death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation before hospital discharge - and secondary outcomes - length of invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay - was calculated. Main results The study cohort included 167 children under 18 years of age, with 37 (22.2%) neonates and 65 (41.3%) infants aged between 1 month and 1 year. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted the primary outcome (six of 167 cases) with an unadjusted odds ratio for a poor outcome of 42 (4.8, 369.6). Although the area under curve was higher than other scores, this difference did not reach statistical significance. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score best predicted prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, and hospital stay as compared with the other scores. The Total Inotrope Exposure Score appears to have a good association with poor postoperative outcomes and warrants prospective validation across larger numbers of patients across institutions.

  15. Parametric analyses of summative scores may lead to conflicting inferences when comparing groups: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asaduzzaman; Chien, Chi-Wen; Bagraith, Karl S

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether using a parametric statistic in comparing groups leads to different conclusions when using summative scores from rating scales compared with using their corresponding Rasch-based measures. A Monte Carlo simulation study was designed to examine between-group differences in the change scores derived from summative scores from rating scales, and those derived from their corresponding Rasch-based measures, using 1-way analysis of variance. The degree of inconsistency between the 2 scoring approaches (i.e. summative and Rasch-based) was examined, using varying sample sizes, scale difficulties and person ability conditions. This simulation study revealed scaling artefacts that could arise from using summative scores rather than Rasch-based measures for determining the changes between groups. The group differences in the change scores were statistically significant for summative scores under all test conditions and sample size scenarios. However, none of the group differences in the change scores were significant when using the corresponding Rasch-based measures. This study raises questions about the validity of the inference on group differences of summative score changes in parametric analyses. Moreover, it provides a rationale for the use of Rasch-based measures, which can allow valid parametric analyses of rating scale data.

  16. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  17. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Klein et al

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the results on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS, the highest-profile state testing program and one that has recorded extraordinary recent gains in math and reading scores. To investigate whether the dramatic math and reading gains on the TAAS represent actual academic progress, we have compared these gains to score changes in Texas on another test, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP. Texas students did improve significantly more on a fourth-grade NAEP math test than their counterparts nationally. But, the size of this gain was smaller than their gains on TAAS and was not present on the eighth-grade math test. The stark differences between the stories told by NAEP and TAAS are especially striking when it comes to the gap in average scores between whites and students of color. According to the NAEP results, that gap in Texas is not only very large but increasing slightly. According to TAAS scores, the gap is much smaller and decreasing greatly. Many schools are devoting a great deal of class time to highly specific TAAS preparation. While this preparation may improve TAAS scores, it may not help students develop necessary reading and math skills. Schools with relatively large percentages of minority and poor students may be doing this more than other schools. We raise serious questions about the validity of those gains, and caution against the danger of making decisions to sanction or reward students, teachers and schools on the basis of test scores that may be inflated or misleading. Finally, we suggest some steps that states can take to increase the likelihood that their test results merit public confidence and provide a sound basis for educational policy.

  18. A comprehensive score to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grani, Giorgio; Carbotta, Giovanni; Nesca, Angela; D'Alessandri, Mimma; Vitale, Martina; Del Sordo, Marianna; Fumarola, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The heterogeneity of diagnostic criteria of Hashimoto's thyroiditis leads to overdiagnosis and prevents strong conclusions from being drawn in clinical studies. The aim of this study is to propose a comprehensive scoring system. A case-control study compared a set of presurgical features of patients with lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) and controls, in order to design a multi-criteria scoring system. Given a dichotomous outcome (lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid), a set of covariates was analyzed in 180 patients after total thyroidectomy. A different validation cohort of 1,171 patients was reviewed and classified according to the score. Variables associated with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis were first assessed by univariate analysis. Analysis showed that TPOAb (area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.67; 95 % CI 0.57-0.77) and TgAb (0.63; 95 % CI 0.54-0.74) were univariate predictors of the diagnosis of HT, which is largely recognized. Combined covariates were then tested using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The final regression model included TPOAb, TgAb, and thyroid vascularity (AUC 0.72; 95 % CI 0.62-0.81). A scoring system was developed, which has a sensitivity of 45.5 % and a specificity of 89.0 %, with a cutoff of 1.7. The likelihood of incident hypothyroidism was higher (OR 2.30; p = 0.004) in the positive (≥1.7) score group. A scoring system has a better performance than any single predictor and is able to identify the subgroup of individuals at higher risk to develop subsequent hypothyroidism.

  19. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  20. Evaluation of results in coronary surgery using EuroSCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bogoljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE was developed in order to predict operative risk in cardiac surgery and to assess the quality of the cardio-surgical care. Introduction of the uniform terminology in result evaluation process leads to the significant improvement in measuring and evaluation of surgical treatment quality. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate our results in isolated coronary surgery using the EuroSCORE. Methods. The study was done respectively by analyzing predicted mortality according to the EuroSCORE model and observed operative risk in 4,675 coronary patients operated at our Clinic during the period 2001-2008. For statistical analyses, the Pearson, Chisquare and ANOVA tests were used. Results. The total postoperative mortality predicted by the EuroSCORE was 2.9±2.25, while the observed one was 2.2%. When the scoring system and observed results were compared over the years, a considerably lower observed mortality was found during the last 4 years. Overall average number of distal anastomoses was 2.62±0.84. During the period 2004-2008, the average number of coronary anastomoses increased over the years reaching the value of 2.77±0.88. The difference is at the level of statistical significance with the trend of further increase. Percentage of the patients with single or double graft myocardial revascularization decreases, while the number of the patients with triple or more bypasses increases. Conclusion. During the last years, the results in isolated coronary surgery have considerably improved. The EuroSCORE overestimates operative risk. In order to improve its predictive value, the model should be recalibrated.

  1. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method.

  2. Alternatives to switch-cost scoring in the task-switching paradigm: their reliability and increased validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Meredith M; Linck, Jared A; Bowles, Anita R; Koeth, Joel T; Bunting, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    In the task-switching paradigm, the latency switch-cost score-the difference in mean reaction time between switch and nonswitch trials-is the traditional measure of task-switching ability. However, this score does not reflect accuracy, where switch costs may also emerge. In two experiments that varied in response deadlines (unlimited vs. limited time), we evaluated the measurement properties of two traditional switch-cost scoring methods (the latency switch-cost score and the accuracy switch-cost score) and three alternatives (a rate residual score, a bin score, and an inverse efficiency score). Scores from the rate residual, bin score, and inverse efficiency methods had comparable reliability for latency switch-cost scores without response deadlines but were more reliable than latency switch-cost scores when higher error rates were induced with a response deadline. All three alternative scoring methods appropriately accounted for differences in accuracy switch costs when higher error rates were induced, whereas pure latency switch-cost scores did not. Critically, only the rate residual and bin score methods were more valid indicators of task-switching ability; they demonstrated stronger relationships with performance on an independent measure of executive functioning (the antisaccade analogue task), and they allowed the detection of larger effect sizes when examining within-task congruency effects. All of the three alternative scoring methods provide researchers with a better measure of task-switching ability than do traditional scoring methods, because they each simultaneously account for latency and accuracy costs. Overall, the three alternative scoring methods were all superior to the traditional latency switch-cost scoring method, but the strongest methods were the rate residual and bin score methods.

  3. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

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    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss

  4. A scoring framework for predicting protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqin

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a statistical mechanics-based iterative method to extract statistical atomic interaction potentials from known, non-redundant protein structures. Our method circumvents the long-standing reference state problem in deriving traditional knowledge-based scoring functions, by using rapid iterations through a physical, global convergence function. The rapid convergence of this physics-based method, unlike other parameter optimization methods, warrants the feasibility of deriving distance-dependent, all-atom statistical potentials to keep the scoring accuracy. The derived potentials, referred to as ITScore/Pro, have been validated using three diverse benchmarks: the high-resolution decoy set, the AMBER benchmark decoy set, and the CASP8 decoy set. Significant improvement in performance has been achieved. Finally, comparisons between the potentials of our model and potentials of a knowledge-based scoring function with a randomized reference state have revealed the reason for the better performance of our scoring function, which could provide useful insight into the development of other physical scoring functions. The potentials developed in the present study are generally applicable for structural selection in protein structure prediction.

  5. SCORE SETS IN ORIENTED 3-PARTITE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Let D(U, V, W) be an oriented 3-partite graph with |U|=p, |V|=q and |W|= r. For any vertex x in D(U, V, W), let d+x and d-x be the outdegree and indegree of x respectively. Define aui (or simply ai) = q + r + d+ui - d-ui, bvj(or simply bj) = p + r + d+vj - d-vj and Cwk (or simply ck) = p + q + d+wk - d-wk as the scores of ui in U, vj in V and wk in Wrespectively. The set A of distinct scores of the vertices of D(U, V, W) is called its score set. In this paper, we prove that if a1 is a non-negative integer, ai(2≤i≤n - 1) are even positive integers and an is any positive integer, then for n≥3, there exists an oriented 3-partite graph with the score set A = {a1,2∑i=1 ai,…,n∑i=1 ai}, except when A = {0,2,3}. Some more results for score sets in oriented 3-partite graphs are obtained.

