Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer with Spanwise Wall Oscillation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weidan Ni
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations (DNS of Mach = 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layers with spanwise wall oscillation (SWO are conducted to investigate the turbulent heat transport mechanism and its relation with the turbulent momentum transport. The turbulent coherent structures are suppressed by SWO and the drag is reduced. Although the velocity and temperature statistics are disturbed by SWO differently, the turbulence transports of momentum and heat are simultaneously suppressed. The Reynolds analogy and the strong Reynolds analogy are also preserved in all the controlled flows, proving the consistent mechanisms of momentum transport and heat transport in the turbulent boundary layer with SWO. Despite the extra dissipation and heat induced by SWO, a net wall heat flux reduction can be achieved with the proper selected SWO parameters. The consistent mechanism of momentum and heat transports supports the application of turbulent drag reduction technologies to wall heat flux controls in high-speed vehicles.
Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.
2017-09-01
Direct numerical simulations of instability development and transition to turbulence in a supersonic boundary layer on a flat plate are performed. The computations are carried out for moderate supersonic (free-stream Mach number M = 2) and hypersonic (M = 6) velocities. The boundary layer development is simulated, which includes the stages of linear growth of disturbances, their nonlinear interaction, stochastization, and turbulent flow formation. A laminar-turbulent transition initiated by distributed roughness of the plate surface at the Mach number M = 2 is also considered.
Acoustic Calculation for Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xin-Liang, Li; De-Xun, Fu; Yan-Wen, Ma; Hui, Gao
2009-01-01
An approach which combines direct numerical simulation (DNS) with the Lighthill acoustic analogy theory is used to study the potential noise sources during the transition process of a Mach 2.25 flat plate boundary layer. The quadrupole sound sources due to the now fluctuations and the dipole sound sources due to the fluctuating surface stress are obtained. Numerical results suggest that formation of the high shear layers leads to a dramatic amplification of amplitude of the fluctuating quadrupole sound sources. Compared with the quadrupole sound source, the energy of dipole sound source is concentrated in the relatively low frequency range
Tong, Fulin; Li, Xinliang; Duan, Yanhui; Yu, Changping
2017-12-01
Numerical investigations on a supersonic turbulent boundary layer over a longitudinal curved compression ramp are conducted using direct numerical simulation for a free stream Mach number M∞ = 2.9 and Reynolds number Reθ = 2300. The total turning angle is 24°, and the concave curvature radius is 15 times the thickness of the incoming turbulent boundary layer. Under the selected conditions, the shock foot is transferred to a fan of the compression wave because of the weaker adverse pressure gradient. The time-averaged flow-field in the curved ramp is statistically attached where the instantaneous flow-field is close to the intermittent transitory detachment state. Studies on coherent vortex structures have shown that large-scale vortex packets are enhanced significantly when the concave curvature is aligned in the spanwise direction. Consistent with findings of previous experiments, the effect of the concave curvature on the logarithmic region of the mean velocity profiles is found to be small. The intensity of the turbulent fluctuations is amplified across the curved ramp. Based on the analysis of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor, the evolutions of the turbulence state in the inner and outer layers of the boundary layer are considerably different. The curvature effect on the transport mechanism of the turbulent kinetic energy is studied using the balance analysis of the contributing terms in the transport equation. Furthermore, the Görtler instability in the curved ramp is quantitatively analyzed using a stability criterion. The instantaneous streamwise vorticity confirms the existence of the Görtler-like structures. These structures are characterized by an unsteady motion. In addition, the dynamic mode decomposition analysis of the instantaneous flow field at the spanwise/wall-normal plane reveals that four dynamical relevant modes with performance loss of 16% provide an optimal low-order representation of the essential characteristics of the numerical
Experimental investigation on aero-optics of supersonic turbulent boundary layers.
Ding, Haolin; Yi, Shihe; Zhu, Yangzhu; He, Lin
2017-09-20
Nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering was used to measure the density distribution of the supersonic (Ma=3.0) turbulent boundary layer and the optical path difference (OPD), which is quite crucial for aero-optics study. Results were obtained using ray tracing. The influences of different layers in the boundary layer, turbulence scales, and light incident angle on aero-optics were examined, and the underlying flow physics were analyzed. The inner layer plays a dominant role, followed by the outer layer. One hundred OPD rms of the outer layer at different times satisfy the normal distribution better than that of the inner layer. Aero-optics induced by the outer layer is sensitive to the filter scale. When induced by the inner layer, it is not sensitive to the filter scale. The vortices with scales less than the Kolmogorov scale (=46.0 μm) have little influence on the aero-optics and could be ignored; the validity of the smallest optically active scale (=88.1 μm) proposed by Mani is verified, and vortices with scales less than that are ignored, resulting in a 1.62% decay of aero-optics; the filter with a width of 16-grid spacing (=182.4 μm) decreases OPD rms by 7.04%. With the increase of the angle between the wall-normal direction and the light-incident direction, the aero-optics becomes more serious, and the difference between the distribution of the OPD rms and the normal distribution increases. The difficulty of aero-optics correction is increased. Light tilted toward downstream experiences more distortions than when tilted toward upstream at the same angle relative to the wall-normal direction.
Micro Ramps in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers : An experimental and numerical study
Sun, Z.
2014-01-01
The micro vortex generator (MVG) is used extensively in low speed aerodynamic problems and is now extended into the supersonic flow regime to solve undesired flow features that are associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) such as flow separation and associated unsteadiness of
The influence of surface roughness on supersonic high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flow
Latin, Robert Michael
A comprehensive study of rough-wall high-speed (M = 2.9) high Reynolds number (Re/m = 1.9e7) turbulent boundary layer flow was performed consisting of experimental, analytical, and numerical methods. Six wall topologies consisting of a smooth and five rough surfaces (two- and three-dimensional machined roughness plates; and 80, 36. and 20 grit sand-grain roughened plates) were studied. A confocal laser scan microscope was used to measure the topography of the sand-grain roughnesses. The experimental measurement techniques included a convention Pitot pressure probe, laser Doppler velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, color schlieren and laser sheet Mie scattering images. Mean measurements included velocity, Mach number, density, and mass flux. Turbulent measurements included velocity and mass flux turbulence intensities, kinematic Reynolds shear stress, compressible Reynolds shear stress in two planes, and the traverse apparent mass flux. Kinematic turbulent flow statistical properties were found to scale by local mean quantities and displayed a weak dependence on surface roughness. Turbulent flow statistical properties with the explicit appearance of density did not scale by local mean quantities, and had a strong linear dependence on roughness. Surface roughness also had a significant effect on the flow structure size, angles, and energy spectra. A theoretical analysis was performed and a new integral method for the estimation of skin friction was developed. The skin friction estimates were within 4% of compressible semi-empirical relations. A numerical study was performed which used a parabolized Navier-Stokes solver with two algebraic turbulence models and the Rotta model for surface roughness. A new method for the estimation of momentum loss improved the numerical flow predictability. The algebraic turbulence models predicted qualitatively correct profile shapes and accurately predicted the kinematic and compressible Reynolds shear stress levels for all but the
Tambe, S.S.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; van Oudheusden, B.W.
