Barnett, Mark
This investigation is concerned with calculating strong viscous-inviscid interactions in two-dimensional laminar supersonic flows with and without separation. The equations solved are the so-called parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. The streamwise pressure gradient term is written as a combination of a forward and a backward difference to provide a path for upstream propogation of information. Global iteration is employed to repeatedly update the solution from an initial guess until convergence is achieved. Interacting boundary layer theory is discussed in order to provide some essential background information for the development of the present calculation technique. The numerical scheme used is an alternating direction explicit (ADE) procedure which is adapted from the Saul'yev method. This technique is chosen as an alternative to the more difficult to program multigrid strategy used by other investigators and the slower converging Gauss-Seidel method. Separated flows are computed using the ADE method. Only small or moderate separation bubbles are considered. This restriction permits simple approximations to the convective terms in reversed flow regions without introducing severe error since the reversed flow velocities are small. Results are presented for a number of geometries including compression ramps and humps on flat plates with separation. The present results are compared with those obtained by other investigators using the full Navier-Stokes equations and interacting boundary layer theory. Comparisons were found to be qualitatively good. The quantitative comparisons varied, however mesh refinement studies indicated that the parabolized Navier-Stokes solutions tended towards second-order accurate full Navier-Stokes solutions as well as interacting boundary layer solutions for which mesh refinement studies were also executed.
Supersonic flows over cavities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tianwen FANG; Meng DING; Jin ZHOU
2008-01-01
The characteristics of supersonic cold flows over cavities were investigated experimentally and numer-ically, and the effects of cavities of different sizes on super-sonic flow field were analyzed. The results indicate that the ratio of length to depth L/D within the range of 5-9 has little relevance to integral structures of cavity flow. The bevel angle of the rear wall does not alter the overall structure of the cavity flow within the range of 30°-60°, but it can exert obvious effect on the evolvement of shear layer and vortexes in cavities.
Infinitesimal Conical Supersonic Flow
Busemann, Adolf
1947-01-01
The calculation of infinitesimal conical supersonic flow has been applied first to the simplest examples that have also been calculated in another way. Except for the discovery of a miscalculation in an older report, there was found the expected conformity. The new method of calculation is limited more definitely to the conical case.
Langlois, William E
2014-01-01
Leonardo wrote, 'Mechanics is the paradise of the mathematical sciences, because by means of it one comes to the fruits of mathematics' ; replace 'Mechanics' by 'Fluid mechanics' and here we are." - from the Preface to the Second Edition Although the exponential growth of computer power has advanced the importance of simulations and visualization tools for elaborating new models, designs and technologies, the discipline of fluid mechanics is still large, and turbulence in flows remains a challenging problem in classical physics. Like its predecessor, the revised and expanded Second Edition of this book addresses the basic principles of fluid mechanics and solves fluid flow problems where viscous effects are the dominant physical phenomena. Much progress has occurred in the nearly half a century that has passed since the edition of 1964. As predicted, aspects of hydrodynamics once considered offbeat have risen to importance. For example, the authors have worked on problems where variations in viscosity a...
Steinke, Ronald J.
1989-01-01
The Rai ROTOR1 code for two-dimensional, unsteady viscous flow analysis was applied to a supersonic throughflow fan stage design. The axial Mach number for this fan design increases from 2.0 at the inlet to 2.9 at the outlet. The Rai code uses overlapped O- and H-grids that are appropriately packed. The Rai code was run on a Cray XMP computer; then data postprocessing and graphics were performed to obtain detailed insight into the stage flow. The large rotor wakes uniformly traversed the rotor-stator interface and dispersed as they passed through the stator passage. Only weak blade shock losses were computerd, which supports the design goals. High viscous effects caused large blade wakes and a low fan efficiency. Rai code flow predictions were essentially steady for the rotor, and they compared well with Chima rotor viscous code predictions based on a C-grid of similar density.
Supersonic flow imaging via nanoparticles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Due to influence of compressibility,shock wave,instabilities,and turbulence on supersonic flows, current flow visualization and imaging techniques encounter some problems in high spatiotemporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)measurements.Therefore,nanoparticle based planar laser scattering method(NPLS)is developed here.The nanoparticles are used as tracer,and pulse planar laser is used as light source in NPLS;by recording images of particles in flow field with CCD, high spatiotemporal resolution supersonic flow imaging is realized.The flow-following ability of nanoparticles in supersonic flows is studied according to multiphase flow theory and calibrating experiment of oblique shock wave.The laser scattering characteristics of nanoparticles are analyzed with light scattering theory.The results of theoretical and experimental studies show that the dynamic behavior and light scattering characteristics of nanoparticles highly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution and SNR of NPLS,with which the flow field involving shock wave,expansion,Mach disk,boundary layer,sliding-line,and mixing layer can be imaged clearly at high spatiotemporal resolution.
Computation of Viscous Incompressible Flows
Kwak, Dochan
2011-01-01
This monograph is intended as a concise and self-contained guide to practitioners and graduate students for applying approaches in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to real-world problems that require a quantification of viscous incompressible flows. In various projects related to NASA missions, the authors have gained CFD expertise over many years by developing and utilizing tools especially related to viscous incompressible flows. They are looking at CFD from an engineering perspective, which is especially useful when working on real-world applications. From that point of view, CFD requires two major elements, namely methods/algorithm and engineering/physical modeling. As for the methods, CFD research has been performed with great successes. In terms of modeling/simulation, mission applications require a deeper understanding of CFD and flow physics, which has only been debated in technical conferences and to a limited scope. This monograph fills the gap by offering in-depth examples for students and engine...
Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier
Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.
1986-07-01
The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.
Supersonic Plasma Flow Control Experiments
2005-12-01
to liquid metals , for example, the conductivities of typical plasma and electrolyte flows are relatively low. Ref. 14 cites the conductivity of...heating is the dominant effect. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Supersonic, plasma , MHD , boundary-layer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...horns in operation on Mach 5 wind tunnel with a plasma discharge. 31 Figure 17 Front view of a 100 mA DC discharge generated with upstream pointing
Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in Supersonic Duct Flow with Heating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeng－YuanGuo; Zhi－HongLiu
1994-01-01
The supersonic duct flow with fixed back pressure to stagnation pressure ratio Pb/P0 under heating is investigated analytically.A “Flow Pattern Diagram” Which consists of six pattern zones is developed.By this diagram the actual flow state in supersonic duct flow system can be determined conveniently when Pb/Po and heating intensity are knows.It is impossible for flow with heavy heating to become supersonic,even though the pressure ratio is much smaller than the critical pressure ratio,Based on the analogy between viscous effect and heating effect a thermal drag factor has een defined.which can predict the flow property variation due to heating and the relaive importance of viscous effect and heating effect.
Rotationally symmetric viscous gas flows
Weigant, W.; Plotnikov, P. I.
2017-03-01
The Dirichlet boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of a barotropic viscous compressible fluid is considered. The flow region and the data of the problem are assumed to be invariant under rotations about a fixed axis. The existence of rotationally symmetric weak solutions for all adiabatic exponents from the interval (γ*,∞) with a critical exponent γ* < 4/3 is proved.
Supersonic flow past a flat lattice of cylindrical rods
Guvernyuk, S. V.; Maksimov, F. A.
2016-06-01
Two-dimensional supersonic laminar ideal gas flows past a regular flat lattice of identical circular cylinders lying in a plane perpendicular to the free-stream velocity are numerically simulated. The flows are computed by applying a multiblock numerical technique with local boundary-fitted curvilinear grids that have finite regions overlapping the global rectangular grid covering the entire computational domain. Viscous boundary layers are resolved on the local grids by applying the Navier-Stokes equations, while the aerodynamic interference of shock wave structures occurring between the lattice elements is described by the Euler equations. In the overlapping grid regions, the functions are interpolated to the grid interfaces. The regimes of supersonic lattice flow are classified. The parameter ranges in which the steady flow around the lattice is not unique are detected, and the mechanisms of hysteresis phenomena are examined.
Mean Velocity Estimation of Viscous Debris Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongjuan Yang; Fangqiang Wei; Kaiheng Hu
2014-01-01
The mean velocity estimation of debris flows, especially viscous debris flows, is an impor-tant part in the debris flow dynamics research and in the design of control structures. In this study, theoretical equations for computing debris flow velocity with the one-phase flow assumption were re-viewed and used to analyze field data of viscous debris flows. Results show that the viscous debris flow is difficult to be classified as a Newtonian laminar flow, a Newtonian turbulent flow, a Bingham fluid, or a dilatant fluid in the strict sense. However, we can establish empirical formulas to compute its mean velocity following equations for Newtonian turbulent flows, because most viscous debris flows are tur-bulent. Factors that potentially influence debris flow velocity were chosen according to two-phase flow theories. Through correlation analysis and data fitting, two empirical formulas were proposed. In the first one, velocity is expressed as a function of clay content, flow depth and channel slope. In the second one, a coefficient representing the grain size nonuniformity is used instead of clay content. Both formu-las can give reasonable estimate of the mean velocity of the viscous debris flow.
Effect of Nonequilibrium Homogenous COndensation on Flow Fields in a Supersonic Nozzle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ToshiakiSetoguchi; ShenYu; 等
1997-01-01
When condensation occurs in a supersonic flow field,the flow is affected by the latent heat released.In the present study,a condensing flow was produced by an expansion of moist air in a supersonic circular nozzle,and,by inserting a wedge-type shock generator placed in the supersonic part of the nozzle,the experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the effect of condensation on the normal shock wave and the boundary layer.As a result,the position of the shock wave relative to the condensation zone was discussed,together with the effect of condensation on pressure fluctuations.Furthermore,a compressible viscous two-phase flow of moist air in a supersonic half nozzle was calculated to investigate the effect of condensation on boundary layer.
Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow
Smits, Alexander J
2006-01-01
A good understanding of turbulent compressible flows is essential to the design and operation of high-speed vehicles. Such flows occur, for example, in the external flow over the surfaces of supersonic aircraft, and in the internal flow through the engines. Our ability to predict the aerodynamic lift, drag, propulsion and maneuverability of high-speed vehicles is crucially dependent on our knowledge of turbulent shear layers, and our understanding of their behavior in the presence of shock waves and regions of changing pressure. Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow provides a comprehensive introduction to the field, and helps provide a basis for future work in this area. Wherever possible we use the available experimental work, and the results from numerical simulations to illustrate and develop a physical understanding of turbulent compressible flows.
Viscous flows the practical use of theory
Brenner, Howard
1988-01-01
Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.
ARBITRARY INTERACTION OF PLANE SUPERSONIC FLOWS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider the Riemann problem for parameters at collision of two plane flows at a certain angle. The problem is solved in the exact statement. Most cases of interference, both stationary and non-stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities, followed by supersonic flows can be reduced to the problem of random interaction of two supersonic flows. Depending on the ratio of the parameters in the flows, outgoing discontinuities turn out to be shock waves, or rarefactionwaves. In some cases, there is no solution at all. It is important to know how to find the domain of existence for the relevant decisions, as the type of shock-wave structures in these domains is known in advance. The Riemann problem is used in numerical methods such as the method of Godunov. As a rule, approximate solution is used, known as the Osher solution, but for a number of problems with a high precision required, solution of this problem needs to be in the exact statement. Main results.Domains of existence for solutions with different types of shock-wave structure have been considered. Boundaries of existence for solutions with two outgoing shock waves are analytically defined, as well as with the outgoing shock wave and rarefaction wave. We identify the area of Mach numbers and angles at which the flows interact and there is no solution. Specific flows with two outgoing rarefaction waves are not considered. Practical significance. The results supplement interference theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities and can be used to develop new methods of numerical calculation with extraction of discontinuities.
Viscous Swirling Flow over a Stretching Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tiegang FANG; ShanshanYAO
2011-01-01
We investigate a viscous How over a cylinder with stretching and torsional motion. There is an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and there exists a unique solution for all the given values of the flow Reynolds number. The results show that velocity decays faster for a higher Reynolds number and the How penetrates shallower into the ambient Huid. All the velocity proHles decay algebraically to the ambient zero velocity.%We investigate a viscous flow over a cylinder with stretching and torsional motion.There is an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and there exists a unique solution for all the given values of the flow Reynolds number.The results show that velocity decays faster for a higher Reynolds number and the flow penetrates shallower into the ambient fluid.All the velocity profiles decay algebraically to the ambient zero velocity.Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations play important roles in the development of fluid mechanics.In the review articles,[1,2] Wang summarized the available exact solutions of the unsteady state and of the steady-state NS equations.Swirl flows have important engineering applications in many fields such as the cyclone for separation of solid,liquid and gas,swirl atomizers,swirl combustion devices,heat transfer enhancement and others.[3,4] A famous example of flows involving rotation or swirl is the rotating disk problem studied by von Karman.[5-8] The flow induced by a stretching boundary is also important in the extrusion processes in plastic and metal industries.[9-11] Crane[12] presented an exact solution of the two-dimensional NS equations for a stretching sheet problem with a closed analytical form.The stretching wall problem was extended by Wang[13]to a three-dimensional setting.The flow between two stretching disks was studied by Fang and Zhang recently.[14] The combined effects of disk stretching and rotation on the von Karman flow was investigated by Fang.[15] The flow inside a channel or a
Particle Streak Velocimetry of Supersonic Nozzle Flows
Willits, J. D.; Pourpoint, T. L.
2016-01-01
A novel velocimetry technique to probe the exhaust flow of a laboratory scale combustor is being developed. The technique combines the advantages of standard particle velocimetry techniques and the ultra-fast imaging capabilities of a streak camera to probe high speed flows near continuously with improved spatial and velocity resolution. This "Particle Streak Velocimetry" technique tracks laser illuminated seed particles at up to 236 picosecond temporal resolution allowing time-resolved measurement of one-dimensional flows exceeding 2000 m/s as are found in rocket nozzles and many other applications. Developmental tests with cold nitrogen have been performed to validate and troubleshoot the technique with supersonic flows of much lower velocity and without background noise due to combusting flow. Flow velocities on the order of 500 m/s have been probed with titanium dioxide particles and a continuous-wave laser diode. Single frame images containing multiple streaks are analyzed to find the average slope of all incident particles corresponding to the centerline axial flow velocity. Long term objectives for these tests are correlation of specific impulse to theoretical combustion predictions and direct comparisons between candidate green fuels and the industry standard, monomethylhydrazine, each tested under identical conditions.
Studies in the Computation of Compressible Viscous Flows.
1987-02-01
singular solutions have been found which may bridge the gap between smooth shock free flow and the flow with embedded shocks. Keywords: Transonic flow; Computational aerodynamics; Viscous inviscid interactions.
Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model
Farshchi, M.
1990-01-01
This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.
Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.
Jing, Xu; Haiming, Huang; Guo, Huang; Song, Mo
2015-01-01
Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.
Numerical simulation of supersonic gap flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Jing
Full Text Available Various gaps in the surface of the supersonic aircraft have a significant effect on airflows. In order to predict the effects of attack angle, Mach number and width-to-depth ratio of gap on the local aerodynamic heating environment of supersonic flow, two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method, where convective flux of space term adopts the Roe format, and discretization of time term is achieved by 5-step Runge-Kutta algorithm. The numerical results reveal that the heat flux ratio is U-shaped distribution on the gap wall and maximum at the windward corner of the gap. The heat flux ratio decreases as the gap depth and Mach number increase, however, it increases as the attack angle increases. In addition, it is important to find that chamfer in the windward corner can effectively reduce gap effect coefficient. The study will be helpful for the design of the thermal protection system in reentry vehicles.
Polynomial interpolation methods for viscous flow calculations
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1977-01-01
Higher-order collocation procedures which result in block-tridiagonal matrix systems are derived from (1) Taylor series expansions and from (2) polynomial interpolation, and the relationships between the two formulations, called respectively Hermite and spline collocation, are investigated. A Hermite block-tridiagonal system for a nonuniform mesh is derived, and the Hermite approach is extended in order to develop a variable-mesh sixth-order block-tridiagonal procedure. It is shown that all results obtained by Hermite development can be recovered by appropriate spline polynomial interpolation. The additional boundary conditions required for these higher-order procedures are also given. Comparative solutions using second-order accurate finite difference and spline and Hermite formulations are presented for the boundary layer on a flat plate, boundary layers with uniform and variable mass transfer, and the viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations describing flow in a driven cavity.
Polynomial interpolation methods for viscous flow calculations
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1977-01-01
Higher-order collocation procedures which result in block-tridiagonal matrix systems are derived from (1) Taylor series expansions and from (2) polynomial interpolation, and the relationships between the two formulations, called respectively Hermite and spline collocation, are investigated. A Hermite block-tridiagonal system for a nonuniform mesh is derived, and the Hermite approach is extended in order to develop a variable-mesh sixth-order block-tridiagonal procedure. It is shown that all results obtained by Hermite development can be recovered by appropriate spline polynomial interpolation. The additional boundary conditions required for these higher-order procedures are also given. Comparative solutions using second-order accurate finite difference and spline and Hermite formulations are presented for the boundary layer on a flat plate, boundary layers with uniform and variable mass transfer, and the viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations describing flow in a driven cavity.
Stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams.
Christen, Wolfgang
2013-10-21
We describe a generally applicable method for the experimental determination of stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams, utilizing time-resolved electron induced fluorescence measurements of high pressure jet expansions of helium. The detection of ultraviolet photons from electronically excited helium emitted very close to the nozzle exit images the valve opening behavior-with the decided advantage that a photon signal is not affected by beam-skimmer and beam-residual gas interactions; it thus allows to conclusively determine those operation parameters of a pulsed valve that yield complete opening. The studies reveal that a "flat-top" signal, indicating constant density and commonly considered as experimental criterion for continuous flow, is insufficient. Moreover, translational temperature and mean terminal flow velocity turn out to be significantly more sensitive in testing for the equivalent behavior of a continuous nozzle source. Based on the widely distributed Even-Lavie valve we demonstrate that, in principle, it is possible to achieve quasi-continuous flow conditions even with fast-acting valves; however, the two prerequisites are a minimum pulse duration that is much longer than standard practice and previous estimates, and a suitable tagging of the appropriate beam segment.
Drag Force Anemometer Used in Supersonic Flow
Fralick, Gustave C.
1998-01-01
To measure the drag on a flat cantilever beam exposed transversely to a flow field, the drag force anemometer (beam probe) uses strain gauges attached on opposite sides of the base of the beam. This is in contrast to the hot wire anemometer, which depends for its operation on the variation of the convective heat transfer coefficient with velocity. The beam probe retains the high-frequency response (up to 100 kHz) of the hot wire anemometer, but it is more rugged, uses simpler electronics, is relatively easy to calibrate, is inherently temperature compensated, and can be used in supersonic flow. The output of the probe is proportional to the velocity head of the flow, 1/2 rho u(exp 2) (where rho is the fluid density and u is the fluid velocity). By adding a static pressure tap and a thermocouple to measure total temperature, one can determine the Mach number, static temperature, density, and velocity of the flow.
Supersonic Magnetic Flows in the Quiet Sun
Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A
2012-01-01
In this contribution we describe some recent observations of high-speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun granulation. These observations were carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) onboard the stratospheric balloon {\\sc Sunrise}, and possess an unprecedented spatial resolution and temporal cadence. These flows were identified as highly shifted circular polarization (Stokes $V$) signals. We estimate the LOS velocity responsible for these shifts to be larger than 6 km s$^{-1}$, and therefore we refer to them as {\\it supersonic magnetic flows}. The average lifetime of the detected events is 81.3 s and they occupy an average area of about 23\\,000 km$^2$. Most of the events occur within granular cells and correspond therefore to upflows. However some others occur in intergranular lanes or bear no clear relation to the convective velocity pattern. We analyze a number of representative examples and discuss them in terms of magnetic loops, reconnection events, and convective collapse.
Linear stability of the Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas. 2. viscous problem
Grigor'ev, Yu. N.; Ershov, I. V.
2016-03-01
Based on the linear theory, stability of viscous disturbances in a supersonic plane Couette flow of a vibrationally excited gas described by a system of linearized equations of two-temperature gas dynamics including shear and bulk viscosity is studied. It is demonstrated that two sets are identified in the spectrum of the problem of stability of plane waves, similar to the case of a perfect gas. One set consists of viscous acoustic modes, which asymptotically converge to even and odd inviscid acoustic modes at high Reynolds numbers. The eigenvalues from the other set have no asymptotic relationship with the inviscid problem and are characterized by large damping decrements. Two most unstable viscous acoustic modes (I and II) are identified; the limits of these modes were considered previously in the inviscid approximation. It is shown that there are domains in the space of parameters for both modes, where the presence of viscosity induces appreciable destabilization of the flow. Moreover, the growth rates of disturbances are appreciably greater than the corresponding values for the inviscid flow, while thermal excitation in the entire considered range of parameters increases the stability of the viscous flow. For a vibrationally excited gas, the critical Reynolds number as a function of the thermal nonequilibrium degree is found to be greater by 12% than for a perfect gas.
Special-relativistic model flows of viscous fluid
Rogava, A D
1996-01-01
Two, the most simple cases of special-relativistic flows of a viscous, incompressible fluid are considered: plane Couette flow and plane Poiseuille flow. Considering only the regular motion of the fluid we found the distribution of velocity in the fluid (velocity profiles) and the friction force, acting on immovable wall. The results are expressed through simple analytical functions for the Couette flow, while for the Poiseiulle flow they are expressed by higher transcendental functions (Jacobi's elliptic functions).
Viscous flow modelling using unstructured meshes for aeronautical applications
Szmelter, J.; Pagano, A.
The novel application of viscous coupling to unstructured meshes has been proposed and developed. The method allows fro viscous flows modelling and avoids the difficulty of generating highly stretched tetrahedral in 3D or triangular in 2D elements required for Navier-Stokes solvers. The time step allowed by the explicit euler solver is limited by the size of the "Euler" mesh, resulting in faster algorithms than standard explicit Navier-Stokes solvers.
Yang, L. M.; Shu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.
2016-08-01
The sphere function-based gas kinetic scheme (GKS), which was presented by Shu and his coworkers [23] for simulation of inviscid compressible flows, is extended to simulate 3D viscous incompressible and compressible flows in this work. Firstly, we use certain discrete points to represent the spherical surface in the phase velocity space. Then, integrals along the spherical surface for conservation forms of moments, which are needed to recover 3D Navier-Stokes equations, are approximated by integral quadrature. The basic requirement is that these conservation forms of moments can be exactly satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. It was found that the integral quadrature by eight discrete points on the spherical surface, which forms the D3Q8 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integral. In this way, the conservative variables and numerical fluxes can be computed by weighted summation of distribution functions at eight discrete points. That is, the application of complicated formulations resultant from integrals can be replaced by a simple solution process. Several numerical examples including laminar flat plate boundary layer, 3D lid-driven cavity flow, steady flow through a 90° bending square duct, transonic flow around DPW-W1 wing and supersonic flow around NACA0012 airfoil are chosen to validate the proposed scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the present scheme can provide reasonable numerical results for 3D viscous flows.
NASA F-16XL supersonic laminar flow control program overview
Fischer, Michael C.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of the NASA supersonic laminar flow control program are provided. Successful application of laminar flow control to a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) offers significant benefits in reductions of take-off gross weight, mission fuel burn, cruise drag, structural temperatures, engine size, emissions, and sonic boom. The ultimate economic success of the proposed HSCT may depend on the successful adaption of laminar flow control, which offers the single most significant potential improvements in lift drag ratio (L/D) of all the aerodynamic technologies under consideration. The F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) Experiment was conceived based on the encouraging results of in-house and NASA supported industry studies to determine if laminar flow control is feasible for the HSCT. The primary objective is to achieve extensive laminar flow (50-60 percent chord) on a highly swept supersonic wing. Data obtained from the flight test will be used to validate existing Euler and Navier Stokes aerodynamic codes and transition prediction boundary layer stability codes. These validated codes and developed design methodology will be delivered to industry for their use in designing supersonic laminar flow control wings. Results from this experiment will establish preliminary suction system design criteria enabling industry to better size the suction system and develop improved estimates of system weight, fuel volume loss due to wing ducting, turbocompressor power requirements, etc. so that benefits and penalties can be more accurately assessed.
Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics
Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, A. van der; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.
2011-01-01
The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the
Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Film Cooling in Supersonic Flow in Hypersonic Inlet with Isolator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silong Zhang
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Supersonic film cooling is an efficient method to cool the engine with extremely high heat load. In order to study supersonic film cooling in a real advanced engine, a two-dimensional model of the hypersonic inlet in a scramjet engine with supersonic film cooling in the isolator is built and validated through experimental data. The simulation results show that the cooling effect under different coolant injection angles does not show clear differences; a small injection angle can ensure both the cooling effect and good aerodynamic performances (e.g., flow coefficient of the hypersonic inlet. Under selected coolant injection angle and inlet Mach number, the cooling efficiency increases along with the injection Mach number of the coolant flow, only causing a little total pressure loss in the isolator. Along with the increase of the inlet Mach number of the hypersonic inlet, the cooling efficiency does not present a monotonic change because of the complex shock waves. However, the wall temperature shows a monotonic increase when the inlet Mach number increases. The mass flow rate of coolant flow should be increased to cool the engine more efficiently according to the mass flow rate of the main stream when the inlet Mach number increases.
Simulation of underexpanded supersonic jet flows with chemical reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Debin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To achieve a detailed understanding of underexpanded supersonic jet structures influenced by afterburning and other flow conditions, the underexpanded turbulent supersonic jet with and without combustions are investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. A program based on a total variation diminishing (TVD methodology capable of predicting complex shocks is created to solve the axisymmetric expanded Navier–Stokes equations containing transport equations of species. The finite-rate ratio model is employed to handle species sources in chemical reactions. CFD solutions indicate that the structure of underexpanded jet is typically influenced by the pressure ratio and afterburning. The shock reflection distance and maximum value of Mach number in the first shock cell increase with pressure ratio. Chemical reactions for the rocket exhaust mostly exist in the mixing layer of supersonic jet flows. This tends to reduce the intensity of shocks existing in the jet, responding to the variation of thermal parameters.
Simulation of underexpanded supersonic jet flows with chemical reactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fu Debin; Yu Yong; Niu Qinglin
2014-01-01
To achieve a detailed understanding of underexpanded supersonic jet structures influenced by afterburning and other flow conditions, the underexpanded turbulent supersonic jet with and without combustions are investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A program based on a total variation diminishing (TVD) methodology capable of predicting complex shocks is created to solve the axisymmetric expanded Navier-Stokes equations containing transport equations of species. The finite-rate ratio model is employed to handle species sources in chemical reactions. CFD solutions indicate that the structure of underexpanded jet is typically influenced by the pressure ratio and afterburning. The shock reflection distance and maximum value of Mach number in the first shock cell increase with pressure ratio. Chemical reactions for the rocket exhaust mostly exist in the mixing layer of supersonic jet flows. This tends to reduce the intensity of shocks existing in the jet, responding to the variation of thermal parameters.
SIMULATION OF THE LASER DISCHARGE IN A SUPERSONIC GAS FLOW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tropina, A. A.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A heat model of the laser discharge in a supersonic turbulent gas flow has been developed. A numerical investigation of the error of the method of velocity measurements, which is based on the nitrogen molecules excitation, has been carried out. It is shown that fast gas heating by the discharge causes the velocity profiles deformation.
A flamelet model for turbulent diffusion combustion in supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LEE; ChunHian
2010-01-01
In order to develop a turbulent diffusion combustion model for supersonic flow, the physical argument of the extension of the flamelet model to supersonic flow was presented, and the flow field of a hydrogen/air diffusion combustion generated by axisymmetric supersonic jets was numerically simulated by employing the flamelet model. Using the experimental data, value of the model coefficient of scalar dissipation in the flamelet model was revised specifically for supersonic flow. The computational results of the modified flamelet model were compared with the experimental results, and it was indicated that the precision of the modified flamelet model was satisfying. Based on the numerical results and flamelet theory, the influence mechanisms of turbulence fluctuation on the average state equation and chemical reaction rate were studied for the first time. It was found that the fluctuation correlation of species mass fractions and temperature has little effect on the averaged gas state equation; the temperature fluctuation decreases the product of H2O, but its effect is small; the fluctuation of species mass fractions increases the product of H2O in the region close to oxidizer while decreases the product of H2O in other regions; the fluctuation correlation of species mass fractions and temperature largely decreases the product of H2O.
Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Alinejad
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.
Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces
Mehmood, Ahmer
2017-01-01
This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.
Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klees, G.W.
1993-06-08
A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.
Creeping Viscous Flow around a Heat-Generating Solid Sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
The velocity field for creeping viscous flow around a solid sphere due to a spherically symmetric thermal field is determined and a simple thermal generalization of Stokes' formula is obtained. The velocity field due to an instantaneous heat source at the center of the sphere is obtained in close...... form and an application to the storage of heat-generating nuclear waste is discussed....
Anisotropic plastic deformation by viscous flow in ion tracks
van Dillen, T; Polman, A; Onck, PR; van der Giessen, E
2005-01-01
A model describing the origin of ion beam-induced anisotropic plastic deformation is derived and discussed. It is based on a viscoelastic thermal spike model for viscous flow in single ion tracks derived by Trinkaus and Ryazanov. Deviatoric (shear) stresses, brought about by the rapid thermal expans
An update on projection methods for transient incompressible viscous flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gresho, P.M.; Chan, S.T.
1995-07-01
Introduced in 1990 was the biharmonic equation (for the pressure) and the concomitant biharmonic miracle when transient incompressible viscous flow is solved approximately by a projection method. Herein is introduced the biharmonic catastrophe that sometimes occurs with these same projection methods.
Numerical Solution of Boundary Layer MHD Flow with Viscous Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. R. Mishra
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with a steady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid over a shrinking sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with viscous dissipation. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations and then solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. Results for velocity and temperature profiles for different values of the governing parameters have been discussed in detail with graphical representation. The numerical evaluation of skin friction and Nusselt number are also given in this paper.
Experimental study of mixing enhancement using pylon in supersonic flow
Vishwakarma, Manmohan; Vaidyanathan, Aravind
2016-01-01
The Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine has been recognized as one of the most promising air breathing propulsion system for the supersonic/hypersonic flight mission requirements. Mixing and combustion of fuel inside scramjet engine is one of the major challenging tasks. In the current study the main focus has been to increase the penetration and mixing of the secondary jet inside the test chamber at supersonic speeds. In view of this, experiments are conducted to evaluate the effect of pylon on the mixing of secondary jet injection into supersonic mainstream flow at Mach 1.65. Two different pylons are investigated and the results are compared with those obtained by normal injection from a flat plate. The mixing studies are performed by varying the height of the pylon while keeping all other parameters the same. The study mainly focused on analyzing the area of spread and penetration depth achieved by different injection schemes based on the respective parameters. The measurements involved Mie scattering visualization and the flow features are analyzed using Schlieren images. The penetration height and spread area are the two parameters that are used for analyzing and comparing the performance of the pylons. It is observed that the secondary jet injection carried out from behind the big pylon resulted in maximum penetration and spread area of the jet as compared to the small pylon geometry. Moreover it is also evident that for obtaining maximum spreading and penetration of the jet, the same needs to be achieved at the injection location.
Noncircular converging flows in viscous gravity currents
Diez, J. A.; Thomas, L. P.; Betelú, S.; Gratton, R.; Marino, B.; Gratton, J.; Aronson, D. G.; Angenent, S. B.
1998-11-01
We study the filling of a dry region (cavity) within a viscous liquid layer on a horizontal plane. In our experiments the cavities are created by removable dams of various shapes surrounded by a silicon oil, and we measure the evolution of the cavity's boundaries after removal of the dams. Experimental runs with circular, equilateral triangular, and square dams result in circular collapse of the cavities. However, dams whose shapes lack these discrete rotational symmetries, for example, ellipses, rectangles, or isosceles triangles, do not lead to circular collapses. Instead, we find that near collapse the cavities have elongated oval shapes. The axes of these ovals shrink according to different power laws, so that while the cavity collapses to a point, the aspect ratio is increasing. The experimental setup is modeled within the lubrication approximation. As long as capillarity is negligible, the evolution of the fluid height is governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations of the experiments in this approximation show good agreement up to the time where the cavity is so small that surface tension can no longer be ignored. Nevertheless, the noncircular shape of the collapsing cavity cannot be due to surface tension which would tend to round the contours. These results are supplemented by numerical simulations of the evolution of contours which are initially circles distorted by small sinusoidal perturbations with wave numbers k>=2. These nonlinear stability calculations show that the circle is unstable in the presence of the mode k=2 and stable in its absence. The same conclusion is obtained from the linearized stability analysis of the front for the known self-similar solution for a circular cavity.
An Iterative Stabilized Scheme for Unsteady Incompressible Viscous Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAO Yan; ZHOU Dai; LI Hua-feng
2009-01-01
An efficient iterative algorithm is presented for the numerical solution of viscous incompressible NavierStokes equations based on Taylor-Galerkin like split and pressure correction method in this paper. Taylor-Hood element is introduced to overcome the numerical difficulties arising from the fluid incompressibility. In order to confirm the properties of the algorithm, the numerical simulation on plane Poisseuille flow problem and liddriven cavity flow problem with different Reynolds numbers is presented. The numerical results indicate that the proposed iterative version can be effectively applied to the simulation of viscous incompressible flows. Moreover, the proposed iterative version has a better overall performance in maximum time step size allowed, under comparable convergence rate, stability and accuracy, than other tested versions in numerical solutions of the plane PoisseuiUe flow with different Reynolds numbers ranging from low to high viscosities.
Capillary and viscous perturbations to Helmholtz flows
Moore, M. R.
2014-02-21
Inspired by recent calculations by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, p.Â 264506) relating to droplet impact, this paper presents an analysis of the perturbations to the free surface caused by small surface tension and viscosity in steady Helmholtz flows. In particular, we identify the regimes in which appreciable vorticity can be shed from the boundary layer to the bulk flow. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics
WACKERS, Jeroen; Koren, Barry; Raven, H.C.; Van Der Ploeg,, Atze; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; VISONNEAU, Michel; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K
2011-01-01
The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the water surface differ widely. Many of these highly different methods are being used with success. We review three of these methods, by describing in detail their implementation in one particular co...
The Finiteness of vortices in steady incompressible viscous fluid flow
Kalita, Jiten C; Panda, Swapnendu
2016-01-01
In this work, we provide two novel approaches to show that incompressible fluid flow in a finite domain contains at most a finite number vortices. We use a recently developed geometric theory of incompressible viscous flows along with an existing mathematical analysis concept to establish the finiteness. We also offer a second proof of finiteness by roping in the Kolmogorov's length scale criterion in conjunction with the notion of diametric disks.
Standing Shocks in Viscous Accretion Flows around Black Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Wei-Min; LU Ju-Fu
2005-01-01
@@ We study the problem of standing shocks in viscous accretion flows around black holes.We parameterize such a flow with two physical constants, namely the specific angular momentum accreted by the black hole j and the energy quantity K.By providing the global dependence of shock formation in the j - K parameter space, we show that a significant parameter region can ensure solutions with shocks of different types, namely Rankine-Hugoniot shocks, isothermal shocks, and more realistically, mixed shocks.
Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰
2003-01-01
In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.
Adaptive mesh generation for viscous flows using Delaunay triangulation
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1990-01-01
A method for generating an unstructured triangular mesh in two dimensions, suitable for computing high Reynolds number flows over arbitrary configurations is presented. The method is based on a Delaunay triangulation, which is performed in a locally stretched space, in order to obtain very high aspect ratio triangles in the boundary layer and the wake regions. It is shown how the method can be coupled with an unstructured Navier-Stokes solver to produce a solution adaptive mesh generation procedure for viscous flows.
Passive swimming in viscous oscillatory flows
Jo, Ikhee; Huang, Yangyang; Zimmermann, Walter; Kanso, Eva
2016-12-01
Fluid-based locomotion at low Reynolds number is subject to the constraints of Purcell's scallop theorem: reciprocal shape kinematics identical under a time-reversal symmetry cannot cause locomotion. In particular, a single degree-of-freedom scallop undergoing opening and closing motions cannot swim. Most strategies for symmetry breaking and locomotion rely on direct control of the swimmer's shape kinematics. Less is known about indirect control via actuation of the fluid medium. To address how such indirect actuation strategies can lead to locomotion, we analyze a Λ -shaped model system analogous to Purcell's scallop but able to deform passively in oscillatory flows. Neutrally buoyant scallops undergo no net locomotion. We show that dense, elastic scallops can exhibit passive locomotion in zero-mean oscillatory flows. We examine the efficiency of swimming parallel to the background flow and analyze the stability of these motions. We observe transitions from stable to unstable swimming, including ordered transitions from fluttering to chaoticlike motions and tumbling. Our results demonstrate that flow oscillations can be used to passively actuate and control the motion of microswimmers, which may be relevant to applications such as surgical robots and cell sorting and manipulation in microfluidic devices.
Mass flow and its pulsation measurements in supersonic wing wake
Shmakov, A. S.; Shevchenko, A. M.; Yatskikh, A. A.; Yermolaev, Yu. G.
2016-10-01
The results of experimental study of the flow in the wing wake are presented. Experiments were carried out in supersonic wind tunnel T-325 of ITAM SB RAS. Rectangle half-wing with sharp edges with a chord length of 30 mm and semispan of 95 mm was used to generate vortex wake. Experimental data were obtained in the cross section located 6 chord length downstream of the trailing edge at Mach numbers of 2.5 and 4 and at wing angles of attack of 4 and 10 degrees. Constant temperature hot-wire anemometer was used to measure disturbances in supersonic flow. Hot-wire was made of a tungsten wire with a diameter of 10 μm and length of 1.5 mm. Shlieren flow visualization were performed. As a result, the position and size of the vortex core in the wake of a rectangular wing were determined. For the first time experimental data on the mass flow distribution and its pulsations in the supersonic longitudinal vortex were obtained.
Dynamical separation of spherical bodies in supersonic flow
Laurence, Stuart; Parziale, N. J.; Deiterding, Ralf
2012-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the unsteady separation behaviour of two spheres in a highly supersonic flow is carried out. The spherical bodies, initially touching, are released with negligible relative velocity, an arrangement representing the idealized binary fragmentation of a meteoritic body in the atmosphere. In experiments performed in a Mach-4 Ludwieg tube, nylon spheres are initially suspended in the test section by weak threads and, following detachment of ...
Longitudinal Viscous Flow in Granular Gases
Santos, Andres
2008-01-01
The flow characterized by a linear longitudinal velocity field $u_x(x,t)=a(t)x$, where $a(t)={a_0}/({1+a_0t})$, a uniform density $n(t)\\propto a(t)$, and a uniform temperature $T(t)$ is analyzed for dilute granular gases by means of a BGK-like model kinetic equation in $d$ dimensions. For a given value of the coefficient of normal restitution $\\alpha$, the relevant control parameter of the problem is the reduced deformation rate $a^*(t)=a(t)/\
Study of the flow characteristics of supersonic coaxial jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, K.H. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea); Koo, B.S. [Andong National University Graudate School, Andong (Korea)
2001-12-01
Supersonic coaxial jets are investigated numerically by using the axisymmetric, Navier-Stokes equations which are solved using a fully implicit finite volume method. Three different kinds of coaxial nozzles are employed to understand the flow physics involved in the supersonic coaxial jets. Two convergent-divergent supersonic nozzles are designed to have the same Mach number 2.0, and used to compare the coaxial jet flows with those discharging from one constant-area nozzle. The impingement angle of the annular jets are varied. The primary pressure ratio is changed in the range from 2.0 to 10.0 and the assistant jet ratio from 1.0 to 3.0. The results obtained show that the fluctuations of the total pressure and Mach number along the jet axis are much higher in the constant-area nozzle than those in the convergent-divergent nozzles, and the constant-area nozzle lead to higher total pressure losses, compared with the convergent-divergent nozzles. The assistant jets from the annular nozzle affect the coaxial jet flows within the distance less than about ten times the nozzle throat diameter, but beyond it the coaxial jet is conical with self-similar velocity profiles. Increasing both the primary jet pressure ratio and the assistant jet pressure ratio produces a longer coaxial jet core. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs.
Flow and acoustic features of a supersonic tapered nozzle
Gutmark, E.; Bowman, H. L.; Schadow, K. C.
1992-05-01
The acoustic and flow characteristics of a supersonic tapered jet were measured for free and shrouded flow configurations. Measurements were performed for a full range of pressure ratios including over- and underexpanded and design conditions. The supersonic tapered jet is issued from a converging-diverging nozzle with a 3∶1 rectangular slotted throat and a conical diverging section leading to a circular exit. The jet was compared to circular and rectangular supersonic jets operating at identical conditions. The distinct feature of the jet is the absence of screech tones in the entire range of operation. Its near-field pressure fluctuations have a wide band spectrum in the entire range of measurements, for Mach numbers of 1 to 2.5, for over- and underexpanded conditions. The free jet's spreading rate is nearly constant and similar to the rectangular jet, and in a shroud, the pressure drop it is inducing is linearly proportional to the primary jet Mach number. This behavior persisted in high adverse pressure gradients at overexpanded conditions, and with nozzle divergence angles of up to 35°, no inside flow separation was observed.
Experiments on supersonic turbulent flow development in a square duct
Gessner, F. B.; Ferguson, S. D.; Lo, C. H.
1986-01-01
The nature of supersonic, turbulent, adiabatic-wall flow in a square duct is investigated experimentally over a development length of x/D between 0 and 20 for a uniform flow, Mach 3.9 condition at the duct inlet. Initial discussion centers on the duct configuration itself, which was designed specifically to minimize wave effects and nozzle-induced distortion in the flow. Total pressure contours and local skin friction coefficient distributions are presented which show that the flow develops in a manner similar to that observed for the incompressible case. In particular, undulations exist in total pressure contours within the cross plane and in transverse skin friction coefficient distributions, which are indicative of the presence of a well-defined secondary flow superimposed upon the primary flow. The results are analyzed to show that local law-of-the-wall behavior extends well into the corner region, which implies that wall functions conventionally applied in two-equation type turbulence models, when suitably defined for compressible flow, may also be applied to supersonic streamwise corner flows.
Flow Control for Supersonic Inlet Applications
2014-06-10
1221-1233, May 2013 3. Loth, E., Titchener, N., Babinsky, H., Povinelli , L., “Canonical NSBLI Flows Relevant to External Compression Inlets”, AIAA J...Tennessee, Jan. 9-12, 2012 7. Loth, E.L., Titchener, N., Babinsky, H., Povinelli , L.A., “A Canonical Normal SBLI Flow Relevant to External
Numerical solution of inviscid and viscous flow around the profile
Slouka, Martin; Kozel, Karel; Prihoda, Jaromir
2015-05-01
This work deals with the 2D numerical solution of inviscid compressible flow and viscous compressible laminar and turbulent flow around the profile. In a case of turbulent flow algebraic Baldwin-Lomax model is used and compared with Wilcox's k-ω model. Calculations are done in GAMM channel computational domain with 10% DCA profile and in turbine cascade computational domain with 8% DCA profile. Numerical methods are based on a finite volume solution and compared with experimental measurements for 8% DCA profile.
Properties of Accretion Shocks in Viscous Flows with Cooling Effects
Das, S; Das, Santabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
2004-01-01
Low angular momentum accretion flows can have standing and oscillating shock waves. We study the region of the parameter space in which multiple sonic points occur in viscous flows in presence of various cooling effects such as bremsstrahlung and Comptonization. We also quantify the parameter space in which shocks are steady or oscillating. We find that cooling induces effects opposite to heating by viscosity even in modifying the topology of the solutions, though one can never be exactly balanced by the other due to their dissimilar dependence on dynamic and thermodynamic parameters. We show that beyond a critical value of cooling, the flow ceases to contain a shock wave.
Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-03-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.
Numerical calculation of periodic viscous flow through a circular hole
Notomi, T.; Namba, M.
1992-08-01
Periodic viscous flows through a circular hole driven by fluctuating far field pressure are studied numerically. The time dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated with orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinates are solved by using a finite difference method. The flow patterns and acoustic impedance of the circular hole are investigated for various combinations of the pressure/viscous force ratio, frequency and hole edge thickness. Numerical calculations revealed some interesting facts, as follows. First, the flow patterns are classified into three regimes by fluctuating pressure amplitude and frequency: flows with no laminar separation (high-frequency-low-pressure range), flows with attached separation bubble (intermediate frequency and pressure range) and flows with detached vortex rings (low-frequency-high-pressure range). Second, the flow resistance of the circular hole is proportional to the acoustic particle velocity but independent of the viscosity of the fluid, and almost invariant with the frequency for the low-frequency-high-pressure range. On the other hand, for the high-frequency-low-pressure range, the flow resistance is independent of the periodic pressure amplitude and varies directly with the 2/3 power of the frequency. Finally, the predicted circular hole impedance is in good agreement with the experimental data for the orifice impedance of Ingard and Ising.