  6. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  7. [Overview of regulatory aspects guiding tablet scoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra Teles; Sá-Barreto, Lívia Cristina Lira; Silva, Dayde Lane Mendonça; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio Sergio Soares

    2016-06-01

    Tablet scoring is a controversial but common practice used to adjust doses, facilitate drug intake, or lower the cost of drug treatment, especially in children and the elderly. The risks of tablet scoring are mainly related to inaccuracies in the resulting dose and stability problems. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of worldwide guidelines regarding tablet scoring. We found that regulatory health agencies in Mercosur countries as well as other South American countries do not have published standards addressing tablet splitting. Among the surveyed health agencies, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States is the only one to present standards, ranging from splitting instructions to regulation of the manufacturing process. The concept of functional scoring implemented by the FDA has introduced some level of guarantee as to the ability of tablets to be split. In conclusion, technical and scientific bases are still insufficient to guide health rules on this subject, making the decision on scoring, in certain situations, random and highly risky to public health. The need for more detailed regulation is vital to ensure the safety of tablet medications.

  8. Serum iron and A(2)DS(2) score in stroke-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Juan; Yu, Jing; Yin, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of serum biomarkers such as iron, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and A(2)DS(2) scores at hospital admission to predict the onset and severity of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), 101 patients with acute stroke were selected and divided into the control and SAP group. Compared with control group, no significant differences were discovered in age, sex, vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia, chronic lung disease of SAP group, while a significantly higher level was found in incidence of dysphagia, NIHSS score, A(2)DS(2) score, CURB-65 score, serum iron, serum ferritin, PCT and CRP (P DS(2) score and CURB-65 score had relatively high values in the SAP prediction (all P 0.5). When combined ferritin, PCT, and A(2)DS(2) scores and other indicators with CRP for SAP prediction, the model had a larger area under the curve (AUC) and higher specificity than individual prediction models. Spearman regression analysis presented that serum iron, serum ferritin and A(2)DS(2) score were highly correlated with CURB-65 score (P DS(2) score measured at admission were effective indicators in SAP prediction which could be used for SAP screening and severity prediction. Besides, the specificity in SAP prediction could be improved when Serum iron and A(2)DS(2) score combined with CRP.

  9. Evaluating observer agreement of scoring systems for foot integrity and footrot lesions in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foddai Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scoring scale with five ordinal categories is used for visual diagnosis of footrot in sheep and to study its epidemiology and control. More recently a 4 point ordinal scale has been used by researchers to score foot integrity (wall and sole horn damage in sheep. There is no information on observer agreement using either of these scales. Observer agreement for ordinal scores is usually estimated by single measure values such as weighted kappa or Kendall’s coefficient of concordance which provide no information where the disagreement lies. Modeling techniques such as latent class models provide information on both observer bias and whether observers have different thresholds at which they change the score given. In this paper we use weighted kappa and located latent class modeling to explore observer agreement when scoring footrot lesions (using photographs and videos and foot integrity (using post mortem specimens in sheep. We used 3 observers and 80 photographs and videos and 80 feet respectively. Results Both footrot and foot integrity scoring scales were more consistent within observers than between. The weighted kappa values between observers for both footrot and integrity scoring scales ranged from moderate to substantial. There was disagreement between observers with both observer bias and different thresholds between score values. The between observer thresholds were different for scores 1 and 2 for footrot (using photographs and videos and for all scores for integrity (both walls and soles. The within observer agreement was higher with weighted kappa values ranging from substantial to almost perfect. Within observer thresholds were also more consistent than between observer thresholds. Scoring using photographs was less variable than scoring using video clips or feet. Conclusions Latent class modeling is a useful method for exploring components of disagreement within and between observers and this information could

  10. Prehospital severity scoring at major rock concert events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T B; Koenigsberg, M; Bunney, E B; Schurgin, B; Levy, P; Willens, J; Tanner, L

    1997-01-01

    Rock and contemporary music concerts are popular, recurrent events requiring on-site medical staffing. To describe a novel severity score used to stratify the level of acuity of patients presenting to first-aid stations at these events. Retrospective review of charts generated at the first-aid stations of five major rock concerts within a 60,000 spectator capacity, outdoor, professional sports stadium. Participants included all concert patrons presenting to the stadium's first-aid stations as patients. Data were collected on patient demographics, history of drug or ethanol usage while at the concert event, first-aid station time, treatment rendered, diagnosis, and disposition. All patients evaluated were retrospectively assigned a "DRUG-ROCK" Injury Severity Score (DRISS) to stratify their level of acuity. Individual concert events and patient dispositions were compared statistically using chi-square, Fisher's exact, and the ANOVA Mean tests. Approximately 250,000 spectators attended the five concert events. First-aid stations evaluated 308 patients (utilization rate of 1.2 per 1,000 patrons). The most common diagnosis was minor trauma (130; 42%), followed in frequency by ethanol/illicit drug intoxication (98; 32%). The average time in the first-aid station was 23.5 +/- 22.5 minutes (+/- standard deviation; range: 5-150 minutes). Disposition of patients included 100 (32.5%) who were treated and released; 98 (32%) were transported by paramedics to emergency departments (EDs); and 110 (35.5%) signed-out against medical advise (AMA), refusing transport. The mean DRISS was 4.1 (+/- 2.65). Two-thirds (67%) of the study population were ranked as mild by DRISS criteria (score = 1-4), with 27% rated as moderate (score = 5-9), and 6% severe (score > 10). The average of severity scores was highest (6.5) for patients transported to hospitals, and statistically different from the scores of the average of the treated and released and AMA groups (p < 0.005). The DRISS was useful

  11. The ERICE-score: the new native cardiovascular score for the low-risk and aged Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rafael; Brotons, Carlos; Tormo, M José; Segura, Antonio; Rigo, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Carbayo, Julio A; Gavrila, Diana; Moral, Irene; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, data based on large population-based cohorts adequate to provide an accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been scarce. Thus, calibration of the EuroSCORE and Framingham scores has been proposed and done for our population. The aim was to develop a native risk prediction score to accurately estimate the individual cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population. Seven Spanish population-based cohorts including middle-aged and elderly participants were assembled. There were 11800 people (6387 women) representing 107915 person-years of follow-up. A total of 1214 cardiovascular events were identified, of which 633 were fatal. Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine the contributions of the different variables to the 10-year total cardiovascular risk. Age was the strongest cardiovascular risk factor. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and smoking were strong predictive factors. The contribution of serum total cholesterol was small. Antihypertensive treatment also had a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, greater in men than in women. The model showed a good discriminative power (C-statistic=0.789 in men and C=0.816 in women). Ten-year risk estimations are displayed graphically in risk charts separately for men and women. The ERICE is a new native cardiovascular risk score for the Spanish population derived from the background and contemporaneous risk of several Spanish cohorts. The ERICE score offers the direct and reliable estimation of total cardiovascular risk, taking in consideration the effect of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factor management. The ERICE score is a practical and useful tool for clinicians to estimate the total individual cardiovascular risk in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Worthing Physiological Score vs Revised Trauma Score in Outcome Prediction of Trauma patients; a Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan-Shahraki, Babak; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hajighanbari, Mohammad Javad; Karimi, Parviz; Baikpour, Masoud; Mirzay Razaz, Jalaledin; Yaseri, Mehdi; Shahsavari, Kavous; Mahdizadeh, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about the outcome of trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) has become a topic of interest. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the rapid trauma score (RTS) and worthing physiological scoring system (WPSS) in predicting in-hospital mortality and poor outcome of trauma patients. Methods: In this comparative study trauma patients brought to five EDs in different cities of Iran during the year 2016 were included. After data collection, discriminatory power and calibration of the models were assessed and compared using STATA 11. Results: 2148 patients with the mean age of 39.50±17.27 years were included (75.56% males). The AUC of RTS and WPSS models for prediction of mortality were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94), respectively (p=0.006). RTS had a sensitivity of 71.54 (95% CI: 62.59-79.13) and a specificity of 97.38 (95% CI: 96.56-98.01) in prediction of mortality. These measures for the WPSS were 87.80 (95% CI: 80.38-92.78) and 83.45 (95% CI: 81.75-85.04), respectively. The AUC of RTS and WPSS in predicting poor outcome were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92), respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The findings showed a higher prognostic value for the WPSS model in predicting mortality and severe disabilities in trauma patients compared to the RTS model. Both models had good overall performance in prediction of mortality and poor outcome. PMID:28286838