2017-01-01
The physical relation between the geometry and the flow topology of the wake of a micro ramp is investigated by means of a parametric study. Various micro ramp geometries are placed in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer at a free-stream Mach number of 2. The flow field is measured with schlieren
Turbulent Spot/Separation Bubble Interactions in a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Boundary-Layer Flow
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Krishnan, L; Sandham, N. D
2004-01-01
...., is capable of advancing the transition process). A substantial increase in the lateral spreading of the spot was observed due to the spot/bubble interaction. Locally averaged profiles of the flow quantities within the spot showed behavior similar to developed turbulent flows.
Observations of Turbulent-Burst Geometry and Growth in Supersonic Flow
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
James, Carlton
1958-01-01
.... A study of the shape, growth, and formation rate of turbulent bursts in supersonic boundary layers has been made using spark shadowgraphs of small gun-launched models in free flight through still air...
Computation of supersonic turbulent flow past a spinning cone
Agarwal, R. K.
1982-01-01
Computational results are presented for supersonic laminar and turbulent flow past a pointed cone at angle of attack obtained with a parabolic Navier-Stokes marching code. The code takes into account the asymmetries in the flowfield resulting from spinning motion and computes the asymmetric shock shape, crossflow and streamwise shear, heat transfer, crossflow separation, and vortex structure. The Magnus force and moments are also computed. Comparisons are made with other analyses based on boundary-layer equations. For certain laminar flow conditions, an anomaly is discovered in the displacement thickness contribution to the Magnus force when compared with boundary-layer results. For turbulent flow, at small angles of attack, good agreement is obtained with the experimental data and other theoretical results.
Analysis of turbulent boundary layers
Cebeci, Tuncer
1974-01-01
Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati
Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Rui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.
Hwang, Danny P.
1999-01-01
A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).
Modelling and simulation of the compressible turbulence in supersonic shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guezengar, Dominique
1997-02-01
This research thesis addresses the modelling of some specific physical problems of fluid mechanics: compressibility (issue of mixing layers), large variations of volumetric mass (boundary layers), and anisotropy (compression ramps). After a presentation of the chosen physical modelling and numerical approximation, the author pays attention to flows at the vicinity of a wall, and to boundary conditions. The next part addresses existing compressibility models and their application to the calculation of supersonic mixing layers. A critical assessment is also performed through calculations of boundary layers and of compression ramps. The next part addresses problems related to large variations of volumetric mass which are not taken by compressibility models into account. A modification is thus proposed for the diffusion term, and is tested for the case of supersonic boundary layers and of mixing layers with high density rates. Finally, anisotropy effects are addressed through the implementation of Explicit Algebraic Stress k-omega Turbulence models (EARSM), and their tests on previously studied cases [fr
Development and application of laser Fourier densitometry for turbulence study at supersonic regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gemaux, Geraldine
1990-01-01
The Laser Fourier Densitometry (LFD) is an optical method appropriate for turbulent compressible flow observations. It use the Rayleigh scattering ant its heterodyne detection. This new method is non intrusive and needs no seeding. It provides an instantaneous signal proportional to the space Fourier transform amplitude of index distribution for a wave vector k defined by the optical arrangement. A compact optical bench, developed at Ecole Polytechnique (Paris) has been set, for the first time, in supersonic research facilities. The measurements are performed in two supersonic wake configurations (Mach numbers of 1.6 and 4.2), and also in a shock-wave/boundary layer interaction. These include wave number and frequential spectra of density fluctuations, acoustic waves, variations with position. Complementary measurements by hot wire anemometry allow to analyze velocity-temperature links and to perform comparisons and analysis of LFD results. Finally, the LFD bench is used as detector of laminar/turbulent transition in a hypersonic boundary layer. (author) [fr
Drag reduction capability of uniform blowing in supersonic wall-bounded turbulent flows
Kametani, Yukinori; Kotake, Ayane; Fukagata, Koji; Tokugawa, Naoko
2017-12-01
Drag reduction capability of uniform blowing in supersonic turbulent boundary layers is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation of channel flows with uniform blowing on one side and suction on the other. The bulk Reynolds number based on the bulk density, the bulk mean velocity, the channel half-width, and the viscosity on the wall is set to Reb=3000 . The bulk Mach number is set at 0.8 and 1.5 to investigate a subsonic and a supersonic condition, respectively. The amplitude of the blowing or suction is set to be 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% of the bulk mass flow rate. At both Mach numbers, modifications of the mean streamwise velocity profiles with blowing and suction are found to be similar to those in an incompressible turbulent channel flow: The skin friction is reduced on the blowing side, while it is increased on the suction side. As for the drag reducing effect of blowing, the drag reduction rate and net-energy saving rate are hardly affected by the Mach number, while the control gain is increased with the increase of Mach number due to the increased density near the wall. The compressibility effect of drag reduction and enhancement is also examined using the physical decomposition of the skin friction drag. A noticeable Mach number effect is found only for the contribution terms containing the viscosity, which is increased by the increased temperature.
Transition due to streamwise streaks in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei
2016-12-01
Transition induced by stationary streaks undergoing transient growth in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow is studied using numerical computations. While the possibility of strong transient growth of small-amplitude stationary perturbations in supersonic boundary layer flows has been demonstrated in previous works, its relation to laminar-turbulent transition cannot be established within the framework of linear disturbances. Therefore, this paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite amplitude streaks in the downstream region, and then studies the modal instability of those streaks as a likely cause for the onset of bypass transition. The nonmodal evolution of linearly optimal stationary perturbations in a supersonic, Mach 3 flat plate boundary layer is computed via the nonlinear plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE) for stationary perturbations, or equivalently, the perturbation form of parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. To assess the effect of the nonlinear finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane-marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by the spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of transition is estimated using an N -factor criterion based on modal amplification of the secondary instabilities of the streaks. In the absence of transient growth disturbances, first mode instabilities in a Mach 3, zero pressure gradient boundary layer reach N =10 at Rex≈107 . However, secondary instability modes of the stationary streaks undergoing transient growth are able to achieve the same N -factor at Rex<2 ×106 when the initial streak amplitude is sufficiently large. In contrast to the streak instabilities in incompressible flows, subharmonic instability modes with twice the fundamental spanwise wavelength of the streaks are found to have higher amplification ratios than the streak instabilities at fundamental
Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG
2000-02-01
The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.
Silent inflow condition for turbulent boundary layers
Gloerfelt, X.; Robinet, J.-C.
2017-12-01
The generation of a turbulent inflow is a tricky problem. In the framework of aeroacoustics, another important constraint is that the numerical strategy used to reach a turbulent state induces a spurious noise which is lower than the acoustic field of interest. For the study of noise radiated directly by a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, this constraint is severe since wall turbulence is a very inefficient source. That is why a method based on a transition by modal interaction using a base flow with an inflection point is proposed to cope with that. The base flow must be a solution of the equations so we use a profile behind a backward-facing step representative of experimental trip bands. A triad of resonant waves is selected by a local stability analysis of the linearized compressible equations and is added with a weak amplitude in the inlet plane. The compressible stability calculation allows the specification of the thermodynamic quantities at the inlet, which turns out to be fundamental to ensure a quiet inflow. A smooth transition is achieved with the rapid formation of Λ -shape vortices in a staggered organization as in subharmonic transition. The dominance of oblique waves promotes a rapid breakdown by the liftup mechanism of low-speed streaks. The quality of the fully turbulent state is assessed and the direct noise radiation from a turbulent boundary layer at Mach 0.5 is obtained with a very low level of spurious noise.
Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.; Umansky, M.; Dudson, B.; Snyder, P.
2008-05-01
The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T e ; T i ) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Large Eddy simulation of turbulent hydrogen-fuelled supersonic combustion in an air cross-flow
Ingenito, A.; Cecere, D.; Giacomazzi, E.
2013-09-01
The main aim of this article is to provide a theoretical understanding of the physics of supersonic mixing and combustion. Research in advanced air-breathing propulsion systems able to push vehicles well beyond is of interest around the world. In a scramjet, the air stream flow captured by the inlet is decelerated but still maintains supersonic conditions. As the residence time is very short , the study of an efficient mixing and combustion is a key issue in the ongoing research on compressible flows. Due to experimental difficulties in measuring complex high-speed unsteady flowfields, the most convenient way to understand unsteady features of supersonic mixing and combustion is to use computational fluid dynamics. This work investigates supersonic combustion physics in the Hyshot II combustion chamber within the Large Eddy simulation framework. The resolution of this turbulent compressible reacting flow requires: (1) highly accurate non-dissipative numerical schemes to properly simulate strong gradients near shock waves and turbulent structures away from these discontinuities; (2) proper modelling of the small subgrid scales for supersonic combustion, including effects from compressibility on mixing and combustion; (3) highly detailed kinetic mechanisms (the Warnatz scheme including 9 species and 38 reactions is adopted) accounting for the formation and recombination of radicals to properly predict flame anchoring. Numerical results reveal the complex topology of the flow under investigation. The importance of baroclinic and dilatational effects on mixing and flame anchoring is evidenced. Moreover, their effects on turbulence-scale generation and the scaling law are analysed.
Prediction of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction flows
Horstman, C. C.
1987-01-01
Solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are presented and compared with experimental surface data for a series of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction flows. The turbulence models used include algebraic and two-equation eddy-viscosity models developed for transonic and supersonic flows. Also several additional modifications to the two-equation model to account for compressibility effects are developed and used. Although the modifications improve the agreement with the experimental data, no single model or modification correctly predicts all the test cases.
Kamal, Omar; Hickey, Jean-Pierre; Scalo, Carlo; Hussain, Fazle
2017-11-01
We have investigated the interaction between the dilatational and solenoidal components of instability waves relying on DNS simulations of temporally-evolving compressible boundary layers ranging from Mach numbers of 2.0 to 10.0. For idealized flow conditions at subsonic-to-moderate supersonic speeds, transition to turbulence occurs due to amplification of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves (first Mack mode) exponentially amplified until nonlinear breakdown and transition to turbulence occurs. Under the same conditions, at hypersonic speeds, transition is governed by acoustically resonating trapped waves (second Mack mode). While the former are expected to be solenoidal in nature and the latter predominantly dilatational, we demonstrate that, in general, they always coexist and that, even at Mach=10 there is an appreciable energy transfer from the dilatational to the solenoidal at limit-cycle amplitude conditions in 2D simulations. In three-dimensional simulations very rapid breakdown is observed. Mechanisms of energy exchange between the dilatational and solenoidal components during the transition will be discussed.
Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.
1972-01-01
Following the big-bang baryon symmetric cosmology of Omnes, the redshift was calculated to be on the order of 500-600. It is show that, at these redshifts, annihilation pressure at the boundaries between regions of matter and antimatter drives large scale supersonic turbulence which can trigger galaxy formation. This picture is consistent with the gamma-ray background observations discussed previously. Gravitational binding of galaxies then occurs at a redshift of about 70, at which time vortical turbulent velocities of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power cm/s lead to angular momenta for galaxies comparable with measured values.
The density variance-Mach number relation in supersonic turbulence - I. Isothermal, magnetized gas
Molina, F. Z.; Glover, S. C. O.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.
2012-07-01
It is widely accepted that supersonic, magnetized turbulence plays a fundamental role for star formation in molecular clouds. It produces the initial dense gas seeds out of which new stars can form. However, the exact relation between gas compression, turbulent Mach number and magnetic field strength is still poorly understood. Here, we introduce and test an analytical prediction for the relation between the density variance and the rms Mach number ? in supersonic, isothermal, magnetized turbulent flows. We approximate the density and velocity structure of the interstellar medium as a superposition of shock waves. We obtain the density contrast considering the momentum equation for a single magnetized shock and extrapolate this result to the entire cloud. Depending on the field geometry, we then make three different assumptions based on observational and theoretical constraints: B independent of ρ, B∝ρ1/2 and B∝ρ. We test the analytically derived density variance-Mach number relation with numerical simulations, and find that for B∝ρ1/2, the variance in the logarithmic density contrast, ?, fits very well to simulated data with turbulent forcing parameter b= 0.4, when the gas is super-Alfvénic. However, this result breaks down when the turbulence becomes trans-Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic, because in this regime the turbulence becomes highly anisotropic. Our density variance-Mach number relations simplify to the purely hydrodynamic relation as the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure β0→∞.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Horia DUMITRESCU
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.
Piecewise parabolic method on a local stencil for magnetized supersonic turbulence simulation
Ustyugov, Sergey D.; Popov, Mikhail V.; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Norman, Michael L.
2009-11-01
Stable, accurate, divergence-free simulation of magnetized supersonic turbulence is a severe test of numerical MHD schemes and has been surprisingly difficult to achieve due to the range of flow conditions present. Here we present a new, higher order-accurate, low dissipation numerical method which requires no additional dissipation or local “fixes” for stable execution. We describe PPML, a local stencil variant of the popular PPM algorithm for solving the equations of compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The principal difference between PPML and PPM is that cell interface states are evolved rather that reconstructed at every timestep, resulting in a compact stencil. Interface states are evolved using Riemann invariants containing all transverse derivative information. The conservation laws are updated in an unsplit fashion, making the scheme fully multidimensional. Divergence-free evolution of the magnetic field is maintained using the higher order-accurate constrained transport technique of Gardiner and Stone. The accuracy and stability of the scheme is documented against a bank of standard test problems drawn from the literature. The method is applied to numerical simulation of supersonic MHD turbulence, which is important for many problems in astrophysics, including star formation in dark molecular clouds. PPML accurately reproduces in three-dimensions a transition to turbulence in highly compressible isothermal gas in a molecular cloud model. The low dissipation and wide spectral bandwidth of this method make it an ideal candidate for direct turbulence simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suozhu Wang
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.
Modified k-l model and its ability to simulate supersonic axisymmetric turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmadikia, H.; Shirani, E.
2001-05-01
The k-l turbulence model is a promising two-equation model. In this paper, the k and l model equations were derived from k-kl incompressible and one-equation turbulent models. Then the model was modified for compressible and transitional flows, and was applied to simulate supersonic axisymmetric flows over Hollow cylinder flare an hyperboloid flare bodies. The results were compared with the results obtained for the same flows experimentally as well as k-ε, k-ω and Baldwin-Lomax models. It was shown that the k-l model produces good results compared with experimental data and numerical data obtained when other turbulence models were used. It gives better results than k-ω and k-ε models in some cases. (author)
Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.