Flow harmonics within an analytically solvable viscous hydrodynamic model
Hatta, Yoshitaka; Torrieri, Giorgio; Xiao, Bo-Wen
2014-01-01
Based on a viscous hydrodynamic model with anisotropically perturbed Gubser flow and isothermal Cooper-Frye freezeout, we analytically compute the flow harmonics $v_n(p_T)$ and study how they scale with the harmonic number $n$ and transverse momentum, as well as the system size, shear and bulk viscosity coefficients, and collision energy. In particular, we find that the magnitude of shear viscous corrections grows linearly with $n$. The mixing between different harmonics is also discussed. While this model is rather simple as compared to realistic heavy-ion collisions, we argue that the scaling results presented here may be meaningfully compared to experimental data collected over many energies, system sizes, and geometries.
Unsteady Viscous Dissipative Dusty Nanofluid Flow Over a Vertical Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.R.V.S.R.K. Sastry
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The flow past an infinite vertical isothermal plate started impulsively in its own plane in a viscous incompressible two-phase nanofluid has been considered by taking into account the viscous dissipative heat. Two nano particles Copper (Cu and Alumina (Al2O3 are submerged in a base fluid, Water (H20. The coupled non-linear partial differential equations which govern the flow are solved for nanofluid and dust particle phases by finite difference method. The velocity and temperature fields have been shown graphically for various parameters. Here Grashof number, (Gr being positive (cooling of the plate for dusty air. Also the effects of Eckert number on heat transfer and skin friction coefficient for various parameters are represented graphically. It is observed that dusty nanofluid enhances both skin friction and heat transfer rate in the case of cooling.
Unsteady Axisymmetric Rotational Flow of Dusty Elastico Viscous Liquid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. C. Mandal
1990-04-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the flow of elastico-viscous liquid embedded with particles in an oscillating cylinder. Explicit expressions are obtained for the velocities of liquid and dust particles by the technique of Laplace transforms. Numerical computations of the velocity fields are carried out for different values of mass concentration and relaxation time of the dust particles and varying elastic elements in the liquid.
An analytical theory of heated duct flows in supersonic combustors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenxi Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional analytical theory is developed for supersonic duct flow with variation of cross section, wall friction, heat addition, and relations between the inlet and outlet flow parameters are obtained. By introducing a selfsimilar parameter, effects of heat releasing, wall friction, and change in cross section area on the flow can be normalized and a self-similar solution of the flow equations can be found. Based on the result of self-similar solution, the sufficient and necessary condition for the occurrence of thermal choking is derived. A relation of the maximum heat addition leading to thermal choking of the duct flow is derived as functions of area ratio, wall friction, and mass addition, which is an extension of the classic Rayleigh flow theory, where the effects of wall friction and mass addition are not considered. The present work is expected to provide fundamentals for developing an integral analytical theory for ramjets and scramjets.
Small-amplitude viscous motion on arbitrary potential flows
Goldstein, M. E.
1984-02-01
This paper is concerned with small-amplitude, unsteady, vortical and entropic motion imposed on steady potential flows. It is restricted to the case where the spatial scale of the unsteady motion is small compared to that of the mean flow. Under such conditions, the unsteady motion may be influenced by viscosity even if the mean flow is not. An exact high-frequency (small-wavelength) solution is obtained for the small-amplitude viscous motion imposed on a steady potential flow. It generalizes the one obtained by Pearson (1959) for the homogeneous-strain case to the case of quasi-homogeneous strain. This result is used to study the effect of viscosity on rapidly distorted turbulent flows. Specific numerical results are given for a turbulent flow near a two-dimensional stagnation point.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1
Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.
1979-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.
Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats
Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier
Lift and drag in three-dimensional steady viscous and compressible flow
Liu, Luoqin; Kang, Linlin; Wu, Jiezhi
2016-01-01
In a recent paper, Liu, Zhu & Wu (2015, J. Fluid Mech. 784: 304; LZW for short) present a far-field theory for the aerodynamic force experienced by a body in a two-dimensional, viscous, compressible and steady flow. In this companion theoretical paper we do the same for three-dimensional flow. By a rigorous fundamental solution method of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, we not only improve the far-field force formula for incompressible flow originally derived by Goldstein in 1931 and summarized by Milne-Thomson in 1968, both being far from complete, to its perfect final form, but also prove that this final form holds universally true in a wide range of compressible flow, from subsonic to supersonic flows. We call this result the unified force theorem (UF theorem for short) and state it as a theorem, which is exactly the counterpart of the two-dimensional compressible Joukowski-Filon theorem obtained by LZW. Thus, the steady lift and drag are always exactly determined by the values of vector circula...
Viscous Flow over an Unsteady Shrinking Sheet with Mass Transfer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Tie-Gang; ZHANG Ji; YAO Shan-Shan
2009-01-01
The unsteady viscous flow over a continuously shrinking surface with mass suction is studied. The solution is fortunately an exact solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. Similarity equations are obtained through the application of similarity transformation techniques. Numerical techniques are used to solve the similarity equations for different values of the mass suction parameters" and the unsteadiness parameters. Results show that multiple solutions exist for a certain range of mass suction and unsteadiness parameters. Quite different flow behaviour is observed for an unsteady shrinking sheet from an unsteady stretching sheet.
Optical wavefront distortion due to supersonic flow fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN ZhiQiang; FU Song
2009-01-01
The optical wavefront distortion caused by a supersonic flow field around a half model of blunt nose cone was studied in a wind tunnel. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure the dis-totted optical wavefront. Interesting optical parameters including the peak variation (PV), root of mean square (RMS) and Strehl ratio were obtained under different test conditions during the experiment. During the establishing process of the flow field in the wind tunnel test section, the wavefront shape was unstable. However after the flow field reached the steady flow state, the wavefront shape kept sta-ble, and the relative error of wavefront aberration was found small. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor developed was proved to be credible in measuring quantitatively the optical phase change of light traveling through the flow field around model window.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 2
Khalil, J.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
Turbulent flow within turbomachines having arbitrary blade geometries is examined. Effects of turbulence are modeled using two equations, one expressing the development of the turbulence kinetic energy and the other its dissipation rate. To account for complicated blade geometries, the flow equations are formulated in terms of a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The analysis is applied to a radial inflow turbine. The solution obtained indicates the severity of the complex interaction mechanism that occurs between the different flow regimes (i.e., boundary layers, recirculating eddies, separation zones, etc.). Comparison with nonviscous flow solutions tend to justify strongly the inadequacy of using the latter with standard boundary layer techniques to obtain viscous flow details within turbomachine rotors. Capabilities and limitations of the present method of analysis are discussed.
Viscous and Gravitational Fingering in Multiphase Compositional and Compressible Flow
Moortgat, Joachim
2016-01-01
Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for 1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and 2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, w...
Numerical Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes
Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu
2016-06-01
We present shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well, but increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in microquasars; and strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The periodicity of jets and shock oscillation are similar. Our simulation shows that the jets for higher viscosity parameter are evidently stronger and faster than that for lower viscosity.
Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow
Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun
2016-11-01
We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.
2006-03-01
COUETTE & POISEUILLE FLOWS OF NEMATIC POLYMERS IN VISCOUS SOLVENTS: MORPHOLOGY IN MOLECULAR ORIENTATION, STRESS & FLOW Hong Zhou...viscoelastic stresses, and flow feedback. Pre- vious studies in plane Couette & Poiseuille flow (with the exception of [7]) have focused on the coupling between...with Plane Couette & Poiseuille Flows of Nematic Polymers in Viscous Solvents: Morphology in Molecular Orientation, Stress & Flow 5a. CONTRACT
Thermal stability for a reactive viscous flow in a slab
Okoya, S S
2002-01-01
The paper deals with the effect of dimensionless non - Newtonian coefficient on the thermal stability of a reactive viscous liquid in steady flow between parallel heated plates. It is assumed that the liquid is symmetrically heated and the flow fully developed. Approximate analytical solution is obtained for the velocity of the flow and the criterion for which this solution is valid is determined. After the velocity distribution is known, the temperature distribution may be calculated. Criticality and disappearance of criticality (transition values) are obtained in the following cases: (i) Bimolecular (ii) Arrhenius and (iii) Sensitized temperature dependence. We have observed that nonlinear effect from velocity and temperature fields introduced decaying for the transitional values of the dimensionless central temperature. Other effects of this nonlinearity are reported. We also give results for the plane - Couette flow problem. The results help to enhance understanding of the interplay between Newtonian and ...
DIAMOND PORT JET INTERACTION WITH SUPERSONIC FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Interaction flow field of the sonic air jet through diamond shaped orifices at different incidence angles (10 degrees, 27.5 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees) and total pressures (0.10 MPa and 0. 46 MPa) with a Mach 5.0 freestream was studied experimentally. A 90 degrees circular injector was examined for comparison. Crosssection Mach number contours were acquired by a Pitot-cone five-hole pressure probe.The results indicate that the low Mach semicircular region close to the wall is the wake region. The boundary layer thinning is in the areas adjacent to the wake. For the detached case, the interaction shock extends further into the freestream, and the shock shape has more curvature, also the low-Mach upwash region is larger. The vortices of the plume and the height of the jet interaction shock increase with increasing incidence angle and jet pressure. 90 degrees diamond and circular injector have stronger plume vorticity, and for the circular injector low-Mach region is smaller than that for the diamond injector. Tapered ramp increases the plume vorticity, and the double ramp reduces the level of vorticity. The three-dimensional interaction shock shape was modeled from the surface shock shape, the center plane shock shape, and crosssectional shock shape. The shock total pressure was estimated with the normal component of the Mach number using normal shock theory. The shock induced total pressure losses decrease with decreasing jet incidence angle and injection pressure,where the largest losses are incurred by the 90 degrees, circular injector.
Gravel Accumulation in Deposits of Viscous Debris Flows with Hyper-concentration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuyi; TAN Rongzhi; JAN Chyandeng; TIAN Bing
2009-01-01
According to the observational data of viscous debris flows with hyper-concentration, debris flows can be classified into three types: high-viscous, viscous, and sub-viscous debris flows. Distinct formation mechanism of different graded bedding structures in deposits of viscous debris flows was analyzed in this paper by using their yield-stress ratio and flow plug ratio. This paper specially analyzed the effect of Weissenberg which the gravels in squirm condition of hyper-concentration viscous flows would tend to move vertically, and the formation mechanism of the gravels accumulated at surface was also studied. The analysis in this paper can establish a foundation for the studies on differentiation of bedding structures of debris flow deposits and studies on dynamic parameters of debris flows.
Flow Simulation of Supersonic Inlet with Bypass Annular Duct
Kim, HyoungJin; Kumano, Takayasu; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Conners, Timothy R.
2011-01-01
A relaxed isentropic compression supersonic inlet is a new concept that produces smaller cowl drag than a conventional inlet, but incurs lower total pressure recovery and increased flow distortion in the (radially) outer flowpath. A supersonic inlet comprising a bypass annulus to the relaxed isentropic compression inlet dumps out airflow of low quality through the bypass duct. A reliable computational fluid dynamics solution can provide considerable useful information to ascertain quantitatively relative merits of the concept, and further provide a basis for optimizing the design. For a fast and reliable performance evaluation of the inlet performance, an equivalent axisymmetric model whose area changes accounts for geometric and physical (blockage) effects resulting from the original complex three-dimensional configuration is proposed. In addition, full three-dimensional calculations are conducted for studying flow phenomena and verifying the validity of the equivalent model. The inlet-engine coupling is carried out by embedding numerical propulsion system simulation engine data into the flow solver for interactive boundary conditions at the engine fan face and exhaust plane. It was found that the blockage resulting from complex three-dimensional geometries in the bypass duct causes significant degradation of inlet performance by pushing the terminal normal shock upstream.
Foam rheology: A model of viscous effects in shear flow
Kraynik, Andrew M.; Reinelt, Douglas A.
Foams consisting of gas bubbles dispersed in a continuous network of thin liquid films display a remarkable range of rheological characteristics that include a finite shear modulus, yield stress, non-Newtonian viscosity, and slip at the wall. Progress in developing micromechanical theories to describe foam rheology has depended upon two-dimensional models, which in most cases are assumed to have perfectly ordered structure. Princen accounted for surface tension and geometrical effects, and analyzed the nonlinear elastic response of a spatially periodic foam in simple shear. His analysis has been extended to account for more general deformations. Khan and Armstrong and Kraynik and Hansen have proposed ad hoc models for viscous effects in foam rheology. Their models capture numerous qualitative phenomena but incorporate relaxation mechanisms based upon overly simplified assumptions of liquid flow in the thin films. Mysels, Shinoda, and Frankel considered soap films with interfaces that are inextensible due to the presence of surfactants. They analyzed the primary flow that occurs when such films are slowly withdrawn from or recede into essentially static junction regions such as the Plateau borders in a foam. Adopting this mechanism, Schwartz and Princen considered small periodic deformations of a foam and calculated the energy dissipation due to viscous flow in the thin films. In the following, we also adopt the basic interfacial and viscous mechanisms introduced by Mysels et al. and analyze simple shearing deformations of finite amplitude. The configuration and effective stress of the foam are determined. Under these deformation conditions, the foam is a nonlinear viscoelastic material. Results for the uniform expansion of a foam are also presented.
Viscously driven plasma flows in the deep geomagnetic tail
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owen, C.J.; Slavin, J.A. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))
1992-07-24
The authors present an analysis, based on the principles of stress balance in a 1-dimensional current sheet, which considers the problem of closed magnetic flux transport into the deep tail by a viscous'-like interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. They illustrate the analysis with an example of ISEE-3 data showing strong tailward plasma sheet flows on apparently closed field lines in the deep tail. Apart from narrow regions adjacent to the magnetopause, these flows are not driven by the scattering of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere. They estimate the fraction of the magnetosheath momentum flux needed to be anomalously transferred into the plasma sheet to drive the flows. In their example this is [approximately] 6%. No previously suggested mechanism (e.g., the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability) has been shown capable of providing anomalous momentum transport of this magnitude. Their current understanding of the viscous' interaction between the solar wind and magnetosphere is thus insufficient to explain these observations.
Unsteady Viscous Flow over an Expanding Stretching Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方铁钢; 章骥; 钟永芳; 陶华
2011-01-01
We study the viscous How over an expanding stretching cylinder. The solution is exact to the Navier-Stokes equations. The stretching velocity of the cylinder is proportional to the axial distance from the origin and decreases with time. There exists a unique solution for the How with all the studied values of Reynolds number and the unsteadiness parameter. Reversal Hows exist for an expanding stretching cylinder. The velocity decays faster for a larger Reynolds number and a more rapidly expanding cylinder.%We study the viscous flow over an expanding stretching cylinder.The solution is exact to the Navier-Stokes equations.The stretching velocity of the cylinder is proportional to the axial distance from the origin and decreases with time.There exists a unique solution for the flow with all the studied values of Reynolds number and the unsteadiness parameter.Reversal flows exist for an expanding stretching cylinder.The velocity decays faster for a larger Reynolds number and a more rapidly expanding cylinder.
Chirped Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
Abeysekera, Chamara; Oldham, James; Prozument, Kirill; Joalland, Baptiste; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian; Suits, Arthur; Zack, Lindsay
2014-06-01
We present preliminary results describing the development of a new instrument that combines two powerful techniques: Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform MicroWave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy and pulsed uniform supersonic flows. It promises a nearly universal detection method that can deliver quantitative isomer, conformer, and vibrational level specific detection, characterization of unstable reaction products and intermediates and perform unique spectroscopic, kinetics and dynamics measurements. We have constructed a new high-power K_a-band, 26-40 GHz, chirped pulse spectrometer with sub-MHz resolution, analogous to the revolutionary CP-FTMW spectroscopic technique developed in the Pate group at University of Virginia. In order to study smaller molecules, the E-band, 60-90 GHz, CP capability was added to our spectrometer. A novel strategy for generating uniform supersonic flow through a Laval nozzle is introduced. High throughput pulsed piezo-valve is used to produce cold (30 K) uniform flow with large volumes of 150 cm^3 and densities of 1014 molecules/cm3 with modest pumping facilities. The uniform flow conditions for a variety of noble gases extend as far as 20 cm from the Laval nozzle and a single compound turbo-molecular pump maintains the operating pressure. Two competing design considerations are critical to the performance of the system: a low temperature flow is needed to maximize the population difference between rotational levels, and high gas number densities are needed to ensure rapid cooling to achieve the uniform flow conditions. At the same time, collision times shorter than the chirp duration will give inaccurate intensities and reduced signal levels due to collisional dephasing of free induction decay. Details of the instrument and future directions and challenges will be discussed.
Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer practice in supersonic flows. II - The inclined wire
Smits, A. J.; Muck, K. C.
1983-01-01
The performance of a constant-temperature inclined hot-wire in a supersonic flow is critically examined. It is shown that calibration techniques applicable to subsonic flow, such as the cosine cooling law cannot be used when the flow is supersonic. Calibration and measurement procedures appropriate to supersonic flow are suggested, together with the possible limits on their validity. Experimental results for different wires indicate that the sensitivities do not seem to depend on flow direction according to any simple correlation. When the sensitivity exhibits a strong dependence on flow direction, the wire should be discarded to avoid errors due to nonlinear effects.
Numerical study of viscous starting flow past a flat plate
Xu, Ling
2014-01-01
Viscous flow past a finite plate which is impulsively started in direction normal to itself is studied numerically using a high order mixed finite difference and semi-Lagrangian scheme. The goal is to resolve details of the vorticity generation at early times, and to determine the effect of viscosity on flow quantities such as the core trajectory and vorticity, and the shed circulation. Vorticity contours, streaklines and streamlines are presented for a range of Reynolds numbers $Re \\in [250, 2000]$ and a range of times $t \\in[0. 0002, 5]$. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. The paper proposes a definition for the shed circulation at early as well as late times, and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates from the plate without reattaching. The contribution of viscous diffusion to the circulation shedding rate is found to be significant, but, interestingly, to depend only slightly on the value of the Reynolds number. The shed circulation and the vortex core trajec...
Angular dynamics of small crystals in viscous flows
Fries, Johan; Einarsson, Jonas; Mehlig, Bernhard
2016-11-01
The angular dynamics of a very small ellipsoidal particle in a viscous flow decouples from its translational dynamics, and the particle angular velocity is given by Jeffery's theory. It is known that cuboid particles share these properties. In the literature a special case is most frequently discussed, that of axisymmetric particles, with a continuous rotational symmetry. Here we compute the angular dynamics of crystals that possess a discrete rotational symmetry and certain mirror symmetries, but that do not have a continuous rotational symmetry. We give examples of such particles that nevertheless obey Jeffery's theory. But there are other examples where the angular dynamics is determined by a more general equation of motion. Vetenskapsrådet [Grant Number 2013-3992], Formas [Grant Number 2014-585], "Bottlenecks for particle growth in turbulent aerosols" from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Dnr. KAW 2014.0048, MPNS COST Action MP1305 "Flowing matter".
Highly viscous fluid flow in a spinning and nutating cylinder
Herbert, T.
1985-02-01
Spin-stabilized projectiles with liquid payloads can experience a severe flight instability characterized by a rapid yaw angle growth and a simultaneous loss in spin rate. Laboratory experiments and field tests have shown that this instability originates from the internal fluid motion in the range of high viscosity. Evaluation of the experimental data and analysis of the equations for the fluid motion in a spinning and nutating cylinder suggest a theoretical approach in three major steps: (1) analysis of the steady viscous flow in an infinitely long cylinder, (2) hydrodynamic stability analysis of this basic flow, and (3) analysis of the end effects. The basic flow has been found in analytical form. At low Reynolds number, this flow agrees well with computational results for the center section of a cylinder of aspect ratio 4.3. The despin moment caused by this flow largely agrees with experimental data for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Current work aims at the stability of this flow.
Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil
Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.
2015-06-01
A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.
Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)
2016-01-15
Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.
Turbulence characteristics in a supersonic cascade wake flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrew, P.L.; Ng, W.F. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))
1994-10-01
The turbulent character of the supersonic wake of a linear cascade of fan airfoils has been studied using a two-component laser-doppler anemometer. The cascade was tested in the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University intermittent wind tunnel facility, where the Mach and Reynolds numbers were 2.36 and 4.8 [times] 10[sup 6], respectively. In addition to mean flow measurements, Reynolds normal and shear stresses were measured as functions of cascade incidence angle and streamwise locations spanning the near-wake and the far-wake. The extremities of profiles of both the mean and turbulent wake properties were found to be strongly influenced by upstream shock-boundary-layer interactions, the strength of which varied with cascade incidence. In contrast, the peak levels of turbulence properties within the shear layer were found to be largely independent of incidence, and could be characterized in terms of the streamwise position only. The velocity defect turbulence level was found to be 23%, and the generally accepted value of the turbulence structural coefficient of 0.30 was found to be valid for this flow. The degree of similarity of the mean flow wake profiles was established, and those profiles demonstrating the most similarity were found to approach a state of equilibrium between the mean and turbulent properties. In general, this wake flow may be described as a classical free shear flow, upon which the influence of upstream shock-boundary-layer interactions has been superimposed.
Unsteady transverse injection of kerosene into a supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A shadowgraph and a new fuel injection system were used to study kerosene transversely injected into a supersonic flow. High pressure and velocity of injection can be attained. The pressure time histories were detected in oil-line and the shadowgraphs of the flow field were obtained at different time-delays. The inflow stagnation pressure was varied to change the local flow speed in test section. The results indicate that kerosene jet exhibits deep penetration and four regimes appear clearly during the fuel jet atomization in a high-speed flow. The jet disintegration is caused by surface waves propagating along the jet surface, and the breakup point is located at the wave trough. The surface waves are dominantly generated by aerodynamic force. The jet shock is close to windward surface of the jet. The shock reflects on and transmits in duct boundary layers. In the case of unsteady injection, the shock structure is very complicated and different from that of hydrogen injection. The results of kerosene injected into a quiescent gas and a subsonic flow are also provided for comparison.
Studies of the unsteady supersonic base flows around three afterbodies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhixiang Xiao; Song Fu
2009-01-01
Unsteady supersonic base flows around three afterbodies, cylindrical (Cy), boattailed (BT) and three-step (MS), are investigated in this paper. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and two RANS/LES (large-eddy simulation) hybrid methods, detached eddy simulation (DES) and delayed-DES (DDES), are used to predict the base flow characteristics around the baseline Cy afterbody. All the RANS and hybrid methods are based on the two-equation SST (shear-stress transport) model with compressible corrections (CC). According to the comparison of measurements, both DES and DDES can produce more satisfactory results than RANS. RANS can only present the "stable" flow patterns, while the hybrid methods can demonstrate unsteady flow structures. DDES and DES results are little different from one another although the latter exhibits better agreement with the experiment. DES is taken to investigate the 5 BT and three-step afterbodies. The mean flow data and the instantaneous turbulent coherent structures are compared against available measurements.
Influences of friction drag on spontaneous condensation in water vapor supersonic flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
A mathematical model was developed to investigate the water vapor spontaneous condensation under supersonic flow conditions. A numerical simulation was performed for the water vapor condensable supersonic flows through Laval nozzles under different flow friction conditions. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the model is accurate enough to investigate the supersonic spontaneous condensation flow of water vapor inside Laval nozzles. The influences of flow friction drag on supersonic spontaneous condensation flow of water vapor inside Laval nozzles were investigated. It was found that the flow friction has a direct effect on the spontaneous condensation process and therefore it is important for an accurate friction prediction in designing this kind of Laval nozzles.
Influences of friction drag on spontaneous condensation in water vapor supersonic flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG WenMing; LIU ZhongLiang; LIU HengWei; PANG HuiZhong; BAO LingLing
2009-01-01
A mathematical model was developed to investigate the water vapor spontaneous condensation under supersonic flow conditions. A numerical simulation was performed for the water vapor condensable supersonic flows through Laval nozzles under different flow friction conditions. The comparison be-tween numerical and experimental results shows that the model is accurate enough to investigate the supersonic spontaneous condensation flow of water vapor inside Laval nozzles. The influences of flow friction drag on supersonic spontaneous condensation flow of water vapor inside Laval nozzles were investigated, It was found that the flow friction has a direct effect on the spontaneous condensation process and therefore it is important for an accurate friction prediction in designing this kind of Laval nozzles.
Flow of a viscous nematic fluid around a sphere
Gómez-González, Manuel
2013-01-01
We analyze the creeping flow generated by a spherical particle moving through a viscous fluid with nematic directional order, in which momentum diffusivity is anisotropic and which opposes resistance to bending. Specifically, we provide closed-form analytical expressions for the response function, i.e. the equivalent to Stokes's drag formula for nematic fluids. Particular attention is given to the rotationally pseudo-isotropic condition defined by zero resistance to bending, and to the strain pseudo-isotropic condition defined by isotropic momentum diffusivity. We find the former to be consistent with the rheology of biopolymer networks and the latter to be closer to the rheology of nematic liquid crystals. These "pure" anisotropic conditions are used to benchmark existing particle tracking microrheology methods that provide effective directional viscosities by applying Stokes's drag law separately in different directions. We find that the effective viscosity approach is phenomenologically justified in rotati...
Characteristic analysis of unsteady viscous flow around a cavitating propeller
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Based on viscous multiphase flow theory, this paper presents some recent validation results with a hybrid grid and sliding mesh solving Unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) and Bubble Dynamics equations as applied to prediction of pressure, velocity and vapor volume fraction in the wake in an uniform inflow. Comparable to experimental results, numerical predictions of sheet cavitation, tip vortex cavitation and hub vortex cavitation are in agreement with the corresponding experimental data, the same as numerical predictions of pressure in wake. Tip vortex cavitation is the most important to generate the pressure fluctuation within the near wake. The characteristics such as blade and shaft rate frequency of propeller pressure in wake coincide with its geometric model and parameters. With increasing distance from propeller disk, the pressure signals at blade frequency de-crease. The process of attenuation becomes fast with the decreased advance coefficient and cavitation number.
Quasi-DC electrical discharge characterization in a supersonic flow
Houpt, Alec; Hedlund, Brock; Leonov, Sergey; Ombrello, Timothy; Carter, Campbell
2017-04-01
A Quasi-DC (Q-DC) electrical discharge generates a highly transient filamentary plasma in high-speed airflow. Major specific properties of this type of discharge are realized due to a strong coupling of the plasma to the moving gas. The plasma, supplied by a DC voltage waveform, demonstrates a pulsed-periodic pattern of dynamics significantly affecting the flow structure. In this study, the dynamics and plasma parameters of the Q-DC discharge are analyzed in the Supersonic Test Rig (SBR-50) at the University of Notre Dame at Mach number M = 2, stagnation pressure P 0 = (0.9-2.6) × 105 Pa, stagnation temperature T 0 = 300 K, unit Reynolds number ReL = 7-25 × 106 m-1, and plasma power W pl = 3-21 kW. The plasma parameters are measured with current-voltage probes and optical emission spectroscopy. An unsteady pattern of interaction is depicted by high-speed image capturing. The result of the plasma-flow interaction is characterized by means of pressure measurements and schlieren visualization. It is considered that the Q-DC discharge may be employed for active control of duct-driven flows, cavity-based flow, and for effective control of shock wave-boundary layer interaction.
Unsteady transverse injection of kerosene into a supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐胜利; R.D.Archer; B.E.Milton; 岳朋涛
2000-01-01
A shadowgraph and a new fuel injection system were used to study kerosene transversely injected into a supersonic flow. High pressure and velocity of injection can be attained. The pressure time histories were detected in oil-line and the shadowgraphs of the flow field were obtained at different time-delays. The inflow stagnation pressure was varied to change the local flow speed in test section. The results indicate that kerosene jet exhibits deep penetration and four regimes appear clearly during the fuel jet atomization in a high-speed flow. The jet disintegration is caused by surface waves propagating along the jet surface, and the breakup point is located at the wave trough. The surface waves are dominantly generated by aerodynamic force. The jet shock is close to windward surface of the jet. The shock reflects on and transmits in duct boundary layers. In the case of unsteady injection, the shock structure is very complicated and different from that of hydrogen injection. The results of kerosene inj
Periodic massloss from viscous accretion flows around black holes
Das, Santabrata; Nandi, Anuj; Molteni, Diego
2014-01-01
We investigate the behaviour of low angular momentum viscous accretion flows around black holes using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Earlier, it has been observed that in a significant part of the energy and angular momentum parameter space, rotating transonic accretion flow undergoes shock transition before entering in to the black hole and a part of the post-shock matter is ejected as bipolar outflows, which are supposed to be the precursor of relativistic jets. In this work, we simulate accretion flows having injection parameters from the inviscid shock parameter space, and study the response of viscosity on them. With the increase of viscosity, shock becomes time dependent and starts to oscillate when the viscosity parameter crosses its critical value. As a result, the in falling matter inside the post-shock region exhibits quasi-periodic variations and causes periodic ejection of matter from the inner disc as outflows. In addition, the same hot and dense post-shock matter emits high energy r...
Two tandem flexible loops in a viscous flow
Ye, Huilin; Wei, Heng; Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xi-yun
2017-02-01
Interaction between two tandem flexible loops with tension and bending stiffness in a viscous flow is investigated by numerical simulations. In most cases, the heads of the loops facing the oncoming flow are fixed but flapping around the head is allowed. The effect of the gap distance between the two passive flapping loops (G) on the drag coefficient is investigated in detail. Here, for the first time, the sudden drag force reduction at a specific G, i.e., Gc for the downstream loop has been found in the two tandem flexible loops system. It is different from the drag "jump" behavior in the two tandem rigid cylinder system. Although the drag is partially associated with the flapping amplitude, the drag force reduction of the downstream loop may be mainly attributed to flow regimes transition or vortices merging mode transition. The vortices merging is also analysed from a Lagrangian viewpoint, which gives insight into the mechanism. The effects of Reynolds number (20 ≤ Re ≤100 ) , bending coefficient (10-4≤K ≤2 ×10-2 ) , and tension coefficient (10 ≤S ≤1000 ) are also investigated and the relevant mechanism is explored. If the head of the downstream loop is set free to move laterally, the critical distance (Gc) where the sudden drag reduction occurs would further decrease compared to the fixed case, which is due to the early shedding regime transition.
Numerical Investigation of Vortex Generator Flow Control for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets
Baydar, Ezgihan
Vortex generators (VGs) within external-compression supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery and reduce total pressure distortion. Ramp and vane-type VGs were studied. The geometric factors of interest included height, length, spacing, angle-of-incidence, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated numerically through the solution of the steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids using the Wind-US flow solver. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery and the radial and circumferential total pressure distortion indices at the engine face. Previous research of downstream VGs in the low-boom supersonic inlet demonstrated improvement in radial distortion up to 24% while my work on external-compression supersonic inlets improved radial distortion up to 86%, which is significant. The design of experiments and statistical analysis methods were applied to quantify the effect of the geometric factors of VGs and search for optimal VG arrays. From the analysis, VG angle-of-incidence and VG height were the most influential factors in increasing total pressure recovery and reducing distortion. The study on the two-dimensional external-compression inlet determined which passive flow control devices, such as counter-rotating vanes or ramps, reduce high distortion levels and improve the health of the boundary layer, relative to the baseline. Downstream vanes demonstrate up to 21% improvement in boundary layer health and 86% improvement in radial distortion. Upstream vanes demonstrated up to 3% improvement in boundary layer health and 9% improvement in radial distortion. Ramps showed no improvement in boundary layer health and radial distortion. Micro-VGs were preferred for their reduced viscous drag and improvement in total pressure recovery at the AIP. Although
Plasma-enhanced mixing and flameholding in supersonic flow
Firsov, Alexander; Savelkin, Konstantin V.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Leonov, Sergey B.
2015-01-01
The results of experimental study of plasma-based mixing, ignition and flameholding in a supersonic model combustor are presented in the paper. The model combustor has a length of 600 mm and cross section of 72 mm width and 60 mm height. The fuel is directly injected into supersonic airflow (Mach number M=2, static pressure Pst=160–250 Torr) through wall orifices. Two series of tests are focused on flameholding and mixing correspondingly. In the first series, the near-surface quasi-DC electrical discharge is generated by flush-mounted electrodes at electrical power deposition of Wpl=3–24 kW. The scope includes parametric study of ignition and flame front dynamics, and comparison of three schemes of plasma generation: the first and the second layouts examine the location of plasma generators upstream and downstream from the fuel injectors. The third pattern follows a novel approach of combined mixing/ignition technique, where the electrical discharge distributes along the fuel jet. The last pattern demonstrates a significant advantage in terms of flameholding limit. In the second series of tests, a long discharge of submicrosecond duration is generated across the flow and along the fuel jet. A gasdynamic instability of thermal cavity developed after a deposition of high-power density in a thin plasma filament promotes the air–fuel mixing. The technique studied in this work has weighty potential for high-speed combustion applications, including cold start/restart of scramjet engines and support of transition regime in dual-mode scramjet and at off-design operation. PMID:26170434
Flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition
Ueda, R.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.
2012-12-01
The behavior of interstitial fluid is one of major interest in earth sciences in terms of the exploitation of water resources, the initiation of earthquakes, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), etc. Seismic waves are often known to increase the flux of interstitial fluid but the relationship between the flux and propagating seismic waves have not been well investigated in the past, although seismic stimulation has been applied in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Many observations indicated that seismic waves could stimulate the oil production due to lowering of apparent viscosity coefficient, to the coalescence and/or the dispersion of droplets of a phase in multiphase fluids. However, the detailed mechanism of seismic stimulation has not been fully understood, either. In this study, We attempt to understand the mechanism of the flux change in viscous laminar flow under oscillating boundary condition for the simulation of interstitial flow. Here, we analyze a monophase flow in a pore throat. We first assume a Hagen-Poiseuille flow of incompressible fluid through a pore-throat in a porous medium. We adopt the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in which the motion of fluid is simulated through the variation of velocity distribution function representing the distribution of discrete particle velocities. We use an improved incompressible LBKG model (d2q9i) proposed in Zou et. al. (1995) to accurately accommodate the boundary conditions of pressure and velocity in the Hagen-Poiseuille flow. We also use an half-way bounce back boundary condition as the velocity boundary condition. Also, we assume a uniform pressure (density) difference between inlet and outlet flow, and the density difference could initiate the flow in our simulation. The oscillating boundary condition is given by the body force acting on fluid particles. In this simulation, we found that the flux change is negligible under small amplitude of oscillation in both horizontal and vertical directions
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VISCOUS DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE JIANGJIA RAVINE, YUNNAN, CHINA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuyi WANG; Chyandeng JAN; Changzhi LI; Wenliang HAN
2001-01-01
The rheological properties of natural debris flow are studied using experimental data obtained from a rheometer built by the authors. The present study is aimed to address the rheological properties of viscous debris flow at low shear rate. It is found that overstress effect and shear-rate-thinning phenomenon characterize the viscous debris flow in the Jiangjia Ravine, China. Results obtained from this study are believed to lay the foundation for further study on the theory of debris flow rheology.
Tangential injection to a supersonic flow on a blunted nose
Chuvakhov, P. V.; Egorov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Ezhov, I. V.; Novikov, I. V.; Vasilevskiy, E. B.
2017-06-01
The flow pattern and the heat §ux to a body surface at a tangential gas injecting have been investigated. The cooling air was injected to a §ow through the tangential axisymmetric slot on the spherically blunted cylinder. The experiments were conducted at M∞ = 6, Re∞,Rw = 0.76 · 106, angle of attack α = 0°-30°, and the slot width hk/Rw = 0-0.021. The mass rate of the injecting gas was G∗ = gj/(πρ∞ u2∞w) = 0- 0.16. It has been shown that maximum of the heat §ux toward the sphere surface can be sufficiently decreased. Numerical investigations have been carried out using the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) viscous compressible unsteady §ows at α = 0.
Modeling and control of flow-induced vibrations of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow
Caverly, Ryan James; Li, Chenyang; Chae, Eun Jung; Forbes, James Richard; Young, Yin Lu
2016-06-01
In this paper, a reduced-order model (ROM) of the flow-induced vibrations of a flexible cantilevered hydrofoil is developed and used to design an active feedback controller. The ROM is developed using data from high-fidelity viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations and includes nonlinear terms to accurately capture the effect of lock-in. An active linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is designed based on a linearization of the ROM and is implemented in simulation with the ROM and the high-fidelity viscous FSI model. A controller saturation method is also presented that ensures that the control force applied to the system remains within a prescribed range. Simulation results demonstrate that the LQG controller successfully suppresses vibrations in both the ROM and viscous FSI simulations using a reasonable amount of control force.
Effect of swirling device on flow behavior in a supersonic separator for natural gas dehydration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wen, Chuang; Li, Anqi; Walther, Jens Honore;
2016-01-01
The supersonic separator is a revolutionary device to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. One of the key issues for this novel technology is the complex supersonic swirling flow that is not well understood. A swirling device composed of an ellipsoid and several helical blades is ...... the separation performance. When the swirling flow passes through the annular nozzle, it will damage the expansion characteristics of the annular nozzle. The blade angles and numbers are both optimized by evaluating the swirling and expansion effects for the supersonic separation....
Generalized primary/secondary flow analysis of viscous flow around bodies at incidence
Govindan, T. R.; Briley, W. R.; Chang, Ming-Shun
1991-01-01
Generalized primary/secondary flow equations, which are an approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations, have been utilized to compute the three-dimensional viscous flow around bodies at incidence. Two features central to the approximations in the primary/secondary flow equations are a locally specified primary flow direction and a decomposition of the secondary velocity field. For the flow around a body at incidence, the local primary flow direction is aligned with streamlines for the potential flow around the body at zero degrees incidence. A sequentially decoupled implicit algorithm exploits the form of the primary/secondary flow equations for fast run times. Computed solutions for flow around an ogive cylinder at incidence and an unappended submarine hull in drift have been presented. These solutions show the generation of strong lee-side vortices which are a source of propulsor inlet distortion and a side-force on the body. Computed solutions agree well with available experimental data. The combined efficiency and accuracy of the approximate equations and solution algorithm make this approach attractive for computing viscous flow around bodies at incidence.
Dynamics of Lipid Bilayer Vesicles in Viscous Flows
Schwalbe, Jonathan; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael J.
2008-11-01
An analytical theory is developed to describe the dynamics of a closed lipid bilayer membrane (vesicle) in a general linear viscous flow. The dynamics of the membrane is governed by the Stokes equations in the fluid plus the normal and tangential stress condition along the bilayer interface. The effects of the membrane fluidity, incompressibility and resistance to bending are taken into account. The model is a generalization of the work on planar membranes by Seifert and Langer (Europhys. Lett. vol. 23, 71, 1993), which accounted for the variations in lipid density along both leaflets of the bilayer. Considering a nearly spherical vesicle, a perturbation solution is derived. The leading order analysis results in a nonlinear coupled system of equations for the dynamics of the shape and the mean lipid density difference between the inner and outer monolayer. Multiple solution states are found as a function of viscosity ratio and the monolayer slip coefficient. The dynamics and stability of these solutions is discussed. Comparisons are made to previous works based on the minimal curvature model which did not consider variable lipid density.
Unsteady flow in a supersonic cascade with strong in-passage shocks
Goldstein, M. E.; Braun, W.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1977-01-01
Linearized theory is used to study the unsteady flow in a supersonic cascade with in-passage shock waves. We use the Wiener-Hopf technique to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the supersonic region. To obtain a solution for the rotational flow in the subsonic region we must solve an infinite set of linear algebraic equations. The analysis shows that it is possible to correlate quantitatively the oscillatory shock motion with the Kutta condition at the trailing edges of the blades. This feature allows us to account for the effect of shock motion on the stability of the cascade. Unlike the theory for a completely supersonic flow, the present study predicts the occurrence of supersonic bending flutter. It therefore provides a possible explanation for the bending flutter that has recently been detected in aircraft-engine compressors at higher blade loadings.
Perdigou, C.; Audoly, B.
2016-11-01
The stability of thin viscous sheets has been studied so far in the special case where the base flow possesses a direction of invariance: the linear stability is then governed by an ordinary differential equation. We propose a mathematical formulation and a numerical method of solution that are applicable to the linear stability analysis of viscous sheets possessing no particular symmetry. The linear stability problem is formulated as a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem in a 2D domain and is solved numerically using the finite-element method. Specifically, we consider the case of a viscous sheet in an open flow, which falls in a bath of fluid; the sheet is mildly stretched by gravity and the flow can become unstable by 'curtain' modes. The growth rates of these modes are calculated as a function of the fluid parameters and of the geometry, and a phase diagram is obtained. A transition is reported between a buckling mode (static bifurcation) and an oscillatory mode (Hopf bifurcation). The effect of surface tension is discussed.
Rheological properties and the mechanism of a viscous flow of aqueous pectin solutions
Netesova, G. A.; Kotov, V. V.; Bodyakina, I. M.; Lukin, A. L.
2012-09-01
The rheological properties and mechanisms of a viscous flow of diluted apple pectin solutions are investigated. It is found that the rise in solution viscosity upon an increase in concentration and a drop in temperature is, along with the corresponding degree to which the interaction between pectin molecules and solvent is reduced, associated with the processes of structuring. The entropy of a viscous flow of pectin solutions is found to be positive: it grows with a rise in concentration is virtually temperature independent. It is established that the entropy factor makes the main contribution to the free energy value of a viscous flow.
Unsteady Viscous Flow Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Past an Impulsively Started Porous Vertical Surface with Variable Viscosity Fluid in the Presence of Viscous Dissipation: BSRM Approach.
The flow feature of transverse hydrogen jet in presence of micro air jets in supersonic flow
Barzegar Gerdroodbary, M.; Amini, Younes; Ganji, D. D.; Takam, M. Rahimi
2017-03-01
Scramjet is found to be the efficient method for the space shuttle. In this paper, numerical simulation is performed to investigate the fundamental flow physics of the interaction between an array of fuel jets and multi air jets in a supersonic transverse flow. Hydrogen as a fuel is released with a global equivalence ratio of 0.5 in presence of micro air jets on a flat plate into a Mach 4 crossflow. The fuel and air are injected through streamwise-aligned flush circular portholes. The hydrogen is injected through 4 holes with 7dj space when the air is injected in the interval of the hydrogen jets. The numerical simulation is performed by using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Menter's Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Both the number of air jets and jet-to-freestream total pressure ratio are varied in a parametric study. The interaction of the fuel and air jet in the supersonic flow present extremely complex feature of fuel and air jet. The results present various flow features depending upon the number and mass flow rate of micro air jets. These flow features were found to have significant effects on the penetration of hydrogen jets. A variation of the number of air jets, along with the jet-to-freestream total pressure ratio, induced a variety of flow structure in the downstream of the fuel jets.
Hafez, M.; Soliman, M.; White, S.
1992-01-01
A new formulation (including the choice of variables, their non-dimensionalization, and the form of the artificial viscosity) is proposed for the numerical solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible and incompressible flows with heat transfer. With the present approach, the same code can be used for constant as well as variable density flows. The changes of the density due to pressure and temperature variations are identified and it is shown that the low Mach number approximation is a special case. At zero Mach number, the density changes due to the temperature variation are accounted for, mainly through a body force term in the momentum equation. It is also shown that the Boussinesq approximation of the buoyancy effects in an incompressible flow is a special case. To demonstrate the new capability, three examples are tested. Flows in driven cavities with adiabatic and isothermal walls are simulated with the same code as well as incompressible and supersonic flows over a wall with and without a groove. Finally, viscous flow simulations of an oblique shock reflection from a flat plate are shown to be in good agreement with the solutions available in literature.
Numerical Simulation of the Supersonic Flows in the Second Throat Ejector —Diffuser Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HeuydongKim; ToshiakiSetoguchi; 等
1999-01-01
The supersonic ejector-diffuser system with a second throat was simulated using CFD.A fully implicity finite volume scheme was applied to solve the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and a standard k-ε turbulence model was used to close the governing equations,The flow field in the supersonic ejectordiffuser system was investigated by changing the ejector throat area ratio and the secondary mass flow ratio at a fixed operating pressure ratio of 10. A convergent-divergent nozzle with a design Mach number of 2.11 was selected to give the supersonic operation of the ejector -diffuser system.For the constant area mixing tube the secondary mass flow seemed not to singnificantly change the flow field in the ejector-diffuser systems.It was however,found that the flow in the ejector-diffuser systems having the second throat is strongly dependent on the secondary mass flow.
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical double passage channel ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The perturbation method which is valid for small values of perturbation parameter is used to ...