  13. Evaluation of the "medication fall risk score".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Cyrus; Hall, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Results of a study evaluating the predictive validity of a fall screening tool in hospitalized patients are reported. Administrative claims data from two hospitals were analyzed to determine the discriminatory ability of the "medication fall risk score" (RxFS), a medication review fall-risk screening tool that is designed for use in conjunction with nurse-administered tools such as the Morse Fall Scale (MFS). Through analysis of data on administered medications and documented falls in a population of adults who underwent fall-risk screening at hospital admission over a 15-month period (n = 33,058), the predictive value of admission MFS scores, alone or in combination with retrospectively calculated RxFS-based risk scores, was assessed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis were used to evaluate improvements in risk prediction with the addition of RxFS data to the prediction model. The area under the ROC curve for the predictive model for falls compromising both MFS and RxFS scores was computed as 0.8014, which was greater than the area under the ROC curve associated with use of the MFS alone (0.7823, p = 0.0030). Screening based on MFS scores alone had 81.25% sensitivity and 61.37% specificity. Combined use of RxFS and MFS scores resulted in 82.42% sensitivity and 66.65% specificity (NRI = 0.0587, p = 0.0003). Reclassification of fall risk based on coadministration of the MFS and the RxFS tools resulted in a modest improvement in specificity without compromising sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new scoring system to stratify risk in unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Simón

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed this study to develop a new scoring system to stratify different levels of risk in patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of unstable angina (UA, which is a complex syndrome that encompasses different outcomes. Many prognostic variables have been described but few efforts have been made to group them in order to enhance their individual predictive power. Methods In a first phase, 473 patients were prospectively analyzed to determine which factors were significantly associated with the in-hospital occurrence of refractory ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI or death. A risk score ranging from 0 to 10 points was developed using a multivariate analysis. In a second phase, such score was validated in a new sample of 242 patients and it was finally applied to the entire population (n = 715. Results ST-segment deviation on the electrocardiogram, age ≥ 70 years, previous bypass surgery and troponin T ≥ 0.1 ng/mL were found as independent prognostic variables. A clear distinction was shown among categories of low, intermediate and high risk, defined according to the risk score. The incidence of the triple end-point was 6 %, 19.2 % and 44.7 % respectively, and the figures for AMI or death were 2 %, 11.4 % and 27.6 % respectively (p Conclusions This new scoring system is simple and easy to achieve. It allows a very good stratification of risk in patients having a clinical diagnosis of UA. They may be divided in three categories, which could be of help in the decision-making process.

  15. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores...... of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure....

  16. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  17. A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneson, B E

    1978-06-01

    A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card or questionnaire has been developed to assess potential candidates for excision of a herniated lumbar disc who have not previously undergone lumbar spine surgery. It is not designed to encompass patients who are being considered for other types of lumbar spine surgery, such as decompressive laminectomy or fusion. In an effort to make the "score card" usable by almost all physicians who are involved in lumbar disc surgery, only studies which have broad acceptance and are generally employed are included. Studies which have less widespread use such as electromyogram, discogram, venogram, special psychologic studies (MMPI, pain drawings) have been purposely excluded.

  18. The Score Difference of Emotional Intelligence among Engineering Students at Different Levels of Academic Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibani, Nizaroyani; Sabtu, Idham; Muhamad, Norhamidi; Wahab, Dzuraidah Abd.; Sahari, Ja'afar

    2013-01-01

    The number of students from the under-graduate level who have successfully completed their studies is on the increase every year. In the selection process for the best employee-candidate, employers have to take into consideration several factors other than academic excellence, including values that depict EQ or emotional intelligence. This study…

  19. Assessment of calcium scoring performance in cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulzheimer, Stefan; Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Electron beam tomography (EBT) has been used for cardiac diagnosis and the quantitative assessment of coronary calcium since the late 1980s. The introduction of mechanical multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners with shorter rotation times opened new possibilities of cardiac imaging with conventional CT scanners. The purpose of this work was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the performance for EBT and MSCT for the task of coronary artery calcium imaging as a function of acquisition protocol, heart rate, spiral reconstruction algorithm (where applicable) and calcium scoring method. A cardiac CT semi-anthropomorphic phantom was designed and manufactured for the investigation of all relevant image quality parameters in cardiac CT. This phantom includes various test objects, some of which can be moved within the anthropomorphic phantom in a manner that mimics realistic heart motion. These tools were used to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the accuracy of coronary calcium imaging using typical protocols for an electron beam (Evolution C-150XP, Imatron, South San Francisco, Calif.) and a 0.5-s four-slice spiral CT scanner (Sensation 4, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). A special focus was put on the method of quantifying coronary calcium, and three scoring systems were evaluated (Agatston, volume, and mass scoring). Good reproducibility in coronary calcium scoring is always the result of a combination of high temporal and spatial resolution; consequently, thin-slice protocols in combination with retrospective gating on MSCT scanners yielded the best results. The Agatston score was found to be the least reproducible scoring method. The hydroxyapatite mass, being better reproducible and comparable on different scanners and being a physical quantitative measure, appears to be the method of choice for future clinical studies. The hydroxyapatite mass is highly correlated to the Agatston score. The introduced phantoms can be used to quantitatively assess the

  20. The Changes of Students’ Toefl Score After One Year Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BINUS students are supposed to increase their English competence indicated by their TOEFL scores. This paper aims to observe the differences between studens TOEFL scores obtained when they entered BINUS and the scores after they joined TOEFL courses at BINUS for one year. The participants were 121 students. The data for the entrance test were taken from the BINUS data center and the final test data were taken from their final test at English class. The data were analysed using statistics especially the descriptive statistics, comparing means, and correlation. To support the quantative data, a set of questionnaires was distributed to those 121 students. The results show that the students’ TOEFL scores have increased significantly in the final test compared to those in the entrance test. The low achiever students showed a better performance than the higher ones. Students’ motivation and background support their English study. Students proved to have the most problem in listening. The results of the research are expected to be the input for English lecturers to improve their teaching especially the existence of SALLC (Self Access Language Learning Center. 

  1. Clinical utility of metabolic syndrome severity scores: considerations for practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeBoer MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark D DeBoer,1,2 Matthew J Gurka2 11Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, 2Department of Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: The metabolic syndrome (MetS is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup. These scores are correlated with long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical use of scores like these provide a potential opportunity to identify patients at highest risk, motivate patients toward lifestyle change, and follow treatment progress over time. Keywords: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, risk prediction

  2. Comparison of scoring systems for invasive pests using ROC analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Mittinty, Murthy Narasimha

    2010-06-01

    Different international plant protection organisations advocate different schemes for conducting pest risk assessments. Most of these schemes use structured questionnaire in which experts are asked to score several items using an ordinal scale. The scores are then combined using a range of procedures, such as simple arithmetic mean, weighted averages, multiplication of scores, and cumulative sums. The most useful schemes will correctly identify harmful pests and identify ones that are not. As the quality of a pest risk assessment can depend on the characteristics of the scoring system used by the risk assessors (i.e., on the number of points of the scale and on the method used for combining the component scores), it is important to assess and compare the performance of different scoring systems. In this article, we proposed a new method for assessing scoring systems. Its principle is to simulate virtual data using a stochastic model and, then, to estimate sensitivity and specificity values from these data for different scoring systems. The interest of our approach was illustrated in a case study where several scoring systems were compared. Data for this analysis were generated using a probabilistic model describing the pest introduction process. The generated data were then used to simulate the outcome of scoring systems and to assess the accuracy of the decisions about positive and negative introduction. The results showed that ordinal scales with at most 5 or 6 points were sufficient and that the multiplication-based scoring systems performed better than their sum-based counterparts. The proposed method could be used in the future to assess a great diversity of scoring systems.

  3. Comparative vascular audit using the POSSUM scoring system.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, G. P.; Jones, D.; Wilcox, A; Harris, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Comparative audit using overall mortality and morbidity figures can be misleading as they do not take into account variations in surgical procedure and patient fitness. To examine these effects we have compared vascular surgery in two differing hospitals, during a similar 9-month period, using the POSSUM scoring system. In one unit, 255 patients underwent vascular surgery with an operative mortality of 9.4%, and morbidity of 37.3%. In the other unit, 89 patients underwent vascular procedures ...

  4. Abstract art grandmasters score like class D amateurs

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Hawley-Dolan and Winner had asked the art students to compare paintings by abstract artists with paintings made by a child or by an animal. In 67% of the cases, art students said that the painting by a renowned artist is better. I compare this with the winning probability of the chessplayers of different ratings. I conclude that the great artists score on the level of class D amateurs.