1979-01-01
A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.
Numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric boundary layer flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennes, L.; Bodnar, T.; Kozel, K.; Sladek, I. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Fraunie, P. [Universite Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. de Sondages Electromagnetiques de l' Environment Terrestre
2001-07-01
The work deals with the numerical solution of viscous turbulent steady flows in the atmospheric boundary layer including pollution propagation. For its description we use two different mathematical models: - a model based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows - a model based on a system of boundary layer equations. These systems are completed by two transport equations for the concentration of passive pollutants and the potential temperature in conservative form, respectively, and by an algebraic turbulence model. (orig.)
Evaluation of turbulence models for three primary types of shock-separated boundary layers
Coakley, T. J.; Viegas, J. R.; Horstman, C. C.
1977-01-01
Zero-equation (algebraic), one-equation (kinetic energy), and two-equation (kinetic energy plus length scale) turbulence eddy viscosity models were used in computing three basic types of shock-separated boundary-layer flows. The three basic types of shock boundary-layer interaction discussed are: (1) a normal shock wave at transonic speeds, (2) a compression corner shock at supersonic speeds, and (3) an incident oblique shock at hypersonic speeds. The models tested are simple, unmodified models used extensively for incompressible, unseparated flows. A comparison of computed and measured results for the compressible, separated flows described herein indicates that model performance is dependent on flow configuration with no distinct superiority of one model over the other for all three flow configurations.
Transition to turbulence in the Hartmann boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thess, A.; Krasnov, D.; Boeck, T.; Zienicke, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ilmenau Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Zikanov, O. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States); Moresco, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Alboussiere, T. [Lab. de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, Observatoire des Science de l' Univers de Grenoble, Univ. Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)
2007-07-01
The Hartmann boundary layer is a paradigm of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Hartmann boundary layers develop when a liquid metal flows under the influence of a steady magnetic field. The present paper is an overview of recent successful attempts to understand the mechanisms by which the Hartmann layer undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulent flow. (orig.)
Excitation of localized wave packet in swept-wing supersonic boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yatskikh Aleksey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The evolution of the artificial wave packet in swept-wing supersonic boundary layer was experimentally studied at M = 2. The localized disturbances were generated by a pulse glow discharge. Measurements were provided by a hot-wire anemometer. The spatial structure of the wave packet was studied. It was found that the wave packet has an asymmetric shape. In addition, the velocity of the propagation downstream of the wave packet was estimated.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, P.G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T.J. [Eloret Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA (United States)
1994-04-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Por, G.D. ter; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
1999-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the E x B drift speed, ion diamagnetism and finite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Turbulence studies in tokamak boundary plasmas with realistic divertor geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.; Ryutov, D.D.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Moyer, R.; Groebner, R.J.
2001-01-01
Results are presented from the 3D nonlocal electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT and the linearized shooting code BAL for studies of turbulence in tokamak boundary plasmas and its relationship to the L-H transition, in a realistic divertor plasma geometry. The key results include: (1) the identification of the dominant resistive X-point mode in divertor geometry and (2) turbulence suppression in the L-H transition by shear in the ExB drift speed, ion diamagnetism and nite polarization. Based on the simulation results, a parameterization of the transport is given that includes the dependence on the relevant physical parameters. (author)
Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-01-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304
Evaluation of Industry Standard Turbulence Models on an Axisymmetric Supersonic Compression Corner
DeBonis, James R.
2015-01-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations of a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) created by a Mach 2.85 flow over an axisymmetric 30-degree compression corner were carried out. The objectives were to evaluate four turbulence models commonly used in industry, for SWBLIs, and to evaluate the suitability of this test case for use in further turbulence model benchmarking. The Spalart-Allmaras model, Menter's Baseline and Shear Stress Transport models, and a low-Reynolds number k- model were evaluated. Results indicate that the models do not accurately predict the separation location; with the SST model predicting the separation onset too early and the other models predicting the onset too late. Overall the Spalart-Allmaras model did the best job in matching the experimental data. However there is significant room for improvement, most notably in the prediction of the turbulent shear stress. Density data showed that the simulations did not accurately predict the thermal boundary layer upstream of the SWBLI. The effect of turbulent Prandtl number and wall temperature were studied in an attempt to improve this prediction and understand their effects on the interaction. The data showed that both parameters can significantly affect the separation size and location, but did not improve the agreement with the experiment. This case proved challenging to compute and should provide a good test for future turbulence modeling work.
Supersonic turbulence, filamentary accretion and the rapid assembly of massive stars and discs
Banerjee, Robi; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Anderson, Dave W.
2006-12-01
We present a detailed computational study of the assembly of protostellar discs and massive stars in molecular clouds with supersonic turbulence. We follow the evolution of large-scale filamentary structures in a cluster-forming clump down to protostellar length-scales by means of very highly resolved, 3D adaptive mesh refined (AMR) simulations, and show how accretion discs and massive stars form in such environments. We find that an initially elongated cloud core which has a slight spin from oblique shocks collapses first to a filament and later develops a turbulent disc close to the centre of the filament. The continued large-scale flow that shocks with the filament maintains the high density and pressure within it. Material within the cooling filament undergoes gravitational collapse and an outside-in assembly of a massive protostar. Our simulations show that very high mass accretion rates of up to 10-2Msolaryr-1 and high, supersonic, infall velocities result from such filamentary accretion. Accretion at these rates is higher by an order of magnitude than those found in semi-analytic studies, and can quench the radiation field of a growing massive young star. Our simulations include a comprehensive set of the important chemical and radiative processes such as cooling by molecular line emission, gas-dust interaction and radiative diffusion in the optically thick regime, as well as H2 formation and dissociation. Therefore, we are able to probe, for the first time, the relevant physical phenomena on all scales from those characterizing the clump down to protostellar core.
Supersonic Boundary Layer Stability over a Rough Wall.
1985-01-01
Affecting Boundary-Layer Transition", J. of Aero Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 4, April 1959, p. 229. 18. Lees L. and Lin C.C.: "Investigation of the...rc - Ci 4 (-0K4- CJD DlD- 0 0 70 ROUCH WALL Po 5-1 R ’=2g4.0 ’ZL 3 SYMBOL R I I 200 -- __ 400 z ___0_ o 2 _2 I-I < Ci LL _J < F- - 0 Ii C x e =AM
Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.
2003-01-01
This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel w...... the friction coefficient. Other features related to the bed shear stress, such as transition, the friction factor and phase lead are discussed. The range of the Reynolds number studied is 10.000 - 2.000.000...
Forced and free convection turbulent boundary layers in gas lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.