High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows
Rom, Josef
1992-01-01
The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...
Magnetohydrodynamic Viscous Flow Over a Shrinking Sheet With Second Order Slip Flow Model
Mahmood, T; Abbas, G
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow with second order slip flow model over a permeable shrinking surface. We have obtained the closed form of exact solution of Navier-Stokes equations by using similarity variable technique. The effects of slip, suction and magnetic parameter have been investigated in detail. The results show that there are two solution branches, namely lower and upper solution branch. The behavior of velocity and shear stress profiles for different values of slip, suction and magnetic parameters has been discussed through graphs.
Shock Train and Pseudo-shock Phenomena in Supersonic Internal Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kazuyasu Matsuo
2003-01-01
When a normal shock wave interacts with a boundary layer along a wall surface in supersonic internal flows and the shock is strong enough to separate the boundary layer, the shock is bifurcated and a series of shocks called "shock train" is formed. The flow is decelerated from supersonic to subsonic through the whole interaction region that is referred to as "pseudo-shock". In the present paper some characteristics of the shock train and pseudo-shock and some examples of the pseudo-shocks in some flow devices are described.
Observation of Single-Mode, Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in a Supersonic Flow.
Wan, W C; Malamud, G; Shimony, A; Di Stefano, C A; Trantham, M R; Klein, S R; Shvarts, D; Kuranz, C C; Drake, R P
2015-10-02
We report the first observation, in a supersonic flow, of the evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from a single-mode initial condition. To obtain these data, we used a novel experimental system to produce a steady shock wave of unprecedented duration in a laser-driven experiment. The shocked, flowing material creates a shear layer between two plasmas at high energy density. We measured the resulting interface structure using radiography. Hydrodynamic simulations reproduce the large-scale structures very well and the medium-scale structures fairly well, and imply that we observed the expected reduction in growth rate for supersonic shear flow.
Walitt, L.
1982-01-01
The VANS successive approximation numerical method was extended to the computation of three dimensional, viscous, transonic flows in turbomachines. A cross-sectional computer code, which conserves mass flux at each point of the cross-sectional surface of computation was developed. In the VANS numerical method, the cross-sectional computation follows a blade-to-blade calculation. Numerical calculations were made for an axial annular turbine cascade and a transonic, centrifugal impeller with splitter vanes. The subsonic turbine cascade computation was generated in blade-to-blade surface to evaluate the accuracy of the blade-to-blade mode of marching. Calculated blade pressures at the hub, mid, and tip radii of the cascade agreed with corresponding measurements. The transonic impeller computation was conducted to test the newly developed locally mass flux conservative cross-sectional computer code. Both blade-to-blade and cross sectional modes of calculation were implemented for this problem. A triplet point shock structure was computed in the inducer region of the impeller. In addition, time-averaged shroud static pressures generally agreed with measured shroud pressures. It is concluded that the blade-to-blade computation produces a useful engineering flow field in regions of subsonic relative flow; and cross-sectional computation, with a locally mass flux conservative continuity equation, is required to compute the shock waves in regions of supersonic relative flow.
Yuan, Ruifeng
2016-01-01
An immersed-boundary (IB) method is proposed and applied in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme to simulate incompressible/compressible viscous flow with stationary/moving boundary. In present method the ghost-cell technique is adopted to fulfill the boundary condition on the immersed boundary. A novel idea "local boundary determination" is put forward to identify the ghost cells, each of which may have several different ghost-cell constructions corresponding to different boundary segments, thus eliminating the singularity of the ghost cell. Furthermore, the so-called "fresh-cell" problem when implementing the IB method in moving-boundary simulation is resolved by a simple extrapolation in time. The method is firstly applied in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme to simulate the Taylor-Couette flow, where the second-order spatial accuracy of the method is validated and the "super-convergence" of the BGK scheme is observed. Then the test cases of supersonic flow around a stationary cylinder, incompressible flow around an oscill...
Limiting flows of a viscous fluid with stationary separation zones with Re approaching infinity
Taganov, G. I.
1982-01-01
The limiting flows of a viscous noncondensable fluid, which are approached by flows with stationary separation zones behind planar symmetrical bodies, with an unlimited increase in the Reynolds number are studied. Quantitative results are obtained in the case of a circulation flow inside of a separation zone.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Liushuai CAO; Jun ZHU; Guanghui ZENG
2016-01-01
.... In a collaborative exercise, the authors performed calculations on the bare hull DRAPA SUBOFF submarine to investigate the capability of viscous-flow solvers to predict the forces and moments as well...
Quantitative planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph: visualisation of a supersonic wedge flow
Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Bakker, P.G.
2005-01-01
Planar Raman imaging through a spectrograph is demonstrated as a diagnostic tool for quantitative flow visualisation of internal supersonic wedge flow. A dedicated Bayesian deconvolution filter is used to remove the spectral structure that is introduced by the spectrograph. The 2D density field is d
The three-dimensional flow organization past a micro-ramp in a supersonic boundary layer
Sun, Z.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.
2012-01-01
The three-dimensional instantaneous flow organization in the near wake of a micro-ramp interacting with a Mach 2.0 supersonic turbulent boundary layer is studied using tomographic particle image velocimetry. The mean flow reveals a wake with approximately circular cross section dominated by a pair o
Shock Waves Oscillations in the Interaction of Supersonic Flows with the Head of the Aircraft
Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.
2016-01-01
In this article we reviewed the shock wave oscillation that occurs when supersonic flows interact with conic, blunt or flat nose of aircraft, taking into account the aerospike attached to it. The main attention was paid to the problem of numerical modeling of such oscillation, flow regime classification, and cases where aerospike attachment can…
Flow dynamical behavior and performance of a micro viscous pump with unequal inlet and outlet areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenhui Hu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The micro viscous pump is an important type of fluidic device. Optimizing the working performance of the pump is crucial for its wider application. A micro viscous pump design with unequal inlet and outlet areas is proposed in this paper. The flow field of the viscous pump is investigated using 2D laminar simulations. The mass flow rate and driving power are studied with different opening angles. The effects of the Reynolds number and the pressure load on the working performance are discussed in detail. Flow structures and vortex evolution are analyzed. With larger inlet and outlet areas, a higher mass flow rate is obtained and less driving power is achieved. A high pressure load results in a reduction in mass flow rate and an increase in driving power. Pumps with large opening angles are more susceptive to the Reynolds number and the pressure load. The adverse impact of the pressure load can be reduced by increasing the rotor speed. The vortex structure is affected by the geometric and operating parameters in the flow field. The flow dynamical behavior of the viscous pump exerts significant influence on its pumping ability. The present work gives rise to performance improvements for the micro viscous pump.
Three vortex motion in the slightly viscous flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The dynamics of three vortices moving in an ideal fluid in a plane can be expressed in Hamiltonian form. However, when viscosity can not be ignored, the system of point vortices has not this delicious structure. This investigation focuses on the viscosity effect on the motion of three vortices. Since the viscous diffusion of vortices is simulated by Brownian motion, the equations of intervortical distances are obtained by Ito formula. These equations show that there exist two viscosity effects on intervortical distances: stable expansion and random impulse. Furthermore, via employing the asymptotic solution to these equations, these two viscous effects have been shown to destroy the self-similar process of collapse and make it into a new configuration, which is similar to the near collapse in the ideal case.
Bulk flow coupled to a viscous interfacial film sheared by a rotating knife edge
Raghunandan, Aditya; Rasheed, Fayaz; Hirsa, Amir; Lopez, Juan
2015-11-01
The measurement of the interfacial properties of highly viscous biofilms, such as DPPC (the primary component of lung surfactant), present on the surface of liquids (bulk phase) continues to attract significant attention. Most measurement techniques rely on shearing the interfacial film and quantifying its viscous response in terms of a surface (excess) viscosity at the air-liquid interface. The knife edge viscometer offers a significant advantage over other approaches used to study highly viscous films as the film is directly sheared by a rotating knife edge in direct contact with the film. However, accurately quantifying the viscous response is non-trivial and involves accounting for the coupled interfacial and bulk phase flows. Here, we examine the nature of the viscous response of water insoluble DPPC films sheared in a knife edge viscometer over a range of surface packing, and its influence on the strength of the coupled bulk flow. Experimental results, obtained via Particle Image Velocimetry in the bulk and at the surface (via Brewster Angle Microscopy), are compared with numerical flow predictions to quantify the coupling across hydrodynamic flow regimes, from the Stokes flow limit to regimes where flow inertia is significant. Supported by NNX13AQ22G, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Study of density field measurement based on NPLS technique in supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Due to the influence of shock wave and turbulence, supersonic density field exhibits strongly inhomogeneous and unsteady characteristics. Applying traditional density field measurement techniques to supersonic flows yields three problems: low spatiotemporal resolution, limitation of measuring 3D density field, and low signal to noise ratio (SNR). A new method based on Nano-based Planar Laser Scattering (NPLS) technique is proposed in this paper to measure supersonic density field. This method measures planar transient density field in 3D supersonic flow by calibrating the relationship between density and concentration of tracer particles, which would display the density fluctuation due to the influence of shock waves and vortexes. The application of this new method to density field measurement of supersonic optical bow cap is introduced in this paper, and the results reveal shock wave, turbulent boundary layer in the flow with the spatial resolution of 93.2 μm/pixel. By analyzing the results at interval of 5 μs, temporal evolution of density field can be observed.
Study of density field measurement based on NPLS technique in supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN LiFeng; YI ShiHe; ZHAO YuXin; HE Lin; CHENG ZhongYu
2009-01-01
Due to the influence of shock wave and turbulence,supersonic density field exhibits strongly inho-mogeneous and unsteady characteristics.Applying traditional density field measurement techniques to supersonic flows yields three problems: low spatiotemporal resolution,limitation of measuring 3D density field,and low signal to noise ratio (SNR).A new method based on Nano-based Planar Laser Scattering (NPLS) technique is proposed in this paper to measure supersonic density field.This method measures planar transient density field in 3D supersonic flow by calibrating the relationship between density and concentration of tracer particles,which would display the density fluctuation due to the influence of shock waves and vortexes.The application of this new method to density field measurement of supersonic optical bow cap is introduced in this paper,and the results reveal shock wave,turbulent boundary layer in the flow with the spatial resolution of 93.2 pm/pixel.By analyzing the results at interval of 5 μs,temporal evolution of density field can be observed.
Analysis of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressor by actuator disk theory
Adamczyk, J. J.
1978-01-01
An analytical model was developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressors. The analysis is based on two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model. Calculations show that the model predicts the onset, in an unshrouded rotor, of a bending flutter mode that exhibits many of the characteristics of supersonic stall bending flutter. The validity of the analysis for predicting this flutter mode is demonstrated.
EOIL power scaling in a 1-5 kW supersonic discharge-flow reactor
Davis, Steven J.; Lee, Seonkyung; Oakes, David B.; Haney, Julie; Magill, John C.; Paulsen, Dwane A.; Cataldi, Paul; Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Vu, Danthu; Polex, Jan; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.
2008-02-01
Scaling of EOIL systems to higher powers requires extension of electric discharge powers into the kW range and beyond with high efficiency and singlet oxygen yield. We have previously demonstrated a high-power microwave discharge approach capable of generating singlet oxygen yields of ~25% at ~50 torr pressure and 1 kW power. This paper describes the implementation of this method in a supersonic flow reactor designed for systematic investigations of the scaling of gain and lasing with power and flow conditions. The 2450 MHz microwave discharge, 1 to 5 kW, is confined near the flow axis by a swirl flow. The discharge effluent, containing active species including O II(a1Δ g, b1Σ g +), O( 3P), and O 3, passes through a 2-D flow duct equipped with a supersonic nozzle and cavity. I2 is injected upstream of the supersonic nozzle. The apparatus is water-cooled, and is modular to permit a variety of inlet, nozzle, and optical configurations. A comprehensive suite of optical emission and absorption diagnostics is used to monitor the absolute concentrations of O II(a), O II(b), O( 3P), O 3, I II, I(2P 3/2), I(2P 1/2), small-signal gain, and temperature in both the subsonic and supersonic flow streams. We discuss initial measurements of singlet oxygen and I* excitation kinetics at 1 kW power.
Computation of Viscous Uniform and Shear Flow over A Circular Cylinder by A Finite Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵明; 滕斌
2004-01-01
The incompressible viscous uniform and shear flow past a circular cylinder is studied. The two-dimensional NavierStokes equations are solved by a finite element method. The governing equations are discretized by a weighted residual method in space. The stable three-step scheme is applied to the momentum equations in the time integration. The numerical model is firstly applied to the computation of the lid-driven cavity flow for its validation. The computed results agree well with the measured data and other numerical results. Then, it is used to simulate the viscous uniform and shear flow over a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000. The transient time interval before the vortex shedding occurs is shortened considerably by introduction of artificial perturbation. The computed Strouhal number, drag and lift coefficients agree well with the experimental data. The computation shows that the finite element model can be successfully applied to the viscous flow problem.
Experiments on free and impinging supersonic microjets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phalnikar, K.A.; Kumar, R.; Alvi, F.S. [Florida A and M University and Florida State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2008-05-15
The fluid dynamics of microflows has recently commanded considerable attention because of their potential applications. Until now, with a few exceptions, most of the studies have been limited to low speed flows. This experimental study examines supersonic microjets of 100-1,000 {mu}m in size with exit velocities in the range of 300-500 m/s. Such microjets are presently being used to actively control larger supersonic impinging jets, which occur in STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) aircraft, cavity flows, and flow separation. Flow properties of free as well as impinging supersonic microjets have been experimentally investigated over a range of geometric and flow parameters. The flowfield is visualized using a micro-schlieren system with a high magnification. These schlieren images clearly show the characteristic shock cell structure typically observed in larger supersonic jets. Quantitative measurements of the jet decay and spreading rates as well as shock cell spacing are obtained using micro-pitot probe surveys. In general, the mean flow features of free microjets are similar to larger supersonic jets operating at higher Reynolds numbers. However, some differences are also observed, most likely due to pronounced viscous effects associated with jets at these small scales. Limited studies of impinging microjets were also conducted. They reveal that, similar to the behavior of free microjets, the flow structure of impinging microjets strongly resembles that of larger supersonic impinging jets. (orig.)
Experiments on free and impinging supersonic microjets
Phalnikar, K. A.; Kumar, R.; Alvi, F. S.
2008-05-01
The fluid dynamics of microflows has recently commanded considerable attention because of their potential applications. Until now, with a few exceptions, most of the studies have been limited to low speed flows. This experimental study examines supersonic microjets of 100-1,000 μm in size with exit velocities in the range of 300-500 m/s. Such microjets are presently being used to actively control larger supersonic impinging jets, which occur in STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) aircraft, cavity flows, and flow separation. Flow properties of free as well as impinging supersonic microjets have been experimentally investigated over a range of geometric and flow parameters. The flowfield is visualized using a micro-schlieren system with a high magnification. These schlieren images clearly show the characteristic shock cell structure typically observed in larger supersonic jets. Quantitative measurements of the jet decay and spreading rates as well as shock cell spacing are obtained using micro-pitot probe surveys. In general, the mean flow features of free microjets are similar to larger supersonic jets operating at higher Reynolds numbers. However, some differences are also observed, most likely due to pronounced viscous effects associated with jets at these small scales. Limited studies of impinging microjets were also conducted. They reveal that, similar to the behavior of free microjets, the flow structure of impinging microjets strongly resembles that of larger supersonic impinging jets.
Yan, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tian-tian
2016-10-01
Sufficient mixing between the supersonic airstream and the injectant is critical for the design of scramjet engines. The information in the two-dimensional supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field has been explored numerically and theoretically, and the numerical approach has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the extreme difference analysis approach can obtain deeper information than the variance analysis method, and the optimal strategy can be generated by the extreme difference analysis approach. The jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important influencing factor for the supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field, following is the injection angle, and all the design variables have no remarkable impact on the separation length and the height of Mach disk in the range considered in the current study.
Trajectory Analysis of Fuel Injection into Supersonic Cross Flow Based on Schlieren Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Hui; LI Feng; SUN Baigang
2012-01-01
Trajectory analysis of fuel injection into supersonic cross flow is studied in this paper.A directly-connected wind tunnel is constructed to provide stable supersonic freestream.Based on the test rig,the schlieren system is established to reveal the fuel injection process visually.Subsequently,the method of quantitative schlieren is adopted to obtain data of both fuel/air interface and bow shock with the aid of Photoshop and Origin.Finally,the mechanism based on two influential factors of fuel injection angle and fuel injection driven pressure,is researched by vector analysis.A dimensionless model is deduced and analyzed.The curve fitting result is achieved.The relationship between the data and the two influential factors is established.The results provide not only the quantitative characteristics of the fuel injection in supersonic cross flow but also the valuable reference for the future computational simulation.
Simplex finite element analysis of viscous incompressible flow with penalty function formulation
Allaire, P. E.; Rosen, M. C.; Rice, J. G.
1985-01-01
Viscous flow calculations are important for the determination of separated flows, recirculating flows, secondary flows and so on. This paper presents a penalty function approach for the finite element analysis of steady incompressible viscous flow. A simplex element is used with linear velocity and constant pressure in contrast to other works which usually employ higher order elements. Simplex elements yield analytical expressions for the element matrices which in turn lead to efficient solutions. Earlier works have partially indicated how constraint and lock-up problems might be avoided for simplex elements. This paper extends the earlier works by indicating the approach in detail and verifying that it is successful for several applications not discussed in the literature so far. Solution times and accuracy considerations are discussed for Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, a driven cavity problem, and laminar and turbulent flow over a step.
Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin Di; Cui Wei; Li Yinghong; Li Fanyu; Jia Min; Sun Quan; Zhang Bailing
2015-01-01
The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being stud-ied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both exper-imentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after chang-ing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heat-ing efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 · 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma syn-thetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.
Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Di
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being studied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after changing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heating efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 × 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma synthetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Yang
Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.
Viscous flow in simple curved gaps. I - An asymptotic theory. II - Viscous stress and shape function
Fan, D.-N.; Tong, W.
1989-01-01
The present asymptotic theory for generalized incompressible two-dimensional steady flow in curved channels has been constructed in the limit when gas thickness approaches zero with its lateral dimensions fixed; successive asymptotic solution terms are analytically generated by quadratures. In the second part of this work, the curvature of the gap treated is arbitrary. It is established that each term in the series solution of velocity and pressure is the product of a scale factor and a universal shape functions. Various interaction modes between the volume rate-of-flow, curvature, and its variations, are identified and quantitatively characterized.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏文韫; 朱家骅; 夏素兰; 戴光清; 高旭东
2002-01-01
Modelling and simulations are conducted on velocity slip and interfacial momentum transfer for super-sonic two-phase (gas-droplet) flow in the transient section inside and outside a Laval jet(L J). The initial velocity slipbetween gas and droplets causes an interfacial momentum transfer flux as high as (2.0-5.0) × 104 Pa. The relaxationtime corresponding to this transient process is in the range of 0.015-0.090 ms for the two-phase flow formed insidethe LJ and less than 0.5 ms outside the LJ. It demonstrates the unique performance of this system for application tofast chemical reactions using electrically active media with a lifetime in the order of 1 ms. Through the simulationsof the transient processes with initial Mach number Mg from 2.783 to 4.194 at different axial positions inside theLJ. it is found that Mg has the strongest effect on the process. The momentum flux increases as the Mach numberdecreases. Due to compression by the shock wave at the end of the L J, the flow pattern becomes two dimensionaland viscous outside the LJ. Laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements of droplet velocities outside the LJ arein reasonably good agreement with the results of the simulation.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
HARI MOHAN KUSHWAHA; SANTOSH K SAHU
2016-06-01
This paper presents an analytical investigation to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in the slip flow region for hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed flow between parallel plates.Both upper and lower plates are subjected to asymmetric heat flux boundary conditions. The effect of first ordervelocity slip, temperature jump, asymmetric heat flux ratio and viscous dissipation on the heat transfer performance is analyzed. Closed form expressions are obtained for the temperature distribution and Nusselt number. Present predictions are verified for the cases that neglect the viscous heating and microscale effects. The effect of asymmetric heat flux ratio with and without viscous dissipation on Nusselt number for both macroscale and microscale is highlighted. The heat transfer characteristics are found to depend on various modeling parameters, namely, modified Brinkman number, Knudsen number and heat flux ratio
Influence of rarefaction on the flow dynamics of a stationary supersonic hot-gas expansion.
Abbate, G; Kleijn, C R; Thijsse, B J; Engeln, R; van de Sanden, M C M; Schram, D C
2008-03-01
The gas dynamics of a stationary hot-gas jet supersonically expanding into a low pressure environment is studied through numerical simulations. A hybrid coupled continuum-molecular approach is used to model the flow field. Due to the low pressure and high thermodynamic gradients, continuum mechanics results are doubtful, while, because of its excessive time expenses, a full molecular method is not feasible. The results of the hybrid coupled continuum-molecular approach proposed have been successfully validated against experimental data by R. Engeln [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10, 595 (2001)] obtained by means of laser induced fluorescence. Two main questions are addressed: the necessity of applying a molecular approach where rarefaction effects are present in order to correctly model the flow and the demonstration of an invasion of the supersonic part of the flow by background particles. A comparison between the hybrid method and full continuum simulations demonstrates the inadequacy of the latter, due to the influence of rarefaction effects on both velocity and temperature fields. An analysis of the particle velocity distribution in the expansion-shock region shows clear departure from thermodynamic equilibrium and confirms the invasion of the supersonic part of the flow by background particles. A study made through particles and collisions tracking in the supersonic region further proves the presence of background particles in this region and explains how they cause thermodynamic nonequilibrium by colliding and interacting with the local particles.
2013-11-01
269–275. 9. Stahl, B.; Edmunds , H.; Gulhan, A. Experimental Investigation of Hot and Cold Side Jet Interaction With a Supersonic Cross Flow...LICHTENBERG-SCANLAN G MALEJKO T RECCHIA C STOUT W TOLEDO J TRAVAILLE E VAZQUEZ C WILSON 4 PM CAS (PDF) M BURKE R KIEBLER
Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang
2015-12-01
The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.
Global Existence of a Shock for the Supersonic Flow Past a Curved Wedge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui Cheng YIN
2006-01-01
This note is devoted to the study of the global existence of a shock wave for the supersonic flow past a curved wedge. When the curved wedge is a small perturbation of a straight wedge and the angle of the wedge is less than some critical value, we show that a shock attached at the wedge will exist globally.
CFD modeling of particle behavior in supersonic flows with strong swirls for gas separation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang
2017-01-01
flow from the dry gas outlet. The separation efficiency reached over 80%, when the droplet diameter was more than 1.5 μm. The optimum length of the cyclonic separation section was approximate 16–20 times of the nozzle throat diameter to obtain higher collection efficiency for the supersonic separator...
Particle support mechanism in viscous debris flows at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王裕宜[1; 费祥俊[2
1999-01-01
Hyperconcentrated viscous debris flows can move rapidly on low-gradient ravine under shear, because they have highly excessive pore pressure. The relationship between excessive pore-pressure （Pe） and volume concentration (Cvt) in viscous debris flows, i.e. Pe=2 494.76Cvt0.94, is quantitatively shown; the correlation coefficient γ=0.9671, 95％ confidence interval is 0.9053<ρ<0.9937. About 92.29％ of all grains （by weight） is supported by excessive pore pressure.##属性不符
Molecular dynamics computations of two dimensional supersonic rarefied gas flow past blunt bodies
Greber, Isaac; Wachman, Harold Y.; Woo, Myeung-Jouh
1991-01-01
This paper presents results of molecular dynamics computations of supersonic flow past a circular cylinder and past a flat plate perpendicular to a supersonic stream. The results are for Mach numbers of approximately 5 and 10, for several Knudsen numbers and several ratios of surface to free stream temperatures. A special feature of the computations is the use of relatively small numbers of particles in the molecular dynamics simulation, and an examination of the adequacy of using small numbers of particles to obtain physically useful results.
Molecular dynamics computations of two dimensional supersonic rarefied gas flow past blunt bodies
Greber, Isaac; Wachman, Harold Y.; Woo, Myeung-Jouh
1991-01-01
This paper presents results of molecular dynamics computations of supersonic flow past a circular cylinder and past a flat plate perpendicular to a supersonic stream. The results are for Mach numbers of approximately 5 and 10, for several Knudsen numbers and several ratios of surface to free stream temperatures. A special feature of the computations is the use of relatively small numbers of particles in the molecular dynamics simulation, and an examination of the adequacy of using small numbers of particles to obtain physically useful results.
Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm
2014-01-01
Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases. This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...
Lectures on Mathematical Foundation of Turbulent Viscous Flows
Miyakawa, Tetsuro
2006-01-01
Five leading specialists reflect on different and complementary approaches to fundamental questions in the study of the Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics equations. Constantin presents the Euler equations of ideal incompressible fluids and discusses the blow-up problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of viscous fluids, describing some of the major mathematical questions of turbulence theory. These questions are connected to the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg theory of singularities for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is explained in Gallavotti's lectures. Kazhikhov introduces the theory of strong approximation of weak limits via the method of averaging, applied to Navier-Stokes equations. Y. Meyer focuses on several nonlinear evolution equations - in particular Navier-Stokes - and some related unexpected cancellation properties, either imposed on the initial condition, or satisfied by the solution itself, whenever it is localized in space or in time variable. Ukai presents the asymptotic analysis th...
Supersonic flow onto solid wedges, multidimensional shock waves and free boundary problems
Chen, Gui-Qiang
2017-08-01
When an upstream steady uniform supersonic flow impinges onto a symmetric straight-sided wedge, governed by the Euler equations, there are two possible steady oblique shock configurations if the wedge angle is less than the detachment angle -- the steady weak shock with supersonic or subsonic downstream flow (determined by the wedge angle that is less or larger than the sonic angle) and the steady strong shock with subsonic downstream flow, both of which satisfy the entropy condition. The fundamental issue -- whether one or both of the steady weak and strong shocks are physically admissible solutions -- has been vigorously debated over the past eight decades. In this paper, we survey some recent developments on the stability analysis of the steady shock solutions in both the steady and dynamic regimes. For the static stability, we first show how the stability problem can be formulated as an initial-boundary value type problem and then reformulate it into a free boundary problem when the perturbation of both the upstream steady supersonic flow and the wedge boundary are suitably regular and small, and we finally present some recent results on the static stability of the steady supersonic and transonic shocks. For the dynamic stability for potential flow, we first show how the stability problem can be formulated as an initial-boundary value problem and then use the self-similarity of the problem to reduce it into a boundary value problem and further reformulate it into a free boundary problem, and we finally survey some recent developments in solving this free boundary problem for the existence of the Prandtl-Meyer configurations that tend to the steady weak supersonic or transonic oblique shock solutions as time goes to infinity. Some further developments and mathematical challenges in this direction are also discussed.
Viscous-shock-layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium
Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.
1975-01-01
The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.
Viscous shock layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium
Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.
1975-01-01
The viscous shock layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow fields. Solutions are obtained using an implicit finite difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cone configurations at free stream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.
Entropy Generation In The Viscous Layer Of A Turbulent Channel Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D. M. McEligot; E. J. Walsh; E. Laurien; James R. Wolf
2006-09-01
The local (pointwise) entropy generation rate per unit volume S''' is a key to improving many energy processes and applications. Entropy generation due to friction occurs from viscous dissipation of mean-flow kinetic energy (called "direct dissipation") and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into thermal energy ("indirect" or turbulent dissipation). The objective of the present study is to compare two approaches for the prediction of S''' for the viscous layer in near asymptotic (high Reynolds number) turbulent flows. By employing available direct numerical simulations (DNS) it was found that about two-thirds of the entropy generation occurs in this layer. A popular approximate approach does not agree with the result from the more exact evaluation of S''' but its integral falls within about four per cent at the edge of the viscous layer.
An adaptive semi-implicit scheme for simulations of unsteady viscous compressible flows
Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Crutchfield, William Y.; Bell, John B.; Colella, Phillip
1995-11-01
A numerical scheme for simulation of unsteady, viscous, compressible flows is considered. The scheme employs an explicit discretization of the inviscid terms of the Navier-Stokes equations and an implicit discretization of the viscous terms. The discretization is second order accurate in both space and time. Under appropriate assumptions, the implicit system of equations can be decoupled into two linear systems of reduced rank. These are solved efficiently using a Gauss-Seidel method with multigrid convergence acceleration. When coupled with a solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique, the hybrid explicit-implicit scheme provides an effective methodology for accurate simulations of unsteady viscous flows. The methodology is demonstrated for both body-fitted structured grids and for rectangular (Cartesian) grids.
The calibration and operation of a constant-temperature crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow
Fernando, E. M.; Donovan, J. F.; Smits, A. J.
1987-01-01
The calibration and operation of a constant-temperature crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow is considered. Crossed-wire probes offer considerable advantages over single, inclined wires: the kinematic shear stress can be derived from a single point measurement; the rms quantities can be derived from the same measurement, and the instantaneous quantities can be obtained as a continuous function of time. However, using a crossed-wire probe in supersonic flow is subject to the following practical difficulties: the problem of flow interference, where the shock waves from one wire and its supports interfere with the flow over the other wire; the necessity for high frequency response to resolve the spectral content, and the sensitivity of the results to small changes in the calibration constants. In the present contribution, each of these problems is addressed. Practical solutions are suggested, and some encouraging results are presented.
LES of an inclined jet into a supersonic cross-flow
Ferrante, Antonino; Matheou, Georgios; Dimotakis, Paul E; Stephens, Mike; Adams, Paul; Walters, Richard; Hand, Randall
2008-01-01
This short article describes flow parameters, numerical method, and animations of the fluid dynamics video LES of an Inclined Jet into a Supersonic Cross-Flow (http://hdl.handle.net/1813/11480). Helium is injected through an inclined round jet into a supersonic air flow at Mach 3.6. The video shows 2D contours of Mach number and magnitude of density gradient, and 3D iso-surfaces of Helium mass-fraction and vortical structures. Large eddy simulation with the sub-grid scale (LES-SGS) stretched vortex model of turbulent and scalar transport captures the main flow features: bow shock, Mach disk, shear layers, counter-rotating vortices, and large-scale structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Srinivas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem under consideration have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An analytical approach, namely the homotopy analysis method is employed in order to obtain the solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The effects of various emerging parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Comparison of the HAM solutions with the numerical solutions is performed.
Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.
ON THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE STEADY SUPERSONIC FLOWS AT INFINITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG YONGQIAN
2005-01-01
This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of steady supersonic flow past a piecewise smooth corner or bend. Under the hypothese that both vertex angle and the total variation of tangent along the boundary are small, it is shown that the solution can be obtained by a modified Glimm scheme, and that the asymptotic behaviour of the solution is determined by the velocity of incoming flow and the limit of the tangent of the boundary at infinity.
Bounds on the Phase Velocity in the Linear Instability of Viscous Shear Flow Problem in the -Plane
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R G Shandil; Jagjit Singh
2003-05-01
Results obtained by Joseph (J. Fluid Mech. 33 (1968) 617) for the viscous parallel shear flow problem are extended to the problem of viscous parallel, shear flow problem in the beta plane and a sufficient condition for stability has also been derived.
Streng, Martin; Streng, M.; ten Cate, Eric; ten Cate, Eric (H.H.); Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.
1998-01-01
We consider several aspects of efficient numerical simulation of viscous compressible flow on both homogeneous and heterogeneous workstation-clusters. We consider dedicated systems, as well as clusters operating in a multi-user environment. For dedicated homogeneous clusters, we show that with
Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow
Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG BoQing; JIANG Wei
2008-01-01
This article concerns large time behavior of Ladyzhenskaya model for incompressible viscous flows in R3. Based on linear Lp-Lq estimates, the auxiliary decay properties of the solutions and generalized Gronwall type arguments, some optimal upper and lower bounds for the decay of higher order derivatives of solutions are derived without assuming any decay properties of solutions and using Fourier splitting technology.
Two Experiments to Approach the Boltzmann Factor: Chemical Reaction and Viscous Flow
Fazio, Claudio; Battaglia, Onofrio R.; Guastella, Ivan
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss a pedagogical approach aimed at pointing out the role played by the Boltzmann factor in describing phenomena usually perceived as regulated by different mechanisms of functioning. Experimental results regarding some aspects of a chemical reaction and of the viscous flow of some liquids are analysed and described in terms…
Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES
Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team
2015-11-01
Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.
Imaging of the Space-time Structure of a Vortex Generator in Supersonic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dengpan; XIA Zhixun; ZHAO Yuxin; WANG Bo; ZHAO Yanhui
2012-01-01
The fine space-time structure of a vortex generator (VG) in supersonic flow is studied with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS) method in a quiet supersonic wind tunnel.The fine coherent structure at the symmetrical plane of the flow field around the VG is imaged with NPLS.The spatial structure and temporal evolution characteristics of the vortical structure are analyzed,which demonstrate periodic evolution and similar geometry,and the characteristics of rapid movement and slow change.Because the NPLS system yields the flow images at high temporal and spatial resolutions,from these images the position of a large scale structure can be extracted precisely.The position and velocity of the large scale structures can be evaluated with edge detection and correlation algorithms.The shocklet structures induced by vortices are imaged,from which the generation and development of shocklets are discussed in this paper.
Hwang, Danny P.
1999-01-01
A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).
Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows
2015-06-01
adiabatic wall flows over compression ramps and flows with shock impingements. The new correlations are derived from existing numerical data and...developed for 2D, laminar adiabatic wall flows over compression ramps and flows with shock impingements. These correlations are derived from existing...characterizing the influence of shocks and compression ramps on flat plate flows is presented. New correlations for laminar compressive interactions on
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The instability of a thin sheet of viscous and dielectric liquid moving in the same direction as an air stream in the presence of a uniform horizontal electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. It is observed that aerodynamic-enhanced instability occurs if the Weber number is much less than a critical value related to the ratio of the air and liquid stream velocities, viscosity ratio of two fluids, the electric field, and the dielectric constant values. Liquid viscosity has stabilizing effect in the stability analysis, while air viscosity has destabilizing effect.
Deformation of a flexible fiber in a viscous flow past an obstacle
Lopez, H M; Auradou, H; D'Angelo, M V
2015-01-01
We study the deformation and transport of elastic fibers in a viscous Hele-Shaw flow with curved streamlines. The variations of the global velocity and orientation of the fiber follow closely those of the local flow velocity. The ratios of the curvatures of the fibers by the corresponding curvatures of the streamlines reflect a balance between elastic and viscous forces: this ratio is shown experimentally to be determined by a dimensionless {\\it Sperm number} $Sp$ combining the characteristic parameters of the flow (transverse velocity gradient, viscosity, fiber diameter/cell gap ratio) and those of the fiber (diameter, effective length, Young's modulus). For short fibers, the effective length is that of the fiber; for long ones, it is equal to the transverse characteristic length of the flow. For $S\\_p \\lesssim 250$, the ratio of the curvatures increases linearly with $Sp$; For $S\\_p \\gtrsim 250$, the fiber reaches the same curvature as the streamlines.
CFD-Exergy analysis of the flow in a supersonic steam ejector
Boulenouar, M.; Ouadha, A.
2015-01-01
The current study aims to carry out a CFD-exergy based analysis to assess the main areas of loss in a supersonic steam ejector encountered in ejector refrigeration systems. The governing equations for a compressible flow are solved using finite volume approach based on SST k-ω model to handle turbulence effects. Flow rates and the computed mean temperatures and pressures have been used to calculate the exergy losses within the different regions of the ejector as well as its overall exergy efficiency. The primary mass flow rate, the secondary mass flow rate and the entrainment ratio predicted by the model have been compared with the experimental data from the literature.
Viscous incompressible flow simulation using penalty finite element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma R.L.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Numerical analysis of Navier–Stokes equations in velocity– pressure variables with traction boundary conditions for isothermal incompressible flow is presented. Specific to this study is formulation of boundary conditions on synthetic boundary characterized by traction due to friction and surface tension. The traction and open boundary conditions have been investigated in detail. Navier-Stokes equations are discretized in time using Crank-Nicolson scheme and in space using Galerkin finite element method. Pressure being unknown and is decoupled from the computations. It is determined as post processing of the velocity field. The justification to simulate this class of flow problems is presented through benchmark tests - classical lid-driven cavity flowwidely used by numerous authors due to its simple geometry and complicated flow behavior and squeezed flow between two parallel plates amenable to analytical solution. Results are presented for very low to high Reynolds numbers and compared with the benchmark results.
Zhu, Wenbo; Ground, Cody; Maddalena, Luca; Viti, Valerio
2016-09-01
Concentration probes are employed in supersonic flow mixing measurements. Because the typical design of such probes is essentially based on an inviscid, adiabatic, quasi-1D analysis, the scope of this work is to understand better and quantify the severe impact of viscous effects on the probe’s internal gasdynamics and the associated uncertainties in the measured quantities via a computational fluid dynamics analysis. Specifically, the focus is on the augmented errors due to the aforementioned viscous effects when coupled with various cases of probe-flow misalignment, which is a typical scenario encountered in mixing measurements of binary gas compositions (air and helium in the present work) in vortex-dominated flows. Results show phenomena such as shock induced boundary layer separation and the formation of an oblique shock train. These flow features are found to noticeably affect the accuracy of the composition measurement. The errors associated with the inviscid, adiabatic, quasi-1D analysis of the probes are quantified in this study.
Inkjet Printing of Viscous Monodisperse Microdroplets by Laser-Induced Flow Focusing
Delrot, Paul; Modestino, Miguel A.; Gallaire, François; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe
2016-08-01
The on-demand generation of viscous microdroplets to print functional or biological materials remains challenging using conventional inkjet-printing methods, mainly due to aggregation and clogging issues. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we implement a jetting method to print viscous microdroplets by laser-induced shockwaves. We experimentally investigate the dependence of the jetting regimes and the droplet size on the laser-pulse energy and on the inks' physical properties. The range of printable liquids with our device is significantly extended compared to conventional inkjet printers's performances. In addition, the laser-induced flow-focusing phenomenon allows us to controllably generate viscous microdroplets up to 210 mPa s with a diameter smaller than the nozzle from which they originated (200 μ m ). Inks containing proteins are printed without altering their functional properties, thus demonstrating that this jetting technique is potentially suitable for bioprinting.
Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry
Lee, Seong-Jae; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu
2016-01-01
We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. Inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any QPO-like activity developed. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as, in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-qua...
Effects of Joule Heating and Viscous Dissipation on MHD Marangoni Convection Boundary Layer Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohana Abdul Hamid
2011-09-01
Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the effects of the Joule heating and viscous dissipation on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD Marangoni convection boundary layer flow. The governing partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations via the similarity transformations. Numerical results of the similarity equations are obtained using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Effects of the magnetic field parameter, and the combined effects of the Joule heating and the viscous dissipation are investigated and the numerical results are tabulated in tables and figures. It is found that the magnetic field reduces the fluid velocity but increases the fluid temperature. On the other hand, the combined effects of the Joule heating and viscous dissipation have significantly influenced the surface temperature gradient.
The discontinuous Galerkin method for the numerical simulation of compressible viscous flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Česenek Jan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we deal with numerical simulation of the compressible viscous flow. The mathematical model of flow is represented by the system of non-stationary compressible Navier-Stokes equations. This system of equations is discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method in space and in time using piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximations. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.
Pressure development due to viscous fluid flow through a converging gap
Imhamed, Ahmed
2004-01-01
The behaviour of fluid flow in industrial processes is essential for numerous applications and there have been vast amount of work on the hydrodynamic pressure generated due to the flow of viscous fluid. One major manifestation of hydrodynamic pressure application is the wire coating/drawing process, where the wire is pulled through a unit either conical or cylindrical bore filled with a polymer melt that gives rise to the hydrodynamic pressure inside the unit. The hydrodynamic pressure distr...
Collective dynamics of particles from viscous to turbulent flows
2017-01-01
The book surveys the state-of-the-art methods that are currently available to model and simulate the presence of rigid particles in a fluid flow. For particles that are very small relative to the characteristic flow scales and move without interaction with other particles, effective equations of motion for particle tracking are formulated and applied (e.g. in gas-solid flows). For larger particles, for particles in liquid-solid flows and for particles that interact with each other or possibly modify the overall flow detailed model are presented. Special attention is given to the description of the approximate force coupling method (FCM) as a more general treatment for small particles, and derivations in the context of low Reynolds numbers for the particle motion as well as application at finite Reynolds numbers are provided. Other topics discussed in the book are the relation to higher resolution immersed boundary methods, possible extensions to non-spherical particles and examples of applications of such met...
Expansion Waves at the Outlet of the Supersonic Two-Phase Flow Nozzle
Nakagawa, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Hiroki; Harada, Atsushi; Ibragimov, Zokirjon
Two-phase flow nozzles are used in the total flow system of geothermal power plants and in the ejector of the refrigeration cycle, etc. One of the most important functions of the two-phase flow nozzle is converting two-phase flow thermal energy into kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the two-phase flow exhausted from a nozzle is available for all applications of this type. In the case of non-best fitting expansion conditions, when the operation conditions of the supersonic nozzle are widely chosen, there exist shock waves or expansion waves at the outlet of the nozzle. Those waves affect largely the energy conversion efficiency of the two-phase flow nozzle. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate character of the expansion waves at the outlet of the supersonic two-phase flow nozzle. High-pressure hot water blowdown experiments have been carried out. The decompression curves of the expansion waves are measured by changing the flowrate in the nozzle and inlet temperature of the hot water. The back pressures of the nozzle are also changed in those experiments. The expansion angles of the two-phase flow flushed out from the nozzle are measured by means of the photograph. The experimental results show that the decompression curves are different from those predicted by the isentropic homogeneous two-phase flow theory. The regions where the expansion waves occur become wide due to the increased outlet speed of the two-phase flow. The qualitative dependency of this expansion character is the same as the isentropic homogeneous flow, but the values obtained from the experiments are quite different. When the back pressure of the nozzle is higher, these regions do not become small in spite of the supersonic two-phase flow. This means that the disturbance in the downstream propagates to the upstream. It is shown by the present experiments that the expansion waves in the supersonic two-phase flow of water have a subsonic feature. The measured expansion angles become
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous recirculating flows
Turan, A.; Vandoormaal, J. P.
1988-01-01
The performance of discrete methods for the prediction of fluid flows can be enhanced by improving the convergence rate of solvers and by increasing the accuracy of the discrete representation of the equations of motion. This report evaluates the gains in solver performance that are available when various acceleration methods are applied. Various discretizations are also examined and two are recommended because of their accuracy and robustness. Insertion of the improved discretization and solver accelerator into a TEACH mode, that has been widely applied to combustor flows, illustrates the substantial gains to be achieved.
Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild
1998-01-01
The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...
Flow Induced Coalescence of Drops in a Viscous Liquid
Leal, L. Gary
2002-11-01
The problem of flow-induced coalescence has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. In recent years, this work has been motivated by the role that this process plays in the formation of polymer blends, which is currently the major route to new polymeric materials with desired macroscopic properties. In order to control this process, we need to understand the conditions for coalescence and their dependence on fluid and flow properties, including the effects of surfactants (known as "compatibilizers" in the polymer blend literature). With a few exceptions, experimental studies have been based upon measurements of the mean drop size (or size distribution) in an emulsion or blend following flow in either blending devices or simple rheometry flows. The four-roll mill, on the other hand, provides an opportunity to study the coalescence process at the scale of individual drops. When such experiments are carried out, we find some surprises vis a vis expectations from simple models of the drop collision/film drainage and rupture process that leads to coalescence. In this talk, we review recent experimental work in this field, and discuss the relationship to present theory
A flow control study of a supersonic mixing layer via NPLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The flow control of a supersonic mixing layer was studied in a supersonic mixing layer wind tunnel with convective Mach number (Mc) at 0.5. The passive control of the mixing layer was achieved by perturbation tapes on the trailing edge of the splitter plate. The control effects of 2D and 3D perturbation tapes with different sizes were compared. The mixing layer was visualized via NPLS,and the transient fine structures were identifiable in NPLS images,which were used to analyze the effects of flow control. The results show that the 2D tapes can enhance the 2D characteristic of the mixing layer,delaying mixing layer transition; and the 3D tapes can enhance the 3D characteristic of the mixing layer,advancing mixing layer transition. 3D structures of the mixing layer were visualized,and the H-type Λ vortexes were found with 3D tapes control.
Moortgat, J.; Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.