  5. The significance of the ProtDeform score for structure prediction and alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When a researcher uses a program to align two proteins and gets a score, one of her main concerns is how often the program gives a similar score to pairs that are or are not in the same fold. This issue was analysed in detail recently for the program TM-align with its associated TM-score. It was shown that because the TM-score is length independent, it allows a P-value and a hit probability to be defined depending only on the score. Also, it was found that the TM-scores of gapless alignments closely follow an Extreme Value Distribution (EVD. The program ProtDeform for structural protein alignment was developed recently and is characterised by the ability to propose different transformations of different protein regions. Our goal is to analyse its associated score to allow a researcher to have objective reasons to prefer one aligner over another, and carry out a better interpretation of the output. RESULTS: The study on the ProtDeform score reveals that it is length independent in a wider score range than TM-scores and that PD-scores of gapless (random alignments also approximately follow an EVD. On the CASP8 predictions, PD-scores and TM-scores, with respect to native structures, are highly correlated (0.95, and show that around a fifth of the predictions have a quality as low as 99.5% of the random scores. Using the Gold Standard benchmark, ProtDeform has lower probabilities of error than TM-align both at a similar speed. The analysis is extended to homology discrimination showing that, again, ProtDeform offers higher hit probabilities than TM-align. Finally, we suggest using three different P-values according to the three different contexts: Gapless alignments, optimised alignments for fold discrimination and that for superfamily discrimination. In conclusion, PD-scores are at the very least as valuable for prediction scoring as TM-scores, and on the protein classification problem, even more reliable.

  6. Assessment of the EuroSCORE risk scoring system for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in a group of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Jamaati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Previous studies around the world indicated validity and accuracy of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE risk scoring system we evaluated the EuroSCORE risk scoring system for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery in a group of Iranian patients. Materials and Methods: In this cohort 2220 patients more than 18 years, who were performed CABG surgery in Massih Daneshvari Hospital, from January 2004 to March 2010 were recruited. Predicted mortality risk scores were calculated using logistic EuroSCORE and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and compared with observed mortality. Calibration was measured by the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL test and discrimination by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve area. Results: Of the 2220 patients, in hospital deaths occurred in 270 patients (mortality rate of 12.2%. The accuracy of mortality prediction in the logistic EuroSCORE and APACHE II model was 89.1%; in the local EuroSCORE (logistic was 91.89%; and in the local EuroSCORE support vector machines (SVM was 98.6%. The area under curve for ROC curve, was 0.724 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.88 for logistic EuroSCORE; 0.836 (95% CI: 0.731-0.942 for local EuroSCORE (logistic; 0.978 (95% CI: 0.937-1 for Local EuroSCORE (SVM; and 0.832 (95% CI: 0.723-0.941 for APACHE II model. The HL test showed good calibration for the local EuroSCORE (SVM, APACHE II model and local EuroSCORE (logistic (P = 0.823, P = 0.748 and P = 0.06 respectively; but there was a significant difference between expected and observed mortality according to EuroSCORE model (P = 0.033. Conclusion: We detected logistic EuroSCORE risk model is not applicable on Iranian patients undergoing CABG surgery.

  7. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  8. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  9. Progress scored in forest pest studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with co-workers from State Forestry Administration (SFA), researchers of the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ)have scored encouraging progress in their studies of pheromones-based technology against the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte).

  10. Stability of WISC-IV process scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Kane, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three students were administered on two occasions approximately 11 months apart the complete Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, including the seven process components of Block Design No Time Bonus, Digit Span Forward (DSF), Digit Span Backward (DSB), Cancellation Random (CAR), Cancellation Structured (CAS), Longest Digit Span Forward (LDSF), and Longest Digit Span Backward (LDSB). Mean ages at first and second testing were 7.77 years (SD = 1.91) and 8.74 years (SD = 1.93), respectively. Mean Full-Scale IQ at initial testing was 111.63 (SD = 10.71). Process score stability coefficients ranged from .75 on DSF to .32 on CAS. Discrepancy score stabilities ranged from .45 on DSF minus DSB to .05 on CAS minus CAR. Approximately 21% of participants increased their LDSF on retest, and 16.3% showed a gain on LDSB. Caution must be exercised when interpreting process scores, and interpretation of discrepancy scores should probably be avoided.

  11. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate...

  12. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  13. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  14. Writing Plan Quality: Relevance to Writing Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Constance

    2006-01-01

    If writing matters, how can we improve it? This study investigated the nature of writing plan quality and its relationship to the ensuing writing scores. Data were drawn from the 1998 Provincial Learning Assessment Programme (PLAP) in Writing, which was administered to pupils in Grades 4, 7, and 10 across British Columbia, Canada. Common features…

  15. Development of a difficulty score for spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, M M; Demian, A D; Shorrab, A A

    2004-03-01

    Multiple attempts at spinal puncture may be hazardous. Accurate preoperative prediction of difficulty adds to the delivery of high quality care. This clinical trial was designed to: (i). determine the predictive performance of difficulty variables; (ii). compare senior and junior anaesthetists; (iii). develop a score to predict difficulty during the performance of spinal anaesthesia. A total of 300 patients subjected to urological procedures and scheduled for spinal anaesthesia were independently assessed and stratified according to the categories of the difficulty predictors of spinal anaesthesia into one of nine grades (0-8) and randomized according to the experience of the anaesthetist into two groups (group A, staff with more than 15 yrs' experience; group B, resident with more than 6 months but less than 1 yr in training). The number of attempts and levels, and success rate of the technique were the outcome variables. Data were analysed by multivariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The bony landmarks of the back and the radiological characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae were two independent predictors of difficulty. Multivariate analysis indicated differences between junior and senior staff but ROC curves indicated no difference. Grade 4 was the difficulty score at or above which difficulty was expected whether or not radiological characteristics of the vertebrae were included. Spinal bony landmarks and radiological characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae are independent predictors of difficulty during spinal anaesthesia. There is no difference between senior and junior anaesthetists. Grade 4 is the difficulty score at or above which difficulty is expected.

  16. Morphometric scores for renal tumors: What does the radiologist need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Doyon, Fernanda Curros; Pages, Emma [Department of Imaging, CHU Montpellier (France); Thuret, Rodolphe [Department of Urology, CHU Montpellier (France); Taourel, Patrice, E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr [Department of Imaging, CHU Montpellier (France)

    2014-08-15

    Numerous therapeutic options are possible in the treatment of renal carcinomas including radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, cryoablation, radiofrequency, active follow-up and among surgical treatments, different approaches may be used such as laparotomy, laparoscopy, robotic-assisted intervention. The choice between these different procedures is partially based on the anatomic conditions of the tumors. Different anatomic scores determined from cross-sectional imaging have been built to predict the complexity of the surgical procedure. The goals of this article are to review the relevant morphologic pattern for management of patients with renal tumors, to know how to calculate these different scores and to understand the clinical applications of these scores.

  17. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  18. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  19. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  20. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT) can provide higher precision and reliability or reduce test length when compared with unidimensional CAT or with the paper-and-pencil test. This study compared five item selection procedures in the MCAT framework for both domain scores and overall scores through simulation by varying the structure…

  1. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  2. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  3. Lower bounds to the reliabilities of factor score estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/256041717

    2017-01-01

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone’s factor score estimators, Bartlett’s factor score

  4. Optimal cutting scores using a linear loss function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    1977-01-01

    The situation is considered in which a total score on a test is used for classifying examinees into two categories: "accepted (with scores above a cutting score on the test) and "not accepted" (with scores below the cutting score). A value on the latent variable is fixed in advance; examinees above

  5. Effects of using a scoring guide on essay scores: generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Adnan

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of task level and item consistency when two conditions, with and without the assistance of a scoring guide, were used to score essays. The use of generalization theory was proposed as a framework for examining the effect of task variability and use of the scoring guide on achievement measures. Participants were 21 students in Grade 9 enrolled in regular Turkish language and literature classes. Of these students 11 were men and 10 were women. Ten teachers from the city were raters. In the past, raters of essays have given varied judgements of writing quality. Utilizing decision and generalizability theories, variation in scores was evaluated using a three-way (person x rater x task) analysis of variance design. The scoring guide was beneficial in reducing variability of evaluating grammar and reading comprehension but not as helpful when assessing knowledge of concepts.