1975-01-01
Approximate expressions for the effect on optical path length through a turbulent vertical boundary layer caused by the combined presence of forced and free convection were obtained to first order in the asymptotic cases of dominant forced convection and dominant free convection. The effect in both cases is a reduction of the boundary-layer thickness. Characteristic scaling lengths are presented which aid in the optical analysis of the flowfield
Coherence of simulated atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence
Jiadong, Zeng; Zhiguo, Li; Mingshui, Li
2017-12-01
The coherences in a plane perpendicular to incoming flow are measured in wind tunnel simulations of atmospheric turbulent flow. The measured coherences are compared with analytical expressions tailored to field measurements and with theoretical coherence models which assume homogeneous turbulence and the von Kármán’s spectrum. The comparison indicates that the simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow is approximately horizontally homogeneous turbulence. Based on the above assumption and the systematic analysis of lateral coherence, it can be concluded that the lateral coherences of simulated atmospheric boundary turbulence can be determined accurately using the von Kármán spectrum and the turbulence parameters measured by a few measurement points. The measured results also show that the spatial characteristics of vertical coherences are closely related to the dimensionless parameter {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The vertical coherence at two heights can be roughly estimated by the ratio to {{Δ }}z/({\\bar{z}}0.3{L}ux 0.7). The relationship between the phase angles of u-, v- and w-components and the vertical separation distance and the height from the ground is further analyzed. Finally, the roles of the type of land surface roughness, the height from the ground, the turbulence intensity and the integral length scale in lateral and vertical coherences are also discussed in this study.
New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.
Periodic Boundary Motion in Thermal Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jun; Libchaber, Albert
2000-01-01
A free-floating plate is introduced in a Benard convection cell with an open surface. It partially covers the cell and distorts the local heat flux, inducing a coherent flow that in turn moves the plate. Remarkably, the plate can be driven to a periodic motion even under the action of a turbulent fluid. The period of the oscillation depends on the coverage ratio, and on the Rayleigh number of the convective system. The plate oscillatory behavior observed in this experiment may be related to a geological model, in which continents drift in a quasiperiodic fashion. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Investigating the Structures of Turbulence in a Multi-Stream, Rectangular, Supersonic Jet
Magstadt, Andrew S.
Supersonic flight has become a standard for military aircraft, and is being seriously reconsidered for commercial applications. Engine technologies, enabling increased mission capabilities and vehicle performance, have evolved nozzles into complex geometries with intricate flow features. These engineering solutions have advanced at a faster rate than the understanding of the flow physics, however. The full consequences of the flow are thus not known, and using predictive tools becomes exceedingly difficult. Additionally, the increasing velocities associated with supersonic flight exacerbate the preexisting jet noise problem, which has troubled the engineering community for nearly 65 years. Even in the simplest flows, the full consequences of turbulence, e.g. noise production, are not fully understood. For composite flows, the fluid mechanics and acoustic properties have been studied even less sufficiently. Before considering the aeroacoustic problem, the development, structure, and evolution of the turbulent flow-field must be considered. This has prompted an investigation into the compressible flow of a complex nozzle. Experimental evidence is sought to explain the stochastic processes of the turbulent flow issuing from a complex geometry. Before considering the more complicated configuration, an experimental campaign of an axisymmetric jet is conducted. The results from this study are presented, and guide research of the primary flow under investigation. The design of a nozzle representative of future engine technologies is then discussed. Characteristics of this multi-stream rectangular supersonic nozzle are studied via time-resolved schlieren imaging, stereo PIV measurements, dynamic pressure transducers, and far-field acoustics. Experiments are carried out in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University, and focus primarily on the flow-field. An extensive data set is generated, which reveals a detailed view of a very complex flow. Shear, shock waves, unequal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, Carlos B; Taveira, Rodrigo R; Borrell, Guillem
2014-01-01
The characteristics of turbulent/nonturbulent interfaces (TNTI) from boundary layers, jets and shear-free turbulence are compared using direct numerical simulations. The TNTI location is detected by assessing the volume of turbulent flow as function of the vorticity magnitude and is shown to be equivalent to other procedures using a scalar field. Vorticity maps show that the boundary layer contains a larger range of scales at the interface than in jets and shear-free turbulence where the change in vorticity characteristics across the TNTI is much more dramatic. The intermittency parameter shows that the extent of the intermittency region for jets and boundary layers is similar and is much bigger than in shear-free turbulence, and can be used to compute the vorticity threshold defining the TNTI location. The statistics of the vorticity jump across the TNTI exhibit the imprint of a large range of scales, from the Kolmogorov micro-scale to scales much bigger than the Taylor scale. Finally, it is shown that contrary to the classical view, the low-vorticity spots inside the jet are statistically similar to isotropic turbulence, suggesting that engulfing pockets simply do not exist in jets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behbahani-Nejad, M.; Esfahanian, V.
2004-01-01
A general formulation is presented for evaluation of hypersingular integrals arising from computation of supersonic potential flows using boundary element method, where the element is partially inside the Mach forecone. The formulation is applied to higher order elements for any type of element intersection by the Mach forecone. General mappings are introduced to transform the inside-part of the elements partially inside the Mach forecone to another rectangular elements and analytical relations are derived for evaluation of the hypersingular integrals. Comparison between the results and exact solutions indicates that the method is not only general, but also is very accurate. (author)
Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino
2017-11-01
The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.
The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers
Cui, Jing
In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the
Direct simulation of a turbulent oscillating boundary layer
Spalart, Philippe R.; Baldwin, Barrett S.
1987-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer driven by a freestream velocity that varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is considered. The flow has a rich behavior including strong pressure gradients, inflection points, and reversal. A theory for the velocity and stress profiles at high Reynolds number is formulated. Well-resolved direct Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted over a narrow range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions. The flow is also computed over a wide range of Reynolds numbers using a new algebraic turbulence model; the results are compared with the direct simulations and the theory.
The turbulent boundary layer and the closure problem
Persen, L. N.
1980-01-01
Previous attempts to establish a proper phenomenological relation for turbulent flows are reviewed followed by a suggested approach to the problem in the case of a turbulent boundary layer. An attempt is made at showing the extreme flexibility that such a relation must exhibit if it is to account for effects of outside conditions and pre-history of the flow. By selecting proper 'inner variables' as parameters and properly characterizing the outer flow it is shown how a sufficiently general phenomenological relation can be established and how the closure problem may thus be considered in a different perspective.
Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake
Piomelli, Ugo
2004-01-01
The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low
Recent Progress in BOUT + + boundary plasma turbulence simulations
Xu, X. Q.; BOUT++ Team
2017-10-01
BOUT + + has been developed and applied for a range of problems that impact on boundary plasma turbulence and transport. A summary of simulation progress and results will be presented including, but not limited to: (1) Modeling tokamak boundary plasma turbulence and understanding its role in setting divertor heat flux widths; (2) Self-consistent calculation of the radial electric field with ion orbit loss mechanism; (3) Simulating the DIII-D and EAST grassy ELM regime; (4) Simulation comparison of EHO state and broadband MHD phase in near-zero torque QH-mode on DIII-D; (5) Simulation of the ELMs triggering by lithium pellet on EAST tokamak; (6) Ideal MHD Stability and Characteristics of Edge Localized Modes on CFETR Our latest transport module solves a set of transport equations with quasi-neutral constraint using vorticity formulation under the BOUT + + framework. This new capability enables BOUT + + team to simulate boundary plasma transport across the separatrix with self-consistent electric and magnetic drifts, ion orbit loss, and sheath boundary conditions in the scrape-off-layer. Preliminary results of the coupled turbulence and transport simulations will also presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Turbulence in rough-wall boundary layers: universality issues
Amir, Mohammad; Castro, Ian P.