2016-12-01
Problems in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon reservoirs generally involve the transport of solutes in a single solvent phase (e.g., contaminants or dissolved injection gas), or the flow of multiple phases that may or may not exchange mass (e.g., brine, NAPL, oil, gas). Often, flow is viscously and gravitationally unstable due to mobility and density contrasts within a phase or between phases. Such instabilities have been studied in detail for single-phase incompressible fluids and for two-phase immiscible flow, but to a lesser extent for multiphase multicomponent compressible flow. The latter is the subject of this presentation. Robust phase stability analyses and phase split calculations, based on equations of state, determine the mass exchange between phases and the resulting phase behavior, i.e., phase densities, viscosities, and volumes. Higher-order finite element methods and fine grids are used to capture the small-scale onset of flow instabilities. A full matrix of composition dependent coefficients is considered for each Fickian diffusive phase flux. Formation heterogeneity can have a profound impact and is represented by realistic geostatistical models. Qualitatively, fingering in multiphase compositional flow is different from single-phase problems because 1) phase mobilities depend on rock wettability through relative permeabilities, and 2) the initial density and viscosity ratios between phases may change due to species transfer. To quantify mixing rates in different flow regimes and for varying degrees of miscibility and medium heterogeneities, we define the spatial variance, scalar dissipation rate, dilution index, skewness, and kurtosis of the molar density of introduced species. Molar densities, unlike compositions, include compressibility effects. The temporal evolution of these measures shows that, while transport at the small-scale (cm) is described by the classical advection-diffusion-dispersion relations, scaling at the macro-scale (> 10 m) shows
Aminated Copolymers as Flow Improvers for Super-viscous Crude Oils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Hong; Shen Benxian
2007-01-01
The new flow improvers for super-viscous crude oils were developed via esterification of polybasic high carbon alcohol with methacrylate and copolymerization of monomers followed by amination of copolymers.The structure of the synthesized polymer flow improver additive was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of the flow improver additives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.The structure of wax crystals was also studied at the same time.The results showed that the wax crystal structure was closely related with the crystal structure of the flow improver,which could change the pour point depression and viscosity reduction behavior of the crude oil.When the wax crystal structure matched well with that of the additive,the Wax crystals were dispersed satisfactorily,resulting in favorable effects in terms of pour point depression and viscosity reduction.The new synthesized aminated polymer flow improver additive was most efficient for treating super-viscous crude oils.The super-viscous crude oil had a high content of resins and asphaltenes,which might aggregate onto the surface of wax crystals to form blocks to limit the crude oil fluidity.However,amination of copolymers having similar structure with the resins and asphaltenes contained in crude oil could dissolve the huge polar groups to make the deposit formation difficult.
Cavity Ignition in Supersonic Flow by Spark Discharge and Pulse Detonation
2014-08-18
constant volume, through a detonation , or some combination. While a deflagration (flame) through constant volume combustion can provide rapid heat release...significantly disrupted, and the detonation was able to ignite and burn most of the fuel within the cavity. This led to decreased heat release in regime IV...locate/proci of the Combustion InstituteCavity ignition in supersonic flow by spark discharge and pulse detonation Timothy M. Ombrello a,⇑, Campbell D
Nonlinear effects of energy sources and the jet at supersonic flow in the channel
Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.
2016-10-01
The work is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the influence of transversal jet and the near-wall energy sources on the shock wave structure of supersonic flow in channel with variable cross section. Stable regimes with the region of transonic velocities are obtained. Their stability is confirmed by the width of the corridor of the input power in the area of the regime existence.
Slip Magnetohydrodynamic Viscous Flow over a Permeable Shrinking Sheet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Tie-Gang; ZHANG Ji; YAO Shan-shan
2010-01-01
@@ The magnetohydrodynamic(MHD)flow under slip conditions over a shrinMng sheet js solved analytically.The solution is given in a closed form equation and is an exact solution of the full governing Navier-Stokes equations.Interesting solution behavior is observed with muiriple solution branches for certain parameter domain.The effects of the mass transfer,slip,andmagnetic parameters are discussed.
On a finite-difference method for solving transient viscous flow problems
Li, C. P.
1983-01-01
A method has been developed to solve the unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equation with the property of consistency and the ability of minimizing the equation stiffness. It relies on innovative extensions of the state-of-the-art finite-difference techniques and is composed of: (1) the upwind scheme for split-flux and the central scheme for conventional flux terms in the inviscid and viscous regions, respectively; (2) the characteristic treatment of both inviscid and viscous boundaries; (3) an ADI procedure compatible with interior and boundary points; and (4) a scalar matrix coefficient including viscous terms. The performance of this method is assessed with four sample problems; namely, a standing shock in the Laval duct, a shock reflected from the wall, the shock-induced boundary-layer separation, and a transient internal nozzle flow. The results from the present method, an existing hybrid block method, and a well-known two-step explicit method are compared and discussed. It is concluded that this method has an optimal trade-off between the solution accuracy and computational economy, and other desirable properties for analyzing transient viscous flow problems.
Nonlinear vibrations of cylindrical shells with initial imperfections in a supersonic flow
Kurilov, E. A.; Mikhlin, Yu. V.
2007-09-01
The paper studies the dynamics of nonlinear elastic cylindrical shells using the theory of shallow shells. The aerodynamic pressure on the shell in a supersonic flow is found using piston theory. The effect of the flow and initial deflections on the vibrations of the shell is analyzed in the flutter range. The normal modes of both perfect shells in a flow and shells with initial imperfections are studied. In the latter case, the trajectories of normal modes in the configuration space are nearly rectilinear, only one mode determined by the initial imperfections being stable
Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation
2016-04-30
supersonic. Oblique Shock Interface Inert Reactants β θ P1 P2e P3eUCJ P1 UCJ P2i Detonation Figure 3. Idealized flow model of a detonation wave with an...Propagation With No Confinement But With Transvers Flow A consistent cross-flow was established by calibrating the height of the gases in time relative...to the controller commands, and then staggering the triggering of the gases such that each species – hydrogen, helium, and oxygen – independently
A Computer Program to Calculate the Supersonic Flow over a Solid Cone in Air or Water.
1984-06-01
ix air or water. The rain objective is to calculate the ccne semi-vertei angle given prescribed initial ccndi- tions. The program is written in...tc the motion of the metal jet frcm an explczive shaped-charge fired underwater. A tiical result for supersonic flow over a ccne in water is as follcws...the ccne semi-vertex angle is calculated to be 7.23 degrees. Gene rally, pressures invclved in water flow are much larger than for air flow, and the
Finite-amplitude steady waves in plane viscous shear flows
Milinazzo, F. A.; Saffman, P. G.
1985-01-01
Computations of two-dimensional solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are carried out for finite-amplitude waves on steady unidirectional flow. Several cases are considered. The numerical method employs pseudospectral techniques in the streamwise direction and finite differences on a stretched grid in the transverse direction, with matching to asymptotic solutions when unbounded. Earlier results for Poiseuille flow in a channel are re-obtained, except that attention is drawn to the dependence of the minimum Reynolds number on the physical constraint of constant flux or constant pressure gradient. Attempts to calculate waves in Couette flow by continuation in the velocity of a channel wall fail. The asymptotic suction boundary layer is shown to possess finite-amplitude waves at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude less than the critical Reynolds number for linear instability. Waves in the Blasius boundary layer and unsteady Rayleigh profile are calculated by employing the artifice of adding a body force to cancel the spatial or temporal growth. The results are verified by comparison with perturbation analysis in the vicinity of the linear-instability critical Reynolds numbers.
Finite-volume WENO scheme for viscous compressible multicomponent flows
Coralic, Vedran; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
We develop a shock- and interface-capturing numerical method that is suitable for the simulation of multicomponent flows governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method is high-order accurate in smooth regions of the flow, discretely conserves the mass of each component, as well as the total momentum and energy, and is oscillation-free, i.e. it does not introduce spurious oscillations at the locations of shockwaves and/or material interfaces. The method is of Godunov-type and utilizes a fifth-order, finite-volume, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the spatial reconstruction and a Harten-Lax-van Leer contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver to upwind the fluxes. A third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta (RK) algorithm is employed to march the solution in time. The derivation is generalized to three dimensions and nonuniform Cartesian grids. A two-point, fourth-order, Gaussian quadrature rule is utilized to build the spatial averages of the reconstructed variables inside the cells, as well as at cell boundaries. The algorithm is therefore fourth-order accurate in space and third-order accurate in time in smooth regions of the flow. We corroborate the properties of our numerical method by considering several challenging one-, two- and three-dimensional test cases, the most complex of which is the asymmetric collapse of an air bubble submerged in a cylindrical water cavity that is embedded in 10% gelatin. PMID:25110358
Optimum viscous flow in pressure-swirl atomizers
Amini, Ghobad; Pereira, Aaron; Yun, Sangsig; Li, Xianguo
2013-11-01
Due to their simple configuration and reliable operation, pressure-swirl atomizers are widely used in applications such as combustion, painting, humidification, and sprinkling. The liquid is swirled by entering into the atomizer tangentially and its surface area is increased as discharges in a large spray angle. Understanding the effects of nozzle geometry and inlet flow condition on the discharge coefficient and spray angle is very important in nozzle design. To this end, the flow field inside a pressure-swirl atomizer has been studied theoretically. The main body of the liquid is taken to be moving in circles round the axis. Within the boundary layer, containing transverse and longitudinal velocity components, the retarded liquid is slowed down by viscosity and driven towards the exit orifice by pressure gradient. The swirling motion of liquid creates a low pressure zone near the nozzle axis and leads to the formation of a helical air-core. Through studying the growth of the boundary layer from nozzle entry to the orifice exit, the portions of the outflow exits the orifice from boundary layer current and also from the main body of the swirling liquid are specified. For a given range of pressure drop values, the optimum nozzle geometry and liquid flowrate are predicted. Additionally, the reason of increasing the flow by increasing liquid viscosity or decreasing orifice diameter is explained. A series of experiments and numerical modeling have also been carried out to support the theoretical results.
Goal-oriented model adaptivity for viscous incompressible flows
van Opstal, T. M.
2015-04-04
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In van Opstal et al. (Comput Mech 50:779–788, 2012) airbag inflation simulations were performed where the flow was approximated by Stokes flow. Inside the intricately folded initial geometry the Stokes assumption is argued to hold. This linearity assumption leads to a boundary-integral representation, the key to bypassing mesh generation and remeshing. It therefore enables very large displacements with near-contact. However, such a coarse assumption cannot hold throughout the domain, where it breaks down one needs to revert to the original model. The present work formalizes this idea. A model adaptive approach is proposed, in which the coarse model (a Stokes boundary-integral equation) is locally replaced by the original high-fidelity model (Navier–Stokes) based on a-posteriori estimates of the error in a quantity of interest. This adaptive modeling framework aims at taking away the burden and heuristics of manually partitioning the domain while providing new insight into the physics. We elucidate how challenges pertaining to model disparity can be addressed. Essentially, the solution in the interior of the coarse model domain is reconstructed as a post-processing step. We furthermore present a two-dimensional numerical experiments to show that the error estimator is reliable.
Pipe Poiseuille flow of viscously anisotropic, partially molten rock
Allwright, Jane
2014-01-01
Laboratory experiments in which synthetic, partially molten rock is subjected to forced deformation provide a context for testing hypotheses about the dynamics and rheology of the mantle. Here our hypothesis is that the aggregate viscosity of partially molten mantle is anisotropic, and that this anisotropy arises from deviatoric stresses in the rock matrix. We formulate a model of pipe Poiseuille flow based on theory by Takei and Holtzman [2009a] and Takei and Katz [2013]. Pipe Poiseuille is a configuration that is accessible to laboratory experimentation but for which there are no published results. We analyse the model system through linearised analysis and numerical simulations. This analysis predicts two modes of melt segregation: migration of melt from the centre of the pipe toward the wall and localisation of melt into high-porosity bands that emerge near the wall, at a low angle to the shear plane. We compare our results to those of Takei and Katz [2013] for plane Poiseuille flow; we also describe a ne...
Circulation-preserving plane flows of incompressible viscous fluids
Yin, W.-L.
1983-06-01
The present investigation is concerned with a systematic use of the method of complex variables in a study of (generally unsteady) plane solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Circulation-preserving flows are considered in the investigation. However, the employed method can also be applied to more general cases. A circulation-preserving plane solution of the Navier-Stokes equation possesses a biharmonic stream function. The stream function may, therefore, be expressed in terms of two complex analytic functions, taking into account Goursat's representation. Attention is given to differential equations in the complex form, the case of steady vorticity, the case of unsteady vorticity with a spatially constant vorticity gradient, solutions with logarithmic vorticity fields, and a proof of completeness.
Gpu Implementation of a Viscous Flow Solver on Unstructured Grids
Xu, Tianhao; Chen, Long
2016-06-01
Graphics processing units have gained popularities in scientific computing over past several years due to their outstanding parallel computing capability. Computational fluid dynamics applications involve large amounts of calculations, therefore a latest GPU card is preferable of which the peak computing performance and memory bandwidth are much better than a contemporary high-end CPU. We herein focus on the detailed implementation of our GPU targeting Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver based on finite-volume method. The solver employs a vertex-centered scheme on unstructured grids for the sake of being capable of handling complex topologies. Multiple optimizations are carried out to improve the memory accessing performance and kernel utilization. Both steady and unsteady flow simulation cases are carried out using explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The solver with GPU acceleration in this paper is demonstrated to have competitive advantages over the CPU targeting one.
Wang, Yunpeng; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki
The flow past a capsule-shaped space transportation system (STS) is numerically analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for different free stream Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 5.0, where a capsule is modeled by a cone, and a rocket by a circular cylinder. The objective of this research is to study Mach number effects on phenomena of the supersonic aerodynamic interference with periodic flow oscillations at supersonic regime. So far we have considered two models: model A (without disk) and model B (with disk). It was found from experimental and computational results that the flow around model A becomes steady, where aerodynamic interaction is not observed, while in model B, flow becomes unsteady with periodic oscillations. This flow oscillation is considered to be a potentially high risk in separation of the capsule and rocket. Therefore, the present study focuses on the unsteady case of model B. Numerical results at M=3.0 compared well with experimental ones, which validates the present CFD. Time-averaged results are employed to see the whole trajectories of shock waves and the variation in amplitude of flow oscillation during one cycle. Moreover, a fence is proposed as a device to suppress the flow oscillation.
Rarefaction Waves at the Outlet of the Supersonic Two-Phase Flow Nozzle
Nakagawa, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Hiroki; Harada, Atsushi
Two-phase flow nozzles are used in the total flow system for geothermal power plants and in the ejector of the refrigerant cycle, etc. One of the most important functions of a two-phase flow nozzle is to convert the thermal energy to the kinetic energy of the two-phase flow. The kinetic energy of the two-phase flow exhausted from a nozzle is available for all applications of this type. There exist the shock waves or rarefaction waves at the outlet of a supersonic nozzle in the case of non-best fitting expansion conditions when the operation conditions of the nozzle are widely chosen. Those waves affect largely on the energy conversion efficiency of the two-phase flow nozzle. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the character of the rarefaction waves at the outlet of the supersonic two-phase flow nozzle. The high pressure hot water blow down experiment has been carried out. The decompression curves by the rarefaction waves are measured by changing the flow rate of the nozzle and inlet temperature of the hot water. The back pressures of the nozzle are also changed in those experiments. The divergent angles of the two-phase flow flushed out from the nozzle are measured by means of the photograph. The experimental results show that the recompression curves are different from those predicted by the isentropic homogenous two-phase flow. The regions where the rarefaction waves occur become wide due to the increased outlet speed of two-phase flow. The qualitative dependency of this expansion character is the same as the isotropic homogenous flow, but the values obtained from the experiments are quite different. When the back pressure of the nozzle is higher, these regions do not become small in spite of the super sonic two-phase flow. This means that the disturbance of the down-stream propagate to the up-stream. It is shown by the present experiments that the rarefaction waves in the supersonic two-phase flow of water have a subsonic feature. The measured
Topology Method for Analyses of 3—D Viscous Flow Structure in Transonic Turbomachinery
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YanhuGuo; BaoguoWang; 等
1997-01-01
A topology method is presented in this paper to reveal flow tructure occurring insie turbomachinery,in which near wall flow structure is revealed by using wall limiting streamilines and space flow feature is revealed by using space streamilines and cross-section streamlines,As an example ,a computational three-dimensional viscous flow field inside a transonic turbine cascade is studied.Through the analysis,the form and evolution of vortex system and the whole process of separation occurring within this cascade are revealed.The application of topology method for analyze flow structure inside turbomachinmery is very important for understanding flow features and mechanism of flow loss even for improving the design of turbomachinery and increasing its efficiency.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
NOREEN SHER AKBAR; ADIL WAHID BUTT; DHARMENDRA TRIPATHI; O ANWAR BÉG
2017-03-01
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re $\\ll$ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.
Flow of the Viscous-Elastic Liquid in the Non- Homogeneous Tube
Babanly, V Yu
2009-01-01
A problem on propagation of waves in deformable shells with flowing liquid is very urgent in connection with wide use of liquid transportation systems in living organisms and technology. It is necessary to consider shell motion equations for influence of moving liquid in cavity on the dynamics of a shell by solving such kind problems. Nowadays a totality of such problems is a widely developed field of hydrodynamics. However, a number of peculiarities connected with taking into account viscous-elastic properties of the liquid and inhomogeneity of the shell material generates considerable mathematical difficulties connected with integration of boundary value problems with variable coefficients. In the paper we consider wave flow of the liquid enclosed in deformable tube. The used mathematical model is described by the equation of motion of incompressible viscous elastic liquid combined with equation of continuity and dynamics equation for a tube inhomogeneous in length. It is accepted that the tube is cylindric...
Hady, Fekry M; Ibrahim, Fouad S; Abdel-Gaied, Sahar M; Eid, Mohamed R
2012-04-22
In this work, we study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation, included in the energy equation, and variable wall temperature. A similarity transformation was used to transform the governing partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical shooting technique with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme was used to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem. The variations of dimensionless surface temperature, as well as flow and heat-transfer characteristics with the governing dimensionless parameters of the problem, which include the nanoparticle volume fraction ϕ, the nonlinearly stretching sheet parameter n, the thermal radiation parameter NR, and the viscous dissipation parameter Ec, were graphed and tabulated. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier nonlinearly stretching sheet problem of Cortell for local Nusselt number without taking the effect of nanoparticles.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar
2017-03-01
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.
Asghar, S.; Hussain, Q.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2015-07-01
This article addresses the heat transfer in a peristaltic flow of a reactive combustible viscous fluid through a porous saturated medium. The flow here is induced because of travelling waves along the channel walls. It is assumed that exothermic chemical reactions take place within the channel under the Arrhenius kinetics and the convective heat exchange with the ambient medium at the surfaces of the channel walls follows Newton's law of cooling. The analysis is carried out in the presence of viscous dissipation and without consumption of the material. The governing equations are formulated by employing the long-wavelength approximation. Closed-form solutions for the stream function, axial velocity, and axial pressure gradient are obtained. It is found that the temperature decreases at high Biot numbers, and the Nusselt number increases with increasing reaction parameter. The Biot number and reaction parameter produce the opposite effects on the Nusselt number.
Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.; Shaw, Jonathon A.
1994-04-01
This paper is concerned with the flow modelling capabilities of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. This system is aimed primarily at complex aircraft configurations and possesses a unique grid generation strategy in its use of block-structured, unstructured or hybrid grids, depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The main focus of the paper is in demonstrating the recently developed multi-grid, block-structured grid, viscous flow capability of SAUNA, through its evaluation on a number of configurations. Inviscid predictions are also presented, both as a means of interpreting the viscous results and with a view to showing more completely the capabilities of SAUNA. It is shown that accuracy and flexibility are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.
The design/analysis of flows through turbomachinery: A viscous/inviscid approach
Miller, D. P.; Reddy, D. R.
1991-01-01
The development of a design/analysis flow solver at NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The solver is axisymmetric and can be run inviscidly with assumed or calculated blockages, or with the viscous terms computed. The blade forces for each blade row are computed from blade-to-blade solutions, correlated data or force model, or from a full three dimensional solution. Codes currently under development can be separated into three distinct elements: the turbomachinery interactive grid generator energy distribution restart code (TIGGERC), the interactive blade element geometry generator (IBEGG), and the viscous/inviscid multi-blade-row average passage flow solver (VIADAC). Several experimental test cases were run to validate the VIADAC code. The tests, representative of typical axial turbomachinery duct axisymmetric wind tunnel body problems, were conducted on an SR7 Spinner axisymmetric body, a NASA Rotor 67 Fan test bed, and a transonic boatail body. The results show the computations to be in good agreement with test data.
Sevick, E M; Jain, R K
1991-05-15
Elevated glucose level and low pH have been shown to increase red blood cell (RBC) rigidity. This increased rigidity has been proposed as one factor which mediates the tumor blood flow (TBF) reduction during hyperglycemia by (a) causing RBC entrapment and hence increasing geometric resistance and (b) increasing viscous resistance to blood flow. However, due to the inability to measure these resistances in vivo in tumors directly, the relative contribution of RBC rigidity in TBF reduction has not been quantified. In the present study, blood flow resistance was measured in "tissue-isolated" mammary adenocarcinoma R3230AC perfused ex vivo with (a) normally deformable, (b) glutaraldehyde-hardened, and (c) glucose-incubated RBC suspensions. Flow resistance measured during tumor perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer prior to and following perfusion with the glutaraldehyde-hardened RBC suspensions showed no significant change, suggesting constant geometric resistance and lack of RBC entrapment. Instead, our measurements indicated increased viscous resistance with loss of deformability due to glutaraldehyde and glucose incubation even though glucose incubation did not significantly alter the apparent blood viscosity measured in vitro. Thus, the TBF reduction during hyperglycemia may be due to subtle changes in RBC deformability. These results suggest the development of strategies to increase the delivery of drugs or oxygen must take into account any changes in intratumor viscous resistance. For example, the increase in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood using RBC transfusion or fluorocarbon emulsions may be offset by the increase in viscous resistance and the corresponding reduction in TBF.
Velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meir, A.J. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
1994-12-31
In this work we discuss some aspects of the velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows. We describe reasonable boundary conditions that should be imposed on the vorticity and a compatibility condition that the vorticity must satisfy. This formulation may give rise to efficient numerical algorithms for approximating solutions of the Stokes problem, which in turn yields an iterative method for approximating solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Analysis of boundary conditions for SSME subsonic internal viscous flow analysis
Baker, A. J.
1986-01-01
A study was completed of mathematically proper boundary conditions for unique numerical solution of internal, viscous, subsonic flows in the space shuttle main engine. The study has concentrated on well posed considerations, with emphasis on computational efficiency and numerically stable boundary condition statements. The method of implementing the established boundary conditions is applicable to a wide variety of finite difference and finite element codes, as demonstrated.
Heat Transfer for Elastico-Viscous Flow Between Two Rotating Porous Discs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. R. Sharma
1983-04-01
Full Text Available The problem of temperature distribution and heat transfer for elastico-viscous fluid flow between two rotating porous discs is studied. The equations of motion and energy are solved by a regular Perturbation method for small Reynolds number. The effects of the elasticity of the fluid, suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, Prandt1 number and Eckert number on Nusselt numbers at the two discs have been discussed numerically and compared with Newtonian fluid case.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
This article concerns large time behavior of Ladyzhenskaya model for incompressible viscous flows in R~3.Based on linear L~P-L~q estimates,the auxiliary decay properties of the solutions and generalized Gronwall type arguments,some optimal upper and lower bounds for the decay of higher order derivatives of solutions are derived without assuming any decay properties of solutions and using Fourier splitting technology.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
An efficient analytical decomposition technique was presented for solving the singular nonlinear boundary value problem arising in viscous flow when the Crocco variable was introduced. The approximate analytical solution may be represented in terms of a rapid convergent power series with elegantly computable terms. The reliability and efficiency of the approximate solutions were verified by numerical ones in the literature. The approximate analytical solutions can be successfully applied to give the values of skin friction coefficient.
On the research of flow around obstacle using the viscous Cartesian grid technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yan-Hua
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new 2-D viscous Cartesian grid is proposed in current research. It is a combination of the existent body-fitted grid and Cartesian grid technology. On the interface of the two different type of grid, a fined triangular mesh is used to connect the two grids. Tests with flow around the cylinder and aerofoil NACA0012 show that the proposed scheme is easy for implement with high accuracy.
Behavior of Boundary Layer in Supersonic Flow with Applied Lorentz Force
Udagawa, Keisuke; Saito, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki
Experimental study on behavior of boundary layer in supersonic flow with applied Lorentz force was carried out. In the experiment, Mach 1.5 supersonic wind tunnel driven by a shock-tube was used. At the test section, the current from the external DC power supply and the magnetic field of 2.4 Tesla were applied to the boundary layer developing on the bottom wall. Argon seeded with cesium was used as an electrically conducting gas. Effect of the direction of the Lorentz force on static pressure distribution was investigated, and the remarkable increase of static pressure at the test section was observed for the decelerating Lorentz force. It is noted that the acceleration of the flow inside the boundary layer was demonstrated for the first time without accelerating the main flow when the accelerating Lorentz force was applied. At the same time, the acceleration efficiency defined by a ratio of work done by the Lorentz force to energy input into the flow was found 54-61%. These results have suggested the possibility of the boundary layer separation control by applying the accelerating Lorentz force. In the case of the decelerating Lorentz force, the significant reduction of Mach number was observed not only inside the boundary layer but also in the main flow. The reduction of Mach number could be ascribed to the growth of the boundary layer due to gas heating inside the boundary layer. When the direction of the current was changed, the difference of light emission from the discharge inside the boundary layer was observed, and this was due to the difference of the electromotive force induced in the supersonic flow.
Optical studies of shock generated transient supersonic base flows
Liang, P.-Y.; Bershader, D.; Wray, A.
1982-01-01
A shock tube employing interferometric and schlieren techniques is used to study transient base flow phenomena following shock wave passage over two plane bluff bodies: a hemicircular cylinder and a cylinder with the Galileo Jovian probe profile. An attempt is made to understand the physics of transition from transient to steady state flow, and to provide code verification for a study employing the Illiac IV computer. Transient base flow interactions include a series of shock diffraction, regular, and Mach reflections, coupled with boundary layer development, separation, and recompression. Vorticity generation and transport underlie these features. The quantitative verification of the computer code includes comparisons of transient pressure and density fields, near wake geometries, and bow shock standoff distances.
Improved optical techniques for studying sonic and supersonic injection into Mach 3 flow
Buggele, Alvin E.; Seasholtz, Richard G.
1997-11-01
Filtered Rayleigh Scattering and shadowgraph flow visualization were used to characterize the penetration of helium or moist air injected transversely at several pressures to a Mach 3 flow in the NASA Lewis 3.81 inch by 10 inch continuous flow supersonic wind tunnel. This work is in support of the LOX augmented nuclear thermal rocket program. The present study used an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser to illuminate a transverse section of the injectant plume. Rayleigh scattered light was passed through an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light and was imaged onto a cooled CCD camera. The scattering was based on condensation of water vapor in the injectant flow. Results are presented for various configurations of sonic and supersonic injector designs mounted primarily in the floor of the tunnel. Injectors studied include a single 0.25 inch diameter hole, five 0.112 inch diameter holes on 0.177 inch spacing, and a 7 degree half angle wedge. High speed shadowgraph flow visualization images were obtained with several video camera systems. Roof and floor static pressure data are presented several ways for the three configurations of injection designs with and without helium and/or air injection into Mach 3 flow.
Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohammad Reza; Moortgat, Joachim
2016-11-01
Fluid mixing and its interplay with viscous fingering as well as flow channeling through heterogeneous media have been traditionally studied for fully (im)miscible conditions in which a (two-) single-phase system is represented by two components, e.g. a solvent and a solute, with (zero) infinite mutual solubility. However, many subsurface problems, e.g. gas injection/migration in hydrocarbon reservoirs, involve multiple species transfer. Multicomponent fluid properties behave non-linearly, through an equation of state, as a function of temperature, pressure, and compositions. Depending on the minimum miscibility pressure, a two-phase region with finite, non-zero mutual solubility may develop, e.g. in a partially-miscible system. Here we study mixing of fluids with partial mutual solubility, induced by viscous flow fingering, channeling, and species transport within and between phases. We uncover non-linear mixing dynamics of a finite-size slug of a less viscous fluid attenuated by a carrier fluid during rectilinear displacement. We perform accurate numerical simulations that are thermodynamically-consistent to capture fingering patterns and complex phase behavior of mixtures. The results provide a broad perspective into how multiphase flow can alter fluid mixing in porous media.
Viscous-flow properties and viscosity-average molecular mass of orange peel pectin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周尽花; 吴宇雄; 沈志强
2008-01-01
The viscous-flow properties of pectin from the residue of orange peel after extraction of essential oil and flavonoid were studied and the viscosity-average molecular mass(Mv,ave) of this kind of pectin was determined.Experimental results show that Arrhenius viscous-flow equation can be applied to describing the effect of temperature on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions with the average viscous-flow activation energy being 17.91 kJ/mol(depending on the concentration).Neither power equation,η =K1 cA1,nor exponential equation,η=K2exp(A2c) can describe the effect of concentration on viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin solutions well.However,it seems that exponential equation model is more suitable to describe their relation due to its higher linear correlation coefficient.Schulz-Blaschke equation can be used to calculate the intrinsic viscosity of this kind of orange peel pectin.The Mv,ave of the orange peel pectin is 1.65×105 g/mol.
Unsteady flow in a supersonic cascade with subsonic leading-edge locus
Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.
1978-01-01
Linearized theory is used to predict the unsteady flow in a supersonic cascade with subsonic axial flow velocity. A closed-form analytical solution is obtained by using a double application of the Wiener-Hopf technique. Although numerical and semianalytical solutions of this problem have already appeared in the literature, this paper contains the first completely analytical solution. It has been stated in the literature that the blade source should vanish at the infinite duct resonance condition. The present analysis shows that this does not occur. This apparent discrepancy is explained in the paper.
Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer practice in supersonic flows. I - The normal wire
Smits, A. J.; Hayakawa, K.; Muck, K. C.
1983-01-01
The performance of a constant-temperature normal hot-wire in a supersonic flow is critically examined. It is shown that this instrument is inherently unsuitable for measuring turbulent temperature correlations because of the highly nonlinear response to temperature fluctuations, particularly at low overheat ratios. The instrument is therefore limited to measurements of mean and fluctuating mass-flow rates. Suitable calibration procedures, as well as the limits on spatial and temporal resolution are discussed, and corrections for mean stagnation temperature changes are suggested.
Computations of the Magnus effect for slender bodies in supersonic flow
Sturek, W. B.; Schiff, L. B.
1980-01-01
A recently reported Parabolized Navier-Stokes code has been employed to compute the supersonic flow field about spinning cone, ogive-cylinder, and boattailed bodies of revolution at moderate incidence. The computations were performed for flow conditions where extensive measurements for wall pressure, boundary layer velocity profiles and Magnus force had been obtained. Comparisons between the computational results and experiment indicate excellent agreement for angles of attack up to six degrees. The comparisons for Magnus effects show that the code accurately predicts the effects of body shape and Mach number for the selected models for Mach numbers in the range of 2-4.
Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Joalland, Baptiste; Mebel, Alexander M.; Suits, Arthur
2016-06-01
Chirped - Pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in uniform supersonic flows (Chirped- Pulse/Uniform Flow: CPUF) has been applied to study the photodissociation of two atmospherically relevant N containing heterocyclic compounds; pyridine and isoxazole. Products were detected using rotational spectroscopy. HC3N, HCN were observed for pyridine and CH3CN, HCO and HCN were observed for isoxazole and we report the first detection of HNC for both of the systems. Key points in potential energy surface were explored and compared with the experimental observations. Branching ratios were calculated for all the possible channels and will be presented.
IRROTATIONAL APPROXIMATION TO STEADY SUPERSONIC FLOW IN TWO SPACE VARIABLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Chong
2008-01-01
On the assumption that the total variation of the initial data is sufficiently small,we can use the stability results of Dafermos to get the L2 estimate of the difference between the solutions to the isentropic steady Euler system and the potential flow equations with the same initial data.
Comparing two methods of simulating mirco-scale viscous flows in a porous channel
Gao, Hui; Han, Jie; Jin, Yan; Wang, Lian-Ping
2007-11-01
Water flows in natural soil porous media are important to colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants and other phenomena with groundwater as the carrier. The 3D micro-scale flow is complicated due to the complex geometry. The transport and deposition of colloids in such flows are affected by several physical and chemical forces involved. In this talk, we first compare two methods of simulating viscous flows in both 2D and 3D channels filled with glass-bead particles. The first method is Physalis developed by Prosperetti's group, at Johns Hopkins, based on solving the Navier-Stokes equation using a combination of numerical solution and local analytical Stokes flow representation. The second method is a meso-scale approach by solving a lattice Boltzmann equation. Specific implementation issues will be discussed. The two methods yield almost identical flows. Preliminary simulation results as well as parallel experimental results on colloid deposition in the porous channel will also be presented.
Supersonic flow of a nonequilibrium gas-discharge plasma around a body
Lapushkina, T. A.; Erofeev, A. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Bobashev, S. V.
2009-06-01
The flow of a nonequilibrium gas-discharge plasma around a semicylindrical body is studied. The aim of the study is to see how a change in the degree of nonequilibrium of the incoming plasma changes the separation distance between a shock wave and the body. Experiments are carried out with a supersonic nozzle into which a semicylindrical body is placed. The inlet of the nozzle is connected to a shock tube. In the course of the experiment, electrodes built into the wall of the nozzle initiate a gas discharge in front of the body to produce an additional nonequilibrium ionization in the stationary incoming supersonic flow. The discharge parameters are selected such that the discharge raises the electron temperature and still minimizes heating of the gas. The degree of nonequilibrium of the flow varies with gas-discharge current. Diagnostics of the flow is carried out with a schlieren system based on a semiconductor laser. The system can record flow patterns at definite time instants after discharge initiation.
Analysis of flow structures in supersonic plane mixing layers using the POD method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Qin; FU Song
2008-01-01
The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method was applied to analyzing the database obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of supersonic plane mixing layers. The effect of different forms of the inner products in the POD method was investigated. It was observed that the mean flow contributes to a predominant part of the total flow energy, and the energy spectrum of the turbulence fluctuations covers a wide range of POD modes. The patterns of leading (high energy) POD modes reveal that the flow structures exhibit spanwise counter rotating rolls, as well as oblique vortices. These flow patterns are insensitive to the velocity of the observer. As the convective Mach number increases, the energy spectrum be-comes wider, the leading POD modes contain more complicated structures, and the flow becomes more chaotic.
Analysis of flow structures in supersonic plane mixing layers using the POD method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) method was applied to analyzing the database obtained from the direct numerical simulation(DNS) of supersonic plane mixing layers.The effect of different forms of the inner products in the POD method was investigated.It was observed that the mean flow contributes to a predominant part of the total flow energy,and the energy spectrum of the turbulence fluctuations covers a wide range of POD modes.The patterns of leading(high energy) POD modes reveal that the flow structures exhibit spanwise counter rotating rolls,as well as oblique vortices.These flow patterns are insensitive to the velocity of the observer.As the convective Mach number increases,the energy spectrum be-comes wider,the leading POD modes contain more complicated structures,and the flow becomes more chaotic.
Paul, Tanaji; Harimkar, Sandip P.
2017-07-01
The viscous flow behavior of Fe-based amorphous alloy powder during isochronal spark plasma sintering was analyzed under the integrated theoretical background of the Arrhenius and directional structural relaxation models. A relationship between viscous flow activation energy and heating rate was derived. An extension of the pertinent analysis to Ti-based amorphous alloys confirmed the broad applicability of such a relationship for predicting the activation energy for sintering below the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous alloy powders.
Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1980-01-01
There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.
Ferromagnetic Flow of Viscous Fluid in a Slot between Fixed Surfaces of Revolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Sawicki
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the steady laminar flow of viscous incompressible ferromagnetic fluid is considered in a slot between fixed surfaces of revolution having a common axis of symmetry. The boundary layer ferromagnetic equations for axial symmetry are expressed in terms of the intrinsic curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system x, θ ,y.The method of perturbation is used to solve the boundary layer equations. As a result, the formulae defining such parameters of the flow as the velocity components vx, vy, and the pressure , were obtained.
HIGH-ORDER I-STABLE CENTERED DIFFERENCE SCHEMES FOR VISCOUS COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weizhu Bao; Shi Jin
2003-01-01
In this paper we present high-order I-stable centered difference schemes for the numer-ical simulation of viscous compressible flows. Here I-stability refers to time discretizationswhose linear stability regions contain part of the imaginary axis. This class of schemeshas a numerical stability independent of the cell-Reynolds number Rc, thus allows one tosimulate high Reynolds number flows with relatively larger Rc, or coarser grids for a fixedRc. On the other hand, Rc cannot be arbitrarily large if one tries to obtain adequatenumerical resolution of the viscous behavior. We investigate the behavior of high-orderI-stable schemes for Burgers' equation and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Wedemonstrate that, for the second order scheme, Rc ≤ 3 is an appropriate constraint for nu-merical resolution of the viscous profile, while for the fourth-order schemes the constraintcan be relaxed to Rc ≤ 6. Our study indicates that the fourth order scheme is preferable:better accuracy, higher resolution, and larger cell-Reynolds numbers.
Flow harmonics from self-consistent particlization of a viscous fluid
Wolff, Zack
2016-01-01
The quantitative extraction of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) properties from heavy-ion data, such as its specific shear viscosity $\\eta /s$, typically requires comparison to viscous hydrodynamic or "hybrid" hydrodynamics+transport simulations. In either case, one has to convert the fluid to hadrons, yet without additional theory input the conversion is ambiguous for dissipative fluids. Here, shear viscous phase-space corrections calculated using linearized transport theory are applied in Cooper-Frye freezeout to quantify the effects on anisotropic flow coefficients $v_n(p_T)$ at both RHIC and LHC energies. Expanding upon our previous flow harmonics studies [1,2], we calculate pion and proton $v_2(p_T)$, $v_4(p_T)$, and $v_6(p_T)$. Unlike in Ref. [1], we incorporate a hadron gas that is chemically frozen below a temperature of 175 MeV, and use hypersurfaces from realistic viscous hydrodynamic simulations. With additive quark model cross sections and relative phase-space corrections with $p^{3/2}$ momentum dependenc...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohammad Ali; S.Ahmed; A.K.M.Sadrul Islam
2003-01-01
A numerical investigation has been performed on supersonic mixing of hydrogen with air in a Scramjet(Supersonic Combustion Ramjet) combustor and its flame holding capability by solving Two-Dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations. The main flow is air entering through a finite width of inlet and gaseous hydrogen is injected perpendicularly from the side wall. An explicit Harten-Yee Non-MUSCL Modified-flux-type TVD scheme has been used to solve the system of equations, and a zero-equation algebraic turbulence model to calculate the eddy viscosity coefficient. In this study the enhancement of mixing and good flame holding capability of a supersonic combustor have been investigated by varying the distance of injector position from left boundary keeping constant the backward-facing step height and other calculation parameters. The results show that the configuration for small distance of injector position has high mixing efficiency but the upstream recirculation can not evolved properly which is an important factor for flame holding capability. On the other hand, the configuration for very long distance has lower mixing efficiency due to lower gradient of hydrogen mass concentration on the top of injector caused by the expansion of side jet in both upstream and downstream of injector. For moderate distance of injector position, large and elongated upstream recirculation can evolve which might be activated as a good flame holder.
Plasma-based Control of Supersonic Nozzle Flow
Gaitonde, Datta V
2009-01-01
The flow structure obtained when Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPA) are employed to control the flow issuing from a perfectly expanded Mach 1.3 nozzle is elucidated by visualizing coherent structures obtained from Implicit Large-Eddy Simulations. The computations reproduce recent experimental observations at the Ohio State University to influence the acoustic and mixing properties of the jet. Eight actuators were placed on a collar around the periphery of the nozzle exit and selectively excited to generate various modes, including first and second mixed (m = +/- 1 and m = +/- 2) and axisymmetric (m = 0). In this fluid dynamics video http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/13723/2/Alljoinedtotalwithmodetextlong2-Datta%20MPEG-1.m1v, http://ecommons.library.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/13723/3/Alljoinedtotalwithmodetextlong2-Datta%20MPEG-2.m2v}, unsteady and phase-averaged quantities are displayed to aid understanding of the vortex dynamics associated with the m = +/- 1 and m = 0 modes exci...
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 3. [computer programs
Khalil, I.; Sheoran, Y.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine blade passages was developed. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation on the blade-to-blade surface. A FORTRAN IV computer program was written based on this method. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The flow may be axial, radial or mixed and there may be a change in stream channel thickness in the through-flow direction. The inputs required for two FORTRAN IV programs are presented. The first program considers laminar flows and the second can handle turbulent flows. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the use of the program, and to show the results that are obtained.
Blast shocks in quasi-two-dimensional supersonic granular flows.
Boudet, J F; Cassagne, J; Kellay, H
2009-11-27
In a thin, dilute, and fast flowing granular layer, the impact of a small sphere generates a fast growing hole devoid of matter. The growth of this hole is studied in detail, and its dynamics is found to mimic that of blast shocks in gases. This dynamics can be decomposed into two stages: a fast initial stage (the blast) and a slower growth regime whose growth velocity is given by the speed of sound in the medium used. A simple model using ingredients already invoked for the case of blast shocks in gases but including the inelastic nature of collisions between grains accounts accurately for our results. The system studied here allows for a detailed study of the full dynamics of a blast as it relaxes from a strong to a weak shock and later to an acoustic disturbance.
Shock front width and structure in supersonic granular flows.
Boudet, J F; Amarouchene, Y; Kellay, H
2008-12-19
The full structure of a shock front around a blunt body in a quasi-two-dimensional granular flow is studied. Two features, a large density gradient and a very small thickness of the front, characterize this shock and make it different from shocks in molecular gases. Both of these features can be understood using a modified version of the granular kinetic theory. Our model separates the particles into two subpopulations: fast particles having experienced no collisions and randomly moving particles. This separation is motivated by direct measurements of the particle velocities which show a bimodal distribution. Our results not only shed new light on the use of the granular kinetic theory under extreme conditions (shock formation) but bring new insight into the physics of shocks in general.
Monodisperse granular flows in viscous dispersions in a centrifugal acceleration field
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei
2016-04-01
Granular flows are encountered in geophysical flows and innumerable industrial applications with particulate materials. When mixed with a fluid, a complex network of interactions between the particle- and fluid-phase develops, resulting in a compound material with a yet unclear physical behaviour. In the study of granular suspensions mixed with a viscous dispersion, the scaling of the stress-strain characteristics of the fluid phase needs to account for the level of inertia developed in experiments. However, the required model dimensions and amount of material becomes a main limitation for their study. In recent years, centrifuge modelling has been presented as an alternative for the study of particle-fluid flows in a reduced scaled model in an augmented acceleration field. By formulating simple scaling principles proportional to the equivalent acceleration Ng in the model, the resultant flows share many similarities with field events. In this work we study the scaling principles of the fluid phase and its effects on the flow of granular suspensions. We focus on the dense flow of a monodisperse granular suspension mixed with a viscous fluid phase, flowing down an inclined plane and being driven by a centrifugal acceleration field. The scaled model allows the continuous monitoring of the flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and mass flow rates at different Ng levels. The experiments successfully identify the effects of scaling the plastic viscosity of the fluid phase, its relation with the deposition of particles over the inclined plane, and allows formulating a discussion on the suitability of simulating particle-fluid flows in a centrifugal acceleration field.
Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flows in Overexpanded Supersonic Nozzle with Film Cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Sellam
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Reignition phenomena occurring in a supersonic nozzle flow may present a crucial safety issue for rocket propulsion systems. These phenomena concern mainly rocket engines which use H2 gas (GH2 in the film cooling device, particularly when the nozzle operates under over expanded flow conditions at sea level or at low altitudes. Consequently, the induced wall thermal loads can lead to the nozzle geometry alteration, which in turn, leads to the appearance of strong side loads that may be detrimental to the rocket engine structural integrity. It is therefore necessary to understand both aerodynamic and chemical mechanisms that are at the origin of these processes. This paper is a numerical contribution which reports results from CFD analysis carried out for supersonic reactive flows in a planar nozzle cooled with GH2 film. Like the experimental observations, CFD simulations showed their ability to highlight these phenomena for the same nozzle flow conditions. Induced thermal load are also analyzed in terms of cooling efficiency and the results already give an idea on their magnitude. It was also shown that slightly increasing the film injection pressure can avoid the reignition phenomena by moving the separation shock towards the nozzle exit section.
Multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme with mesh adaption for hypersonic viscous flow
Wood, William Alfred, III
A multi-dimensional upwind fluctuation splitting scheme is developed and implemented for two dimensional and axisymmetric formulations of the Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. Key features of the scheme are the compact stencil, full upwinding, and non-linear discretization which allow for second-order accuracy with enforced positivity. Throughout, the fluctuation splitting scheme is compared to a current state-of-the-art finite volume approach, a second-order, dual mesh upwind flux difference splitting scheme (DMFDSFV), and is shown to produce more accurate results using fewer computer resources for a wide range of test cases. The scalar test cases include advected shear, circular advection, non-linear advection with coalescing shock and expansion fans, and advection-diffusion. For all scalar cases the fluctuation splitting scheme is more accurate, and the primary mechanism for the improved fluctuation splitting performance is shown to be the reduced production of artificial dissipation relative to DMFDSFV. The most significant scalar result is for combined advection-diffusion, where the present fluctuation splitting scheme is able to resolve the physical dissipation from the artificial dissipation on a much coarser mesh than DMFDSFV is able to, allowing order-of-magnitude reductions in solution time. Among the inviscid test cases the converging supersonic streams problem is notable in that the fluctuation splitting scheme exhibits superconvergent third-order spatial accuracy. For the inviscid cases of a supersonic diamond airfoil, supersonic slender cone, and incompressible circular bump the fluctuation splitting drag coefficient errors are typically half the DMFDSFV drag errors. However, for the incompressible inviscid sphere the fluctuation splitting drag error is larger than for DMFDSFV. A Blasius flat plate viscous validation case reveals a more accurate v-velocity profile for fluctuation splitting, and the reduced artificial dissipation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei HUANG; Li YAN
2013-01-01
The transverse injection flow field has an important impact on the flowpath design of scramjet engines.At present a combination of the transverse injection scheme and any other flame holder has been widely employed in hypersonic propulsion systems to promote the mixing process between the fuel and the supersonic freestream;combustion efficiency has been improved thereby,as well as engine thrust.Research on mixing techniques for the transverse injection flow field is summarized from four aspects,namely the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio,the geometric configuration of the injection port,the number of injection ports,and the injection angle.In conclusion,urgent investigations of mixing techniques of the transverse injection flow field are proposed,especially data mining in the quantitative analytical results for transverse injection flow field,based on results from multi-objective design optimization theory.
Aerodynamic Study on Supersonic Flows in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hiroshi KATANODA; Takeshi MATSUOKA; Seiji KURODA; Jin KAWAKITA; Hirotaka FUKANUMA; Kazuyasu MATSUO
2005-01-01
@@ To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.
Nonlinear unsteady supersonic flow analysis for slender bodies of revolution: Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. E. Panayotounakos
1997-01-01
Full Text Available We construct analytical solutions for the problem of nonlinear supersonic flow past slender bodies of revolution due to small amplitude oscillations. The method employed is based on the splitting of the time dependent small perturbation equation to a nonlinear time independent partial differential equation (P.D.E. concerning the steady flow, and a linear time dependent one, concerning the unsteady flow. Solutions in the form of three parameters family of surfaces for the first equation are constructed, while solutions including one arbitrary function for the second equation are extracted. As an application the evaluation of the small perturbation velocity resultants for a flow past a right circular cone is obtained making use of convenient boundary and initial conditions in accordance with the physical problem.
Lin, Shih-Lung; Lin, Jehnming
2007-02-01
The characteristics of the supersonic flow of the laser heating technique for producing micro-scale metallic particles were investigated in this study. A numerical model was established to predict the flow fields and particle trajectories leaving a spray nozzle with shock wave effects. The compressible flow of the shock waves and the trajectories of particles in diameters of 1-20 μm were simulated and compared with the flow visualization. In the experiment, a pulsed Nd-YAG laser was used as heat source on a carbon steel target within the nozzle, and the carbon steel particles were ejected by high-pressure air. The result shows that the shock wave structures were generated at various entrance pressures, and there is a significant increase in the amount of carbon steel particles and the spraying angles by increasing the entrance air pressure.
Dense core formation in supersonic turbulent converging flows
Gong, Hao
2011-01-01
We use numerical hydrodynamic simulations to investigate prestellar core formation in the dynamic environment of giant molecular clouds, focusing on planar post-shock layers produced by colliding turbulent flows. A key goal is to test how core evolution and properties depend on the velocity dispersion in the parent cloud; our simulation suite consists of 180 models with inflow Mach numbers Ma=v/c_s=1.1-9. At all Mach numbers, our models show that turbulence and self-gravity collect gas within post-shock regions into filaments at the same time as overdense areas within these filaments condense into cores. This morphology, together with the subsonic velocities we find inside cores, is similar to observations. We extend previous results showing that core collapse develops in an ``outside-in'' manner, with density and velocity approaching the Larson-Penston asymptotic solution. The time for the first core to collapse varies as 1/sqrt(v), consistent with analytic estimates. Core building takes 10 times as long as ...
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-02-01
Ultrasonic flow meter with non-invasive no-moving-parts construction has good prospective application for space on-orbit fluid gauging. In traditional pulse transit time flow meter, inconsistency of ultrasonic transducers leads to measurement error and plane wave theory, bases of transit time flow meter, is valuable only for low-frequency wave propagation in inviscid fluid and will lose feasibility when fluid viscosity is considered. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamics of viscous fluid, wave propagation with uniform flow profile is mathematically formulated and a novel solution for viscous fluid using potential theory is firstly presented. Then a novel design methodology of continuous ultrasonic flow meter is proposed, where high measurement rangeability and accuracy are guaranteed individually by solving the integral ambiguity using multi-tone wide laning strategy and the fractional phase shift using phase lock loop tracking method. A comparison with transit time ultrasonic flow meter shows the advantage of proposed methodology. In the end, parametric analysis of viscosity on wave propagation and ultrasonic flow meter is compressively investigated.
CFD modelling of condensation process of water vapor in supersonic flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yan, Yuying;
2016-01-01
-liquid phase change both in space and in time. The spontaneous condensation of water vapor will not appear immediately when the steam reaches the saturation state. Instead, it occurs further downstream the nozzle throat, where the steam is in the state of supersaturation.......The condensation phenomenon of vapor plays an important role in various industries, such as the steam flow in turbines and refrigeration system. A mathematical model is developed to predict the spontaneous condensing phenomenon in the supersonic conditions using the nucleation and droplet growth...
Computing 3-D steady supersonic flow via a new Lagrangian approach
Loh, C. Y.; Liou, M.-S.
1993-01-01
The new Lagrangian method introduced by Loh and Hui (1990) is extended for 3-D steady supersonic flow computation. Details of the conservation form, the implementation of the local Riemann solver, and the Godunov and the high resolution TVD schemes are presented. The new approach is robust yet accurate, capable of handling complicated geometry and reactions between discontinuous waves. It keeps all the advantages claimed in the 2-D method of Loh and Hui, e.g., crisp resolution for a slip surface (contact discontinuity) and automatic grid generation along the stream.
The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)
1996-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)
Viscous flow features in scaled-up physical models of normal and pathological vocal phonation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erath, Byron D., E-mail: berath@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, Suite 739, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)
2010-06-15
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis results when the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which innervates the muscles of the vocal folds becomes damaged. The loss of muscle and tension control to the damaged vocal fold renders it ineffectual. The mucosal wave disappears during phonation, and the vocal fold becomes largely immobile. The influence of unilateral vocal fold paralysis on the viscous flow development, which impacts speech quality within the glottis during phonation was investigated. Driven, scaled-up vocal fold models were employed to replicate both normal and pathological patterns of vocal fold motion. Spatial and temporal velocity fields were captured using particle image velocimetry, and laser Doppler velocimetry. Flow parameters were scaled to match the physiological values associated with human speech. Loss of motion in one vocal fold resulted in a suppression of typical glottal flow fields, including decreased spatial variability in the location of the flow separation point throughout the phonatory cycle, as well as a decrease in the vorticity magnitude.
Experimental study on atomization phenomena of kerosene in supersonic cold flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FEI LiSen; XU ShengLi; WANG ChangJian; LI Qiang; HUANG ShengHong
2008-01-01
Experiments were conducted to study the atomization phenomena of kerosene jet in supersonic flow. The kerosene jet was driven by compressed nitrogen. Meanwhile, the shadowgraph and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were used to visualize the flow field in the case of different total pressure and jet pressure. The results imply the followings: The combination of shadowgraph and PLIF is a reasonable method to study the atomization phenomena in supersonic flow. PLIF can detect the distribution of kerosene droplets accurately. Shadowgraph can visualize the wave structure. Higher jet-to-freestream dynamic pressure initiates higher penetration height and the jet column will be easier to breakup and atomize, but it also induces stronger shock waves and aggravate total pressure lost. Three-dimensional, unsteady surface wave plays an important role in making the jet break up and atomize. Higher jet-to-freestream dynamic pressure will accelerate the development of surface wave and enlarge the amplitude of surface wave, while lower jet-to-freestream ratio will inhibit the development of surface wave.
Analysis of Viscous Heating in a Micro-Rocket Flow and Performance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
José A. Morí(n)igo; José Hermida Quesada
2008-01-01
Micro-rockets for propulsion of small spacecrafts exhibit significant differences with regard to their macroscale counterparts, mainly caused by the role of the viscous dissipation and heat transfer processes in the micron-sized scale. The goal of this work is to simulate the transient operation of a micro-rocket to investigate the effects of viscous heating on the flow and performance for four configurations of the expanding gas and wafer material. The modelling follows a multiphysics approach that solves the fluid and solid regions fully coupled. A continuum-based description that incorporates the effects of gas rarefaction through the micro-nozzle, viscous dissipation and heat transfer at the solid-gas interface is presented. Non-equilibrium is addressed with the implementation of a 2nd-order slip-model for the velocity and temperature at the walls. The results stress that solid-fluid coupling exerts a strong influence on the flowfield and performance as well as the effect of the wafer during the first instants of the transient in micro-rockets made of low and high thermal conductivity materials.
Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in a Two-dimensional Cylindrical Geometry
Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu
2016-11-01
We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flows onto a black hole in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian total variation diminishing plus remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)-like activity developed. The steady-state shocked solution in the inviscid as well as in the viscous regime matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large-amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. This oscillation of the inner part of the disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-quasars. Strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The jets also show the existence of shocks, which are produced as one shell hits the preceding one. The periodicities of the jets and shock oscillation are similar; the jets for the higher viscosity parameter appear to be stronger and faster.
Off-Body Boundary-Layer Measurement Techniques Development for Supersonic Low-Disturbance Flows
Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.
2011-01-01
Investigations were performed to develop accurate boundary-layer measurement techniques in a Mach 3.5 laminar boundary layer on a 7 half-angle cone at 0 angle of attack. A discussion of the measurement challenges is presented as well as how each was addressed. A computational study was performed to minimize the probe aerodynamic interference effects resulting in improved pitot and hot-wire probe designs. Probe calibration and positioning processes were also developed with the goal of reducing the measurement uncertainties from 10% levels to less than 5% levels. Efforts were made to define the experimental boundary conditions for the cone flow so comparisons could be made with a set of companion computational simulations. The development status of the mean and dynamic boundary-layer flow measurements for a nominally sharp cone in a low-disturbance supersonic flow is presented.
Study of Interaction between Supersonic Flow and Rods Surrounded by Porous Cavity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Minoru YAGA; Kenji YAMAMOTO; Piotr DOERFFER; Kenyu OYAKAWA
2006-01-01
In this paper,some preliminary calculations and the experiments were performed to figure out the flow field,in which some rods were normally inserted into the main flow surrounded by a porous cavity.As a result,it is found that the starting shock wave severely interacts with the rods,the bow shock wave,its reflections,and the porous wall,which are numerically well predicted at some conditions.Moreover,inserting the rods makes the pressure on the upper wall in the porous region increase when the main flow in the porous region is completely supersonic.The calculations also suggest that three rods cause the widest suction area.
Effect of atomization gas pressure variation on gas flow field in supersonic gas atomization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, a computational fluid flow model was adopted to investigate the effect of varying atomization gas pressure (P0) on the gas flow field in supersonic gas atomization. The influence of P0 on static pressure and velocity magnitude of the central axis of the flow field was also examined. The numerical results indicate that the maximum gas velocity within the gas field increases with increasing P0. The aspiration pressure (ΔP) is found to decrease as P0 increases at a lower atomization gas pressure. However, at a higher atomization gas pressure increasing P0 causes the opposite: the higher atomization gas pressure, the higher aspiration pressure. The alternation of ΔP is caused by the variations of stagnation point pressure and location of Mach disk, while hardly by the location of stagnation point. A radical pressure gradient is formed along the tip of the delivery tube and increases as P0 increases.
Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi
2014-04-01
Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil & gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil & gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 & 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 & 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norfifah Bachok
Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL INSTABILITY OF AN OSCILLATING VISCOUS FLOW PAST A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆夕云; 凌国灿
2003-01-01
A systematically numerical study of the sinusoidally oscillating viscous flowaround a circular cylinder was performed to investigate vortical instability by solving thethree-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The transition from two- to three-dimensional flow structures along the axial direction due to the vortical instability appears,and the three-dimensional structures lie alternatively on the two sides of the cylinder.Numerical study has been taken for the Keulegan-Carpenter(KC) numbers from 1 to 3.2and frequency parameters from 1O0 to 600. The force behaviors are also studied by solvingthe Morison equation. Calculated results agree well with experimental data and theoreticalprediction.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hookey, N.A. [Memorial Univ., Newfoundland (Canada)
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
The flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching surface
Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Bogdan
2015-01-01
In this paper we have studied the flow and heat transfer in a viscous fluid by a horizontal sheet. The stretching rate and temperature of the sheet vary with time. The governing equations for momentum and thermal energy are reduced to ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. These equations are solved approximately by means of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) which provides us with a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation solutions and adjust convergence rigorous when necessary. Some examples are given and the results obtained reveal that the proposed method is effective and easy to use.
MHD flow of a viscous fluid on a nonlinear porous shrinking sheet with homotopy analysis method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. Nadeem; Anwar Hussain
2009-01-01
The present paper investigates the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a viscous fluid towards a nonlinear porous shrinking sheet. The governing equations are simplified by similarity transformations. The reduced problem is then solved by the homotopy analysis method. The pertinent parameters appearing in the problem are discussed graphically and presented in tables. It is found that the shrinking solutions exist in the presence of MHD. It is also observed from the tables that the solutions for f"(0) with different values of parameters are convergent.
On the mechanism of low-pressure imprint lithography: capillarity vs viscous flow.
Khang, Dahl-Young; Lee, Hong H
2008-05-20
Dominant mechanisms in low-pressure imprint lithography processes have been identified for the regimes that are definable in terms of applied pressure, temperature, and mold material characteristics. Capillarity is found to be the dominant mechanism at high temperature and low pressure when stiff, hard molds are used. In the case of flexible thin-film ( approximately 20 microm) molds, both the capillarity and the viscous flow are involved. Both mechanisms are operative in the initial stage of the imprinting, but the capillarity takes over as time progresses.
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf
Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.
2014-01-01
Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.
Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.; Korivi, Vamshi M.
1991-01-01
A gradient-based design optimization strategy for practical aerodynamic design applications is presented, which uses the 2D thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. The strategy is based on the classic idea of constructing different modules for performing the major tasks such as function evaluation, function approximation and sensitivity analysis, mesh regeneration, and grid sensitivity analysis, all driven and controlled by a general-purpose design optimization program. The accuracy of aerodynamic shape sensitivity derivatives is validated on two viscous test problems: internal flow through a double-throat nozzle and external flow over a NACA 4-digit airfoil. A significant improvement in aerodynamic performance has been achieved in both cases. Particular attention is given to a consistent treatment of the boundary conditions in the calculation of the aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives for the classic problems of external flow over an isolated lifting airfoil on 'C' or 'O' meshes.
Continuous-Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy in a Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flow
Thawoos, Shameemah; Suas-David, Nicolas; Suits, Arthur
2017-06-01
We introduce a new approach that couples a pulsed uniform supersonic flow with high sensitivity continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (UF-CRDS) operated in the near infrared (NIR). This combination is related to the CRESU technique developed in France and used for many years to study reaction kinetics at low temperature, and to the microwave based chirped-pulse uniform supersonic flow spectrometer (CPUF) developed in our group which has successfully demonstrated the use of pulsed uniform supersonic flow to probe reaction dynamics at temperatures as low as 22 K. CRDS operated with NIR permits access to the first overtones of C-H and O-H stretching/bending which, in combination with its extraordinary sensitivity opens new experiments complementary to the CPUF technique. The UF-CRDS apparatus (Figure) utilizes the pulsed uniform flow produced by means of a piezo-electric stack valve in combination with a Laval nozzle. At present, two machined aluminum Laval nozzles designed for carrier gases Ar and He generate flows with a temperature of approximately 25 K and pressure around 0.15 mbar. This flow is probed by an external cavity diode laser in the NIR (1280-1380 nm). Laval nozzles designed using a newly developed MATLAB-based program will be used in the future. A detailed illustration of the novel UF-CRDS instrumentation and its performance will be presented along with future directions and applications. I. Sims, J. L. Queffelec, A. Defrance, C. Rebrion-Rowe, D. Travers, P. Bocherel, B. Rowe, I. W. Smith, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 4229-4241, (1994). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, N. Ariyasingha, L. N. Zack, I. R. Sims, R. W. Field, A. G. Suits, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 1599-1604, (2015). N. Suas-David, T. Vanfleteren, T. Foldes, S. Kassi, R. Georges, M. Herman, J. Phys. Chem.A, 119, 10022-10034, (2015). C. Abeysekera, B. Joalland, Y. Shi, A. Kamasah, J. M. Oldham, A. G. Suits, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 116107, (2014).
Flutter and thermal buckling control for composite laminated panels in supersonic flow
Li, Feng-Ming; Song, Zhi-Guang
2013-10-01
Aerothermoelastic analysis for composite laminated panels in supersonic flow is carried out. The flutter and thermal buckling control for the panels are also investigated. In the modeling for the equation of motion, the influences of in-plane thermal load on the transverse bending deflection are taken into account, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure in supersonic flow is evaluated by the linear piston theory. The governing equation of the structural system is developed applying the Hamilton's principle. In order to study the influences of aerodynamic pressure on the vibration mode shape of the panel, both the assumed mode method (AMM) and the finite element method (FEM) are used to derive the equation of motion. The proportional feedback control method and the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are used to design the controller. The aeroelastic stability of the structural system is analyzed using the frequency-domain method. The effects of ply angle of the laminated panel on the critical flutter aerodynamic pressure and the critical buckling temperature change are researched. The flutter and thermal buckling control effects using the proportional feedback control and the LQR are compared. An effective method which can suppress the flutter and thermal buckling simultaneously is proposed.
Laser driven supersonic flow over a compressible foam surface on the Nike lasera)
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Plewa, T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Gillespie, R. S.; Weaver, J. L.; Visco, A.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.
2010-05-01
A laser driven millimeter-scale target was used to generate a supersonic shear layer in an attempt to create a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable interface in a high-energy-density (HED) plasma. The KH instability is a fundamental fluid instability that remains unexplored in HED plasmas, which are relevant to the inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical environments. In the experiment presented here the Nike laser [S. P. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to create and drive Al plasma over a rippled foam surface. In response to the supersonic Al flow (Mach=2.6±1.1) shocks should form in the Al flow near the perturbations. The experimental data were used to infer the existence and location of these shocks. In addition, the interface perturbations show growth that has possible contributions from both KH and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. Since compressible shear layers exhibit smaller growth, it is important to use the KH growth rate derived from the compressible dispersion relation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbett, M. J.; Fort, R.
1968-09-01
The three-dimensional ideal gas flow in the shock layer of a blunted supersonic cone at an angle of attack is calculated using two asymptotic solutions. The first solution calculates the steady state flow in the subsonic nose region by obtaining a time-dependent solution of the hyperbolic equations using numerical techniques. Internal, nonboundary points are calculated using a Lax-Wendroff numerical type technique. Boundary points, shock and body surface, are computed using a time-dependent method of characteristics. When a steady state solution is reached the flow properties on a surface of constant {theta}, (where the Mach number is everywhere > 1) are used for initial data for the afterbody solution. The afterbody solution, using polar coordinates (r, {theta}, {phi}) assumes at r{sub 0} an arbitrary set of initial conditions provided by the nose region solution and computes the downstream flow as a function of {theta}, {phi}, and r until an asymptotic state independent of r develops. The interior mesh points are again calculated using a Lax- Wendroff type technique and the boundary points by a method of characteristics. This report covers the coupling of the time-dependent and radius (r) dependent solutions. Instructions are given for the operation of the resulting Fortran code. The type of input data required is detailed and sample output is provided. Output data is given in two sets of coordinates. One is wind orientated; the other set is given in body orientated coordinates; The analytical transformation from one coordinate system to the other is given.
Lakshminarayana, B.; Ho, Y.; Basson, A.
1993-01-01
The objective of this research is to simulate steady and unsteady viscous flows, including rotor/stator interaction and tip clearance effects in turbomachinery. The numerical formulation for steady flow developed here includes an efficient grid generation scheme, particularly suited to computational grids for the analysis of turbulent turbomachinery flows and tip clearance flows, and a semi-implicit, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics scheme that directly includes artificial dissipation, and is applicable to both viscous and inviscid flows. The values of these artificial dissipation is optimized to achieve accuracy and convergency in the solution. The numerical model is used to investigate the structure of tip clearance flows in a turbine nozzle. The structure of leakage flow is captured accurately, including blade-to-blade variation of all three velocity components, pitch and yaw angles, losses and blade static pressures in the tip clearance region. The simulation also includes evaluation of such quantities of leakage mass flow, vortex strength, losses, dominant leakage flow regions and the spanwise extent affected by the leakage flow. It is demonstrated, through optimization of grid size and artificial dissipation, that the tip clearance flow field can be captured accurately. The above numerical formulation was modified to incorporate time accurate solutions. An inner loop iteration scheme is used at each time step to account for the non-linear effects. The computation of unsteady flow through a flat plate cascade subjected to a transverse gust reveals that the choice of grid spacing and the amount of artificial dissipation is critical for accurate prediction of unsteady phenomena. The rotor-stator interaction problem is simulated by starting the computation upstream of the stator, and the upstream rotor wake is specified from the experimental data. The results show that the stator potential effects have appreciable influence on the upstream rotor wake
Bubbling at high flow rates in inviscid and viscous liquids (slags)
Engh, T. Abel; Nilmani, M.
1988-02-01
The behavior of gas discharging into melts at high velocities but still in the bubbling regime has been investigated in a laboratory modeling study for constant flow conditions. Air or helium was injected through a vertical tuyere into water, zinc-chloride, and aqueous glycerol solutions. High speed cinematography and pressure measurements in the tuyere have been carried out simultaneously. Pressure fluctuations at the injection point were monitored and correlated to the mode of bubble formation. The effects of high gas flow rates and high liquid viscosities have been examined in particular. Flow rates were employed up to 10-3 m3/s and viscosity to 0.5 Ns/m2. In order to attain a high gas momentum, the tuyere diameter was only 3 x 10-3 m. The experimental conditions and modeling liquids were chosen with special reference to the established practice of submerged gas injection to treat nonferrous slags. Such slags can be highly viscous. Bubble volume is smaller than that calculated from existing models such as those given by Davidson and Schüler10,11 due to the effect of gas momentum elongating the bubbles. On the other hand, viscosity tends to retard the bubble rise velocity, thus increasing volumes. To take elongation into account, a mathematical model is presented that assumes a prolate ellipsoidal shape of the bubbles. The unsteady potential flow equations for the liquid are solved for this case. Viscous effects are taken into account by noting that flow deviates from irrotational motion only in a thin boundary layer along the surface of the bubble. Thus, drag on the bubble can be obtained by calculating the viscous energy dissipation for potential flow past an ellipse. The time-dependent inertia coefficient for the ellipsoid is found by equating the vertical pressure increase inside and outside the bubble. This pressure change in the bubble is obtained by assuming that gas enters as a homogeneous jet and then calculating the stagnation pressure at the apex of
Development of a background-oriented schlieren technique with telecentric lenses for supersonic flow
Cozzi, F.; Göttlich, E.; Angelucci, L.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.
2017-01-01
Background oriented schlieren (BOS) is a quantitative optical technique which exploits light deflection occurring in non-homogeneous transparent media. It allows to indirectly measure the density gradients by analysing the apparent displacement of features of a background pattern when imaged through the investigated flow. Thanks to its simple set-up and to the consolidated data reduction technique based on cross-correlation algorithms the BOS technique has progressively attracted the interest of the researchers. In this work a BOS system using a telecentric lens system has been set up in order to improve measurement accuracy and to avoid 3D effects arising from using conventional entocentric lenses. The design of the telecentric lens system is reported along with an analysis of its performance in term of spatial resolution. Some preliminary tests on a supersonic flows are also reported.
A new Lagrangian method for three-dimensional steady supersonic flows
Loh, Ching-Yuen; Liou, Meng-Sing
1993-01-01
In this report, the new Lagrangian method introduced by Loh and Hui is extended for three-dimensional, steady supersonic flow computation. The derivation of the conservation form and the solution of the local Riemann solver using the Godunov and the high-resolution TVD (total variation diminished) scheme is presented. This new approach is accurate and robust, capable of handling complicated geometry and interactions between discontinuous waves. Test problems show that the extended Lagrangian method retains all the advantages of the two-dimensional method (e.g., crisp resolution of a slip-surface (contact discontinuity) and automatic grid generation). In this report, we also suggest a novel three dimensional Riemann problem in which interesting and intricate flow features are present.
Effect of Mach number on the efficiency of microwave energy deposition in supersonic flow
Lashkov, V. A.; Karpenko, A. G.; Khoronzhuk, R. S.; Mashek, I. Ch.
2016-05-01
The article is devoted to experimental and numerical studies of the efficiency of microwave energy deposition into a supersonic flow around the blunt cylinder at different Mach numbers. Identical conditions for energy deposition have been kept in the experiments, thus allowing to evaluate the pure effect of varying Mach number on the pressure drop. Euler equations are solved numerically to model the corresponding unsteady flow compressed gas. The results of numerical simulations are compared to the data obtained from the physical experiments. It is shown that the momentum, which the body receives during interaction of the gas domain modified by microwave discharge with a shock layer before the body, increases almost linearly with rising of Mach number and the efficiency of energy deposition also rises.
The influence of boundary layers on supersonic inlet flow unstart induced by mass injection
Do, Hyungrok; Im, Seong-Kyun; Mungal, M. Godfrey; Cappelli, Mark A.
2011-09-01
A transverse jet is injected into a supersonic model inlet flow to induce unstart. Planar laser Rayleigh scattering from condensed CO2 particles is used to visualize flow dynamics during the unstart process, while in some cases, wall pressure traces are simultaneously recorded. Studies conducted over a range of inlet configurations reveal that the presence of turbulent wall boundary layers strongly affect the unstart dynamics. It is found that relatively thick turbulent boundary layers in asymmetric wall boundary layer conditions prompt the formation of unstart shocks; in symmetric boundary conditions lead to the propagation of pseudo-shocks; and in both cases facilitate fast inlet unstart, when compared with thin, laminar boundary layers. Incident shockwaves and associated reflections are found to affect the speed of pressure disturbances. These disturbances, which induce boundary layer separation, are found to precede the formation of unstart shocks. The results confirm the importance of and need to better understand shock-boundary layer interactions in inlet unstart dynamics.
Numerical analysis of acoustically driven viscous flow through a circular hole
Notomi, Tetsuo; Namba, Masanobu
1990-12-01
Periodic viscous flows through a circular hole driven by fluctuating far field pressure are numerically studied. The time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated with orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are solved by using a finite difference method. The flow patterns are classified into three regimes by fluctuating pressure amplitude and frequency: flows with no laminar separation (high frequency-low pressure range), flows with attached separation bubble (intermediate frequency and pressure range) and flows with detached vortex ring (low frequency-high pressure range). The flow resistance of the circular hole is proportional to the acoustic particle velocity but independent of the viscosity of the fluid and almost invariant with the frequency for the low frequency-high pressure range. On the other hand, for the high frequency-low pressure range, the flow resistance is independent of the periodic pressure amplitude and varies directly with 2/3 powers of frequency. Finally, the predicted circular hole impedance is in good agreement with Ingard and Ising's (1967) experimental data for the orifice impedance.
Progress Towards a Cartesian Cut-Cell Method for Viscous Compressible Flow
Berger, Marsha; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2011-01-01
The proposed paper reports advances in developing a method for high Reynolds number compressible viscous flow simulations using a Cartesian cut-cell method with embedded boundaries. This preliminary work focuses on accuracy of the discretization near solid wall boundaries. A model problem is used to investigate the accuracy of various difference stencils for second derivatives and to guide development of the discretization of the viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. Near walls, quadratic reconstruction in the wall-normal direction is used to mitigate mesh irregularity and yields smooth skin friction distributions along the body. Multigrid performance is demonstrated using second-order coarse grid operators combined with second-order restriction and prolongation operators. Preliminary verification and validation for the method is demonstrated using flat-plate and airfoil examples at compressible Mach numbers. Simulations of flow on laminar and turbulent flat plates show skin friction and velocity profiles compared with those from boundary-layer theory. Airfoil simulations are performed at laminar and turbulent Reynolds numbers with results compared to both other simulations and experimental data
On the viscous dissipation modeling of thermal fluid flow in a porous medium
Salama, Amgad
2011-02-24
The problem of viscous dissipation and thermal dispersion in saturated porous medium is numerically investigated for the case of non-Darcy flow regime. The fluid is induced to flow upward by natural convection as a result of a semi-infinite vertical wall that is immersed in the porous medium and is kept at constant higher temperature. The boundary layer approximations were used to simplify the set of the governing, nonlinear partial differential equations, which were then non-dimensionalized and solved using the finite elements method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e.; viscous dissipation) resulted in insignificant generation of heat for the range of parameters considered in this study. On the other hand, thermal dispersion has shown to disperse heat energy normal to the wall more effectively compared with the normal diffusion mechanism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Fluid flow of incompressible viscous fluid through a non-linear elastic tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazopoulos, A.; Tsangaris, S. [National Technical University of Athens, Fluids Section, School of Mechanical Engineering, Zografou, Athens (Greece)
2008-11-15
The study of viscous flow in tubes with deformable walls is of specific interest in industry and biomedical technology and in understanding various phenomena in medicine and biology (atherosclerosis, artery replacement by a graft, etc) as well. The present work describes numerically the behavior of a viscous incompressible fluid through a tube with a non-linear elastic membrane insertion. The membrane insertion in the solid tube is composed by non-linear elastic material, following Fung's (Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissue, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, 1993) type strain-energy density function. The fluid is described through a Navier-Stokes code coupled with a system of non linear equations, governing the interaction with the membrane deformation. The objective of this work is the study of the deformation of a non-linear elastic membrane insertion interacting with the fluid flow. The case of the linear elastic material of the membrane is also considered. These two cases are compared and the results are evaluated. The advantages of considering membrane nonlinear elastic material are well established. Finally, the case of an axisymmetric elastic tube with variable stiffness along the tube and membrane sections is studied, trying to substitute the solid tube with a membrane of high stiffness, exhibiting more realistic response. (orig.)
Ultrafast viscous water flow through nanostrand-channelled graphene oxide membranes.
Huang, Hubiao; Song, Zhigong; Wei, Ning; Shi, Li; Mao, Yiyin; Ying, Yulong; Sun, Luwei; Xu, Zhiping; Peng, Xinsheng
2013-01-01
Pressure-driven ultrafiltration membranes are important in separation applications. Advanced filtration membranes with high permeance and enhanced rejection must be developed to meet rising worldwide demand. Here we report nanostrand-channelled graphene oxide ultrafiltration membranes with a network of nanochannels with a narrow size distribution (3-5 nm) and superior separation performance. This permeance offers a 10-fold enhancement without sacrificing the rejection rate compared with that of graphene oxide membranes, and is more than 100 times higher than that of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with similar rejection. The flow enhancement is attributed to the porous structure and significantly reduced channel length. An abnormal pressure-dependent separation behaviour is also reported, where the elastic deformation of nanochannels offers tunable permeation and rejection. The water flow through these hydrophilic graphene oxide nanochannels is identified as viscous. This nanostrand-channelling approach is also extendable to other laminate membranes, providing potential for accelerating separation and water-purification processes.
A fast integral equation method for solid particles in viscous flow using quadrature by expansion
Klinteberg, Ludvig af
2016-01-01
Boundary integral methods are advantageous when simulating viscous flow around rigid particles, due to the reduction in number of unknowns and straightforward handling of the geometry. In this work we present a fast and accurate framework for simulating spheroids in periodic Stokes flow, which is based on the completed double layer boundary integral formulation. The framework implements a new method known as quadrature by expansion (QBX), which uses surrogate local expansions of the layer potential to evaluate it to very high accuracy both on and off the particle surfaces. This quadrature method is accelerated through a newly developed precomputation scheme. The long range interactions are computed using the spectral Ewald (SE) fast summation method, which after integration with QBX allows the resulting system to be solved in M log M time, where M is the number of particles. This framework is suitable for simulations of large particle systems, and can be used for studying e.g. porous media models.
Deformation of an Elastic Beam due to Viscous Flow in an Embedded Parallel Channel Network
Matia, Yoav
2015-01-01
Elastic deformation due to embedded fluidic networks is currently studied in the context of soft-actuators and soft-robotic applications. In this work, we analyze interaction between the elastic deflection of a slender beam and viscous flow within a long serpentine channel, embedded in the elastic beam. The channel is positioned asymmetrically with regard to the midplane of the beam, and thus pressure within the channel creates a local moment deforming the beam. We focus on creeping flows and small deflections of the elastic beam and obtain, in leading order, a fourth-order partial integro-differential equation governing the time-dependent deflection field. This relation enables the design of complex time-dependent deformation patterns of beams with embedded channel networks, including inertia-like standing and moving wave solutions in configurations with negligible inertia.
Hydromagnetic flow of third grade nanofluid with viscous dissipation and flux conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, T. [Faculty of Computing, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S. A., E-mail: ali-qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-08-15
This article investigates the magnetohydrodynamic flow of third grade nanofluid with thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Energy equation is considered in the presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. Rosseland’s approximation is employed for thermal radiation. The heat and concentration flux conditions are taken into account. The governing nonlinear mathematical expressions of velocity, temperature and concentration are converted into dimensionless expressions via transformations. Series solutions of the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration are developed. Convergence of the constructed solutions is checked out both graphically and numerically. Effects of interesting physical parameters on the temperature and concentration are plotted and discussed in detail. Numerical values of skin-friction coefficient are computed for the hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.
Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow
Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team
2013-11-01
For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).
Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Heat exchangers are widely used in industry,and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics.In this paper,we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process.With this concept,a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed.It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger,while the minimizations of entropy generation rate,entropy generation numbers,and revised entropy generation number do not always.
Numerical study of roll motion of a 2-D floating structure in viscous flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lifen CHEN; Liang SUN; Jun ZANG; A J HILLIS; A R PLUMMER
2016-01-01
In the present study, an open source CFD tool, OpenFOAM has been extended and applied to investigate roll motion of a 2-D rectangular barge induced by nonlinear regular waves in viscous flow. Comparisons of the present OpenFOAM results with published potential-flow solutions and experimental data have indicated that the newly extended OpenFOAM model is very capable of accurate modelling of wave interaction with freely rolling structures. The wave-induced roll motions, hydrodynamic forces on the barge, velocities and vorticity fields in the vicinity of the structure in the presence of waves have been investigated to reveal the real physics involved in the wave induced roll motion of a 2-D floating structure. Parametric analysis has been carried out to examine the effect of structure dimension and body draft on the roll motion.
Computational Modelling of Couette Flow of Nanofluids with Viscous Heating and Convective Cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The combined effect of viscous heating and convective cooling on Couette flow and heat transfer characteristics of water base nanofluids containing Copper Oxide (CuO and Alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles is investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid flows in a channel between two parallel plates with the channel’s upper plate accelerating and exchange heat with the ambient surrounding following the Newton’s law of cooling, while the lower plate is stationary and maintained at a constant temperature. Using appropriate similarity transformation, the governing Navier-Stokes and the energy equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation method with series improvement technique and numerically by an efficient Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting method. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop and Nusselt number are presented graphically, and discussed quantitatively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.B.H Shah
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical study is performed for a sonic jet issuing from a blunted cone to provide possible directional control in supersonic crossflow by solving the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with the twoequation k −ω turbulence model. Results are presented in the form of static aerodynamic coefficients, computed at a free stream Mach number 4.0, with varying pressure ratios, incidence angle and keeping zero yaw and roll angles. The morphology and flow structure for the jet exhausting in crossflow at various pressure ratios is described in detail. The Flight control of the projectile can be accomplished by taking advantage of a complex shock-boundary layer interaction produced by jet interacting with the oncoming crossflow by altering pressure distribution in vicinity of the jet, a net increase in the net force can be utilized for maneuvering of vehicle and possible flight control. Computed static aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution using CFD analyses is with an accuracy of ± 5% in the supersonic range.
Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2014-04-01
In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O
Vortex Matter in Highly Strained Nb_{75}Zr_{25}: Analogy with Viscous Flow of Disordered Solids
Chandra, Jagdish; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V. K.; Mondal, Puspen; Tiwari, Pragya; Roy, S. B.
2017-01-01
We present the results of magnetization and magneto-transport measurements in the superconducting state of an as-cast Nb_{75}Zr_{25} alloy. We also report the microstructure of our sample at various length scales by using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The information of microstructure is used to understand the flux pinning properties in the superconducting state within the framework of collective pinning. The magneto-transport measurements show a non-Arrhenius behaviour of the temperature- and field-dependent resistivity across the resistive transition and is understood in terms of a model for viscous flow of disordered solids which is popularly known as the `shoving model'. The activation energy for flux flow is assumed to be mainly the elastic energy stored in the flux-line lattice. The scaling of pinning force density indicates the presence of two pinning mechanisms of different origins. The elastic constants of the flux-line lattice are used to estimate the length scale of vortex lattice movement, or the volume displaced by the flux-line lattice. It appears that the vortex lattice displacement estimated from elastic energy considerations is of the same order of magnitude as that of the flux bundle hopping length during flux flow. Our results could provide possible directions for establishing a framework where vortex matter and glass-forming liquids or amorphous solids can be treated in a similar manner for understanding the phenomenon of viscous flow in disordered solids or more generally the pinning and depinning properties of elastic manifolds in random media. It is likely that the vortex molasses scenario is more suited to explain the vortex dynamics in conventional low-T_C superconductors.
Hydrodynamics of Highly Viscous Flow past a Compound Particle: Analytical Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Longhua Zhao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available To investigate the translation of a compound particle in a highly viscous, incompressible fluid, we carry out an analytic study on flow past a fixed spherical compound particle. The spherical object is considered to have a rigid kernel covered with a fluid coating. The fluid within the coating has a different viscosity from that of the surrounding fluid and is immiscible with the surrounding fluid. The inertia effect is negligible for flows both inside the coating and outside the object. Thus, flows are in the Stokes regime. Taking advantage of the symmetry properties, we reduce the problem in two dimensions and derive the explicit formulae of the stream function in the polar coordinates. The no-slip boundary condition for the rigid kernel and the no interfacial mass transfer and force equilibrium conditions at fluid interfaces are considered. Two extreme cases: the uniform flow past a sphere and the uniform flow past a fluid drop, are reviewed. Then, for the fluid coating the spherical object, we derive the stream functions and investigate the flow field by the contour plots of stream functions. Contours of stream functions show circulation within the fluid coating. Additionally, we compare the drag and the terminal velocity of the object with a rigid sphere or a fluid droplet. Moreover, the extended results regarding the analytical solution for a compound particle with a rigid kernel and multiple layers of fluid coating are reported.
Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.
1982-01-01
A numerical scheme is developed for solving the time dependent, three dimensional compressible viscous flow equations to be used as an aid in the design of helicopter rotors. In order to further investigate the numerical procedure, the computer code developed to solve an approximate form of the three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block implicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is tested. Results of calculations are presented for several two dimensional boundary layer flows including steady turbulent and unsteady laminar cases. A comparison of fourth order and second order solutions indicate that increased accuracy can be obtained without any significant increases in cost (run time). The results of the computations also indicate that the computer code can be applied to more complex flows such as those encountered on rotating airfoils. The geometry of a symmetric NACA four digit airfoil is considered and the appropriate geometrical properties are computed.
Modernized scheme of thermal ignition and flame stabilization at flow supersonic speeds in channel
Goldfeld, M. A.; Nalivaychenko, D. G.; Starov, A. V.; Timofeev, K. Yu.
2016-10-01
For providing fuel ignition at the high supersonic flow velocity original device was developed. Main element of this device in the form of wall slotted channel has to provide the high flow temperature in the area of mixture. Numerical simulation has been performed based on solving the full averaged Navier-Stokes equations, supplemented k-ɛ turbulence model. The experiments were carried out in the hotshot wind tunnel IT-302M at the mode of the attached pipe. The flow parameters at the model entrance were following: M = 2 - 5.8, p0 = 12 - 390bar, T0 = 1170 - 2930K at equivalence ratio of hydrogen from 0.6 to 1.1. Self-ignition of the hydrogen in the slotted channel has occurred at total flow temperature of 2250K at the combustor entrance. The combustion process is extended to the entire channel of the combustor. When the facility worked with decreasing parameters of the flow, combustion continued until drop of the static temperature of about 230K at the entrance of the combustor.
CALCULATION OF VISCOUS FLOW AROUND CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a uniform incompressible viscous flow around a stationary circular cylinder was conducted. The CFX-4 software was used to calculate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow and the finite volume method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was employed in the program. The simulation of the flow was performed for Re=103 and Re=104 respectively within the sub-critical region. In order to overcome numerical instability for the high Reynolds number flows, a quadratic upwind scheme was incorporated for the Navier-Stokes equations. The periodicity boundary condition was used at the ends of the cylinder. It was found that the evolution of the lift and drag coefficients in each plane along the cylinder span is different. Comparison between the predicted results based on the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional analysis was also given. It is concluded that at the high Reynolds number the effect of three-dimensionality of the flow around the circular cylinder is remarkable, and in addition hydrodynamic coefficients with of 3-D simulation are less than those given by 2-D simulation.
Particle-laden viscous channel flows - model regularization and parameter study
O'Naraigh, Lennon
2016-01-01
We characterize the flow of a viscous suspension in an inclined channel where the flow is maintained in a steady state under the competing influences of gravity and an applied pressure drop. The basic model relies on a diffusive-flux formalism. Such models are common in the literature, yet many of them possess an unphysical singularity at the channel centreline where the shear rate vanishes. We therefore present a regularization of the basic diffusive-flux model that removes this singularity. This introduces an explicit (physical) dependence on the particle size into the model equations. This approach enables us to carry out a detailed parameter study showing in particular the opposing effects of the pressure drop and gravity. Conditions for counter-current flow and complete flow reversal are obtained from numerical solutions of the model equations. These are supplemented by an analytic lower bound on the ratio of the gravitational force to the applied pressure drop necessary to bring about complete flow reve...
On the pressure and stress singularities induced by steady flows of incompressible viscous fluids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G.B.Sinclair; X.Chi; T.I-P.Shih
2009-01-01
Design for structural integrity requires an appreciation of where stress singularities can occur in structural configurations. While there is a rich literature devoted to the identification of such singular behavior in solid mechanics, to date there has been relatively little explicit identification of stress singularities caused by fluid flows. In this study, stress and pressure singularities induced by steady flows of viscous incompressible fluids are asymptotically identified. This is done by taking advantage of an earlier result that the Navier-Stokes equations are locally governed by Stokes flow in angular corners. Findings for power singularities are confirmed by developing and using an analogy with solid mechanics. This analogy also facilitates the identification of flow-induced log singularities. Both types of singularity are further confirmed for two global configurations by applying convergence-divergence checks to numerical results. Even though these flow-induced stress singularities are analogous to singularities in solid mechanics, they nonetheless render a number of structural configurations singular that were not previously appreciated as such from identifications within solid mechanics alone.
Miner, E. W.; Lewis, C. H.
1972-01-01
An implicit finite difference method has been applied to tangential slot injection into supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows. In addition, the effects induced by the interaction between the boundary layer displacement thickness and the external pressure field are considered. In the present method, three different eddy viscosity models have been used to specify the turbulent momentum exchange. One model depends on the species concentration profile and the species conservation equation has been included in the system of governing partial differential equations. Results are compared with experimental data at stream Mach numbers of 2.4 and 6.0 and with results of another finite difference method. Good agreement was generally obtained for the reduction of wall skin friction with slot injection and with experimental Mach number and pitot pressure profiles. Calculations with the effects of pressure interaction included showed these effects to be smaller than effects of changing eddy viscosity models.