  6. The CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score reflects clinical outcomes in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients with an initial cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ohe, Yasuko; Kato, Yuji; Nagoya, Harumitsu; Fukuoka, Takuya; Maruyama, Hajime; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2013-11-01

    Whether the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score reflects severity or clinical outcomes in patients with an initial cardioembolic stroke associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NAVF) was investigated. This study included 327 patients hospitalized between April 2007 and March 2012 for an initial cardioembolic stroke associated with NVAF with no history of stroke. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission and clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score after 90 days) were retrospectively evaluated according to the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were 0, 3.1%; 1, 9.1%; 2, 24.5%; 3, 26%; 4, 20.8%; 5, 14.4%; and 6, 2.1%. The median NIHSS scores for CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores of 0-6 were 4.5, 8, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 23, respectively. Severity differed according to the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score. The clinical outcomes according to the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores were as follows: score 0, mRS scores of 0-2 (80%) and 3-6 (20%); score 1, mRS scores of 0-2 (80%) and 3-6 (20%); score 2, mRS scores of 0-2 (64%) and 3-6 (36%); score 3, mRS scores of 0-2 (48%) and 3-6 (52%); score 4, mRS scores of 0-2 (28%) and 3-6 (72%); score 5, mRS scores of 0-2 (26%) and 3-6 (74%); and score 6, mRS scores of 0-2 (29%) and 3-6 (71%). The clinical outcome worsened as the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score increased. On logistic regression analysis, age, NIHSS score on admission, and thrombolytic therapy were related to a clinical outcome. The severity of NVAF-induced initial cardioembolic stroke increased with higher CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores, and the outcomes were poor. The present study suggests that the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score may be useful not only for the evaluation of stroke risk but also for the prediction of clinical outcomes after stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Credit concession through credit scoring: Analysis and application proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Amat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study herein develops and tests a credit scoring model which can help financial institutions in assessing credit requests.  Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study has the objective of answering two questions: (1 Which ratios better discriminate the companies based on their being solvent or insolvent? and (2 What is the relative importance of these ratios? To do this, several statistical techniques with a multifactorial focus have been used (Multivariate Analysis of Variance, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logit and Probit Models. Several samples of companies have been used in order to obtain and to test the model.  Findings: Through the application of several statistical techniques, the credit scoring model has been proved to be effective in discriminating between good and bad creditors.  Research limitations:  This study focuses on manufacturing, commercial and services companies of all sizes in Spain; Therefore, the conclusions may differ for other geographical locations. Practical implications:  Because credit is one of the main drivers of growth, a solid credit scoring model can help financial institutions assessing to whom to grant credit and to whom not to grant credit. Social implications: Because of the growing importance of credit for our society and the fear of granting it due to the latest financial turmoil, a solid credit scoring model can strengthen the trust toward the financial institutions assessment’s.  Originality/value: There is already a stream of literature related to credit scoring. However, this paper focuses on Spanish firms and proves the results of our model based on real data. The application of the model to detect the probability of default in loans is original.

  8. U-Scores for Multivariate Data in Sports*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, Knut M.; Song, Tingting; Anderson, Kent; Daniels, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In many sport competitions athletes, teams, or countries are evaluated based on several variables. The strong assumptions underlying traditional ‘linear weight’ scoring systems (that the relative importance, interactions and linearizing transformations of the variables are known) can often not be justified on theoretical grounds, and empirical ‘validation’ of weights, interactions and transformations, is problematic when a ‘gold standard’ is lacking. With μ-scores (u-scores for multivariate data) one can integrate information even if the variables have different scales and unknown interactions or if the events counted are not directly comparable, as long as the variables have an ‘orientation’. Using baseball as an example, we discuss how measures based on μ-scores can complement the existing measures for ‘performance’ (which may depend on the situation) by providing the first multivariate measures for ‘ability’ (which should be independent of the situation). Recently, μ-scores have been extended to situations where count variables are graded by importance or relevance, such as medals in the Olympics (Wittkowski 2003) or Tour-de-France jerseys (Cherchye and Vermeulen 2006, 2007). Here, we present extensions to ‘censored’ variables (life-time achievements of active athletes), penalties (counting a win more than two ties) and hierarchically structured variables (Nordic, alpine, outdoor, and indoor Olympic events). The methods presented are not restricted to sports. Other applications of the method include medicine (adverse events), finance (risk analysis), social choice theory (voting), and economy (long-term profit). PMID:24163644

  9. Critical Care Nurses Inadequately Assess SAPS II Scores of Very Ill Patients in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Perren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable ICU severity scores have been achieved by various healthcare workers but nothing is known regarding the accuracy in real life of severity scores registered by untrained nurses. Methods. In this retrospective multicentre audit, three reviewers independently reassessed 120 SAPS II scores. Correlation and agreement of the sum-scores/variables among reviewers and between nurses and the reviewers’ gold standard were assessed globally and for tertiles. Bland and Altman (gold standard—nurses of sum scores and regression of the difference were determined. A logistic regression model identifying risk factors for erroneous assessments was calculated. Results. Correlation for sum scores among reviewers was almost perfect (mean ICC = 0.985. The mean (±SD nurse-registered SAPS II sum score was 40.3±20.2 versus 44.2±24.9 of the gold standard (32 points scores. The lowest agreement was found in high SAPS II tertiles for haemodynamics (k = 0.45–0.51. Conclusions. In real life, nurse-registered SAPS II scores of very ill patients are inaccurate. Accuracy of scores was not associated with nurses’ characteristics.

  10. Building Customers` Credit Scoring Models with Combination of Feature Selection and Decision Tree Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Davoodabadi

    Full Text Available Today`s financial transactions have been increased through banks and financial institutions. Therefore, credit scoring is a critical task to forecast the customers’ credit. We have created 9 different models for the credit scoring by combining three metho ...

  11. Comparing the MMPI-2 Scale Scores of Parents Involved in Parental Competency and Child Custody Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, John; Lecci, Len

    2012-01-01

    MMPI-2 scores from a parent competency sample (N = 136 parents) are compared with a previously published data set of MMPI-2 scores for child custody litigants (N = 508 parents; Bathurst et al., 1997). Independent samples t tests yielded significant and in some cases substantial differences on the standard MMPI-2 clinical scales (especially Scales…

  12. Assessing Writing in MOOCs: Automated Essay Scoring and Calibrated Peer Review™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Two of the largest Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) organizations have chosen different methods for the way they will score and provide feedback on essays students submit. EdX, MIT and Harvard's non-profit MOOC federation, recently announced that they will use a machine-based Automated Essay Scoring (AES) application to assess written work in…

  13. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

    1985-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

  14. The Validity of Preservice Teacher Use of Kohlberg's Issue Stage Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Social studies preservice teachers received background information on Kohlberg's theory of moral development and were trained to use one of the rater guides in his new "issue stage scoring system." They were directed to score sample moral thought statements, some on an intuitive basis and some with the rater guides. No overall differences between…

  15. Assessment of severity of hand eczema : discrepancies between patient- and physician-rated scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, A. M.; van Sonderen, E.; Bouma, J.; Coenraads, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background In clinical practice or trials on hand eczema the severity of this disease can be 'measured' in different ways: by means of a physician-rated clinical severity score, a patient-rated clinical severity score or by an indicator of the burden of disease. We assume that the patient-rated seve

  16. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  17. Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

  18. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  19. Assessing the Relationship among Defining Issues Test Scores and Crystallised and Fluid Intellectual Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, W. Pitt; Jones, Kristy L.; Grieve, Frederick G.; Barger, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Differing findings exist on how Defining Issues Test (DIT) scores relate to intelligence. Further study is needed in order to address aspects of intellect not previously considered and to address how these relationships rival studies that have compared indices of intellect with constructs similar to DIT scores. In the present study, a sample of…

  20. Some supplementary methods for the analysis of WAIS-IV index scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Longman, R Stewart; Batty, Abigail M

    2012-09-01

    To develop supplementary methods for the analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric. The following methods are made available: (a) provision of traditional confidence intervals (CIs) on index scores, (b) expression of the endpoints of CIs as percentile ranks; (c) quantification of the number of abnormally low index scores exhibited by a case and accompanying estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least this number of low scores; (d) quantification of the reliability and abnormality of index score deviations from an individual's index score mean (thereby offering an alternative to the pairwise approach to index score comparisons available in the WAIS-IV manual); (e) provision of CIs on an individual's deviation scores or pairwise difference scores, (f) estimation of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least as many abnormal deviations or abnormal pairwise differences as a case; and (g) calculation of a case's Mahalanobis distance index (MDI), thereby providing a multivariate estimate of the overall abnormality of an index score profile. With the exception of the MDI, all the methods can be applied using tables provided in this paper. However, for ease and speed of application, and to reduce the possibility of clerical error, all the methods have also been implemented in a computer program. The methods are useful for neuropsychological interpretation of the WAIS-IV. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.

  2. The accuracy rate of Alvarado score, ultrasonography, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... the patients have atypical clinical and laboratory findings. In ... recorded on the study form for data collection. The Alvarado score was calculated as described in the literature.[5] The Alvarado score is a 10-point scoring system.