2011-08-01
Wind tunnel measurements of turbulent boundary layers over three-dimensional rough surfaces have been carried out to determine the critical roughness height beyond which the roughness affects the turbulence characteristics of the entire boundary layer. Experiments were performed on three types of surfaces, consisting of an urban type surface with square random height elements, a diamond-pattern wire mesh and a sand-paper type grit. The measurements were carried out over a momentum thickness Reynolds number ( Re θ) range of 1,300-28,000 using two-component Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and hot-wire anemometry (HWA). A wide range of the ratio of roughness element height h to boundary layer thickness δ was covered (0.04 ≤ h/δ ≤ 0.40). The results confirm that the mean profiles for all the surfaces collapse well in velocity defect form up to surprisingly large values of h/δ, perhaps as large as 0.2, but with a somewhat larger outer layer wake strength than for smooth-wall flows, as previously found. At lower h/δ, at least up to 0.15, the Reynolds stresses for all surfaces show good agreement throughout the boundary layer, collapsing with smooth-wall results outside the near-wall region. With increasing h/δ, however, the turbulence above the near-wall region is gradually modified until the entire flow is affected. Quadrant analysis confirms that changes in the rough-wall boundary layers certainly exist but are confined to the near-wall region at low h/δ; for h/δ beyond about 0.2 the quadrant events show that the structural changes extend throughout much of the boundary layer. Taken together, the data suggest that above h/δ ≈ 0.15, the details of the roughness have a weak effect on how quickly (with rising h/δ) the turbulence structure in the outer flow ceases to conform to the classical boundary layer behaviour. The present results provide support for Townsend's wall similarity hypothesis at low h/δ and also suggest that a single critical roughness
The large Reynolds number - Asymptotic theory of turbulent boundary layers.
Mellor, G. L.
1972-01-01
A self-consistent, asymptotic expansion of the one-point, mean turbulent equations of motion is obtained. Results such as the velocity defect law and the law of the wall evolve in a relatively rigorous manner, and a systematic ordering of the mean velocity boundary layer equations and their interaction with the main stream flow are obtained. The analysis is extended to the turbulent energy equation and to a treatment of the small scale equilibrium range of Kolmogoroff; in velocity correlation space the two-thirds power law is obtained. Thus, the two well-known 'laws' of turbulent flow are imbedded in an analysis which provides a great deal of other information.
A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y + up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.
Numerical Simulation of Transient Jet Interaction on a Generic Supersonic Missile with Fins
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ebrahimi, Houshang
1998-01-01
... of the highly turbulent flow field produced by a pulsed, lateral jet control thruster and the interaction of this jet with the supersonic free stream and missile boundary layer were completed for different...
Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract
Turbulent Boundary Layer Over Geophysical-like Topographies
Chamorro, L. P.; Hamed, A. M.; Castillo, L.
2016-12-01
An experimental investigation of the flow and the turbulence structure over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching (RIM) channel. Extensive measurements were performed to characterize the developing and developed flows. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave superimposed in the spanwise direction with a/λy = 0.1. The flow over these walls was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have an amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a/δ99 ≈ 0.1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers beds and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics for both walls show the presence of a well-structured shear layer past the roughness crests. Analysis of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate suggests that the shear layer is responsible for the majority of turbulence production across both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits preferential spanwise flows that are thought to result in the multiple distinctive flow features for the 3D wall including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight on the effect of roughness three-dimensionality and Reynolds number is drawn in both the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and quadrant analysis.
Reynolds number influences on turbulent boundary layer momentum transport
Priyadarshana, Paththage A.
There are many engineering applications at Reynolds numbers orders of magnitude higher than existing turbulent boundary layer studies. Currently, the mechanisms for turbulent transport and the Reynolds number dependence of these mechanisms are not well understood. This dissertation presents Reynolds number influences on velocity and vorticity statistics, Reynolds shear stress, and velocity-vorticity correlations for turbulent boundary layers. Well resolved hot-wire data for this study were acquired in the atmospheric surface layer at the SLTEST facility in western Utah. It is shown that during near neutral thermal stability, the flow behaves as a canonical zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, in which the Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, Rtheta, is approximately 2 x 106. The present study also provides information regarding the effects of wall roughness over a limited range of roughness. It is observed that with increasing Rtheta, the inner normalized streamwise intensity increases. This statistic is less sensitive to wall roughness away from the roughness sublayer. In contrast, the inner normalized wall normal intensity is less sensitive to the variation of Rtheta, and it is significantly sensitive to wall roughness. Outside the viscous sublayer, the inner normalized vorticity intensity is less sensitive to both Rtheta and roughness. A primary observation of the Reynolds stress study is that the predominant motions underlying the Reynolds shear stress undergo a significant shift from large to intermediate scales as Rtheta becomes large, irrespective of surface roughness. Quadrant analysis shows that types of motions contributing to the Reynolds stress change significantly at comparable wall normal locations with increasing Rtheta. The mean wall normal gradients of the Reynolds shear stress and the turbulent kinetic energy have direct connections to the transport mechanisms of the turbulent boundary layer. These gradients can be expressed in
Fletcher, Douglas G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density, temperature, and their turbulent fluctuation levels were obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment are compared with previous measurements obtained in the same facility using conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique. Densities and temperatures measured with the current technique agree with the previous surveys to within 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively. The fluctuation amplitudes for both variables agree with the measurements obtained using the earlier spectroscopic technique and show evidence of an unsteady, weak shock wave that perturbs the boundary layer.
The effects of external conditions in turbulent boundary layers
Brzek, Brian G.
The effects of multiple external conditions on turbulent boundary layers were studied in detail. These external conditions include: surface roughness, upstream turbulence intensity, and pressure gradient. Furthermore, the combined effects of these conditions show the complicated nature of many realistic flow conditions. It was found that the effects of surface roughness are difficult to generalize, given the importance of so many parameters. These parameters include: roughness geometry, roughness regime, roughness height to boundary layer thickness, (k/delta), roughness parameter, ( k+), Reynolds number, and roughness function (Delta B+). A further complication, is the difficulty in computing the wall shear stress, tauw/rho. For the sand grain type roughness, the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses were studied in inner and outer variables, as well as, boundary layer parameters, anisotropy tensor, production term, and viscous stress and form drag contributions. To explore the effects of roughness and Reynolds number dependence in the boundary layer, a new experiment was carefully designed to properly capture the x-dependence of the single-point statistics. It was found that roughness destroys the viscous layer near the wall, thus, reducing the contribution of the viscous stress in the wall region. As a result, the contribution in the skin friction due to form drag increases, while the viscous stress decreases. This yields Reynolds number invariance in the skin friction, near-wall roughness parameters, and inner velocity profiles as k + increases into the fully rough regime. However, in the transitionally rough regime, (i.e., 5 component shows the largest influence of roughness, where the high peak near the wall was decreased and became nearly flat for the fully rough regime profiles. In addition, the Reynolds stresses in outer variables show self-similarity for fixed experimental conditions. However, as the roughness parameter, k +, increases, all Reynolds stress
Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Turbulent thermal boundary layers with temperature-dependent viscosity are simulated. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of the scalar field. • An identity for the Stanton number is derived and analyzed. • Effect of temperature-dependent viscosity on the statistics of scalar transfer rate. • Modification of turbulent flow field leads to an enhanced scalar transfer rate. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over isothermally heated walls were performed, and the influence of the wall-heating on the thermal boundary layers was investigated. The DNS adopt an empirical relation for the temperature-dependent viscosity of water. The Prandtl number therefore changes with temperature, while the Péclet number is constant. Two wall temperatures (T w = 70 °C and 99 °C) were considered relative to T ∞ = 30 °C, and a reference simulation of TBL with constant viscosity was also performed for comparison. In the variable viscosity flow, the mean and variance of the scalar, when normalized by the friction temperature deficit, decrease relative to the constant viscosity flow. A relation for the mean scalar which takes into account the variable viscosity is proposed. Appropriate scalings for the scalar fluctuations and the scalar flux are also introduced, and are shown to be applicable for both variable and constant viscosity flows. Due to the modification of the near-wall turbulence, the Stanton number and the Reynolds analogy factor are augmented by 10% and 44%, respectively, in the variable viscosity flow. An identity for the Stanton number is derived and shows that the mean wall-normal velocity and wall-normal scalar flux cause the increase in the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, the augmented near-wall velocity fluctuations lead to an increase of the wall-normal scalar flux, which contributes favorably to the enhanced heat transfer at the wall
Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.