Simulation of Supersonic Flow in an Ejector Diffuser Using the JPVM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Couder-Castañeda
2009-01-01
creating and holding a vacuum system. The goal of this job is to develop an object oriented parallel numerical code to investigate the unsteady behavior of the supersonic flow in the ejector diffuser to have an efficient computational tool that allows modeling different diffuser designs. The first step is the construction of a proper transformation of the solution space to generate a computational regular space to apply an explicit scheme. The second step, consists in developing the numerical code with an-object-oriented parallel methodology. Finally, the results obtained about the flux are satisfactory compared with the physical sensors, and the parallel paradigm used not only reduces the computational time but also shows a better maintainability, reusability, and extensibility accuracy of the code.
Degani, D.
1983-01-01
A numerical study of the conjugated problem of a separated supersonic flow field and a conductive solid wall with an embedded heat source is presented. Implicit finite-difference schemes were used to solve the two-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and the time-dependent heat-conduction equation for the solid in both general coordinate systems. A detailed comparison between the thin-layer and Navier-Stokes models was made for steady and unsteady supersonic flow and showed insignificant differences. Steady-state and transient cases were computed and the results show that a temperature pulse at the solid-fluid interface can be used to detect the flow direction near the wall in the vicinity of separation without significant distortion of the flow field.
Supersonic flow about cone eith ijection of gas through its surface described by power law
Antonov, A. M.; Zakrevskiy, V. A.
1986-01-01
The influence of intensive mass transfer on the supersonic flow of gas about a cone of finite length is investigated. The mathematical model describing the interaction of the primary flow and the transverse flow formed by injection is the boundary problem for a system of equations presented with boundary conditions on the cone and on the contact discontinuity. It is found that the contact surface is nonrectilinear when the injected gas is described by a power law and that the thickness of the layer coming in contact with the cone increases as the intensity of the injection becomes higher. The distribution of the pressure coefficient along a finite cone is calculated as a function of the parameter(s) associated with the injection flow rate, and the Mach number of the oncoming stream. It is found that the pressure coefficient drops off along the generatrix of a cone for all velocities of injection and oncoming stream when the injection is distributed. As the injection intensity increases, the pressure coefficient on the surface increases.
Three-dimensional supersonic flow around double compression ramp with finite span
Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, G.; Park, S. H.; Byun, Y. H.
2017-01-01
Three-dimensional flows of Mach number 3 around a double-compression ramp with finite span have been investigated numerically. Shadowgraph visualisation images obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are used for comparison. A three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was used to obtain steady numerical solutions. Two-dimensional numerical results are also compared. Four different cases were studied: two different second ramp angles of 30° and 45° in configurations with and without sidewalls, respectively. Results showed that there is a leakage of mass and momentum fluxes heading outwards in the spanwise direction for three-dimensional cases without sidewalls. The leakage changed the flow characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer and resulted in the discrepancy between the experimental data and two-dimensional numerical results. It is found that suppressing the flow leakage by attaching the sidewalls enhances the two-dimensionality of the experimental data for the double-compression ramp flow.
Minimum divergence viscous flow simulation through finite difference and regularization techniques
Victor, Rodolfo A.; Mirabolghasemi, Maryam; Bryant, Steven L.; Prodanović, Maša
2016-09-01
We develop a new algorithm to simulate single- and two-phase viscous flow through a three-dimensional Cartesian representation of the porous space, such as those available through X-ray microtomography. We use the finite difference method to discretize the governing equations and also propose a new method to enforce the incompressible flow constraint under zero Neumann boundary conditions for the velocity components. Finite difference formulation leads to fast parallel implementation through linear solvers for sparse matrices, allowing relatively fast simulations, while regularization techniques used on solving inverse problems lead to the desired incompressible fluid flow. Tests performed using benchmark samples show good agreement with experimental/theoretical values. Additional tests are run on Bentheimer and Buff Berea sandstone samples with available laboratory measurements. We compare the results from our new method, based on finite differences, with an open source finite volume implementation as well as experimental results, specifically to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each method. Finally, we calculate relative permeability by using this modified finite difference technique together with a level set based algorithm for multi-phase fluid distribution in the pore space. To our knowledge this is the first time regularization techniques are used in combination with finite difference fluid flow simulations.
Deciphering viscous flow of frictional melts with the mini-AMS method
Ferré, Eric C.; Chou, Yu-Min; Kuo, Ruo Lin; Yeh, En-Chao; Leibovitz, Natalie R.; Meado, Andrea L.; Campbell, Lucy; Geissman, John W.
2016-09-01
The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is widely used to analyze magmatic flow in intrusive igneous bodies including plutons, sills and dikes. This method, owing its success to the rapid nature of measurements, provides a proxy for the orientation of markers with shape anisotropy that flow and align in a viscous medium. AMS specimens typically are 25 mm diameter right cylinders or 20 mm on-a-side cubes, representing a volume deemed statistically representative. Here, we present new AMS results, based on significantly smaller cubic specimens, which are 3.5 mm on a side, hence∼250 times volumetrically smaller than conventional specimens. We show that, in the case of frictional melts, which inherently have an extremely small grain size, this small volume is in most cases sufficient to characterize the pseudotachylyte fabric, particularly when magnetite is present. Further, we demonstrate that the mini-AMS method provides new opportunities to investigate the details of frictional melt flow in these coseismic miniature melt bodies. This new method offers significant potential to investigate frictional melt flow in pseudotachylyte veins including contributions to the lubrication of faults at shallow to moderate depths.
The boundary element method applied to viscous and vortex shedding flows around cylinders
Farrant, Tim
Studies are presented to further extend the use of the boundary element method (BEM) for the solution of viscous flows around bluff bodies, governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Two distinct formulations are applied to various flows around cylindrical geometries for Reynolds numbers Tan (1994) and known herein as the global BEM, was coded to execute in parallel on multi-processor computers. Reductions in execution time were achieved and the method was employed to solve an oscillating cylinder problem. In this study, the displacement undergone by the body was very large but the Reynolds number was always Tan et al (1998). A validation for isolated and double circular cylinders in a uniform stream was performed against experimental evidence to demonstrate the method's stability and accuracy for laminar vortex shedding with geometries involving multiply connected domains. Finally, computational results for flows around four equispaced circular cylinders of equal diameter and two cylinders, one circular the other elliptical, are reported. Many of the concepts established for the flow around two cylinders of equal diameter were found to be useful in interpretation of these more complicated arrangements.
A Parallel Multigrid Solver for Viscous Flows on Anisotropic Structured Grids
Prieto, Manuel; Montero, Ruben S.; Llorente, Ignacio M.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper presents an efficient parallel multigrid solver for speeding up the computation of a 3-D model that treats the flow of a viscous fluid over a flat plate. The main interest of this simulation lies in exhibiting some basic difficulties that prevent optimal multigrid efficiencies from being achieved. As the computing platform, we have used Coral, a Beowulf-class system based on Intel Pentium processors and equipped with GigaNet cLAN and switched Fast Ethernet networks. Our study not only examines the scalability of the solver but also includes a performance evaluation of Coral where the investigated solver has been used to compare several of its design choices, namely, the interconnection network (GigaNet versus switched Fast-Ethernet) and the node configuration (dual nodes versus single nodes). As a reference, the performance results have been compared with those obtained with the NAS-MG benchmark.
Shear banding analysis of plastic models formulated for incompressible viscous flows
Lemiale, V.; Mühlhaus, H.-B.; Moresi, L.; Stafford, J.
2008-12-01
We investigate shear band orientations for a simple plastic formulation in the context of incompressible viscous flow. This type of material modelling has been introduced in literature to enable the numerical simulation of the deformation and failure of the lithosphere coupled with the mantle convection. In the present article, we develop a linear stability analysis to determine the admissible shear band orientations at the onset of bifurcation. We find that the so-called Roscoe angle and Coulomb angle are both admissible solutions. We present numerical simulations under plane strain conditions using the hybrid particle-in-cell finite element code Underworld. The results both in compressional and extensional stress conditions show that the variation of the numerical shear bands angle with respect to the internal friction angle follows closely the evolution of the Coulomb angle.
Liska, Sebastian
2016-01-01
A new parallel, computationally efficient immersed boundary method for solving three-dimensional, viscous, incompressible flows on unbounded domains is presented. Immersed surfaces with prescribed motions are generated using the interpolation and regularization operators obtained from the discrete delta function approach of the original (Peskin's) immersed boundary method. Unlike Peskin's method, boundary forces are regarded as Lagrange multipliers that are used to satisfy the no-slip condition. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized on an unbounded staggered Cartesian grid and are solved in a finite number of operations using lattice Green's function techniques. These techniques are used to automatically enforce the natural free-space boundary conditions and to implement a novel block-wise adaptive grid that significantly reduces the run-time cost of solutions by limiting operations to grid cells in the immediate vicinity and near-wake region of the immersed surface. These techniques also...
Numerical Investigation of Viscous Flow Velocity Field around a Marine Cavitating Propeller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhifeng Zhu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Velocity field around a ship cavitating propeller is investigated based on the viscous multiphase flow theory. Using a hybrid grid, the unsteady Navier-stokes (N-S and the bubble dynamics equations are solved in this paper to predict the velocity in a propeller wake and the vapor volume fraction on the back side of propeller blade for a uniform inflow. Compared with experimental results, the numerical predictions of cavitation and axial velocity coincide with the measured data. The evolution of tip vortex is shown, and the interaction between the tip vortex of the current blade and the wake of the next one occurs in the far propeller wake. The frequency of velocity signals changes from shaft rate to blade rate. The phenomena reflect the instability of propeller wake.
INVESTIGATION OF VISCOUS FLOW FIELD AROUND AN APPENDED REVOLUTION BODY WITH GUIDE VANE PROPELLER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A RANS solver is presented to numerically simulate the viscous wake of an appended revolution body with guide vane propeller at the Reynolds number 107. The k-ε turbulence model together with wall function is used. The resulting finite difference equations are solved by SIMPLEC and ADI. The technique of rising up the bottom surface is presented to overcome radial contraction problem in Cartesian coordinate system. The three-dimensional body forces are separately adopted to model the affection of the guide vane and propeller. The detailed flow characteristics,especially the counter-swirl component generated by the guide vane in the propeller inflow, are numerically seized successfully. Compared with the experimental data, The computational axial velocity on the propeller disk plane comes up to engineering requirement.
Flow of an Elastico-viscous Fluid Past an Infinite Platewith Variable Suction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch. V. Ramana Murthy
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Unsteady state flow of an incompressible elastico-viscous fluid of second-order type pastan infinite vertical porous flat plate by considering uniform and variable suction normal to theplate has been studied and an exact solution is obtained for the velocity field. In the presentsituation, only two prescribed boundary conditions are available while the governing equationof motion is of third-order due to the presence of elastico-viscosity parameter. The conceptfollowing Walters has been used for a much more meaningful solution. The results for thevelocity distribution and skin friction have been analysed and discussed for different values ofthe parameters encountered in the governing equation of motion and skin friction on the plate.It is found that the effect of elastico-viscosity and suction has significant contribution on thebackflow at the wall
MOTION AND DEFORMATION OF VISCOUS DROP IN STOKES FLOW NEAR RIGID WALL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Hua-jian; ZHANG Hui-sheng
2005-01-01
A boundary integral method was developed for simulating the motion and deformation of a viscous drop in an axisymmetric ambient Stokes flow near a rigid wall and for direct calculating the stress on the wall. Numerical experiments by the method were performed for different initial stand-off distances of the drop to the wall, viscosity ratios, combined surface tension and buoyancy parameters and ambient flow parameters. Numerical results show that due to the action of ambient flow and buoyancy the drop is compressed and stretched respectively in axial and radial directions when time goes. When the ambient flow action is weaker than that of the buoyancy the drop raises and bends upward and the stress on the wall induced by drop motion decreases when time advances. When the ambient flow action is stronger than that of the buoyancy the drop descends and becomes flatter and flatter as time goes. In this case when the initial stand-off distance is large the stress on the wall increases as the drop evolutes but when the stand-off distance is small the stress on the wall decreases as a result of combined effects of ambient flow, buoyancy and the stronger wall action to the flow. The action of the stress on the wall induced by drop motion is restricted in an area near the symmetric axis, which increases when the initial stand-off distance increases.When the initial stand-off distance increases the stress induced by drop motion decreases substantially. The surface tension effects resist the deformation and smooth the profile of the drop surfaces. The drop viscosity will reduce the deformation and migration of the drop.
Sarimurat, Mehmet Nasir
suction at a given location that is required to hold the shock at a given area ratio as the back pressure is varied. The formulation is based on classical inviscid- and compressible-flow theories for normal shock waves and flow transpiration in converging/diverging flow passages. The theory shows that, for the case where there is a shock wave inside a diverging section with supersonic inlet, as the back pressure is increased, the shock can be held stationary if either flow suction is applied behind the shock or flow blowing is applied in front of the shock. For the case of blowing, the amount of flow blowing required to fix the shock location decreases with both increasing total pressure and total temperature of the blown flow. Applications of this quasi-1D theory are demonstrated for 2D supersonic nozzles and supersonic sections of NASA Rotor-37 and NASA UEET R2 rotors taken at the span station 10% from tip. Excellent agreement between the theory and CFD is observed. For the NASA Rotor-37 and NASA UEET R2 rotor cascade sections studied, if suction behind the shock is applied to fix the shock location inside the passage as the back pressure is increased 3-4% from the design point back pressure, the amount of required flow removal is on the order of 3.5% of the main flow. For the same case if flow blowing is applied in front of the shock, the amount of the flow that is needed to be blown to fix the shock location is a function of the stagnation conditions of the blown flow. When the total pressure of the blown flow is taken to be 1.5 times that of the local flow and the total temperature to be 1.3 times that of the local flow the amount of the flow needed to be blown is on the order of 1% of the main flow.
AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TRANSIENT FLOWS IN A SUPERSONIC GUN TUNNEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al Al-Falahi Amir
2012-12-01
Full Text Available An experimental study has been performed to investigate transient flows in a supersonic gun tunnel. The experimental work was performed using a short duration high speed flow test facility at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN. A physical description of the facility along with the principles of operation is provided. The pressure history of the flow process was captured using a fast response pressure transducer at three stations located at the end of the facility. Experimental measurements of shock strength, peak pressure and shock wave speed change of Air-Air as a driver/driven gas are then presented and compared with a further set of experimental measurements using the gas combination of Helium-Air. The shock wave speed was measured experimentally with a two pressure transducers technique. The results showed that the existence of the piston has a very significant influence on both the moving shock wave and peak pressure value achieved. The results provide a very good estimate for the above-mentioned parameters obtained after diaphragm rupture, and also provide a better understanding of the parameters that affect the performance of the facility.
Production of high-beta magnetised plasmas by colliding supersonic flows from inverse wire arrays
Hare, Jack; Suttle, Lee; Lebedev, Sergey; Bennett, Matthew; Burdiak, Guy; Clayson, Thomas; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Swadling, George; Patankar, Siddharth; Robinson, Timothy; Stuart, Nicholas; Smith, Roland; Yang, Qingguo; Wu, Jian; Rozmus, Wojciech
2015-11-01
HEDP often exhibit a high plasma β and an electron Hall parameter greater than one. This results in a complex interplay between the transport of heat and magnetic fields, relevant to the Magnetised Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. We can produce such plasmas by colliding two supersonic quasi-planar flows from two adjacent inverse wire arrays made from carbon. The standing shock formed by the collision heats and compresses the plasma. The plasma flows advect magnetic fields which are perpendicular to the flow direction. Depending on the experimental set up, this can result in either flux compression or reconnection in the interaction region. The experiments are conducted on MAGPIE (1.4 MA, 250 ns current pulse). The formed shock is stable over long timescales (~100 ns), and the electron temperature (100 eV) is close to the ion temperature (500 eV), measured by spatially resolved Thomson scattering. Magnetic fields above 5 T is observed using a Faraday rotation diagnostic, and an electron density of around 5x1017 cm-3 is measured by interferometry.
Transverse and lateral confinement effects on the oscillations of a free cylinder in a viscous flow
Gianorio, Luciano; Cachile, Mario; Hulin, Jean-Pierre; Auradou, Harold
2013-01-01
The different types of instabilities of free cylinders (diameter $D$, length $L$) have been studied in a viscous flow (velocity $U$) between parallel vertical walls of horizontal width $W$ at a distance $H$: the influence of the confinement parameters $D/H$ and $L/W$ has been investigated. As $D/H$ increases, there is a transition from stable flow to oscillations transverse to the walls and then to a fluttering motion with oscillations of the angle of the axis with respect to the horizontal. The two types of oscillations may be superimposed in the transition domain. The frequency $f$ of the transverse oscillations is independent of the lateral confinement $L/W$ in the range: 0.055 \\le L/W \\le 0.94$ for a given cylinder velocity $V_{cx}$ and increases only weakly with $V_{cx}$. These results are accounted for by assuming a 2D local flow over the cylinder with a characteristic velocity independent of $L/W$ for a given $V_{cx}$ value. The experimental values of $f$ are also independent of the transverse confinem...
Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows
Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.
2016-11-01
We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.
Schneiders, Lennart; Günther, Claudia; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
A Cartesian cut-cell method for viscous flows interacting with freely moving boundaries is presented. The method enables a sharp resolution of the embedded boundaries and strictly conserves mass, momentum, and energy. A new explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (PC-RK) is introduced by which the overall computational time is reduced by a factor of up to 2.5. The new scheme is a predictor-corrector type reformulation of a popular class of Runge-Kutta methods which substantially reduces the computational effort for tracking the moving boundaries and subsequently reinitializing the solver impairing neither stability nor accuracy. The structural motion is computed by an implicit scheme with good stability properties due to a strong-coupling strategy and the conservative discretization of the flow solver at the material interfaces. A new formulation for the treatment of small cut cells is proposed with high accuracy and robustness for arbitrary geometries based on a weighted Taylor-series approach solved via singular-value decomposition. The efficiency and the accuracy of the new method are demonstrated for several three-dimensional cases of laminar and turbulent particulate flow. It is shown that the new method remains fully conservative even for large displacements of the boundaries leading to a fast convergence of the fluid-solid coupling while spurious force oscillations inherent to this class of methods are effectively suppressed. The results substantiate the good stability and accuracy properties of the scheme even on relatively coarse meshes.
An orthogonal coordinate grid following the three-dimensional viscous flow over a concave surface
Dagenhart, J. R; Saric, W. S.
1983-01-01
Swept wings designed for laminar flow control exhibit both centrifugal and crossflow instabilities which produce streamwise vortices that can lead to early transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the presence of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This paper outlines an iterative algorithm for generation of an orthogonal, curvilinear, coordinate grid following the streamlines of the three-dimensional viscous flow over a swept, concave surface. The governing equations for the metric tensor are derived from the Riemann-Christoffel tensor for an Euclidian geometry. Unit vectors along streamline, normal and binormal directions are determined. The governing equations are not solved directly, but are employed only as compatibility equations. The scale factor for the streamline coordinate is obtained by an iterative integration scheme on a 200 x 100 x 5 grid, while the other two scale factors are determined from definitions. Sample results are obtained which indicate that the compatibility equation error decreases linearly with grid step size. Grids smaller than 200 x 100 x 5 are found to be inadequate to resolve the grid curvature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. Turkyilmazoglu
2012-01-01
The present paper is concerned with a class of exact solutions to the steady Navier-Stokes equations for the incompressible Newtonian viscous electrically conducting fluid flow due to a porous disk rotating with a constant angular speed.The three-dimensional hydromagnetic equations of motion are treated analytically to obtained exact solutions with the inclusion of suction and injection.The well-known thinning/thickening flow field effect of the suction/injection is better understood from the constructed closed form velocity equations.Making use of this solution,analytical formulas for the angular velocity components as well as for the permeable wall shear stresses are derived.Interaction of the resolved flow field with the surrounding temperature is further analyzed via the energy equation.The temperature field is shown to accord with the dissipation and the Joule heating.As a result,exact formulas are obtained for the temperature field which take different forms corresponding to the condition of suction or injection imposed on the wall.
Palassini, M; Remuzzi, A
1998-01-01
Viscous flow through fibrous media is characterized macroscopically by the Darcy permeability (KD). The relationship between KD and the microscopic structure of the medium has been the subject of experimental and theoretical investigations. Calculations of KD based on the solution of the hydrodynamic flow at fiber scale exist in literature only for two-dimensional arrays of parallel fibers. We considered a fiber matrix consisting of a three-dimensional periodic array of cylindrical fibers with uniform radius (r) and length connected in a tetrahedral structure. According to recent ultrastructural studies, this array of fibers can represent a model for the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The Stokes flow through the periodic array was simulated using a Galerkin finite element method. The dimensionless ratio K* = KD/r2 was determined for values of the fractional solid volume (phi) in the range 0.005 equation only for phi > 0.4. Among the other theoretical analysis considered, only that of Spielman and Goren (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2: 279-287, 1968) gives satisfactory agreement in the whole range of phi considered. These results can be useful to model combined transport of water and macromolecules through the GBM for the estimation of the radius and length of extracellular protein fibrils.
Tiwari, S. N.; Szema, K. Y.
1979-01-01
The influence of change in the precursor region flow properties on the entire shock layer flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body was investigated. The flow in the shock layer was assumed to be steady, axisymmetric, and viscous. Both the chemical equilibrium and the nonequilibrium composition of the shock layer gas were considered. The effects of transitional range behavior were included in the analysis of high altitude entry conditions. Realistic thermophysical and radiation models were used, and results were obtained by employing the implicit finite difference technique in the shock layer and an iterative procedure for the entire shock layer precursor zone. Results obtained for a 45 degree angle hyperboloid blunt body entering Jupiter's atmosphere at zero angle of attack indicates that preheating the gas significantly increases the static pressure and temperature ahead of the shock for entry velocities exceeding 36 km/sec. The nonequilibrium radiative heating rate to the body is found to be significantly higher than the corresponding equilibrium heating. The precursor heating generally increases the radiative and convective heating of a body. That increase is slightly higher for the nonequilibrium conditions.
Musial, Norman T.; Ward, James J.
1959-01-01
An investigation of the thrust characteristics and internal pressure distributions of two convergent-divergent 15 deg. half-angle exhaust nozzles having area ratios of 6 and 9 was made in the NASA Lewis 10- by 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel. The tests were conducted at free-stream Mach numbers of 0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 3 to 105. Attempts were made to induce separation of the overexpanded nozzle flow using secondary airflow and a wedge. Nozzle flow expansion under all free-stream conditions followed one-dimensional theory until separation from the nozzle wall occurred. In quiescent air the nozzle flow expanded to a pressure approximately one-half the base pressure before separation. When the nozzles were tested with supersonic external flow at the same effective pressure ratios, the nozzle flow separated with negligible expansion below the base pressure. The effect of a supersonic stream on internal nozzle flow separation characteristics was well defined only at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0. Thrust data at supersonic free-stream conditions indicate that only a small percentage of the ideal nozzle thrust will be available at nozzle pressure ratios below design. However, the overexpanded primary nozzle thrust loss was decreased by injecting large quantities of secondary air near the nozzle exit. In most cases no net gain in thrust resulted from secondary-air injection when the nozzle thrust was compared with the ideal thrust of both the primary and secondary airflows.
Three-Dimensional Viscous Numerical Simulation of Tip Clearance Flow in Axial-Flow Pump
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Changming Yang; Cichang Chen; Jinnuo Wang; Quankai Ji
2003-01-01
The blade tip clearance flow in axial-flow pump is simulated based on three-dimensional N-S equations, RNG k-ε turbulence model, and SIMPLEC algorithm. It shows that numerical results agree well with experiment data measured by 5-hole probe through validation. Flow fields at the blade tip and velocity distribution at the exit of rotor are analyzed in detail. The numerical results show that the increase in tip clearance reduces hydro-head, especially at small flow rate. Experiment equipment is also introduced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sushila
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an efficient analytical approach based on new homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM to investigate the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD viscous flow due to a stretching sheet. The viscous fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of magnetic field and the induced magnetic field is neglected for small magnetic Reynolds number. Finally, some numerical comparisons among the new HPSTM, the homotopy perturbation method and the exact solution have been made. The numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method show that the approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive.
Bhuiyan, A. S.; Biswas, M. R.
2011-11-01
The effects of pressure stress work and viscous dissipation in mixed convection flow along a vertical flat plate have been investigated. The results are obtained numerically by transforming the governing system of boundary layer equations into a system of non-dimensional equations. Numerical results for different values of pressure stress work parameter, viscous dissipation parameter, and Prandtl number have been obtained. The velocity profiles, temperature distributions, skin friction coefficient, and the rate of heat transfer have been presented graphically for the effects of the aforementioned parameters. Results are compared with previous investigation.
Liska, Sebastian; Colonius, Tim
2017-02-01
A new parallel, computationally efficient immersed boundary method for solving three-dimensional, viscous, incompressible flows on unbounded domains is presented. Immersed surfaces with prescribed motions are generated using the interpolation and regularization operators obtained from the discrete delta function approach of the original (Peskin's) immersed boundary method. Unlike Peskin's method, boundary forces are regarded as Lagrange multipliers that are used to satisfy the no-slip condition. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized on an unbounded staggered Cartesian grid and are solved in a finite number of operations using lattice Green's function techniques. These techniques are used to automatically enforce the natural free-space boundary conditions and to implement a novel block-wise adaptive grid that significantly reduces the run-time cost of solutions by limiting operations to grid cells in the immediate vicinity and near-wake region of the immersed surface. These techniques also enable the construction of practical discrete viscous integrating factors that are used in combination with specialized half-explicit Runge-Kutta schemes to accurately and efficiently solve the differential algebraic equations describing the discrete momentum equation, incompressibility constraint, and no-slip constraint. Linear systems of equations resulting from the time integration scheme are efficiently solved using an approximation-free nested projection technique. The algebraic properties of the discrete operators are used to reduce projection steps to simple discrete elliptic problems, e.g. discrete Poisson problems, that are compatible with recent parallel fast multipole methods for difference equations. Numerical experiments on low-aspect-ratio flat plates and spheres at Reynolds numbers up to 3700 are used to verify the accuracy and physical fidelity of the formulation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁生学
1999-01-01
Some basic concepts and features of supersonic combustion are explained from the view point of macroscopic aerodynamics. Two kinds of interpretations of supersonic combustion are proposed. The difference between supersonic combustion and subsonic combustion is discussed, and the mechanism of supersonic combustion propagation and the limitation of heat addition in supersonic flow are pointed out. The results of the calculation of deflagration in supersonic flow show that the entropy increment and the total pressure loss of the combustion products may decrease with the increase of combustion velocity. It is also demonstrated that the oblique detonation wave angle may not be controlled by the wedge angle under weak underdriven solution conditions and be determined only by combustion velocity. Therefore, the weak underdriven solution may become self-sustaining oblique detonation waves with a constant wave angle.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xudong; WANG Guangqian; KANG Zhicheng; FEI Xiangjun
2007-01-01
Characteristics of planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow were analyzed using the measured data at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China. The velocity data were measured through using two radar velocimeters. The cross-sectional mean velocities were calculated and used to examine Kang et al's (2004) relationship, which was established for converting the flow velocity at river centerline measured by a radar velocimeter into the mean velocity based on the stop-watch method. The velocity coefficient, K, defined by the ratio of the mean velocity to the maximum velocity, ranges from 0.2 to 0.6. Kang et al's (2004) relationship was found being inapplicable to flows with K smaller than 0.43. This paper contributes to show the complexity of the planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flows and the applicability of Kang et al's relationship.
Application of Tomo-PIV in a large-scale supersonic jet flow facility
Wernet, Mark P.
2016-09-01
Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) has been used extensively at NASA GRC over the last 15 years to build a benchmark data set of hot and cold jet flow measurements in an effort to understand acoustic noise sources in high-speed jets. Identifying the noise sources in high-speed jets is critical for ultimately modifying the nozzle hardware design/operation and therefore reducing the jet noise. Tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) is an innovative approach for acquiring and extracting velocity information across extended volumes of a flow field, enabling the computation of additional fluid mechanical properties not typically available using traditional PIV techniques. The objective of this work was to develop and implement the Tomo-PIV measurement capability and apply it in a large-scale outdoor test facility, where seeding multiple flow streams and operating in the presence of daylight presents formidable challenges. The newly developed Tomo-PIV measurement capability was applied in both a subsonic M 0.9 flow and an under-expanded M 1.4 heated jet flow field. Measurements were also obtained using traditional two-component (2C) PIV and stereo PIV in the M 0.9 flow field for comparison and validation of the Tomo-PIV results. In the case of the M 1.4 flow, only the 2C PIV was applied to allow a comparison with the Tomo-PIV measurement. The Tomo-PIV fields-of-view covered 180 × 180 × 10 mm, and the reconstruction domains were 3500 × 3500 × 200 voxels. These Tomo-PIV measurements yielded all three components of vorticity across entire planes for the first time in heated supersonic jet flows and provided the first full 3D reconstruction of the Mach disk and oblique shock intersections inside of the barrel shocks. Measuring all three components of vorticity across multiple planes in the flow, potentially reduces the number of measurement configurations (streamwise and cross-stream PIV) required to fully characterize the mixing-enhanced nozzle flows routinely studied in
Schwab, J. R.; Povinelli, L. A.
1984-01-01
A comparison of the secondary flows computed by the viscous Kreskovsky-Briley-McDonald code and the inviscid Denton code with benchmark experimental data for turning duct is presented. The viscous code is a fully parabolized space-marching Navier-Stokes solver while the inviscid code is a time-marching Euler solver. The experimental data were collected by Taylor, Whitelaw, and Yianneskis with a laser Doppler velocimeter system in a 90 deg turning duct of square cross-section. The agreement between the viscous and inviscid computations was generally very good for the streamwise primary velocity and the radial secondary velocity, except at the walls, where slip conditions were specified for the inviscid code. The agreement between both the computations and the experimental data was not as close, especially at the 60.0 deg and 77.5 deg angular positions within the duct. This disagreement was attributed to incomplete modelling of the vortex development near the suction surface.
水坝绕流的数值研究%Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰
2003-01-01
In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liushuai CAO
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To estimate the maneuverability of a submarine at the early design stage, an accurate evaluation of the hydrodynamic coefficients is important. In a collaborative exercise, the authors performed calculations on the bare hull DRAPA SUBOFF submarine to investigate the capability of viscous-flow solvers to predict the forces and moments as well as flow field around the body. A typical simulation program was performed for both the steady drift tests and rotating arm tests. The same grid topology based on multi-block mesh strategy was used to discretize the computational domain. A procedure designated drift sweep was implemented to automatically increment the drift angle during the simulation of steady drift tests. The rotating coordinate system was adopted to perform the simulation of rotating arm tests. The Coriolis force and centrifugal force due to the computation in a rotating frame of reference were treated explicitly and added to momentum equations as source terms. Lastly, the computed forces and moment as a function of angles of drift in both conditions are compared with experimental results and literature values. They always show the correct trend. Flow field quantities including pressure coefficients and vorticity and axial velocity contours are also visualized to vividly describe the evolution of flow motions along the hull.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huerst, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen
1995-04-01
The present study compares measured and computed heat transfer coefficients for high-speed boundary layer nozzle flows under engine Reynolds number conditions (U{sub {infinity}} = 230 {divided_by} 880 m/s, Re* = 0.37 {divided_by} 1.07 {times} 10{sup 6}). Experimental data have been obtained by heat transfer measurements in a two-dimensional, nonsymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzle. The nozzle wall is convectively cooled using water passages. The coolant heat transfer data and nozzle surface temperatures are used as boundary conditions for a three-dimensional finite-element code, which is employed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the nozzle wall. Heat transfer coefficients along the hot gas nozzle wall are derived from the temperature gradients normal to the surface. The results are compared with numerical heat transfer predictions using the low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model by Lam and Bremhorst. Influence of compressibility in the transport equations for the turbulence properties is taken into account by using the local averaged density. The results confirm that this simplification leads to good results for transonic and low supersonic flows.
Effect of Off-Body Laser Discharge on Drag Reduction of Hemisphere Cylinder in Supersonic Flow
Kianvashrad, Nadia; Knight, Doyle; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Chou, Amanda; Horne, Robert A.; Herring, Gregory C.; Beeler, George B.; Jangda, Moazzam
2017-01-01
The interaction of an off-body laser discharge with a hemisphere cylinder in supersonic flow is investigated. The objectives are 1) experimental determination of the drag reduction and energetic efficiency of the laser discharge, and 2) assessment of the capability for accurate simulation of the interaction. The combined computational and experimental study comprises two phases. In the first phase, laser discharge in quiescent air was examined. The temporal behavior of the shock wave formed by the laser discharge was compared between experiment and simulation and good agreement is observed. In the second phase, the interaction of the laser discharge with a hemisphere cylinder was investigated numerically. Details of the pressure drag reduction and the physics of the interaction of the heated region with the bow shock are included. The drag reduction due to this interaction persisted for about five characteristic times where one characteristic time represents the time for the flow to move a distance equal to the hemisphere radius. The energetic efficiency of laser discharge for the case with 50 mJ energy absorbed by the gas is calculated as 3.22.
Quantified infrared imaging of ignition and combustion in a supersonic flow
Ombrello, Timothy; Blunck, David L.; Resor, Michael
2016-09-01
The utility of quantified infrared radiation imaging was evaluated through interrogating ignition and burning processes within a cavity-based flameholder in supersonic flows. Two ignition techniques, spark discharge and pulse detonation, along with quasi-steady cavity burning were used to assess the sensitivities of measurements of radiation intensities in the infrared. The shedding of ignition kernels from the spark discharge was imaged, showing that sufficient signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved even with weak radiation emission levels. The ignition events using a pulse detonator were captured with time-resolved measurements of the plume evolution, including the barrel shock, Mach disk, and shock diamonds. Radiation emissions from subsequent firings of the pulse detonator increased, indicating that heat loss to the tube walls occurred in the early pulses. Imaging of the quasi-steady burning within the cavity demonstrated that the highest burning flux (visible broadband chemiluminescence) and radiation from hydrocarbons (3.4 µm) do not coincide with each other for the fueling strategy used. Numerical simulations provided insight into the species distributions that caused the infrared emissions. Overall, infrared radiation measurements have been shown to be feasible through combustor windows in the harsh combustion environments that were interrogated, and offer a new avenue for rapid and quantitative measurements of reactive flow.
Impact of surface proximity on flow and acoustics of a rectangular supersonic jet
Gutmark, Ephraim; Baier, Florian; Mora, Pablo; Kailsanath, Kailas; Viswanath, Kamal; Johnson, Ryan
2016-11-01
Advances in jet technology have pushed towards faster aircraft, leading to more streamlined designs and configurations, pushing engines closer to the aircraft frame. This creates additional noise sources stemming from interactions between the jet flow and surfaces on the aircraft body, and interaction between the jet and the ground during takeoff and landing. The paper studies the impact of the presence of a flat plate on the flow structures and acoustics in an M =1.5 (NPR =3.67) supersonic jet exhausting from a rectangular C-D nozzle. Comparisons are drawn between baseline cases without a plate and varying nozzle-plate distance at NPRs from 2.5 to 4.5, and temperature ratios of up to 3.0. At the shielded side and sideline of the plate noise is mitigated only when the plate is at the nozzle lip (h =0). Low frequency mixing noise is increased in the downstream direction only for h =0. Screech tones that exist only for low NTR are fully suppressed by the plate at h =0. However, for h>0 the reflection enhances screech at both reflected side and sideline. Low frequency mixing noise is enhanced by the plate at the reflected side at all plate distances, while broad band shock associated noise is reduced only at the sideline for h =0. Increased temperature mitigates the screech tones across all test conditions. The results are compared to a circular nozzle of equivalent diameter with an adjacent plate.
The semi-discrete Galerkin finite element modelling of compressible viscous flow past an airfoil
Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
A method is developed to solve the two-dimensional, steady, compressible, turbulent boundary-layer equations and is coupled to an existing Euler solver for attached transonic airfoil analysis problems. The boundary-layer formulation utilizes the semi-discrete Galerkin (SDG) method to model the spatial variable normal to the surface with linear finite elements and the time-like variable with finite differences. A Dorodnitsyn transformed system of equations is used to bound the infinite spatial domain thereby permitting the use of a uniform finite element grid which provides high resolution near the wall and automatically follows boundary-layer growth. The second-order accurate Crank-Nicholson scheme is applied along with a linearization method to take advantage of the parabolic nature of the boundary-layer equations and generate a non-iterative marching routine. The SDG code can be applied to any smoothly-connected airfoil shape without modification and can be coupled to any inviscid flow solver. In this analysis, a direct viscous-inviscid interaction is accomplished between the Euler and boundary-layer codes, through the application of a transpiration velocity boundary condition. Results are presented for compressible turbulent flow past NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils at various freestream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. All results show good agreement with experiment, and the coupled code proved to be a computationally-efficient and accurate airfoil analysis tool.
Ice Shelves as Floating Channel Flows of Viscous Power-Law Fluids
Banik, Indranil
2013-01-01
We attempt to better understand the flow of marine ice sheets. Treating ice as a viscous shear-thinning power law fluid, we develop an asymptotic (late-time) theory in two cases - the presence or absence of contact with sidewalls. Most real-world situations fall somewhere between the two extreme cases considered. When sidewalls are absent, we obtain the equilibrium grounding line thickness using a simple computer model and have an analytic approximation. For shelves in contact with sidewalls, we obtain an asymptotic theory, valid for long shelves. Our theory is based on the velocity profile across the channel being a generalised version of Poiseuille flow, which works when lateral shear dominates the force balance. We determine when this is. We conducted experiments using a laboratory model for ice. This was a suspension of xanthan in water, at a concentration of 0.5% by mass. The lab model has $n \\approx 3.8$ (similar to that of ice). The experiments agreed extremely well with our theories for all relevant p...
Large-scale computation of incompressible viscous flow by least-squares finite element method
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to large-scale/three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system which can be solved effectively by simple iterative methods. The first-order velocity-Bernoulli function-vorticity formulation for incompressible viscous flows is also tested. For three-dimensional cases, an additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of the vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The simple substitution of the Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. To show the validity of this scheme for large-scale computation, we give numerical results for 2D driven cavity problem at Re = 10000 with 408 x 400 bilinear elements. The flow in a 3D cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 50 x 50 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Goertler-like vortices are observed for Re = 1,000.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. J. Uwanta
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady natural convection and mass transfer flow of viscous reactive, heat generating/absorbing fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite parallel porous plates having temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The motion of the fluid is induced due to natural convection caused by the reactive property as well as the heat generating/absorbing nature of the fluid. The solutions for unsteady state temperature, concentration, and velocity fields are obtained using semi-implicit finite difference schemes. Perturbation techniques are used to get steady state expressions of velocity, concentration, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number. The effects of various flow parameters such as suction/injection (γ, heat source/sinks (S, Soret number (Sr, variable thermal conductivity δ, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter λ, Prandtl number (Pr, and nondimensional time t on the dynamics are analyzed. The skin friction, heat transfer coefficients, and Sherwood number are graphically presented for a range of values of the said parameters.
Efficiency of Slit Dam Prevention against Non-Viscous Debris Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Wenbing; OU Guoqiang
2006-01-01
This paper describes an experimental work in order to assess the efficiency of slit dam on non-viscous debris flow. Some results have been acquired as follows: ① there are three kinds of blocking type: Total-blocking, opening and part-blocking. The blocking conditions of slit dam are closely link to b/dmax (the ratio of slit width to maximum diameter of solid matter), as b/dmax is less than 0.739, the slit dam is total- blocking; and b/dmax is more than 1.478, the slit dam will be opening; whereas b/dmax ranges from 0.739 to 1.478, the slit dam is part-blocking. ② Variation of the mean density passing through slit dam is the most obvious as b/dmax ranges from 0.739 to 1.232. ③ According to experimental results, slit dams have been shown to be effective in reducing debris flow density while slit density ∑b/B (B is slit dam width) ranges from 0.2 to 0.5.
Multi-Dimensional, Compressible Viscous Flow on a Moving Voronoi Mesh
Muñoz, Diego; Marcus, Robert; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars
2012-01-01
Numerous formulations of finite volume schemes for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations exist, but in the majority of cases they have been developed for structured and stationary meshes. In many applications, more flexible mesh geometries that can dynamically adjust to the problem at hand and move with the flow in a (quasi) Lagrangian fashion would, however, be highly desirable, as this can allow a significant reduction of advection errors and an accurate realization of curved and moving boundary conditions. Here we describe a novel formulation of viscous continuum hydrodynamics that solves the equations of motion on a Voronoi mesh created by a set of mesh-generating points. The points can move in an arbitrary manner, but the most natural motion is that given by the fluid velocity itself, such that the mesh dynamically adjusts to the flow. Owing to the mathematical properties of the Voronoi tessellation, pathological mesh-twisting effects are avoided. Our implementation considers the full Navier-Stokes equat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aydin, Orhan; Avci, Mete [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Engineering
2006-08-15
In this study, analytical solutions are obtained to predict laminar heat-convection in a Couette-Poiseuille flow between two plane parallel plates with a simultaneous pressure gradient and an axial movement of the upper plate. A Newtonian fluid with constant properties is considered with an emphasis on the viscous-dissipation effect. Both hydrodynamically and thermally fully-developed flow cases are investigated. The axial heat-conduction in the fluid is neglected. Two different orientations of the thermal boundary-conditions are considered: the constant heat-flux at the upper plate with an adiabatic lower plate (Case A) and the constant heat-flux at the lower plate with an adiabatic upper plate (Case B). For different values of the relative velocity of the upper plate, the effect of the modified Brinkman number on the temperature distribution and the Nusselt number are discussed. Comparison of the present analytical results for a special case with those available in the literature indicates an excellent agreement. (author)
Mitchell, William H.; Spagnolie, Saverio E.
2017-03-01
A double-layer integral equation for the surface tractions on a body moving in a viscous fluid is derived which allows for the incorporation of a background flow and/or the presence of a plane wall. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem is used to link the surface tractions on the body to integrals involving the background velocity and stress fields on an imaginary bounding sphere (or hemisphere for wall-bounded flows). The derivation requires the velocity and stress fields associated with numerous fundamental singularity solutions which we provide for free-space and wall-bounded domains. Two sample applications of the method are discussed: we study the tractions on an ellipsoid moving near a plane wall, which provides a more detailed understanding of the well-studied glancing and reversing trajectories in the context of particle sedimentation, and the erosion of bodies by a viscous flow, in which the surface is ablated at a rate proportional to the local viscous shear stress. Simulations and analytical estimates suggest that a spherical body in a uniform flow first reduces nearly but not exactly to the drag minimizing profile and then vanishes in finite time. The shape dynamics of an eroding body in a shear flow and near a wall are also investigated. Stagnation points on the body surface lead generically to the formation of cusps, whose number depends on the flow configuration and/or the presence of nearby boundaries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T. [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear System Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P. [U.S. ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boissin, J.-C. [Consultant, Grenoble (France)
2014-01-29
As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; Morrow, Michael [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Pearce, R.J.H. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant
2014-01-01
As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype
3-D Viscous Flow Analysis of a Mixed Flow Pump Impeller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven M. Miner
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study using a coarse grid to analyze the flow in the impeller of a mixed flow pump. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code (FLOTRAN is used to solve the 3-D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations in a rotating cylindrical coordinate system. The standard k-ε turbulence model is used. The mesh for this study uses 26,000 nodes and the model is run on a SPARCstation 20. This is in contrast to typical analyses using in excess of 100,000 nodes that are run on a super computer platform. The smaller mesh size has advantages in the design environment. Stage design parameters are, rotational speed 1185 rpm, flow coefficient φ=0.116, head coefficient ψ=0.094, and specific speed 2.01 (5475 US. Results for the model include circumferentially averaged results at the leading and trailing edges of the impeller, and analysis of the flow field within the impeller passage. Circumferentially averaged results include axial and tangential velocities, static pressure, and total pressure. Within the impeller passage the static pressure and velocity results are presented on surfaces from the leading edge to the trailing edge, the hub to the shroud, and the pressure surface to the suction surface. Results of this study are consistent with the expected flow characteristics of mixed flow impellers, indicating that small CFD models can be used to evaluate impeller performance in the design environment.
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
2016-11-09
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0357 (DURIP 10) HIGH-SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR STUDIES OF MIXING AND COMBUSTION IN SUPERSONIC FLOWS AND HYDROCARBON...COVERED (From - To) 03 Sep 2010 to 29 Sep 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (DURIP 10) HIGH-SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR STUDIES OF MIXING AND COMBUSTION ...91125 HIGH SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR MIXING AND COMBUSTION IN SUPERSONIC FLOWS AND HYDROCARBON- FLAME STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS AT
Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.