  3. Silhouette scores for assessment of SNP genotype clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonsson Mats

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs generates large amounts of data. In many SNP genotyping assays, the genotype assignment is based on scatter plots of signals corresponding to the two SNP alleles. In a robust assay the three clusters that define the genotypes are well separated and the distances between the data points within a cluster are short. "Silhouettes" is a graphical aid for interpretation and validation of data clusters that provides a measure of how well a data point was classified when it was assigned to a cluster. Thus "Silhouettes" can potentially be used as a quality measure for SNP genotyping results and for objective comparison of the performance of SNP assays at different circumstances. Results We created a program (ClusterA for calculating "Silhouette scores", and applied it to assess the quality of SNP genotype clusters obtained by single nucleotide primer extension ("minisequencing" in the Tag-microarray format. A Silhouette score condenses the quality of the genotype assignment for each SNP assay into a single numeric value, which ranges from 1.0, when the genotype assignment is unequivocal, down to -1.0, when the genotype assignment has been arbitrary. In the present study we applied Silhouette scores to compare the performance of four DNA polymerases in our minisequencing system by analyzing 26 SNPs in both DNA polarities in 16 DNA samples. We found Silhouettes to provide a relevant measure for the quality of SNP assays at different reaction conditions, illustrated by the four DNA polymerases here. According to our result, the genotypes can be unequivocally assigned without manual inspection when the Silhouette score for a SNP assay is > 0.65. All four DNA polymerases performed satisfactorily in our Tag-array minisequencing system. Conclusion "Silhouette scores" for assessing the quality of SNP genotyping clusters is convenient for evaluating the quality of SNP genotype

  4. Scoring and Classifying Examinees Using Measurement Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates the use of measurement decision theory (MDT to classify examinees based on their item response patterns. The model has a simple framework that starts with the conditional probabilities of examinees in each category or mastery state responding correctly to each item. The presented evaluation investigates: (1 the classification accuracy of tests scored using decision theory; (2 the effectiveness of different sequential testing procedures; and (3 the number of items needed to make a classification. A large percentage of examinees can be classified accurately with very few items using decision theory. A Java Applet for self instruction and software for generating, calibrating and scoring MDT data are provided.

  5. Application of decision trees in credit scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Kvesić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banks are particularly exposed to credit risk due to the nature of their operations. Inadequate assessment of the borrower directly causes losses. The financial crisis the global economy is still going through has clearly shown what kind of problems can arise from an inadequate credit policy. Thus, the primary task of bank managers is to minimise credit risk. Credit scoring models were developed to support managers in assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers. This paper presents the decision tree based on exhaustive CHAID algorithm as one such model. Since the application of credit scoring models has not been adequately explored in the Croatian banking theory and practice, this paper aims not only to determine the characteristics that are crucial for predicting default, but also to highlight the importance of a quantitative approach in assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers.

  6. Shower reconstruction in TUNKA-HiSCORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porelli, Andrea; Wischnewski, Ralf [DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-HiSCORE detector is a non-imaging wide-angle EAS cherenkov array designed as an alternative technology for gamma-ray physics above 10 TeV and to study spectrum and composition of cosmic rays above 100 TeV. An engineering array with nine stations (HiS-9) has been deployed in October 2013 on the site of the Tunka experiment in Russia. In November 2014, 20 more HiSCORE stations have been installed, covering a total array area of 0.24 square-km. We describe the detector setup, the role of precision time measurement, and give results from the innovative WhiteRabbit time synchronization technology. Results of air shower reconstruction are presented and compared with MC simulations, for both the HiS-9 and the HiS-29 detector arrays.

  7. The FOUR score predicts mortality, endotracheal intubation and ICU length of stay after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Ahmed Said; Fayed, Akram Muhammad; Saleh, Ahmad Sabry

    2014-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely accepted scale for assessing levels of consciousness, clinical status, as well as prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score is a new coma scale developed addressing the limitations of the GCS. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare the performance of the FOUR score vs. the GCS in predicting TBI outcomes. From April to July 2011, 60 consecutive adult patients with TBI admitted to the Alexandria Main University Hospital intensive care units (ICU) were enrolled in the study. GCS and FOUR score were documented on arrival to emergency room. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, unfavorable outcome [Glasgow outcome scale extended (GOSE) 1-4], endotracheal intubation, and ICU length of stay (LOS). Fifteen (25 %) patients died and 35 (58 %) had unfavorable outcome. When predicting mortality, the FOUR score showed significantly higher area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) than the GCS score (0.850 vs. 0.796, p = 0.025). The FOUR score and the GCS score were not different in predicting unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.813 vs. 0.779, p = 0.136) and endotracheal intubation (AUC 0.961 vs. 0.982, p = 0.06). Both scores were good predictors of ICU LOS (r (2) = 0.40 [FOUR score] vs. 0.41 [GCS score]). The FOUR score was superior to the GCS in predicting in-hospital mortality in TBI patients. There was no difference between both scores in predicting unfavorable outcome, endotracheal intubation, and ICU LOS.

  8. The Effect of Clinical, Radiographic and Functional Scores on the Total Score in the Evaluation of Congenital Clubfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakonjac, Zoran; Brdar, Radivoj; Popovic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of radical surgical treatments in treating congenital clubfoot is decreasing. Minimally invasive surgical treatment (MIST) is a way of treating congenital clubfoot, which is a kind of compromise between a radical surgical treatment and non-operational one. A few protocols of different authors McKay, Macnicol, Stevens, Meyer, G.W.Simons and Laaveg-Ponseti were used in the evaluation of the results. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVE: To determine the importance and role of groups of parameters (clinical, radiographic and functional) in the evaluation of the results in patients treated with the two methods (radical operation and MIST). Subjects and methods: This paper covers children who were treated for structural (idiopathic) form of PEVC. The testing is a prospective study and was conducted in two groups of patients. Group A (radical surgical treatment) – control group, where the total number of subjects was 50, out of which 35 male (70%) and 15 female (30%). The number of feet tested was 88. Group B (minimally invasive surgical treatment–MIST)–experimental group. The total number of subjects was 48, out of which 35 male (73%) and 13 female (27%). The number of feet tested was 84. For the analysis of the results, we used a questionnaire. The total number of parameters was fifteen, clinical, radiographic and functional, five parameters of each. Normal findings or measured value was determined by 0 points. The range of the total score (TS-a- total score range) 0-27 points, and the results were sorted out into the folowing categories: good result (0-5) satisfactory (6-11), poor (12-19) and deformity recrudescence (20-27) points. Results: The proportion of good results at 88 feet in group A was 0,477 as at 84 feet in group B it was significantly higher and came to 0,893. The difference between these proportions is statistically highly significant (t = 5.84, p <0.001). Chi-square test (χ2 = 30.083 df = 1 N = 172, p <0.001) indicated that there is a

  9. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  10. Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Behrooz Ebrahimzadehkor; Atamohammad Dorri; Abdolhamed Yapan-Gharavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is a prevalent complication in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), comprehensive nutritional assessment tool, as the reference standard was used to examine protein-energy wasting (PEW) and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study, 48 hemodialysis patients were selected with random sampling. All the patients were interviewed and the MIS of the patients was recorded. T...

  11. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  12. MODELING CREDIT RISK THROUGH CREDIT SCORING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cantemir CALIN; Oana Cristina POPOVICI

    2014-01-01

    Credit risk governs all financial transactions and it is defined as the risk of suffering a loss due to certain shifts in the credit quality of a counterpart. Credit risk literature gravitates around two main modeling approaches: the structural approach and the reduced form approach. In addition to these perspectives, credit risk assessment has been conducted through a series of techniques such as credit scoring models, which form the traditional approach. This paper examines the evolution of...

  13. Credit Scoring Problem Based on Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khassawneh, Bashar Suhil Jad Allah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an explanatory introduction to the regression models of data mining and contains basic definitions of key terms in the linear, multiple and logistic regression models. Meanwhile, the aim of this study is to illustrate fitting models for the credit scoring problem using simple linear, multiple linear and logistic regression models and also to analyze the found model functions by statistical tools. Keywords: Data mining, linear regression, logistic regression....

  14. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  15. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran;

    2014-01-01

    public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes...... or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed......Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major...

  16. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  17. Can nontriggered thoracic CT be used for coronary artery calcium scoring? A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueqian [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands and Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Greuter, Marcel J. W. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Groen, Jaap M. [Department of Radiology, Zaans Medical Center, 1500EE Zaandam (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands and Center for Medical Imaging – North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Coronary artery calcium score, traditionally based on electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered computed tomography (CT), predicts cardiovascular risk. However, nontriggered CT is extensively utilized. The study-purpose is to evaluate the in vitro agreement in coronary calcium score between nontriggered thoracic CT and ECG-triggered cardiac CT.Methods: Three artificial coronary arteries containing calcifications of different densities (high, medium, and low), and sizes (large, medium, and small), were studied in a moving cardiac phantom. Two 64-detector CT systems were used. The phantom moved at 0–90 mm/s in nontriggered low-dose CT as index test, and at 0–30 mm/s in ECG-triggered CT as reference. Differences in calcium scores between nontriggered and ECG-triggered CT were analyzed by t-test and 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity to detect calcification was calculated as the percentage of positive calcium scores.Results: Overall, calcium scores in nontriggered CT were not significantly different to those in ECG-triggered CT (p > 0.05). Calcium scores in nontriggered CT were within the 95% confidence interval of calcium scores in ECG-triggered CT, except predominantly at higher velocities (≥50 mm/s) for the high-density and large-size calcifications. The sensitivity for a nonzero calcium score was 100% for large calcifications, but 46%± 11% for small calcifications in nontriggered CT.Conclusions: When performing multiple measurements, good agreement in positive calcium scores is found between nontriggered thoracic and ECG-triggered cardiac CT. Agreement decreases with increasing coronary velocity. From this phantom study, it can be concluded that a high calcium score can be detected by nontriggered CT, and thus, that nontriggered CT likely can identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, a zero calcium score in nontriggered CT does not reliably exclude coronary calcification.