1984-01-01
An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih Chiang Hong
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A model is presented for functionally-graded material (FGM, thick, circular cylindrical shells under an unsteady supersonic flow, following first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT with varied shear correction coefficients. Some interesting vibration results of the dynamics are calculated by using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ method. The varied shear correction coefficients are usually functions of FGM total thickness, power law index, and environment temperature. Two parametric effects of the environmental temperature and FGM power law index on the thermal stress and center deflection are also presented. The novelty of the paper is that the maximum flutter value of the center deflection amplitude can be predicted and occurs at a high frequency of applied heat flux for a supersonic air flow.
Jamaludin, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Shafie, Sharidan
2017-08-01
This study presents the numerical solutions of boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with viscous dissipation and internal heat generation. Thermal boundary condition on the surface, namely prescribed heat flux (PHF) is used. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying the similarity transformations before reduced to the system of first order ordinary differential equations. Then the system of first order ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme, known as the Keller-box method. The numerical solutions are generated using MATLAB. Temperature profiles and the temperature gradient for some values of the Prandtl number, Eckert number and heat/source sink parameter are presented in figures and discussed in details.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Heat transfer in a supersonic steady flow of a dilute dusty-gas past a sphere is considered at large and moderate Reynolds numbers. For the regime of inertial particle deposition on the frontal surface of the body, a parametric study of maximum increase in the particle-induced heat flux at the stagnation point is performed over a wide range of the Reynolds number, the particle inertia parameter, the ratio of the phase specific heats, and the body surface temperature.
Hemidi, Amel; Henry, François; Leclaire, Sébastien; Seynhaeve, Jean-Marie; Bartosiewicz, Yann
2009-01-01
Abstract This paper presents an original CFD analysis of the operation of a supersonic ejector. This study is based on CFD and experimental results obtained in the first part paper [1]. Results clearly demonstrates that a good predictions of the entrainment rate, even over a wide range of operating conditions, do not necessarily mean a good prediction of the local flow features. This issue is shown through the results obtained for two turbulence models, and also raises the problem ...
Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian
2013-11-01
This paper deals with the problem of wave propagation in a compressible viscous fluid confined by a rigid-walled circular pipeline in the presence of a shear mean flow. On the assumption of isentropic and axisymmetric wave propagation, the convected acoustic equations are mathematically deduced from the conservations of continuity and momentum, leading to a set of coupled second-order differential equations with respect of the acoustic pressure and velocity components in radial and axial directions. A solution based on the Fourier-Bessel theory, which is complete and orthogonal in Lebesgue space, is introduced to transform the differential equations to an infinite set of homogeneous algebraic equations, thus the wave number can be calculated due to the existence condition of a non-trivial solution. After the discussion of the method's convergence, the cut-off frequency of the wave mode is theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, wave attenuation of the first four wave modes due to fluid viscosity is numerically studied in the presence of the laminar and turbulent flow profiles. Meanwhile, the measurement performance of an ultrasonic flow meter based on the difference of downstream and upstream wave propagations is parametrically addressed.
Akaydin, H. Dogus; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Nguyen, Nhan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a static aeroelastic analysis of a wind tunnel test model of a wing in high-lift configuration using a viscous flow simulation code. The model wing was tailored to deform during the tests by amounts similar to a composite airliner wing in highlift conditions. This required use of a viscous flow analysis to predict the lift coefficient of the deformed wing accurately. We thus utilized an existing static aeroelastic analysis framework that involves an inviscid flow code (Cart3d) to predict the deformed shape of the wing, then utilized a viscous flow code (Overflow) to compute the aerodynamic loads on the deformed wing. This way, we reduced the cost of flow simulations needed for this analysis while still being able to predict the aerodynamic forces with reasonable accuracy. Our results suggest that the lift of the deformed wing may be higher or lower than that of the non-deformed wing, and the washout deformation of the wing is the key factor that changes the lift of the deformed wing in two distinct ways: while it decreases the lift at low to moderate angles of attack simply by lowering local angles of attack along the span, it increases the lift at high angles of attack by alleviating separation.
Temporal Entropy Generation in the Viscous Layers of Laterally-converging Duct Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donald M. McEligot; Robert S. Brodkey; Helmut Eckelmann
2008-12-01
Since insight into entropy generation is a key to increasing efficiency and thereby reducing fuel consumption and/or waste and -- for wall-bounded flows -- most entropy is generated in the viscous layer, we examine the transient behavior of its dominant contributor there for a non-canonical flow. New measurements in oil flow are presented for the effects of favorable streamwise mean pressure gradients on temporal entropy generation rates and, in the process, on key Reynolds-stress-producing events such as sweep front passage and on the deceleration/outflow phase of the overall bursting process. Two extremes have been considered: (1) a high pressure gradient, nearing "laminarization," and (2), for comparison, a low pressure gradient corresponding to many earlier experiments. In both cases, the peak temporal entropy generation rate occurs shortly after passage of the ejection/sweep interface. Whether sweep and ejection rates appear to decrease or increase with the pressure gradient depends on the feature examined and the manner of sampling. When compared using wall coordinates for velocities, distances and time, the trends and magnitudes of the transient behaviors are mostly the same. The main effects of the higher pressure gradient are (1) changes in the time lag between detections -- representing modification of the shape of the sweep front and the sweep angle with the wall, (2) modification of the magnitude of an instantaneous Reynolds shear stress with wall distance and (3) enlarging the sweeps and ejections. Results new for both low and high pressure gradients are the temporal behaviors of the dominant contribution to entropy generation; it is found to be much more sensitive to distance from the wall than to streamwise pressure gradient.
Film Flow Dominated Simultaneous Flow of Two Viscous Incompressible Fluids Through a Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olav eAursjø
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental study of two-phase flow in a quasi-two-dimensional porous medium. The two phases, a water-glycerol solution and a commercial food grade rapeseed/canola oil, having an oil to water-glycerol viscosity ratio of 1.3, are injected simultaneously into a Hele-Shaw cell with a mono-layer of randomly distributed glass beads. The two liquids are injected into the model from alternating point inlets. Initially, the porous model is filled with the water-glycerol solution. We observe that after an initial transient state, an overall static cluster configuration is obtained. While the oil is found to create a connected system spanning cluster, a large part of the water-glycerol clusters left behind the initial invasion front is observed to remain immobile throughout the rest of the experiment. This could suggest that the water-glycerol flow-dynamics is largely dominated by film flow. The flow pathways are thus given through the dynamics of the initial invasion. This behavior is quite different from that observed in systems with large viscosity differences between the two fluids, and where compressibility plays an important part of the process.
Cpuf: Chirped-Pulse Microwave Spectroscopy in Pulsed Uniform Supersonic Flows
Suits, Arthur; Abeysekera, Chamara; Zack, Lindsay N.; Joalland, Baptiste; Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Park, Barratt; Field, Robert W.; Sims, Ian
2015-06-01
Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy has stimulated a resurgence of interest in rotational spectroscopy owing to the dramatic reduction in spectral acquisition time it enjoys when compared to cavity-based instruments. This suggests that it might be possible to adapt the method to study chemical reaction dynamics and even chemical kinetics using rotational spectroscopy. The great advantage of this would be clear, quantifiable spectroscopic signatures for polyatomic products as well as the possibility to identify and characterize new radical reaction products and transient intermediates. To achieve this, however, several conditions must be met: 1) products must be thermalized at low temperature to maximize the population difference needed to achieve adequate signal levels and to permit product quantification based on the rotational line strength; 2) a large density and volume of reaction products is also needed to achieve adequate signal levels; and 3) for kinetics studies, a uniform density and temperature is needed throughout the course of the reaction. These conditions are all happily met by the uniform supersonic flow produced from a Laval nozzle expansion. In collaboration with the Field group at MIT we have developed a new instrument we term a CPUF (Chirped-pulse/Uniform Flow) spectrometer in which we can study reaction dynamics, photochemistry and kinetics using broadband microwave and millimeter wave spectroscopy as a product probe. We will illustrate the performance of the system with a few examples of photodissociation and reaction dynamics, and also discuss a number of challenges unique to the application of chirped-pulse microwave spectroscopy in the collisional environment of the flow. Future directions and opportunities for application of CPUF will also be explored.
Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser
Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.
2008-11-01
In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.
Impact of chevron spacing and asymmetric distribution on supersonic jet acoustics and flow
Heeb, N.; Gutmark, E.; Kailasanath, K.
2016-05-01
An experimental investigation into the effect of chevron spacing and distribution on supersonic jets was performed. Cross-stream and streamwise particle imaging velocimetry measurements were used to relate flow field modification to sound field changes measured by far-field microphones in the overexpanded, ideally expanded, and underexpanded regimes. Drastic modification of the jet cross-section was achieved by the investigated configurations, with both elliptic and triangular shapes attained downstream. Consequently, screech was nearly eliminated with reductions in the range of 10-25 dB depending on the operating condition. Analysis of the streamwise velocity indicated that both the mean shock spacing and strength were reduced resulting in an increase in the broadband shock associated noise spectral peak frequency and a reduction in the amplitude, respectively. Maximum broadband shock associated noise amplitude reductions were in the 5-7 dB range. Chevron proximity was found to be the primary driver of peak vorticity production, though persistence followed the opposite trend. The integrated streamwise vorticity modulus was found to be correlated with peak large scale turbulent mixing noise reduction, though optimal overall sound pressure level reductions did not necessarily follow due to the shock/fine scale mixing noise sources. Optimal large scale mixing noise reductions were in the 5-6 dB range.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Yiwen; LI Yinghong; LU Haoyu; ZHU Tao; ZHANG Bailing; CHEN Feng; ZHAO Xiaohu
2011-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary experimental investigation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation using seeded supersonic argon flow as working fluid.Helium and argon are used as driver and driven gas respectively in a shock tunnel.Equilibrium contact surface operating mode is used to obtain high temperature gas,and the conductivity is obtained by adding seed K2CO3 powder into the driven section.Under the conditions of nozzle inlet total pressure being 0.32 MPa,total temperature 6 504 K,magnetic field density about 0.5 T and nozzle outlet velocity 1 959 m/s,induction voltage and short-circuit current of the segmentation MHD power generation channel are measured,and the experimental results agree with theoretical calculations; the average conductivity is about 20 S/m calculated from characteristics of voltage and current.When load factor is 0.5,the maximum power density of the MHD power generation channel reaches 4.797 1 MW/m3,and the maximum enthalpy extraction rate is 0.34%.Finally,the principle and method of indirect testing for gas state parameters are derived and analyzed.
Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment
Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.
1994-01-01
A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.
Aerodynamic analysis of the aerospaceplane HyPlane in supersonic rarefied flow
Zuppardi, Gennaro; Savino, Raffaele; Russo, Gennaro; Spano'Cuomo, Luca; Petrosino, Eliano
2016-06-01
HyPlane is the Italian aerospaceplane proposal targeting, at the same time, both the space tourism and point-to-point intercontinental hypersonic flights. Unlike other aerospaceplane projects, relying on boosters or mother airplanes that bring the vehicle to high altitude, HyPlane will take off and land horizontally from common runways. According to the current project, HyPlane will fly sub-orbital trajectories under high-supersonic/low-hypersonic continuum flow regimes. It can go beyond the von Karman line at 100 km altitude for a short time, then starting the descending leg of the trajectory. Its aerodynamic behavior up to 70 km have already been studied and the results published in previous works. In the present paper some aspects of the aerodynamic behavior of HyPlane have been analyzed at 80, 90 and 100 km. Computer tests, calculating the aerodynamic parameters, have been carried out by a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The effects of the Knudsen, Mach and Reynolds numbers have been evaluated in clean configuration. The effects of the aerodynamic surfaces on the rolling, pitching and yawing moments, and therefore on the capability to control attitude, have been analyzed at 100 km altitude. The aerodynamic behavior has been compared also with that of another aerospaceplane at 100 km both in clean and flapped configuration.
Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.
2016-04-12
A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.
Stability of viscous film flow coating the interior of a vertical tube with a porous wall
Liu, Rong; Ding, Zijing
2017-05-01
The stability of the gravity-driven flow of a viscous film coating the inside of a tube with a porous wall is studied theoretically. We used Darcy's law to describe the motion of fluids in a porous medium. The Beaver-Joseph condition is used to describe the discontinuity of velocity at the porous-fluid interface. We derived an evolution equation for the film thickness using a long-wave approximation. The effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is identified by a parameter β . We examine the effect of β on the temporal stability, the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI), and the nonlinear evolution of the interface deformation. The results of the temporal stability reveal that the effect of velocity slip at the porous wall is destabilizing. The parameter β plays an important role in determining the AI-CI behavior and the nonlinear evolution of the interface. The presence of the porous wall promotes the absolute instability and the formation of the plug in the tube.
Stability and accuracy of free surface time integration in viscous flows
Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce; Heister, Timo
2017-01-01
Geodynamic simulations increasingly rely on models with a true free surface to investigate questions of dynamic topography, tectonic deformation, gravity perturbations, and global mantle convection. However, implementations of free surface boundary conditions have proven challenging from a standpoint of accuracy, robustness, and stability. In particular, time integration of a free surface tends to suffer from a numerical instability that manifests as sloshing surface motions, also known as the "drunken sailor" instability. This instability severely limits stable timestep sizes to those much smaller than can be used in geodynamic simulations without a free surface. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to deal with these instabilities. Here we analyze the problem of creeping viscous flow with a free surface and discuss the origin of these instabilities. We demonstrate their cause and how existing stabilization schemes work to damp them out. We also propose a new scheme for removing instabilities from free surface calculations. It does not require modifications to the system matrix, nor additional variables, but is instead an explicit scheme based on nonstandard finite differences. It relies on a single stabilization parameter which may be identified with the smallest relaxation timescale of the free surface. Finally, we present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the new approach and discuss the free surface implementation in the open source, community based mantle convection software ASPECT.
Reedy, Todd Mitchell
An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was
Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice
Swanger, Kate M.; Marchant, David R.; Kowalewski, Douglas E.; Head, James W., III
2010-08-01
Viscous flow lobes are common throughout the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica. These features have been described as rock glaciers, gelifluction lobes, solifluction lobes, talus mobilized by pore ice and/or segregation ice, and debris-covered glaciers. We investigate the origin, modification, and flow of a 2-km-long lobe (East Stocking Lobe or ESL) along the north wall of central Taylor Valley using field mapping techniques, shallow seismic surveys, time-dependent displacement surveys, and isotopic analyses of buried-ice samples. On the basis of these integrated analyses, we show that the ESL is cored with remnant glacier ice, most probably derived from an advance of nearby Stocking Glacier ˜ 130 kyr BP. Seismic data, coupled with results from ice-flow modeling assuming plastic flow of clean ice, suggest that the buried core of glacier ice is ˜ 14- to 30-m thick. Near its terminus, the ESL flows at a rate of ˜ 2.4 to 6.7 mm a - 1 . The loose drift that caps the buried ice (typically analyses of samples from the upper 30 cm of the ice lie on a slope of ˜ 5.8 (when plotted on a δD vs. δ18O graph), well below the local meteoric water line of 7.75, suggesting modification by freeze/thaw processes and evaporation/sublimation. Measured air and soil temperatures show that intermittent melting is most likely possible during summer months where buried ice is ≤ 35 cm below the ground surface. Morphological comparisons with ice-cored deposits in upland regions of the Dry Valleys, e.g., Mullins and Beacon Valleys (30 km inland and ˜ 500 m higher in elevation), and near the coast (40 km distant and ˜ 500 m lower) reveal marked contrasts in the style of near-surface ice degradation and cryoturbation. From these morphological comparisons, we infer that buried-ice deposits in the stable upland zone have not experienced the relatively warm climate conditions now found at the ESL and at lower elevations in the Dry Valleys region (e.g. sustained summertime
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孟庆杰; 万德成
2016-01-01
By solving the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations in combination with thek-ω SST turbulence model, the unsteady viscous flow around the obliquely towed tanker KVLCC2M model in both deep and shallow waters is simulated and the hydrodynamic forces, the surface pressure distribution, and the wake field are calculated. The overset grid technology is used to avoid the grid distortion in large drift angle cases. The effects of the free surface are taken into account. At the first stage, the deep water cases with five oblique angles are designed as the benchmark test cases. The predicted wake field, the surface pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull agree well with the corresponding experimental data, implying the capability of the present method in the prediction of the viscous flow around the tanker drifting in shallow water. A set of systematic computations with varying water depths and drift angles are then carried out to study the viscous flow around the model drifting in shallow water. The forces and moments, as well as the surface pressure distribution are predicted and analyzed. The most significant changes such as the increased stagnation pressure in the bow, the acceleration of the flow along the ship’s sides and in the gap between ship and seabed, the lower hull pressure and finally, the stronger vortices along the bilges and weaker vortices with larger diameters in the wake are noticed.
Zeroth-order flutter prediction for cantilevered plates in supersonic flow
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Meijer, M-C
2015-08-01
Full Text Available An aeroelastic prediction framework in MATLAB with modularity in the quasi-steady aerodynamic methodology is developed. Local piston theory (LPT) is integrated with quasi-steady methods including shock-expansion theory and the Supersonic Hypersonic...
Dorney, Suzanne; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank; Sheffler, David A.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The advent of advanced computer architectures and parallel computing have led to a revolutionary change in the design process for turbomachinery components. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state computational flow procedures are now routinely used in the early stages of design. Unsteady flow analyses, however, are just beginning to be incorporated into design systems. This paper outlines the transition of a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis from the research environment into the design environment. The test case used to demonstrate the analysis is the full turbine system (high-pressure turbine, inter-turbine duct and low-pressure turbine) from an advanced turboprop engine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boualit, A.; Boualit, S. [Unite de recherche appliquee en energies renouvelables, Ghardaia (Algeria); Zeraibi, N. [Universite de Boumerdes, Faculte des hydrocarbures dept. Transport et equipement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Amoura, M. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Faculte de Physique, Dept. Energetique, Alger (Algeria)
2011-01-15
The thermal development of the hydrodynamically developing laminar flow of a viscoplastic fluid (fluid of Bingham) between two plane plates maintained at a constant temperature has been studied numerically. This analysis has shown the effect caused by inertia and the rheological behaviour of the fluid on the velocity, pressure and temperature fields. The effects of Bingham and Peclet numbers on the Nusselt values with the inclusion of viscous dissipation are also discussed. (authors)
Viscous dissipation effects on heat transfer in flow past a continuous moving plate
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.
The study of thermal boundary layer on taking into account the viscous dissipative heat, on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate is presented here.Similarity solutions are derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous
Zeeshan Khan; Rehan Ali Shah; Saeed Islam; Hamid Jan; Bilal Jan; Haroon-Ur Rasheed; Aurangzeeb Khan
2017-01-01
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE). In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adom...
Yang, Jing; Ren, Yan-Yu
2016-01-01
We examine the evolution of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) droplets with viscous hydrodynamics and analyze pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry in a granular source model consisting of the viscous QGP droplets. The shear viscosity of the QGP droplet speeds up the droplet evolution and the effect of the bulk viscosity on the evolution is negligible. Although there are viscous effects on the droplet evolution, the pion momentum spectrum and elliptic flow change little for the granular sources with and without viscosity. On the other hand, the influence of viscosity on HBT radius $R_{\\rm out}$ is significant. It makes $R_{\\rm out}$ decrease in the granular source model. We determine the model parameters of granular sources by the experimental data of pion transverse-momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii together, and investigate the effects of viscosity on the model parameters. The results indicate that the granular source model may reproduce the expe...
Ha, Hojin; Lantz, Jonas; Haraldsson, Henrik; Casas, Belen; Ziegler, Magnus; Karlsson, Matts; Saloner, David; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Ebbers, Tino
2016-12-01
Flow-induced blood damage plays an important role in determining the hemodynamic impact of abnormal blood flow, but quantifying of these effects, which are dominated by shear stresses in highly fluctuating turbulent flow, has not been feasible. This study evaluated the novel application of turbulence tensor measurements using simulated 4D Flow MRI data with six-directional velocity encoding for assessing hemodynamic stresses and corresponding blood damage index (BDI) in stenotic turbulent blood flow. The results showed that 4D Flow MRI underestimates the maximum principal shear stress of laminar viscous stress (PLVS), and overestimates the maximum principal shear stress of Reynolds stress (PRSS) with increasing voxel size. PLVS and PRSS were also overestimated by about 1.2 and 4.6 times at medium signal to noise ratio (SNR) = 20. In contrast, the square sum of the turbulent viscous shear stress (TVSS), which is used for blood damage index (BDI) estimation, was not severely affected by SNR and voxel size. The square sum of TVSS and the BDI at SNR >20 were underestimated by less than 1% and 10%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of 4D Flow MRI based quantification of TVSS and BDI which are closely linked to blood damage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasad K.V.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on a combined free and forced convective flow in a vertical channel is investigated for a fully developed flow regime. Boussinesq and Roseseland approximations are considered in the modeling of the conduction radiation heat transfer with thermal boundary conditions (isothermal-thermal, isoflux-thermal, and isothermal-flux. The coupled nonlinear governing equations are also solved analytically using the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM. The results are analyzed graphically for various governing parameters such as the mixed convection parameter, radiation parameter, Brinkman number and perturbation parameter for equal and different wall temperatures. It is found that the viscous dissipation enhances the flow reversal in the case of a downward flow while it counters the flow in the case of an upward flow. A comparison of the Differential Transform Method (DTM and regular perturbation method (PM methods shows the versatility of the Differential Transform Method (DTM. The skin friction and the wall temperature gradient are presented for different values of the physical parameters and the salient features are analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rusanov, A.V.; Yershov, S.V. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The numerical method is suggested for the calculation of the 3D periodically unsteady viscous cascade flow evoked by the aerodynamics interaction of blade rows. Such flow is described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulent effects are simulated with the modified Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The problem statement allows to consider an unsteady flow through either a single turbo-machine stage or a multi stage turbomachine. The sliding mesh techniques and the time-space non-oscillatory square interpolation are used in axial spacings to calculate the flow in a computational domain that contains the reciprocally moving elements. The gasdynamical equations are integrated numerically with the implicit quasi-monotonous Godunov`s type ENO scheme of the second or third order of accuracy. The suggested numerical method is incorporated in the FlowER code developed by authors for calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows through multi stage turbomachines. The numerical results are presented for unsteady turbine stage throughflows. The method suggested is shown to simulate qualitatively properly the main unsteady cascade effects in particular the periodically blade loadings, the propagation of stator wakes through rotor blade passage and the unsteady temperature flowfields for stages with cooled stator blades. (author) 21 refs.
Sabri, Farhad
Shells of revolution, particularly cylindrical and conical shells, are one of the basic structural elements in the aerospace structures. With the advent of high speed aircrafts, these shells can show dynamic instabilities when they are exposed to a supersonic flow. Therefore, aeroelastic analysis of these elements is one of the primary design criteria which aeronautical engineers are dealing with. This analysis can be done with the help of finite element method (FEM) coupled with the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) or by experimental methods but it is time consuming and very expensive. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop such a numerical tool to do aeroelastic analysis in a fast and precise way. Meanwhile during the design stage, where the different configurations, loading and boundary conditions may need to be analyzed, this numerical method can be used very easily with the high order of reliability. In this study structural modeling is a combination of linear Sanders thin shell theory and classical finite element method. Based on this hybrid finite element method, the shell displacements are found from the exact solutions of shell theory rather than approximating by polynomial function done in traditional finite element method. This leads to a precise and fast convergence. Supersonic aerodynamic modeling is done based on the piston theory and modified piston theory with the shell curvature term. The stress stiffening due to lateral pressure and axial compression are also taken into accounts. Fluid-structure interaction in the presence of inside quiescent fluid is modeled based on the potential theory. In this method, fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacements at the fluid-structure interface. This proposed hybrid finite element has capabilities to do following analysis: (i) Buckling and vibration of an empty or partially fluid filled
Numerical simulation of fluid/structure interaction phenomena in viscous dominated flows
Tran, Hai Duong
2001-12-01
The accurate prediction of buffet boundaries is essential in modern military aircraft and suspension bridge design in order to avoid the potentially disastrous consequences of unsteady loads. The design of lightweight structures and thermal protection systems for supersonic and hypersonic vehicles depends on the accurate prediction of the aerothermal loads, the structural temperatures and their gradients, and the structural deformations and stresses. Despite their bounded nature, limit-cycle oscillations can exhibit important amplitudes which affect the fatigue life of aircraft structures. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is to develop and design an integrated multidisciplinary computational methodology for the analyses of the coupled responses exhibited by these phenomena. To simulate fluid/structure interaction problems in turbulent flows, we formulate the k--epsilon turbulence model and Reichardt's wall law in ALE form for dynamic meshes. This law is used with the generalized boundary conditions on k and epsilon of Jaeger and Dhatt and allows a closer integration to the wall compared to standard logarithmic laws and boundary conditions on k and epsilon. In order to apply the methodology to buffeting problems dominated by vortex shedding, we validate our solution approach on the square cylinder benchmark problem. There, we stress the minimization of numerical dissipation induced by an upwinding scheme, and apply our methodology to the aeroelastic stability analysis of a sectional dynamic model of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. Then, we extend the three field formulation of aeroelasticity to a four-field formulation of aerothermoelasticity for the analysis of aerodynamic heating on structures. With a k--epsilon model, the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are integrated up to a distance delta from the real wall. This gap creates a problem for the transmission of the structural temperature to the fluid system. To resolve this problem, we exchange the
Zhu, Lin; Qi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Wei-Lai; Xu, Bao-Jian; Ge, Jia-Ru; Xuan, Xiang-Chun; Jen, Tien-Chien
2016-12-01
The incident shock wave generally has a strong effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow, possibly due to its affecting the interaction between incoming flow and fuel through various operation conditions. This study is to address scale effect of various injection diameters on the interaction between incident shock wave and transversal cavity injection in a cold kerosene-fueled scramjet combustor. The injection diameters are separately specified as from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in 0.5 mm increments when other performance parameters, including the injection angle, velocity and pressure drop are all constant. A combined three dimensional Couple Level Set & Volume of Fluids (CLSVOF) approach with an improved K-H & R-T model is used to characterize penetration height, span expansion area, angle of shock wave and sauter mean diameter (SMD) distribution of the kerosene droplets with/without considering evaporation. Our results show that the injection orifice surely has a great scale effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flows. Our findings show that the penetration depth, span angle and span expansion area of the transverse cavity jet are increased with the injection diameter, and that the kerosene droplets are more prone to breakup and atomization at the outlet of the combustor for the orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. The calculation predictions are compared against the reported experimental measurements and literatures with good qualitative agreement. The simulation results obtained in this study can provide the evidences for better understanding the underlying mechanism of kerosene atomization in cold supersonic flow and scramjet design improvement.
The self–vibrations of cylindrical shell, filled by the flowing non viscous Gas-Liquid mixture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohanyan G.G.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The problem of non-symmetrical self–vibrations of the infinite long shell, filled by the flowing non viscous Liquid with large or small sizes of bubbles is considered. The subsonic regime of the shell–mixture system with small bubbles which vibration frequencies exceed the frequencies values of those with the large bubbles is considered. The frequency values of the system is increased, when shell thickness and flow speed are increased as when vibration modes are decreased analogous to the case of shell with the pure liquids.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu.V. STARODUBTSEV; I.G. GOGOLEV; V.G. SOLODOV
2005-01-01
@@ The paper describes 3D numerical Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model and approximate sector approach for viscous turbulent flow through flow path of one stage axial supercharge gas turbine of marine diesel engine. Computational data are tested by comparison with experimental data. The back step flow path opening and tip clearance jet are taken into account.This approach could be applied for variety of turbine theory and design tasks: for offer optimal design in order to minimize kinetic energy stage losses; for solution of partial supply problem; for analysis of flow pattern in near extraction stages; for estimation of rotational frequency variable forces on blades; for sector vane adjustment (with thin leading edges mainly), for direct flow modeling in the turbine etc. The development of this work could be seen in the direction of unsteady stage model application.
Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.
1976-01-01
The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary-layer and potential-flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary-layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.
Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.
1975-01-01
The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary layer and potential flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Pushkar Raj
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to investigate effects of ohmic heating and viscous dissipation on steady flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and variable free stream near a stagnation point on a stretching non-conducting isothermal sheet. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are transformed into ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta fourth order with shooting technique. The velocity and temperature distributions are discussed numerically and presented through graphs. Skin-friction coefficient and the Nusselt number at the sheet are derived, discussed numerically, and their numerical values for various values of physical parameters are compared with earlier results and presented through tables.
Wake flow and heat transfer due to a spherical viscous droplet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhattacharyya, S.; Singh, Ashok
2010-01-01
to the viscous droplet and its influence on heat transfer and drag coefficient are analyzed for a wide range of physical parameters. It is found that by increasing the Reynolds number, the predicted rate of heat transfer is significantly increased for a liquid droplet compared to a solid sphere. The increment...... of viscosity of the droplet increases the drag experienced by the droplet but reduces the rate of heat transfer. An increase in Richardson number produces an increment in drag coefficient as well as in heat transfer. In order to establish a simplified model for heat transfer due to a viscous droplet, we...
Jeništa, J.; Takana, H.; Nishiyama, H.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.; Křenek, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Kavka, T.; Sember, V.; Mašláni, A.
2011-11-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation of characteristics and processes in the worldwide unique type of thermal plasma generator with combined stabilization of arc by argon flow and water vortex, the so-called hybrid-stabilized arc. The arc has been used for spraying of ceramic or metallic particles and for pyrolysis of biomass. The net emission coefficients as well as the partial characteristics methods for radiation losses from the argon-water arc are employed. Calculations for 300-600 A with 22.5-40 standard litres per minute (slm) of argon reveal transition from a transonic plasma flow for 400 A to a supersonic one for 600 A with a maximum Mach number of 1.6 near the exit nozzle of the plasma torch. A comparison with available experimental data near the exit nozzle shows very good agreement for the radial temperature profiles. Radial velocity profiles calculated 2 mm downstream of the nozzle exit show good agreement with the profiles determined from the combination of calculation and experiment (the so-called integrated approach). A recent evaluation of the Mach number from the experimental data for 500 and 600 A confirmed the existence of the supersonic flow regime.
Anderson, O. L.; Briley, W. R.; Mcdonald, H.
1978-01-01
An approximate analysis is presented for calculating three-dimensional, low Mach number, laminar viscous flows in curved passages with large secondary flows and corner boundary layers. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the overall velocity field into inviscid and viscous components with the overall velocity being determined from superposition. An incompressible vorticity transport equation is used to estimate inviscid secondary flow velocities to be used as corrections to the potential flow velocity field. A parabolized streamwise momentum equation coupled to an adiabatic energy equation and global continuity equation is used to obtain an approximate viscous correction to the pressure and longitudinal velocity fields. A collateral flow assumption is invoked to estimate the viscous correction to the transverse velocity fields. The approximate analysis is solved numerically using an implicit ADI solution for the viscous pressure and velocity fields. An iterative ADI procedure is used to solve for the inviscid secondary vorticity and velocity fields. This method was applied to computing the flow within a turbine vane passage with inlet flow conditions of M = 0.1 and M = 0.25, Re = 1000 and adiabatic walls, and for a constant radius curved rectangular duct with R/D = 12 and 14 and with inlet flow conditions of M = 0.1, Re = 1000, and adiabatic walls.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Liang; SUN Xiuling; LI Guojun; FENG Zhenping
2006-01-01
The self-excited flow oscillation due to supercritical heat addition during the condensation process in wet steam turbine is an important issue. With an Eulerian/Eulerian model, the self-excited oscillation of wet steam flow in a supersonic turbine cascade is investigated. A proper inlet supercooling results in the transition from steady flow to self-excited oscillating flow in the cascade of steam turbine.The frequency dependency on the inlet supercooling is not monotonic. The flow oscillation leads to non-synchronous periodical variation of the inlet and outlet mass flow rate. The aerodynamic force on the blade varies periodically due to the self-excited flow oscillation. With the frequency lies between 18.1-80.64 Hz, the oscillating flow is apt to act with the periodical variation of the inlet supercooling due to stator rotor interaction in a syntonic pattern, and results in larger aerodynamic force on the blade. The loss in the oscillating flow increases 20.64 ％ compared with that in the steady flow.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Fang; WU WangYi
2009-01-01
Basic function method is developed to treat the incompressible viscous flow. Artificial compressibility coefficient, the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes are applied to construct the basic function scheme of trigonometric function type for solving three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically. To prove the method, flows in finite-length-pipe are calculated, the velocity and pressure distribution of which solved by our method quite coincide with the exact solutions of Poiseuille flow except in the areas of entrance and exit. After the method is proved elementary, the hemodynamics in two- and three-dimensional aneurysms is researched numerically by using the basic function method of trigonometric function type and unstructured grids generation technique. The distributions of velocity, pressure and shear force in steady flow of aneurysms are calculated, and the influence of the shape of the aneurysms on the hemodynamics is studied.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Basic function method is developed to treat the incompressible viscous flow. Artificial compressibility coefficient, the technique of flux splitting method and the combination of central and upwind schemes are applied to construct the basic function scheme of trigonometric function type for solving three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically. To prove the method, flows in finite-length-pipe are calculated, the velocity and pressure distribution of which solved by our method quite coincide with the exact solutions of Poiseuille flow except in the areas of entrance and exit. After the method is proved elementary, the hemodynamics in two-and three-dimensional aneurysms is researched numerically by using the basic function method of trigonometric function type and unstructured grids generation technique. The distributions of velocity, pressure and shear force in steady flow of aneurysms are calculated, and the influence of the shape of the aneurysms on the hemodynamics is studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Boulahia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Work performed in this study concerns mainly the analysis and the wisely use of TVD type schemes (total variation diminishing for numerical simulation of reactive flows, these schemes are first presented in scalar equation. Their extension to Euler equations for a reactive gas mixture is conducted through the approximate extended solver of Riemann problem. A comparative study of specific variants of TVD schemes has been made in the case of one-dimensional unsteady flow for an inert and reactive gas mixture, which represents the classical instance of a shock tube. The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the general behaviour (order of accuracy and performance of TVD schemes with various flux limiters for the simulation of reactive flows and in particular, to make possible the capture of the shock wave together with waves expansion for choosing the appropriate scheme to apply eventually in simulation of hypersonic viscous flow in chemical non equilibrium.
Computational Methods for Inviscid and Viscous Two-and-Three-Dimensional Flow Fields.
1975-01-01
speeds. J. Comput. Phys.. vol. 3. No. 2. 1971, p. 197-213. 111. HANIN. M.. WOLFSHTEIN. M.. and LANDAU . U.E. - Numerical solution of NavierStokes...viscous in lungul unei placi plane la numere Reynolds mici) D. Dumitrescu and C.I. Craciun Studii si Cercetari de Mecanica Aplicata, vol. 28, no. 3
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
convection in a vertical channel saturated with porous medium was studied by ... However temperature boundary condition of third kind (the local wall heat flux is a ... Hajmohammadi and Nourazar (2014) studied the effect of a thin gas layer in ...... with viscous dissipation in a vertical channel, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer ,.
Renaud, Earl W.; Tan, Choon S.
1991-01-01
The three dimensional viscous flow through a planar turbine cascade is numerically simulated by direct solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow dependence in the spanwise direction is represented by direct expansion in Chebyshev polynomials, while the discretization on planes parallel to the endwalls is accomplished using the spectral element method. Elemental mapping from the physical to the computational space uses an algebraic mapping technique. A fractional time stepping method that consists of an explicit nonlinear convective step, an implicit pressure correction step, and an implicit viscous step is used to advance the Navier-Stokes equations forward in time. Results computed at moderate Reynolds numbers show a three dimensional endwall flow separation, a midspan separation of the blade suction surface boundary layer, and other three-dimensional features such as the presence of a saddle point flow in the endwall region. In addition, the computed skin friction lines are shown to be orthogonal to the surface vorticity lines, demonstrating the accuracy achievable in the present method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han
2009-01-01
In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.
Kelly; Humphrey
1998-03-01
Considerable debate has occurred over the use of hydrofoil impellers in large-scale fermentors to improve mixing and mass transfer in highly viscous non-Newtonian systems. Using a computational fluid dynamics software package (Fluent, version 4.30) extensive calculations were performed to study the effect of impeller speed (70-130 rpm), broth rheology (value of power law flow behavior index from 0.2 to 0.6), and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall (6-18 in.) on flow near the perimeter of a large (75-m3) fermentor equipped with A315 impellers. A quadratic model utilizing the data was developed in an attempt to correlate the effect of A315 impeller speed, power law flow behavior index, and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall on the average axial velocity in the coil bank-wall region. The results suggest that there is a potential for slow or stagnant flow in the coil bank-wall region which could result in poor oxygen and heat transfer for highly viscous fermentations. The results also indicate that there is the potential for slow or stagnant flow in the region between the top impeller and the gas headspace when flow through the coil bank-wall region is slow. Finally, a simple guideline was developed to allow fermentor design engineers to predict the degree of flow behind a bank of helical cooling coils in a large fermentor with hydrofoil flow impellers.
Feng, Rui; Xenos, Michalis; Girdhar, Gaurav; Kang, Wei; Davenport, James W; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny
2012-01-01
Flow and stresses induced by blood flow acting on the blood cellular constituents can be represented to a certain extent by a continuum mechanics approach down to the order of the μm level. However, the molecular effects of, e.g., adhesion/aggregation bonds of blood clotting can be on the order of nm. The coupling of the disparate length and timescales between such molecular levels and macroscopic transport represents a major computational challenge. To address this challenge, a multiscale numerical approach based on discrete particle dynamics (DPD) methodology derived from molecular dynamics (MD) principles is proposed. The feasibility of the approach was firstly tested for its ability to simulate viscous flow conditions. Simulations were conducted in low Reynolds numbers flows (Re = 25-33) through constricted tubes representing blood vessels with various degrees of stenosis. Multiple discrete particles interacting with each other were simulated, with 1.24-1.36 million particles representing the flow domain and 0.4 million particles representing the vessel wall. The computation was carried out on the massive parallel supercomputer NY BlueGene/L employing NAMD-a parallel MD package for high performance computing (HPC). Typical recirculation zones were formed distal to the stenoses. The velocity profiles and recirculation zones were in excellent agreement with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 3D Navier-Stokes viscous fluid flow simulations and with classic numerical and experimental results by YC Fung in constricted tubes. This feasibility analysis demonstrates the potential of a methodology that widely departs from a continuum approach to simulate multiscale phenomena such as flow induced blood clotting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. G. Prabhakara Rao,
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We consider a two-dimensional MHD natural convection flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid through porous medium past a vertical impermeable flat plate is considered in presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The governing equations of velocity and temperature fields with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by the ordinary differential equations by introducing appropriate coordinate transformations. We solve that ordinary differential equations and find the velocity profiles, temperature profile, the skin friction and nusselt number. The effects of Grashof number (Gr, Hartmann number (M and Prandtl number (Pr, Darcy parameter (D-1 on velocity profiles and temperature profiles are shown graphically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.S. Idowu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Radiation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was considered together with it’s effects. The new technique of homotopy analysis method (nHAM was used to obtain the convergent series expressions for velocity and temperature, where the governig system of partial differential equations has been transformed into ordinary differential equations. The interpretation to these expressions is shown physically through graphs. We observed that the effects of Prandtl and Magnetic number acts in opposite to each other on the temperature.
Kweon, Jae Ryong
2016-09-01
In this paper, when the initial density has a jump across an interior curve in a bounded domain, we show unique existence, piecewise regularity and jump discontinuity dynamics for the density and the velocity vector governed by the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible viscous barotropic flows. A critical difficulty is in controlling the gradient of the pressure across the jump curve. This is resolved by constructing a vector function associated with the pressure jump value on the convecting curve and extending it to the whole domain.
Rohindra, D. R.; Lata, R. A.; Coll, R. K.
2012-09-01
A simple viscometry experiment undertaken by an undergraduate polymer class as a research project is described. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow and is affected by several factors, such as concentration and temperature. In this experiment, the viscosities of polyvinylpyrrolidone solutions (a polymeric material) of different concentrations were prepared in water and measured at various temperatures. The solution viscosity was found to increase gradually with increasing concentration up to ∼5 mass%, with a dramatic increase after this. The calculated viscosity of water at different temperatures was comparable to reported values. The activation energy of viscous flow (Ea) of the different solutions was calculated and followed a similar trend as that for the viscosities of solutions of various concentrations. This experiment allowed students to better understand and explain the behaviour of macromolecules with respect to changing concentration and temperature. Furthermore, students correlated the viscosity and Ea results to understand how an increase in the concentration of a polymer solution resulted in increased entanglement of the polymer chains, consequently leading to an increase in viscosity and an increase in the activation energy of viscous flow. This experiment is safe, low cost, simple and requires only readily available apparatus.
Laosunthara, Ampan; Akatsuka, Hiroshi
2016-09-01
In previous study, we experimentally examined physical properties of supersonic flow of weakly ionized expanding arc-jet plasma through an open magnetic field line (Bmax 0.16T). We found supersonic velocity of helium plasma up to Mach 3 and the space potential drop at the end of the magnets. To understand the plasma in numerical point of view, the flows of ion and neutral are treated by particle-based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, electron is treated as a fluid. The previous numerical study, we assumed 2 conditions. Ion and electron temperatures were the same (LTE condition). Ion and electron velocities were the same (current-free condition). We found that ion velocity decreased by collision with residual gas molecules (background pressure). We also found that space potential changing with background pressure. In other words, it was indicated that electric field exists and the current-free assumption is not proper. In this study, we add electron continuity and electron momentum equations to obtain electron velocity and space potential. We find that space potential changing with background pressure slightly. It is indicated that electron is essential to space potential formation than ion.
Berglund, M.; Fedina, E.; Fureby, C.; Sabel'nikov, V.; Tegnér, J.
2009-01-01
In this study, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to analyze supersonic flow, mix ing and combustion in a supersonic combustor equipped with a two-stage fuel injector strut. An explicit LES model, using a mixed subgrid model and two different tur bulence- chemistry interaction models is used in an unstructured finite volume framework. The LES model and its components, has been carefully validated in a large number of studies. The LES predictions are compared to experimental data such as the center line wall pressure distribution and OH-PLIF distributions in two cross- sections of the combustor, showing good qualitative and quantitative agreement. The LES results are furthermore used to elucidate the complex flow, mixing and combustion physics, imposed by the multi-injector, two-stage injector strut. The importance of the chemical kinetics, although weaker than anticipated, is noticeable and must be taken into account, as is the effects of the turbulence- chemistry interaction model. It is here demonstrated that a 7-step reaction scheme is sufficient to capture mixing, self-ignition and transition into turbulent combustion responsible for most of the thrust generation in a scramjet .
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Juan; HONG Yanji; LI Qian
2012-01-01
The interaction of laser-induced plasma and bow shock over a blunt body is inves- tigated numerically in an M∞ =6.5 supersonic flow. A ray-tracing method is used for simulating the process of laser focusing. The gas located at the focused zone is ionized and broken down and transformed into plasma. In a supersonic flow the plasma moves downstream and begins to interact with the bow shock when it approaches the surface of the blunt body. The parameters of flowfield and blunt body surface are changed due to the interaction. By analyzing phenomena occurring in the complex unsteady flowfield during the interaction in detail, we can better under- stand the change of pressure on the blunt body surface and the mechanism of drag reduction by laser energy deposition. The results show that the bow shock is changed into an oblique shock due to the interaction of the laser-induced low-density zone with the bow shock, so the wave drag of the blunt body is reduced.
Trajectory control of PbSe-γ-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field
Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina
2010-04-01
The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the γ-Fe2O3 magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.
Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina
2010-04-30
The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic gamma-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the gamma-Fe(2)O(3) magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.
A convergent mixed method for the Stokes approximation of viscous compressible flow
Karlsen, Kenneth
2009-01-01
We propose a mixed finite element method for the motion of a strongly viscous, ideal, and isentropic gas. At the boundary we impose a Navier-slip condition such that the velocity equation can be posed in mixed form with the vorticity as an auxiliary variable. In this formulation we design a finite element method, where the velocity and vorticity is approximated with the div- and curl- conforming Nedelec elements, respectively, of the first order and first kind. The mixed scheme is coupled to a standard piecewise constant upwind discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the continuity equation. For the time discretization, implicit Euler time stepping is used. Our main result is that the numerical solution converges to a weak solution as the discretization parameters go to zero. The convergence analysis is inspired by the continuous analysis of Feireisl and Lions for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Tools used in the analysis include an equation for the effective viscous flux and various renormalizatio...
MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Khan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC, nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE. In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter Mand the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current results are compared with published work already available.
Frequency-dependent viscous flow in channels with fractal rough surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortis, A.; Berryman, J.G.
2010-05-01
The viscous dynamic permeability of some fractal-like channels is studied. For our particular class of geometries, the ratio of the pore surface area-to-volume tends to {infinity} (but has a finite cutoff), and the universal scaling of the dynamic permeability, k({omega}), needs modification. We performed accurate numerical computations of k({omega}) for channels characterized by deterministic fractal wall surfaces, for a broad range of fractal dimensions. The pertinent scaling model for k({omega}) introduces explicitly the fractal dimension of the wall surface for a range of frequencies across the transition between viscous and inertia dominated regimes. The new model provides excellent agreement with our numerical simulations.
Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.
1968-01-01
The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...
Flow characteristic of in-flight particles in supersonic plasma spraying process
Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Du, Jun; Bai, Y.
2016-09-01
In this paper, a computational model based on supersonic plasma spraying (SAPS) is developed to describe the plasma jet coupled with the injection of carrier gas and particles for SAPS. Based on a high-efficiency supersonic spraying gun, the 3D computational model of spraying gun was built to study the features of plasma jet and its interactions with the sprayed particles. Further the velocity and temperature of in-flight particles were measured by Spray Watch 2i, the shape of in-flight particles was observed by scanning electron microscope. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. The flight process of particles in plasma jet consists of three stages: accelerated stage, constant speed stage and decelerated stage. Numerical and experimental indicates that the H2 volume fraction in mixture gas of Ar + H2 should keep in the range of 23-26 %, and the distance of 100 mm is the optimal spraying distance in Supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying. Particles were melted and broken into small child particles by plasma jet and the diameters of most child particles were less than 30 μm. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can decrease the coating porosity.
Ariyasingha, Nuwandi M.; Broderick, Bernadette M.; Thompson, James O. F.; Suits, Arthur
2016-06-01
Chirped-Pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in uniform supersonic flows (CPUF) has been applied to study the reaction of Cl atoms with propyne. The approach utilizes broad-band microwave spectroscopy to extract structural information with MHz resolution and near universal detection, in conjunction with a Laval flow system, which offers thermalized conditions at low temperatures and high number densities. Our previous studies have exploited this approach to obtain multichannel product branching fractions in a number of polyatomic systems, with isomer and often vibrational level specificity. This report highlights an additional capability of the CPUF technique: here, the state-specific reactant depletion is directly monitored on a microsecond timescale. In doing so, a clear dependence on the rotational quantum number K in the rate of the reaction between Cl atoms and propyne is revealed. Future prospects for the technique will be discussed.
Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Leger, L.; Depussay, E.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.
2013-03-01
The transverse gas injection into the main supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent (C-D) propulsive nozzle is investigated for the fluidic thrust vectoring (FTV) possibilities as the segment part of the CNES "Perseus" project. Truncated ideal contour and conical C-D nozzles with different position and angle of the secondary circular injection port are selected as test models in the current numerical and experimental study. Analytical approach revealed parameters which affect the FTV efficiency, these criterions are further numerically explored and results data of the conical nozzle test cases are compared and coupled with the ones from experiments. It is found that upstream inclined injection has positive effect on vectoring capabilities and that with moderate secondary to primary mass-flow ratios, ranging around 5%, pertinent vector side force is possible to be achieved.
Special Course on Three-Dimensional Supersonic/Hypersonic Flows Including Separation
1990-01-01
viscous grid streching ). Fig. 8, taken from [46], shows the convergence history for the multigrid and single grid time stepping method, applied to the...shock-surface is not smooth in general, an effect which is amplified by the irregular grid point distribution resulting from the strongly, streched
Performance of Several High Order Numerical Methods for Supersonic Combustion
Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.; Don, Wai Sun; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The performance of two recently developed numerical methods by Yee et al. and Sjoegreen and Yee using postprocessing nonlinear filters is examined for a 2-D multiscale viscous supersonic react-live flow. These nonlinear filters can improve nonlinear instabilities and at the same time can capture shock/shear waves accurately. They do not, belong to the class of TVD, ENO or WENO schemes. Nevertheless, they combine stable behavior at discontinuities and detonation without smearing the smooth parts of the flow field. For the present study, we employ a fourth-order Runge-Kutta in time and a sixth-order non-dissipative spatial base scheme for the convection and viscous terms. We denote the resulting nonlinear filter schemes ACM466-RK4 and WAV66-RK4.
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Kopriva, David A.
2016-08-01
The effect of curved-boundary representation on the physics of the separated flow over a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil is thoroughly investigated. A method is presented to approximate curved boundaries with a high-order discontinuous-Galerkin spectral element method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiblock quadrilateral element meshes are constructed with the grid generation software GridPro. The boundary of a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil, defined by a cubic natural spline, is piecewise-approximated by isoparametric polynomial interpolants that represent the edges of boundary-fitted elements. Direct numerical simulation of the airfoil is performed on a coarse mesh and fine mesh with polynomial orders ranging from four to twelve. The accuracy of the curve fitting is investigated by comparing the flows computed on curved-sided meshes with those given by straight-sided meshes. Straight-sided meshes yield irregular wakes, whereas curved-sided meshes produce a regular Karman street wake. Straight-sided meshes also produce lower lift and higher viscous drag as compared with curved-sided meshes. When the mesh is refined by reducing the sizes of the elements, the lift decrease and viscous drag increase are less pronounced. The differences in the aerodynamic performance between the straight-sided meshes and the curved-sided meshes are concluded to be the result of artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation provided by the straight-sided meshes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variab...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakagawa, Masafumi [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Berana, Menandro Serrano [Department of Mechanical and Structural System Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi City, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Kishine, Akinori [Machine Tool Division, Murata Machinery, Ltd., 2 Nakajima, Hashizume, Inuyama City, Aichi 484-8502 (Japan)
2009-09-15
CO{sub 2} is environmentally friendly, safe and more suitable to ejector refrigeration cycle than to vapor compression cycle. Supersonic two-phase flow of CO{sub 2} in the diverging sections of rectangular converging-diverging nozzles was investigated. The divergence angles with significant variation of decompression were 0.076 , 0.153 , 0.306 and 0.612 . This paper presents experimental decompression phenomena which can be used in designing nozzles and an assessment of Isentropic Homogeneous Equilibrium (IHE). Inlet conditions around 6-9 MPa, 20-37 C were used to resemble ejector nozzles of coolers and heat pumps. For inlet temperature around 37 C, throat decompression boiling from the saturated liquid line, supersonic decompression and IHE solution were obtained for the two large divergence angles. For divergence angles larger than 0.306 , decompression curves for inlet temperature above 35 C approached IHE curves. For divergence angles smaller than 0.306 or for nozzles with inlet temperature below 35 C, IHE had no solution. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uzu-Kuei Hsu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This research adopts a shock tube 16 meters long and with a 9 cm bore to create a supersonic, high-temperature, and high-pressure flowfield to observe the gasification and ignition of HTPB solid fuel under different environments. Also, full-scale 3D numerical simulation is executed to enhance the comprehension of this complex phenomenon. The CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics code is based on the control volume method and the pre-conditioning method for solving the Navier-Stokes equations to simulate the compressible and incompressible coupling problem. In the tests, a HTPB slab is placed in the windowed-test section. Various test conditions generate different supersonic Mach numbers and environmental temperatures. In addition, the incident angles of the HTPB slab were changed relative to the incoming shock wave. Results show that as the Mach number around the slab section exceeded 1.25, the flowfield temperature achieved 1100 K, which is higher than the HTPB gasification temperature (930 K ~ 1090 K. Then, gasification occurred and a short-period ignition could be observed. In particular, when the slab angle was 7∘, the phenomenon became more visible. This is due to the flow field temperature increase when the slab angle was at 7∘.
Sharma, Kalpna; Gupta, Sumit
2017-06-01
This paper investigates steady two dimensional flow of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over an impermeable surface in presence of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. By using similarity transformation, the arising governing equations of momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration are transformed into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are than solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effect of different physical parameters, namely, Prandtl number Pr, Eckert number Ec, Magnetic parameter M, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophoresis parameter Nt, Lewis parameter Le and Radiation parameter Rd on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles along with the Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are discussed graphically and in tabular form in details. The present results are also compared with existing limiting solutions.
Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Hosseini
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid in convergent or divergent channels under the influence of an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field is studied both analytically and numerically. Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics and Maxwell’s electromagnetism equations are reduced into highly non-linear ordinary differential equation. The resulting non-linear equation has been solved analytically using a very efficient technique, namely, differential transform method (DTM. The DTM solution is compared with the results obtained by a numerical method (shooting method, coupled with fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. The plots have revealed the physical characteristics of flow by changing angles of the channel, Hartmann and Reynolds numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Khan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Srinivasa Rao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to investigate the radiation effects on unsteady heat and mass transfer flow of a chemically reacting fluid past a semi-infinite vertical plate with viscous dissipation. The method of solution is applied using Finite element technique. Numerical results for the velocity, the temperature and the concentration are shown graphically for various flow parameters. The expressions for the skin-frication, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are obtained. The result shows that increased cooling (Gr>0 of the plate and the Eckert number leads to a rise in the velocity. Also, an increase in the Eckert number leads to an increase in the temperature, whereas increase in radiation lead to a decrease in the temperature distribution when the plate is being cooled.
An Explicit,Totally Analytic Solution of Laminar Viscous FLow over a Semi—Infinite Flat Plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi－JunLIAO
1998-01-01
In this paper,a new kind of analytic technique for nonlinear problems,namely the Homotopy Analysis Method,is applied to give an explicit,totally analytic solution of the Blasius' flow.i.e.,the two dimensional (2D) laminar viscous flow over a semi-infinite flat plate.This analytic solution is valid in the whole region having physical meanings.To our knowledge,it is the first time in history that such a kind of explicit,totally analytic solution is given.This fact well verifies the great potential and validity of the Honmotopy Analysis Method as a kind of powerful analytic tool for nonlinear problems in science and engineering.
Benyo, Theresa L.
2011-01-01
Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.
Lapushkina, T. A.; Erofeev, A. V.; Ponyaev, S. A.
2014-07-01
This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of pressure variation near the surface of a body placed in a supersonic flow as a model of an aerofoil or the nose of an aircraft by organizing a surface gas discharge in a magnetic field transverse to the flow. The flow parameters and pressure are mainly affected by the ponderomotive Lorentz force acting on the gas in the direction orthogonal to the direction of the organized discharge current and leading to the removal or compression of the gas at the surface of the body and, hence, a variation of pressure. Experimental data on the visualization of the flow and on the pressure at the surface of the body are considered for various configurations of the current and intensities of the gas discharge and magnetic field; it is demonstrated that such configurations of the current and magnetic field near the surface of the body under investigation can be organized in such a way that the pressure at the front part as well as the upper and lower surfaces of the body under investigation can be increased or decreased, thus changing the aerodynamic drag and the aerofoil lift. Such a magnetohydrodynamic control over aerodynamic parameters of the aircraft can be used during takeoff and landing as well as during steady-state flight and also during the entrance into dense atmospheric layers. This will considerably reduce the thermal load on the surface of the body in the flow.
Schlieren study of a sonic jet injected into a supersonic cross flow using high-current pulsed LEDs
Giskes, Ella; Segerink, Frans B; Venner, Cornelis H
2016-01-01
In the research of supersonic flows, flow visualization continues to be an important tool, and even today it is difficult to create high quality images. In this study we present a low-cost and easy-to use Schlieren setup. The setup makes use of LEDs, pulsed with high currents to increase the optical output to sufficient levels, exploiting the advantages of LED light over conventional light sources. As a test-case we study the interaction of a Mach 1.7 cross flow and a transverse underexpanded jet, which is commonly studied considering the mixing and combustion in scramjet engines. Using 130 nanosecond LED light pulses, we captured the flow structures sharply and in great detail. We observed a large-gradient wave, which was seen in numerical studies but hitherto not reported in experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that time-correlated images can be obtained with this Schlieren setup, so that also flow unsteadiness can be studied, such as the movement of shock waves and vortices.
Adamczyk, J. J.; Goldstein, M. E.; Hartmann, M. J.
1978-01-01
Recently two flutter analyses have been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to predict the onset of supersonic unstalled flutter of a cascade of two-dimensional airfoils. The first of these analyzes the onset of supersonic flutter at low levels of aerodynamic loading (i.e., backpressure), while the second examines the occurrence of supersonic flutter at moderate levels of aerodynamic loading. Both of these analyses are based on the linearized unsteady inviscid equations of gas dynamics to model the flow field surrounding the cascade. The details of the development of the solution to each of these models have been published. The objective of the present paper is to utilize these analyses in a parametric study to show the effects of cascade geometry, inlet Mach number, and backpressure on the onset of single and multi degree of freedom unstalled supersonic flutter. Several of the results from this study are correlated against experimental qualitative observation to validate the models.
Muralidharan, Balaji; Menon, Suresh
2016-09-01
A new adaptive finite volume conservative cut-cell method that is third-order accurate for simulation of compressible viscous flows is presented. A high-order reconstruction approach using cell centered piecewise polynomial approximation of flow quantities, developed in the past for body-fitted grids, is now extended to the Cartesian based cut-cell method. It is shown that the presence of cut-cells of very low volume results in numerical oscillations in the flow solution near the embedded boundaries when standard small cell treatment techniques are employed. A novel cell clustering approach for polynomial reconstruction in the vicinity of the small cells is proposed and is shown to achieve smooth representation of flow field quantities and their derivatives on immersed interfaces. It is further shown through numerical examples that the proposed clustering method achieves the design order of accuracy and is fairly insensitive to the cluster size. Results are presented for canonical flow past a single cylinder and a sphere at different flow Reynolds numbers to verify the accuracy of the scheme. Investigations are then performed for flow over two staggered cylinders and the results are compared with prior data for the same configuration. All the simulations are carried out with both quadratic and cubic reconstruction, and the results indicate a clear improvement with the cubic reconstruction. The new cut-cell approach with cell clustering is able to predict accurate results even at relatively low resolutions. The ability of the high-order cut-cell method in handling sharp geometrical corners and narrow gaps is also demonstrated using various examples. Finally, three-dimensional flow interactions between a pair of spheres in cross flow is investigated using the proposed cut-cell scheme. The results are shown to be in excellent agreement with past studies, which employed body-fitted grids for studying this complex case.
Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji
2016-11-01
Flow physics near the viscous wall is intrinsically anisotropic in nature, namely, the gradient along the wall normal direction is much larger than that along the other two orthogonal directions parallel to the surface. Accordingly, high aspect ratio meshes are employed near the viscous wall to capture the physics and maintain low grid count. While such arrangement works fine for structured-grid based methods with dimensional splitting that handles derivatives in each direction separately, similar treatments often lead to numerical instability for unstructured-mesh based methods when triangular or tetrahedral meshes are used. The non-splitting treatment of near-wall gradients for high-aspect ratio triangular or tetrahedral elements results in an ill-conditioned linear system of equations that is closely related to the numerical instability. Altering the side lengths of the near wall tetrahedrons in the gradient calculations would make the system less unstable but more dissipative. This research presents recent progress in applying numerical dissipation control in the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to reduce or alleviate the above-mentioned instability while maintaining reasonable solution accuracy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guymer, T. M., E-mail: Thomas.Guymer@awe.co.uk; Moore, A. S.; Morton, J.; Allan, S.; Bazin, N.; Benstead, J.; Bentley, C.; Comley, A. J.; Garbett, W.; Reed, L.; Stevenson, R. M. [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Kline, J. L.; Cowan, J.; Flippo, K.; Hamilton, C.; Lanier, N. E.; Mussack, K.; Obrey, K.; Schmidt, D. W.; Taccetti, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others
2015-04-15
A well diagnosed campaign of supersonic, diffusive radiation flow experiments has been fielded on the National Ignition Facility. These experiments have used the accurate measurements of delivered laser energy and foam density to enable an investigation into SESAME's tabulated equation-of-state values and CASSANDRA's predicted opacity values for the low-density C{sub 8}H{sub 7}Cl foam used throughout the campaign. We report that the results from initial simulations under-predicted the arrival time of the radiation wave through the foam by ≈22%. A simulation study was conducted that artificially scaled the equation-of-state and opacity with the intended aim of quantifying the systematic offsets in both CASSANDRA and SESAME. Two separate hypotheses which describe these errors have been tested using the entire ensemble of data, with one being supported by these data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedoseeva, Yu. V., E-mail: fedoseeva@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pozdnyakov, G.A. [Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Okotrub, A.V.; Kanygin, M.A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nastaushev, Yu. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Vilkov, O.Y. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • A deposition of supersonic methane plasma flow on silicon substrate produces amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) film. • The thickness, composition, and wettability of the film depend on the substrate temperature. • A rise of the substrate temperature from 500 to 700 °C promotes the sp{sup 3}-hybridization carbon formation. - Abstract: Since amorphous oxygenated hydrocarbon (CO{sub x}H{sub y}) films are promising engineering materials a study of the structure and composition of the films depending on the conditions of synthesis is important for controlling of their physicochemical properties. Here, we used the methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy to reveal changes in the chemical connectivity of CO{sub x}H{sub y} films grown on silicon substrates heated to 300, 500, and 700 °C using a supersonic flow of methane plasma. It was found that the CO{sub x}H{sub y} films, deposited at 300 and 500 °C, were mainly composed of the sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon areas with various oxygen species. A rise of the substrate temperature caused an increase of the portion of tetrahedral carbon atoms as well as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. With growth of the substrate temperature, the film thickness reduced monotonically from 400 to 180 nm, while the film adhesion improved substantially. The films, deposited at lower temperatures, showed high hydrophilicity due to porosity and presence of oxygenated groups both at the surface and in the bulk.
Benyo, Theresa L.
2010-01-01
Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.
Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta
2010-01-01
Tseliakhovich & Hirata recently discovered that higher-order corrections to the cosmological linear-perturbation theory lead to supersonic coherent baryonic flows just after recombination (i.e.\\ $z \\approx 1020$), with rms velocities of $\\sim$30 km/s relative to the underlying dark-matter distribution, on comoving scales of $\\la 3$ Mpc\\,$h^{-1}$. To study the impact of these coherent flows we performed high-resolution N-body plus SPH simulations in boxes of 5.0 and 0.7 Mpc\\,$h^{-1}$, for bulk-flow velocities of 0 (as reference), 30 and 60 km/s. The simulations follow the evolution of cosmic structures by taking into account detailed, primordial, non-equilibrium gas chemistry (i.e.\\ H, He, H$_2$, HD, HeH, etc.), cooling, star formation, and feedback effects from stellar evolution. We find that these bulk flows suppress star formation in low-mass haloes (i.e.\\ $M_{\\rm vir} \\la 10^8$M$_{\\odot}$ until $z\\sim 13$), lower the abundance of the first objects by $\\sim 1%-20%$, and, as consequence, delay cosmic sta...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir Kumar Nandy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past a porous deformable sheet, which is stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the fixed point subject to uniform suction or blowing. A uniform shear flow of strain rate β is considered over the stretching sheet. The analysis of the result obtained shows that the magnitude of the wall shear stress increases with the increase of suction velocity and decreases with the increase of blowing velocity and this effect is more pronounced for suction than blowing. It is seen that the horizontal velocity component (at a fixed streamwise position along the plate increases with the increase in the ratio of shear rate β and stretching rate (c (i.e., β/c and there is an indication of flow reversal. It is also observed that this flow reversal region increases with the increase in β/c.
Putnam, L. E.; Hodges, J.
1983-01-01
The Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Royal Aircraft Establishment have undertaken a cooperative program to conduct an assessment of their patched viscous-inviscid interaction methods for predicting the transonic flow over nozzle afterbodies. The assessment was made by comparing the predictions of the two methods with experimental pressure distributions and boattail pressure drag for several convergent circular-arc nozzle configurations. Comparisons of the predictions of the two methods with the experimental data showed that both methods provided good predictions of the flow characteristics of nozzles with attached boundary layer flow. The RAE method also provided reasonable predictions of the pressure distributions and drag for the nozzles investigated that had separated boundary layers. The NASA method provided good predictions of the pressure distribution on separated flow nozzles that had relatively thin boundary layers. However, the NASA method was in poor agreement with experiment for separated nozzles with thick boundary layers due primarily to deficiencies in the method used to predict the separation location.
McDonald, James G.; Groth, Clinton P. T.
2013-09-01
The ability to predict continuum and transition-regime flows by hyperbolic moment methods offers the promise of several advantages over traditional techniques. These methods offer an extended range of physical validity as compared with the Navier-Stokes equations and can be used for the prediction of many non-equilibrium flows with a lower expense than particle-based methods. Also, the hyperbolic first-order nature of the resulting partial differential equations leads to mathematical and numerical advantages. Moment equations generated through an entropy-maximization principle are particularly attractive due to their apparent robustness; however, their application to practical situations involving viscous, heat-conducting gases has been hampered by several issues. Firstly, the lack of closed-form expressions for closing fluxes leads to numerical expense as many integrals of distribution functions must be computed numerically during the course of a flow computation. Secondly, it has been shown that there exist physically realizable moment states for which the entropy-maximizing problem on which the method is based cannot be solved. Following a review of the theory surrounding maximum-entropy moment closures, this paper shows that both of these problems can be addressed in practice, at least for a simplified one-dimensional gas, and that the resulting flow predictions can be surprisingly good. The numerical results described provide significant motivations for the extension of these ideas to the fully three-dimensional case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. D. Makinde
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer characteristics of a Berman flow of water based nanofluids containing copper (Cu and alumina (Al2O3 as nanoparticles in a porous channel with Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and convective cooling are investigated. It is assumed that the exchange of heat with the ambient surrounding takes place at the channel walls following Newton’s law of cooling. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate similarity transformations. These equations are solved analytically by regular perturbation methods with series improvement technique and numerically using an efficient Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique coupled with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, pressure drop, and Nusselt numbers are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.
Yasin, Mohd Hafizi Mat; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan
2015-12-09
The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alok Kumar Pandey
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to examine the collective influence of thermal radiation and convection flow of Cu-water nanofluid due to a stretching cylinder in a porous medium along with viscous dissipation and slip boundary conditions. The governing non-linear ODEs and auxiliary boundary conditions those obtained by applying assisting similarity transformations have been handled numerically with shooting scheme through Runge-Kutta-integration procedure of fourth-fifth order. The non-dimensional velocity and temperature distribution are designed and also skin friction coefficient as well as heat transfer rate are tabulated for various values of relatable parameters. The results explain that Nusselt number depreciates with boost in radiation parameter, thermal slip parameter and Eckert number. Moreover, it is accelerated with increase in velocity slip parameter and natural convection parameter. The results are distinguished via published ones and excellent accord has been detected.
Mat Yasin, Mohd Hafizi; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan
2015-12-01
The steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with effects of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and partial velocity slip in the presence of a magnetic field is investigated. The partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by shooting technique. Results indicate that the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase as magnetic parameter increases. It is found that for the stretching sheet the solution is unique while for the shrinking sheet there exist nonunique solutions (dual solutions) in certain range of parameters. The stability analysis shows that the upper branch solution is stable while the lower branch solution is unstable.
Viscous Damping of Anisotropic Flow in 7.7 ‑ 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions
Magdy, Niseem; STAR Collaboration
2017-01-01
Recent STAR measurements of the anisotropic flow coefficients v n (2 ≤ n ≤ 5) in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, are presented for the full span of energies (7.7 ‑ 200 GeV) employed in beam energy scan I (BES-I). The measurements which can provide strong constraints for the baryon chemical potential (µ B ) and temperature (T ) dependence of the specific shear viscosity η/s, indicate sizable dependencies on harmonic number n, p T and centrality, with similar patterns [but different magnitudes] across the beam energies studied. An excitation function for the viscous coefficient, extracted via specific ratios of v n for a fixed centrality, indicates a non-monotonic pattern which could be related to the onset of critical reaction dynamics in the BES-I energy range.
Georgievskii, D. V.
2007-06-01
physical parameter α can be imposed. These variations imply perturbations of the tensor function itself. The components of such perturbations linear and quadratic in α are determined. In each of the approximations, we write out a closed system of equations consisting of the equations of motion (linear in the variables of the respective approximation) and the incompressibility condition. We analyze tensor-linear functions with arbitrary scalar rheology inmore detail. Materials with such constitutive relations include non-Newtonian viscous fluids and viscoplastic materials. Viscoplastic materials are characterized by the existence of rigidity zones, where the stress intensity is less than the yield strength. We derive equations for the boundaries of the rigidity zones in the perturbed motion, in particular, for the case in which the unperturbed medium is a viscous Newtonian fluid. Throughout the paper, index-free notation is used.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanna, G.; Tomassetti, G. [L`Aquila Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1998-02-01
The discontinuities in the flow fields (both tangential and shocks) are considered and the equations for the quantities conserved across them are written. The post-shock flow variables are expressed by the Mach number of the incident supersonic flow and its deflection angle operated by rigid wall. Normal and oblique shocks are considered and graphs and polar diagrams are introduced. Then the reflections of a shock wave operated by a rigid wall and by the boundary between a jet and a stagnating gas are analyzed. Finally, the interactions between two distinct shock waves are considered. [Italiano] Vengono considerate le discontinuita` (tangenziali e shocks) nei campi di flusso e sono scritte le equazioni per le quantita` che si conservano attraverso di esse. Le variabili del flusso oltre lo shock sono espresse in funzione del numero di Mach del flusso supersonico incidente e dell`angolo di deflessione di questo operato da una parete rigida. I casi di shock normale, obliquo e distaccato sono considerati e sono introdotti grafici vari e rappresentazioni polari. Sono quindi considerate le riflessioni di un fronte di shock da una parete rigida e dalla frontiera tra un gas in moto ed uno stagnante. Sono infine considerate le diverse interazioni tra due shock distinti.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous flows aerothermal modeling program, phase 2
Karki, K. C.; Patankar, S. V.; Runchal, A. K.; Mongia, H. C.
1988-01-01
The details of a study to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes to predict complex flows are described. In this program, several discretization schemes were evaluated using simple test cases. This assessment led to the selection of three schemes for an in-depth evaluation based on two-dimensional flows. The scheme with the superior overall performance was incorporated in a computer program for three-dimensional flows. To improve the computational efficiency, the selected discretization scheme was combined with a direct solution approach in which the fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously rather than sequentially.
A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems
Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy
2016-06-01
This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alok Kumar Pandey
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of present study is to identify the effects of viscous dissipation and suction/injection on MHD flow of a nanofluid past a wedge with convective surface in the appearance of slip flow and porous medium. The basic non-linear PDEs of flow and energy are altered into a set of non-linear ODEs using auxiliary similarity transformations. The system of equations together with coupled boundary conditions have been solved numerically by applying Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg procedure via shooting scheme. The influence of relevant parameters on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are depicted graphically and investigated in detail. The results elucidate that as enhance in the Eckert number, the skin friction coefficient increases, while heat transfer rate decreases. The outcomes also specify that thermal boundary layer thickness declines with an increase in suction parameter. Moreover, it is accelerated with augment in injection parameter. The results are analogized with the study published earlier and it creates a fine concord.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry
2003-04-01
A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. N. Maitra
1986-01-01
Full Text Available A magnetohydrodynamic flow of a viscous, incompressible and slightly conducting fluid is developed between a parallel flat wall and a wavy wall whereas at the same time fluid is continuously sucked through the flat wall with a constant suction velocity. The velocity and temperature distribution are determined alongwith the pressure gradient and co-efficient of skin friction.
M. Cibiş (Merih); K. Jarvis (Kelly); M. Markl (Michael); M. Rose (Michael); C. Rigsby (Cynthia); A.J. Barker (Alex J.); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda)
2015-01-01
textabstractViscous dissipation inside Fontan circulation, a parameter associated with the exercise intolerance of Fontan patients, can be derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or 4D flow MRI velocities. However, the impact of spatial resolution and measurement noise on the estimation of
Viscous-flow calculations for KVLCC2 in deep and shallow water
Toxopeus, S.L.
2011-01-01
In the SIMMAN 2008 workshop, the capability of CFD tools to predict the flow around manoeuvring ships has been investigated. It was decided to continue this effort but to extend the work to the flow around ships in shallow water. In this paper, CFD calculations for the KLVCC2 are presented. The aim
Viscous-flow calculations for KVLCC2 in deep and shallow water
Toxopeus, S.L.
2011-01-01
In the SIMMAN 2008 workshop, the capability of CFD tools to predict the flow around manoeuvring ships has been investigated. It was decided to continue this effort but to extend the work to the flow around ships in shallow water. In this paper, CFD calculations for the KLVCC2 are presented. The aim
Wood, Jerry R.; Schmidt, James F.; Steinke, Ronald J.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Kunik, William G.
1987-01-01
Increased emphasis on sustained supersonic or hypersonic cruise has revived interest in the supersonic throughflow fan as a possible component in advanced propulsion systems. Use of a fan that can operate with a supersonic inlet axial Mach number is attractive from the standpoint of reducing the inlet losses incurred in diffusing the flow from a supersonic flight Mach number to a subsonic one at the fan face. The design of the experiment using advanced computational codes to calculate the components required is described. The rotor was designed using existing turbomachinery design and analysis codes modified to handle fully supersonic axial flow through the rotor. A two-dimensional axisymmetric throughflow design code plus a blade element code were used to generate fan rotor velocity diagrams and blade shapes. A quasi-three-dimensional, thin shear layer Navier-Stokes code was used to assess the performance of the fan rotor blade shapes. The final design was stacked and checked for three-dimensional effects using a three-dimensional Euler code interactively coupled with a two-dimensional boundary layer code. The nozzle design in the expansion region was analyzed with a three-dimensional parabolized viscous code which corroborated the results from the Euler code. A translating supersonic diffuser was designed using these same codes.
Incompressible viscous flow computations for the pump components and the artificial heart
Kiris, Cetin
1992-01-01
A finite difference, three dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes formulation to calculate the flow through turbopump components is utilized. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. Both steady and unsteady flow calculations can be performed using the current algorithm. Here, equations are solved in steadily rotating reference frames by using the steady state formulation in order to simulate the flow through a turbopump inducer. Eddy viscosity is computed by using an algebraic mixing-length turbulence model. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement is found between the two.
Simulation of three-dimensional viscous flow within a multistage turbine
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row.
Simulation of 3-D viscous flow within a multi-stage turbine
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
This work outlines a procedure for simulating the flow field within multistage turbomachinery which includes the effects of unsteadiness, compressibility, and viscosity. The associated modeling equations are the average passage equation system which governs the time-averaged flow field within a typical passage of a blade row embedded within a multistage configuration. The results from a simulation of a low aspect ratio stage and a one-half turbine will be presented and compared with experimental measurements. It will be shown that the secondary flow field generated by the rotor causes the aerodynamic performance of the downstream vane to be significantly different from that of an isolated blade row.
High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary CartesianGrids
2016-05-05
term goal of this research is to develop algorithms to simulate high Reynolds number turbulent flow in complicated geometries using embedded boundary...Spalding’s formula of matching the pro- files actually computed in the flow field by the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. In particular the profiles ...turbu- lent viscosity to be computed, see e.g. the profiles in the bottom row of Fig. 4. The streamwise velocity and especially the turbulent viscosity
Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions
Fang, Tiegang
2014-05-01
In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.
Dynamics of viscous liquid bridges inside microchannels subject to external oscillatory flow
Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin
2015-02-01
We report on two-dimensional simulations of liquid bridges' dynamics inside microchannels of uniform wettability and subject to an external oscillatory flow rate. The oscillatory flow results in a zero net flow rate and its effects are compared to those of a stationary system. To handle the three phase contact lines motion, Cahn-Hilliard diffuse-interface formulation was used and the flow equations were solved using the finite element method with adaptively refined unstructured grids. The results indicate that the liquid bridge responds in three different ways depending on the substrate wettability properties and the frequency of the oscillatory flow. In particular below a critical frequency, the liquid bridge will rupture when the channel walls are philic or detach from the surface when they are phobic. However, at high frequencies, the liquid bridge shows a perpetual periodic oscillatory motion for both philic and phobic surfaces. Furthermore, an increase in the frequency of the flow velocity results in stabilization effects and a behavior approaching that of the stationary system where no rupture or detachment can be observed. This stable behavior is the direct result of less deformation of the liquid bridge due to the fast flow direction change and motion of contact lines on the solid substrate. Moreover, it was found that the flow velocity is out of phase with the footprint and throat lengths and that the latter two also show a phase difference. These differences were explained in terms of the motion of the two contact lines on the solid substrates and the deformation of the two fluid-fluid interfaces.
The evolution of viscous flow structures in the esophagus during tracheoesophageal speech
Erath, Byron; Hemsing, Frank
2015-11-01
A laryngectomy is an invasive surgical procedure whereby the entire larynx is removed, usually as a result of cancer. Removal of the larynx renders conventional voiced speech impossible, with the most common remediation following surgery being tracheoeosphageal (TE) speech. TE speech is produced by inserting a one-way valve to connect the posterior wall of the trachea with the anterior wall of the esophagus. As air is forced up from the lungs it passes through the prosthesis and into the esophagus. The resulting esophageal pressure field incites self-sustained oscillations of the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES), which ultimately produces sound. Unfortunately, the physics of TE speech are not well understood, with up to 50% of individuals unable to produce intelligible sound. This failure can be related to a lack of understanding regarding the esophageal flow field, where all previous scientific investigations have assumed the flow is one-dimensional and steady. An experimental TE speech flow facility was constructed and particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired at the exit of the model prosthesis (entrance of the esophagus). The flow is observed to be highly unsteady, and the formation and propagation of vortical flow structures through the esophageal tract are identified. Observations regarding the influence of the flow dynamics on the esophageal pressure field and its relation to the successful production of TE speech are discussed.
Self-Similar Solutions for Viscous and Resistive Advection Dominated Accretion Flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kazem Faghei
2012-03-01
In this paper, self-similar solutions of resistive advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF) in the presence of a pure azimuthal magnetic field are investigated. The mechanism of energy dissipation is assumed to be the viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity due to turbulence in the accretion flow. It is assumed that the magnetic diffusivity and the kinematic viscosity are not constant and vary by position and -prescription is used for them. In order to solve the integrated equations that govern the behavior of the accretion flow, a self-similar method is used. The solutions show that the structure of accretion flow depends on the magnetic field and the magnetic diffusivity. As the radial infall velocity and the temperature of the flow increase by magnetic diffusivity, the rotational velocity decreases. Also, the rotational velocity for all selected values of magnetic diffusivity and magnetic field is sub-Keplerian. The solutions show that there is a certain amount of magnetic field for which rotational velocity of the flow becomes zero. This amount of the magnetic field depends upon the gas properties of the disc, such as adiabatic index and viscosity, magnetic diffusivity, and advection parameters. The mass accretion rate increases by adding the magnetic diffusivity and the solutions show that in high magnetic pressure, the ratio of the mass accretion rate to the Bondi accretion rate is reduced with an increase in magnetic pressure. Also, the study of Lundquist and magnetic Reynolds numbers based on resistivity indicates that the linear growth of magnetorotational instability (MRI) of the flow reduces by resistivity. This property is qualitatively consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations.
Radial and elliptic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider from viscous hydrodynamic
Shen, Chun; Huovinen, Pasi; Song, Huichao
2011-01-01
A comprehensive viscous hydrodynamic fit of spectra and elliptic flow for charged hadrons and identified pions and protons from Au+Au collisions of all centralities measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is performed and used as the basis for predicting the analogous observables for Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at sqrt(s)=2.76 and 5.5 A TeV. Comparison with recent measurements of the elliptic flow of charged hadrons by the ALICE experiment shows that the model slightly over-predicts the data if the same (constant) specific shear viscosity eta/s is assumed at both collision energies. In spite of differences in our assumptions for the equation of state, the freeze-out temperature, the chemical composition at freeze-out, and the starting time for the hydrodynamic evolution, our results agree remarkably well with those of Luzum [M. Luzum, Phys. Rev. C 83, 044911 (2011)], indicating robustness of the hydrodynamic model extrapolations. Future measurements of the centrality and transverse m...
A 3D Simulation of a Moving Solid in Viscous Free-Surface Flows by Coupling SPH and DEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Chao Qiu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a three-dimensional two-way coupled method to simulate moving solids in viscous free-surface flows. The fluid flows are solved by weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH and the displacement and rotation of the solids are calculated using the multisphere discrete element method (DEM allowing for the contact mechanics theories to be used in arbitrarily shaped solids. The fluid and the solid phases are coupled through Newton’s third law of motion. The proposed method does not require a computational mesh, nor does it rely on empirical models to couple the fluid and solid phases. To verify the numerical model, the floating and sinking processes of a rectangular block in a water tank are simulated, and the numerical results are compared with experimental results reported in published literatures. The results indicate that the method presented in this paper is accurate and is capable of modelling fluid-solid interactions with a free-surface.
Computation of incompressible viscous flows through artificial heart devices with moving boundaries
Kiris, Cetin; Rogers, Stuart; Kwak, Dochan; Chang, I.-DEE
1991-01-01
The extension of computational fluid dynamics techniques to artificial heart flow simulations is illustrated. Unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates are solved iteratively at each physical time step until the incompressibility condition is satisfied. The solution method is based on the pseudo compressibility approach and uses an implicit upwind differencing scheme together with the Gauss-Seidel line relaxation method. The efficiency and robustness of the time accurate formulation of the algorithm are tested by computing the flow through model geometries. A channel flow with a moving indentation is computed and validated with experimental measurements and other numerical solutions. In order to handle the geometric complexity and the moving boundary problems, a zonal method and an overlapping grid embedding scheme are used, respectively. Steady state solutions for the flow through a tilting disk heart valve was compared against experimental measurements. Good agreement was obtained. The flow computation during the valve opening and closing is carried out to illustrate the moving boundary capability.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余永亮; 童秉纲; 马晖扬
2003-01-01
Numerous studies on the aerodynamics of insect wing flapping were carried out on different approaches of flight investigations, model experiments, and numerical simulations, but the theoretical modeling remains to be explored. In the present paper, an analytic approach is presented to model the flow interactions of wing flapping in air for small insects with the surrounding flow fields being highly unsteady and highly viscous. The model of wing flapping is a 2-D flat plate, which makes plunging and pitching oscillations as well as quick rotations reversing its positions of leading and trailing edges, respectively, during stroke reversals. It contains three simplified aerodynamic assumptions:(i) unsteady potential flow; (ii) discrete vortices shed from both leading and trailing edges of the wing; (iii) Kutta conditions applied at both edges. Then the problem is reduced to the solution of the unsteady Laplace equation, by using distributed singularities, i.e., sources/sinks, and vortices in the field. To validate the present physical model and analytic method proposed via benchmark examples, two elemental motions in wing flapping and a case of whole flapping cycles are analyzed,and the predicted results agree well with available experimental and numerical data. This verifies that the present analytical approach may give qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results.Furthermore, the total fluid-dynamic force in the present method can be decomposed into three parts:one due to the added inertial (or mass) effect, the other and the third due to the induction of vortices shed from the leading- and the trailing-edge and their images respectively, and this helps to reveal the flow control mechanisms in insect wing flapping.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K De
2014-10-01
A discrete forcing based Cartesian grid method is presented. The nonstaggered arrangement of velocity and pressure is considered. The pressure gradient in localized discrete form is added separately with the velocity making them explicitly coupled. The governing equation is time-integrated implicitly with both linearized and non-linear forms are investigated. Both linear and bi-linear reconstruction techniques are tested for extrapolation of velocity near a complex boundary. The present method is tested for vortical flow in an inclined cavity, flow past circular and inclined square cylinder. Both homogeneous and non-homogeneous Dirichlet forcing problems are tested. The parallelized version of the method is applied to 2D-to-3D transitional flow behind a single and multiple circular cylinders. The present numerical results compare well with the previously documented results.
Solution of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow Driven by Motion of Flexible Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Gad-el-Hak
2010-03-01
Full Text Available An exact solution of the Navier–Stokes equations for a flow driven by motion of flexible wall is developed. A simple two-dimensional channel with deforming walls is considered as domain. The governing equations are linearized for low Reynolds number and large Womersley number Newtonian flows. Appropriate boundary conditions for general deformation are decomposed into harmonic excitations in space by Fourier series decomposition. A model of harmonic boundary deformation is considered and results are compared with computational fluid dynamics predictions. The results of velocity profiles across the channel and the centerline velocities of the channel are in good agreement with CFD solution. The analytical model developed provides quantitative descriptions of the flow field for a wide spectrum of actuating frequnecy and boundary conditions. The presented model can be used as an effective framework for preliminary design and optimization of displacement micropumps and other miniature applications.
How can vorticity be produced in irrotationally forced flows?
Del Sordo, Fabio
2010-01-01
A spherical hydrodynamical expansion flow can be described as the gradient of a potential. In that case no vorticity should be produced, but several additional mechanisms can drive its production. Here we analyze the effects of baroclinicity, rotation and shear in the case of a viscous fluid. Those flows resemble what happens in the interstellar medium. In fact in this astrophysical environment supernovae explosion are the dominant flows and, in a first approximation, they can be seen as spherical. One of the main difference is that in our numerical study we examine only weakly supersonic flows, while supernovae explosions are strongly supersonic.
Recent development of vortex method in incompressible viscous bluff body flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Lan; JI Feng; FAN Jian-ren; CEN Ke-fa
2005-01-01
Vortex methods have been alternative tools of finite element and finite difference methods for several decades. This paper presents a brief review of vortex method development in the last decades and introduces efficient vortex methods developed for high Reynolds number bluffbody flows and suitable for running on parallel computer architectures. Included in this study are particle strength exchange methods, core-spreading method, deterministic particle method and hybrid vortex methods. Combined with conservative methods, vortex methods can comprise the most available tools for simulations of three-dimensional complex bluff body flows at high Reynolds numbers.
Karki, K. C.; Mongia, H. C.; Patankar, Suhas V.; Runchal, A. K.
1987-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop improved numerical schemes for predicting combustor flow fields. Various candidate numerical schemes were evaluated, and promising schemes were selected for detailed assessment. The criteria for evaluation included accuracy, computational efficiency, stability, and ease of extension to multidimensions. The candidate schemes were assessed against a variety of simple one- and two-dimensional problems. These results led to the selection of the following schemes for further evaluation: flux spline schemes (linear and cubic) and controlled numerical diffusion with internal feedback (CONDIF). The incorporation of the flux spline scheme and direct solution strategy in a computer program for three-dimensional flows is in progress.
Skin Friction and Pressure Measurements in Supersonic Inlets Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supersonic propulsion systems include internal ducts, and therefore, the flow often includes shock waves, shear layers, vortices, and separated flows. Passive flow...
Johnson, F. T.; Samant, S. S.; Bieterman, M. B.; Melvin, R. G.; Young, D. P.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Hilmes, C. L.
1992-01-01
The TranAir computer program calculates transonic flow about arbitrary configurations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic freestream Mach numbers. TranAir solves the nonlinear full potential equations subject to a variety of boundary conditions modeling wakes, inlets, exhausts, porous walls, and impermeable surfaces. Regions with different total temperature and pressure can be represented. The user's manual describes how to run the TranAir program and its graphical support programs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretti, G.; Bleich, G.
1968-09-01
The three-dimensional flow field around blunted bodies traveling at supersonic speed is computed using a time-dependent technique. The problem is mathematically well posed, the technique is stable and its accuracy increases with the fineness of the mesh. Values at points within the shock layer are computed by a method closely related to the Lax-Wendroff technique. Values at shock points and body points are computed by a four-dimensional method of characteristics.
Towards a segregated time spectral solution method for incompressible viscous flows
Sabine, Baumbach
2016-06-01
Considering the growth of interest in understanding flow phenomena in rotational machines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to reach this goal. Especially unsteady simulations are becoming a focus of interest. Nevertheless, unsteady simulations require huge computational times and ressources, thus it is necessary to investigate other methods to find more appropriate approaches to model time-periodic cases. For time-periodic flows the time spectral method (TSM) presents an interesting alternative to the regular time marching solvers. The TSM is well-known for computation of compressible time-periodic flows, but applications to incompressible cases are limited. This paper presents an extension of the TSM to incompressible flows. While there have been previous implementations using pressure correction method with an explicit treatment of time coupling, here an implicit treatment is chosen. To increase efficiency and employ a more robust coupling of the individual time instances the momentum equations are solved in block-coupled fashion. The pressure correction term is solved segregatedly. To consider cases with dynamic mesh motion an arbitrary lagrange Euler (ALE) formulation is also used in the solver. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated using a basic 2D aerodynamic test case and the results are compared to traditional time-stepping approaches.