  18. Score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) as an improved discrimination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jintae; Chung, Hoeil; Han, Sung-Hwan; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2007-01-01

    A new discrimination method called the score-moment combined linear discrimination analysis (SMC-LDA) has been developed and its performance has been evaluated using three practical spectroscopic datasets. The key concept of SMC-LDA was to use not only the score from principal component analysis (PCA), but also the moment of the spectrum, as inputs for LDA to improve discrimination. Along with conventional score, moment is used in spectroscopic fields as an effective alternative for spectral feature representation. Three different approaches were considered. Initially, the score generated from PCA was projected onto a two-dimensional feature space by maximizing Fisher's criterion function (conventional PCA-LDA). Next, the same procedure was performed using only moment. Finally, both score and moment were utilized simultaneously for LDA. To evaluate discrimination performances, three different spectroscopic datasets were employed: (1) infrared (IR) spectra of normal and malignant stomach tissue, (2) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of diesel and light gas oil (LGO) and (3) Raman spectra of Chinese and Korean ginseng. For each case, the best discrimination results were achieved when both score and moment were used for LDA (SMC-LDA). Since the spectral representation character of moment was different from that of score, inclusion of both score and moment for LDA provided more diversified and descriptive information.

  19. Empirical Bayes Estimates of Domain Scores under Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions for Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao-Hsiang; Hsiung, Chao A.

    1994-01-01

    Two simple empirical approximate Bayes estimators are introduced for estimating domain scores under binomial and hypergeometric distributions respectively. Criteria are established regarding use of these functions over maximum likelihood estimation counterparts. (SLD)

  20. [Respective analysis of dead patients with cirrhosis by Child-Pugh score and model of end-stage liver disease score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Fanggen; Ouyang, Chunhui; Cheng, Zongyong; Wang, Xuehong; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-10-01

    To understand the value of Child-Pugh (CP) classification and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for patients with cirrhosis and their prognosis by retrospectively analyzing the two methods in hemorrhage death and non-hemorrhage death in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 72 patients who died of cirrhosis (the death group) were analyzed retrospectively, and the initial data in the hospital before death were collected. The initial information of the control group (88 patients) at the same time was also obtained. The death group was divided into two subgroups: esophagus varicosity burst massive hemorrhage death group and non-hemorrhage death group. MELD score and CP score of the death group (22.230±13.451, 10.264±2.028) were significantly higher than those of the control group (15.370±6.201, 9.318±1.644; PCP score for the massive bleeding death group were close to those of the control group. There was significant difference between the non-hemorrhage death group and the control group. The ratio of patients with CP grade A and MELD scoresCP grade C and MELD scores ≥ 30 in the death group was higher. ROC surve analysis found the accuracy of short-term predication of survival by MELD score and CP classification was improved after eliminating the risk factors of hemorrage. MELD and CP play a role in evaluating the state and prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. MELD score and CP classification predict the short-term survival efficiently on the premise of excluding the risk factors of esophagus and/or stomach bottom varicosity burst massive bleeding. CP and MELD scores are deficiencies, especially for low MELD score (CP level A patients. The prognostic accuracy may be improved when combining esophageal gastric fundal varices.

  1. Scoring sacroiliac joints by magnetic resonance imaging. A multiple-reader reliability experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landewe, Robert B.M.; Hermann, Kay Geert A; Van Der Heijde, Desiree M.F.M

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac (SI) joints and the spine is increasingly important in the assessment of inflammatory activity and structural damage in clinical trials with patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We investigated inter-reader reliability and sensitivity...... electronically to 7 experienced readers from different countries (Europe, Canada). Readers scored the MRI by 3 different methods including: a global score (grading activity per SI joint); a more comprehensive global score (grading activity per SI joint per quadrant); and a detailed scoring system...... and sensitivity to change of scoring systems to be used in assessing activity of SI joints in clinical trials, and sets the conditions for further validation research in this field...

  2. A Comparison of Sleep Scored from Electroencephalography to Sleep Scored by Wrist Actigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    actigraphy in insomnia. S . 15(4): 293-301. Kripke, D. F., Mullaney, D. J., Messin, S., and Wyborney, V. G. 1978. Wrist actigraphic measures of sleep and...Cl•anificatiort) (U) A Comparison of Sleep Scored from Electroencephalography to Sleep Scored by Wrist Actigraphy 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J.L. Caldwell...how much rest soldiers receive, various methods of monitoring activity have been used. One unobtrusive method is to use wrist activity monitors

  3. MELD-XI Scores Correlate with Post-Fontan Hepatic Biopsy Fibrosis Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William N; Acherman, Ruben J; Ciccolo, Michael L; Carrillo, Sergio A; Galindo, Alvaro; Rothman, Abraham; Winn, Brody J; Yumiaco, Noel S; Restrepo, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that MELD-XI values correlated with hepatic total fibrosis scores obtained in 70 predominately stable, post-Fontan patients that underwent elective cardiac catheterization. We found a statistically significant correlation between MELD-XI values and total fibrosis scores (p = 0.003). Thus, serial MELD-XI values may be an additional useful clinical parameter for follow-up care in post-Fontan patients.

  4. Orientation-dependent backbone-only residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordner Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    optimization using the 6D scoring functions. The sensitivity of this method to backbone structure perturbations was compared with that of fixed-backbone all-atom modeling by determining the similarities between optimal sequences for two different backbone structures within the same protein family. The results showed that the design method using 6D scoring functions was more robust to small variations in backbone structure than the all-atom design method. Conclusions Backbone-only residue pair scoring functions that account for all six relative degrees of freedom are the most accurate and including the scores of homologs further improves the accuracy in threading applications. The 6D scoring function outperformed several side chain-dependent potentials while avoiding time-consuming and error prone side chain structure prediction. These scoring functions are particularly useful as an initial filter in protein design problems before applying all-atom modeling.

  5. The Natsal-SF Measure of Sexual Function: Comparison of Three Scoring Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle G; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Ploubidis, George B; Wellings, Kaye; Datta, Jessica; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-01-01

    The Natsal-SF is a psychometrically validated measure of sexual function for use in community health surveys, derived from 17 questions reflecting three components of sexual function. Scoring requires knowledge of complex statistical modeling and, given the methodological complexities, we assessed the validity of two simplified scoring methods calculated using the factor loadings produced when originally modeling the Natsal-SF items. Method 1 uses these factor loadings to three decimal places, while method 2 assigns whole numbers to each item based on the factor loadings. Scores from these simplified methods are compared to the original score using correlation coefficients, by comparing the distributions and the scores of each method in a linear regression model with key variables. We found scores from the simplified methods both correlate highly with the original score, and the distributions of scores closely match. The simplified methods result in different regression coefficients for gender and relationship context but estimate the coefficients of all other variables similarly to the original method. While the Natsal-SF should ideally be scored using latent variable modeling, the simplified methods perform well so can be used in similar contexts, increasing the utility of the Natsal-SF and enabling future studies to measure sexual function more comprehensively.

  6. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in Norhwest Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caire-Juvera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54, and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47, boiled beef (score = 75 and hamburger (score = 82. The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91 and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%. Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%. Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  7. Suitability of linear scoring in meat sheep: the practical case of Merinizzata Italiana breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giontella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.

  8. [Adding parity to the Bishop score for term labor induction: a retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, D; Gaucherand, P; Doret, M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the interest to add parity to the Bishop score before induction of labor by intravenous oxytocin. This retrospective cohort study compared cesarean section rate for induction failure by intravenous oxytocin in nulliparous and multiparous with modified Bishop score from 7 to 9. The modified Bishop score is calculated by adding 2 points to the Bishop score if the patient had a previous vaginal delivery and 0 point in nulliparous. Over 2 years, 468 patients were included (201 nulliparous and 267 multiparous). Cesarean section rate for induction failure was higher for nulliparous with a modified Bishop score equal to 7 or varying between 7 and 9. These results confirm that parity is an important predicting factor of successful labor induction. In multiparous, cesarean section rates for induction failure were not significantly different with Bishop score or modified Bishop score equal to 7. Adding 2 points for multiparity at the Bishop score did not increase cesarean for failure of labor induction with intravenous oxytocin with a modified Bishop score from 7 to 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Scoring clinical competencies of learners: A quantitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Müller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the correlation between different clinical assessors’ scoring of learners’ clinical competencies in order to exclude any possible extraneous variables with regard to reasons for poor clinical competencies of learners. A university in Gauteng, South Africa provides a learning programme that equips learners with clinical knowledge, skills and values in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and care of patients presenting at primary health care (PHC facilities. The researcher observed that, despite additional clinical teaching and guidance, learners still obtained low scores in clinical assessments at completion of the programme. This study sought to determine possible reason(s for this observation. The objectives were to explore and describe the demographic profile of learners and the correlation between different clinical assessors’ scoring of learners. A purposive convenience sample consisted of learners (n = 34 and clinical assessors (n = 6. Data were collected from learners using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using a nominal and ordinal scale measurement. Data from clinical assessors were collected using a checklist, which was statistically analysed using a software package. The variables were correlated to determine the nature of the relationship between the different clinical assessors’ scores on the checklist to ensure inter-rater reliability. Findings showed that there was no significant difference in the mean of the scoring of marks between clinical assessors after correlation (p < 0.05. Thus, scoring of marks did not contribute to poor clinical competencies exhibited by learners.

    Opsomming

    Hierdie artikel beskryf die ondersoek na die korrelasie tussen verskillende kliniese assesseerders se puntetoekenning tydens assessering van leerders se kliniese vaardighede ten einde enige moontlike vreemde veranderlikes met betrekking tot redes vir swak

  10. Controversies about effects of low-kilovoltage MDCT acquisition on Agatston calcium scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Fabrice C; Vlassenbroek, Alain; Ghaye, Benoît; Raaijmakers, Rolf; Coche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Recent articles have advocated the possibility of obtaining Agatston coronary calcium scoring at 100 kVp by using a single adapted elevated calcium threshold. To evaluate the influence of kilovoltage potential protocols on the Agatston score, we acquired successive scans of a calcium scoring phantom at 4 levels of kilovoltage potential (80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp, 55 mAs) and measured semiautomatically the individual and the total Agatston score of 6 inserts (of 5-mm and 3-mm diameter) containing hydroxyapatite at different concentrations (800, 400, 200 mg/cm(3)). Our results showed that Agatston scores obtained at various low-kilovoltage potential protocols can be highly overestimated in some particular cases. At 80 kVp, for example, mean measured Agatston score was multiplied by a factor from 1.06 (5-mm highest density insert) to 2.67 (3-mm lowest density insert) compared with the Agatston scores performed at 120 kVp. Indeed in the one hand, reducing kilovoltage potential in multidetector CT acquisitions increase the CT density of coronary calcifications that can be measured on the reconstructed images. On the other hand, Agatston score is a multi-threshold measurement (with a step weighting function). Consequently low kilovoltage potential can lead to overweight some calcifications scores. For these reasons, Agatston score with low kilovoltage potential acquisition cannot be reliably adapted by a unique recalibration of the standard calcium attenuation threshold of 130 HU and requires a standardized CT acquisition protocol at 120 kVp. Alternatives to performing low-dose coronary artery calcium scans are either using coronary calcium scans with reduced tube current (low mAs) at 120 kVp with the iterative reconstructions or using mass/volume scoring (not influenced by kilovoltage potential variations). Finally, we emphasized that incorrect Agatston score evaluation may have important clinical, financial, and health care implications.

  11. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  12. MONITORING DEPTH OF ANAESTHESIA USING PRST SCORE AND BISPECTRAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Intraoperative awareness is a frightening experience for any patient for it has long term psychological consequences. Among the various tools available for monitoring depth of anaesthesia, Bispectral index monitoring (BIS is one of the recent and widely accepted techniques. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : The present study was carried out to evaluate and correlate the efficacy of BIS monitoring along with PRST score in assessment of depth of anaesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A prospective clinical study was conducted on 160 patients undergoing surgery in various specialties, in the department of Anaesthesiology at Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital which included adult patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years and of ASA I/II posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. Conditions and drugs likely to interfere with BIS values were excluded. Anaesthesia protocol was kept uniform. These patients were divided into two groups of 80 patients each by consecutive selection. In Group 1 - depth of anaesthesia was assessed by PRST score, in Group 2 - by BIS monitoring and PRST score. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistics to calculate the mean and standard deviation, the t - test, χ² test s for calculating the materiality for establishing the results. RESULTS: We saw that the Bispectral index varied with various stages of anaesthesia, almost simultaneous changes in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures occurred in both groups in T1 and T2. On intubation, both blood pressure and heart rate increased but BIS showed a very minimal increase, which was because of adequate depth of anaesthesia and analgesia . There was a statistically significant difference in PRST scores between the two groups. There was no incidence of awareness among our study population. CONCLUSION : Evaluation of intraoperative depth of anaesthesia is one of the major tasks of anaesthesiologist. In patients with higher

  13. Evaluation of Stress Scores Throughout Radiological Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures are the most prominent methods that increase the trauma, stress and anxiety experienced by the patients. Objectives Our goal was to examine the level of stress in patients waiting for radiologic biopsy procedures and determine the stress and anxiety level arising from waiting for a biopsy procedure. Patients and Methods This prospective study included 35 female and 65 male patients who were admitted to the interventional radiology department of Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kirdar training and research hospital, Istanbul between the years 2014 and 2015. They filled out the adult resilience scale consisting of 33 items. Patients who were undergoing invasive radiologic interventions were grouped according to their phenotypic characteristics, education level (low, intermediate, and high, and biopsy features (including biopsy localization: neck, thorax, abdomen, and bone; and the number of procedures performed, 1 or more than 1. Before the biopsy, they were also asked to complete the depression-anxiety-stress scale (DASS 42, state-trait anxiety inventory scale (STAI-I, and continuous anxiety scale STAI-II. A total of 80 patients were biopsied (20 thyroid and parathyroid, 20 thorax, 20 liver and kidney, and 20 bone biopsies. The association between education levels (primary- secondary, high school and postgraduate and the number of biopsies (1 and more than 1 with the level of anxiety and stress were evaluated using the above-mentioned scales. Results Evaluation of sociodemographic and statistical characteristics of the patients showed that patients with biopsy in the neck region were moderately and severely depressed and stressed. In addition, the ratio of severe and extremely severe anxiety scores was significantly high. While the STAI-I and II scores were lined up as neck > bone > thorax > abdomen, STAI-I was higher in neck biopsies compared to thorax and abdomen biopsies. Regarding STAI-I and II scales, patients

  14. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    CERN Document Server

    J, Ravi; R, Venugopal K

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person's life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae from the thinned image. The false matching ratio is better compared to the existing algorithm.

  15. The clinical importance of changes in outcome scores after treatment for chronic low back pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hägg, O; Fritzell, P; Nordwall, A

    2003-01-01

    ... importance of the outcome scores. The aims of the present study were three-fold. Firstly, it aimed to estimate the minimal clinically important difference of three multi-item outcome instruments...

  16. Reliability of a scoring system used for qualitative evaluation of lymphoscintigraphic imaging of lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mojgan; Savitcheva, Irina; Axelsson, Rimma

    2017-05-04

    Introduction: Lymphoscintigraphy is an imaging technique to diagnose and characterize the severity of edema in upper and lower extremities. In lymphoscintigraphy a scoring system can increase ability of diagnostic differentiation but the use of any scoring system requires sufficient reliability. To determine inter- and intraobserver reliability of a proposed scoring system used for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigraphic imaging of lower extremities. Materials and Methods: Lymphoscintigrams in 81 persons were randomly selected from our database for retrospective evaluation. These scans were assessed according to the criteria of a scoring system by two nuclear medicine physicians at two different time-points with a three month interval. The scoring system included 8 criteria for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigraphy imaging of lower extremities. The total score was the sum of all evaluating criteria with a potential range from 0 (normal lymphatic drainage) to 58 (severe lymphatic impairment). It was used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, percentage of agreement, weighted kappa and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals for investigation of the intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the scoring system. It was also categorized the differences of the total scores in 7 different categories for graphic comparison between/within the raters. Results: It was found some differences of the ratings between the raters, which were not statistically substantial. There were high or very high percentages of agreement between the raters from 82.7% to 99.4% and within the raters from 84.6% to 99.4%. It was found moderate to very good kappa correlations of inter- or intraobserver reliability of each sign of the scoring system. The total scores obtained from all signs had good inter- and intraobserver reliability. Regarding the comparison between the raters 66% and 64% of differences of the total scores are within plus/minus one scale point[-1

  17. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Shi

    Full Text Available Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP, supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC. Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison.Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables.There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls, and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese children as compared to

  18. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  19. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  20. 24 CFR 902.45 - Management operations scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations scoring and... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.45 Management operations scoring and thresholds. (a) Scoring. The Management Operations Indicator score...