1982-01-01
The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions consist of a supersonic core flow, boundary layer flows adjacent to both the forebody/centerbody and cowl contours, and flow in the shock wave boundary layer interaction regions. The zonal modeling analysis is described and some computational results are presented. The governing equations for the supersonic core flow form a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. The equations for the characteristic surfaces and the compatibility equations applicable along these surfaces are derived. The characteristic surfaces are the stream surfaces, which are surfaces composed of streamlines, and the wave surfaces, which are surfaces tangent to a Mach conoid. The compatibility equations are expressed as directional derivatives along streamlines and bicharacteristics, which are the lines of tangency between a wave surface and a Mach conoid.
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction
Sridhar, A.
2017-03-28
A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise
Influence of wall permeability on turbulent boundary-layer properties
Wilkinson, S. P.
1983-01-01
Experimental boundary-layer studies of a series of low pressure drop, permeable surfaces have been conducted to characterize their surface interaction with a turbulent boundary layer. The models were flat and tested at nominally zero pressure gradient in low speed air. The surfaces were thin metal sheets with discrete perforations. Direct drag balance measurements of skin friction indicate that the general effect of surface permeability is to increase drag above that of a smooth plate reference level. Heuristic arguments are presented to show that this type of behavior is to be expected. Other boundary-layer data are also presented including mean velocity profiles and conditionally sampled streamwise velocity fluctuations (hot wire) for selected models.
Turbulent heat flux measurements in thermally stable boundary layers
Williams, Owen J.; van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.
2014-11-01
Thermally stable turbulent boundary layers are prevalent in the polar regions and nocturnal atmospheric surface layer but heat and momentum flux measurements in such flow are often difficult. Here, a new method is employed using a nanoscale cold-wire (T-NSTAP) adjacent to a 2D PIV light sheet to measure these fluxes within rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. This method combines the advantages of fast thermal frequency response with measurement of the spatial variation of the velocity field. Resolution is limited solely by the separation of the probe and the light sheet. The new technique is used to examine the applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity over a range of Richardson numbers from weak to strongly stable. In addition, the velocity fields are conditionally averaged subject to strong deviations of temperature above and below the local average in an effort to determine the relationship between the coherent turbulent motions and the fluctuating temperature field. This work was supported by the Princeton University Cooperative Institute for Climate Science.
The influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence
Lee, Jin; Jung, Seo Yoon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Zaki, Tamer A.
2012-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over isothermally-heated walls were performed to investigate the influence of viscosity stratification on boundary-layer turbulence and drag. The adopted model for temperature-dependent viscosity was typical of water. The free-stream temperature was set to 30°C, and two wall temperatures, 70°C and 99°C, were simulated. In the heated flows, the mean shear-rate is enhanced near the wall and reduced in the buffer region, which induces a reduction in turbulence production. On the other hand, the turbulence dissipation is enhanced near the wall, despite the the reduction in fluid viscosity. The higher dissipation is attributed to a decrease in the smallest length scales and near-wall fine-scale motions. The combined effect of the reduced production and enhanced dissipation leads to lower Reynolds shear stresses and, as a result, reduction of the skin-friction coefficient. Supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/F034997/1) and partially supported by the Erasmus Mundus Build on Euro-Asian Mobility (EM-BEAM) programme.
Semenov, A. N.; Gaponov, S. A.
2017-10-01
Based the direct numerical simulation in the paper the supersonic flow around of the infinitely thin plate, which was perturbed by the acoustic wave, was investigated. Calculations carried out in the case of small perturbations at the Mach number M=2 and Reynold's numbers Resound wave more efficiently if the plate is irradiated from above. At the fixed Reynolds's number and frequency there are critical values of the sliding and incidence angles (χ, φ) at which the disturbances excited by a sound wave are maxima. At M=2 it takes place at χ≈ φ ≈30°. The excitation efficiency of perturbations in the boundary layer increases with the Mach number, and it decreases with a frequency.
Kokmanian, Katherine; Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Hultmark, Marcus
2017-11-01
Nano-Scale Thermal Anemometry Probes (NSTAP) have been designed, tested and used in a wide variety of incompressible flows. These sensors are capable of measuring streamwise velocity fluctuations with an order of magnitude better resolution, both temporal and spatial, compared to conventional hot-wires, due to their miniature size and minute thermal mass (the heating element is only 60 microns long, 2 microns wide and 100 nm thick). Here we report recent efforts to redesign the NSTAP to withstand supersonic flow conditions. Work has been performed in Princeton's micro-nano fabrication laboratory in order to modify both the 2D layout and the 3D shapes of these sensors. The supersonic version of the NSTAP is evaluated in collaboration with Bundeswehr University. The ultimate objective of this work is to measure both fluctuating mass flow rate and total temperature in compressible turbulent boundary layers, by combining two supersonic sensors which operate at different overheat ratios. AFOSR FA9550-16-1-0170 (Program manager: Ivett Leyva).
Turbulence modeling of shock separated boundary-layer flows
Coakley, T. J.; Viegas, J. R.
1977-01-01
Computations of transonic and hypersonic shock-separated boundary-layer flows using zero-equation (algebraic), one-equation (kinetic energy), and two-equation (kinetic energy plus length scale) turbulence eddy viscosity models are described and compared with measurements. The computations make use of a new Navier-Stokes computer algorithm that has reduced computing times by one to two orders of magnitude. The algorithm, and how the turbulence models are incorporated into it, are described. Results for the transonic flow show that the unmodified one-equation model is superior to the zero-equation model in skin-friction predictions. For the hypersonic flow, a highly modified one-equation model that accurately predicts surface pressure and heat transfer is described. Preliminary two-equation model results are also presented.
Dynamics of turbulent spots in transitional boundary layer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Uruba, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 318, č. 032028 (2011), s. 1-5 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European turbulence conference /13./. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-15.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer transition * hairpin vortex * calmed region Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/318/3/032028?fromSearchPage=true
Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.
2013-01-01
During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.
Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes
Qiao, Z. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Z.
2017-06-01
This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.
Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection
Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga
2017-11-01
Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalyani Bhide
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to highlight the significance of Fluid–Thermal–Structural Interaction (FTSI as a diagnosis of existing designs, and as a means of preliminary investigation to ensure the feasibility of new designs before conducting experimental and field tests. The novelty of this work lies in the multi-physics simulations, which are, for the first time, performed on rectangular nozzles. An existing experimental supersonic rectangular converging/diverging nozzle geometry is considered for multi-physics 3D simulations. A design that has been improved by eliminating the sharp throat is further investigated to evaluate its structural integrity at design Nozzle Pressure Ratio (NPR 3.67 and off-design (NPR 4.5 conditions. Static structural analysis is performed by unidirectional coupling of pressure loads from steady 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and thermal loads from steady thermal conduction simulations, such that the simulations represent the experimental set up. Structural deformation in the existing design is far less than the boundary layer thickness, because the impact of Shock wave Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI is not as severe. FTSI demonstrates that the discharge coefficient of the improved design is 0.99, and its structural integrity remains intact at off-design conditions. This proves the feasibility of the improved design. Although FTSI influence is shown for a nozzle, the approach can be applied to any product design cycle, or as a prelude to building prototypes.
Non-Gaussian Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure on Aircraft Skin Panels
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Steinwolf, Alexander
2005-01-01
The purpose of the study is to investigate the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the outer sidewall of a supersonic transport aircraft and to approximate these PDFs by analytical models. Experimental flight results show that the fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for standard smooth surface conditions. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations in front of forward-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. There is a certain spatial pattern of the skewness and kurtosis behavior depending on the distance upstream from the step. All characteristics related to non-Gaussian behavior are highly dependent upon the distance from the step and the step height, less dependent on aircraft speed, and not dependent on the fuselage location. A Hermite polynomial transform model and a piecewise-Gaussian model fit the flight data well both for the smooth and stepped conditions. The piecewise-Gaussian approximation can be additionally regarded for convenience in usage after the model is constructed.
Cebeci, Tuncer
2005-01-01
This second edition of our book extends the modeling and calculation of boundary-layer flows to include compressible flows. The subjects cover laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layers for two- and three-dimensional incompressible and compressible flows. The viscous-inviscid coupling between the boundary layer and the inviscid flow is also addressed. The book has a large number of homework problems.
Surface roughness effects on the hypersonic turbulent boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berg, D.E.
1977-09-01
An experimental investigation of the response of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer to a step change in surface roughness has been performed. The boundary layer on a flat nozzle wall of a Mach 6 wind tunnel was subjected to abrupt changes in surface roughness and its adjustment to the new surface conditions was examined. Both mean and fluctuating flow properties were acquired for smooth-to-rough and rough-to-smooth surface configurations. The boundary layer was found to respond gradually and to attain new equilibrium profiles, for both the mean and the fluctuating properties, some 10 to 25 delta downstream of the step change. Mean flow self-similarity was the first to establish itself, followed by the mass flux fluctuations, followed in turn by the total temperature fluctuations. Use of a modified Van Driest transformation resulted in good correlations of smooth and rough wall data in the form of the incompressible law of the wall. This is true even in the nonequilibrium vicinity of the step for small roughness heights. The present data are found to correlate well with previously published roughness effect data from low and high speed flows when the roughnesses are characterized by an equivalent sand grain roughness height.
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction in Hypersonic Flow
1975-06-01
WORDS (Conllnum on rtvmf tldm II nocfmry Td Idmnllly by block number) Turbulent boundary layers Skin friction, heat transfer and pressure High... tD t{> • y rp < J -o ill ... |i| ;| ilh |I ti i llii ffPtffin i ini I ! til. ;■ ; ’ ! ’ : in •■•: \\1’. T ill j i i i...III [lii 5 ft" t H "H— im BJITT i’i 1 i Mt- B ianj ii ( !l!l Mi IF Ii ig| M»-H J , ■*« J J j 1JJ J 4^ Ul CD S D Z V) D -I O z > Ul QC
Turbulent transport of large particles in the atmospheric boundary layer
Richter, D. H.; Chamecki, M.
2017-12-01
To describe the transport of heavy dust particles in the atmosphere, assumptions must typically be made in order to connect the micro-scale emission processes with the larger-scale atmospheric motions. In the context of numerical models, this can be thought of as the transport process which occurs between the domain bottom and the first vertical grid point. For example, in the limit of small particles (both low inertia and low settling velocity), theory built upon Monin-Obukhov similarity has proven effective in relating mean dust concentration profiles to surface emission fluxes. For increasing particle mass, however, it becomes more difficult to represent dust transport as a simple extension of the transport of a passive scalar due to issues such as the crossing trajectories effect. This study focuses specifically on the problem of large particle transport and dispersion in the turbulent boundary layer by utilizing direct numerical simulations with Lagrangian point-particle tracking to determine under what, if any, conditions the large dust particles (larger than 10 micron in diameter) can be accurately described in a simplified Eulerian framework. In particular, results will be presented detailing the independent contributions of both particle inertia and particle settling velocity relative to the strength of the surrounding turbulent flow, and consequences of overestimating surface fluxes via traditional parameterizations will be demonstrated.
Investigation of particle lift off in a turbulent boundary layer
Barros, Diogo; Tee, Yi Hui; Morse, Nicholas; Hiltbrand, Ben; Longmire, Ellen
2017-11-01
Entrainment and suspension of particles within turbulent flows occur widely in environmental and industrial processes. Three-dimensional particle tracking experiments are thus conducted in a water channel to understand the interaction of finite-size particles with a turbulent boundary layer. A neutrally buoyant sphere made of wax and iron oxide is first held in place on the bounding surface by a magnet before being released and tracked. The sphere is marked with dots to monitor rotation as well as translation. By setting up two pairs of cameras in a stereoscopic configuration, the trajectories of the sphere are reconstructed and tracked over a distance of 4 to 6 δ. Sphere diameters ranging from 40 to 130 wall units, initial particle Reynolds numbers of 600 to 2000 and friction Reynolds numbers of 500 to 1800 are considered. For this parameter set, the particle typically lifts off from the wall after release before falling back toward the wall. Aspects of both particle rotation and translation will be discussed. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).
Pressure Fluctuations Induced by a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Zhang, Chao
2016-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to examine the pressure fluctuations generated by a spatially-developed Mach 5.86 turbulent boundary layer. The unsteady pressure field is analyzed at multiple wall-normal locations, including those at the wall, within the boundary layer (including inner layer, the log layer, and the outer layer), and in the free stream. The statistical and structural variations of pressure fluctuations as a function of wall-normal distance are highlighted. Computational predictions for mean velocity pro les and surface pressure spectrum are in good agreement with experimental measurements, providing a first ever comparison of this type at hypersonic Mach numbers. The simulation shows that the dominant frequency of boundary-layer-induced pressure fluctuations shifts to lower frequencies as the location of interest moves away from the wall. The pressure wave propagates with a speed nearly equal to the local mean velocity within the boundary layer (except in the immediate vicinity of the wall) while the propagation speed deviates from the Taylor's hypothesis in the free stream. Compared with the surface pressure fluctuations, which are primarily vortical, the acoustic pressure fluctuations in the free stream exhibit a significantly lower dominant frequency, a greater spatial extent, and a smaller bulk propagation speed. The freestream pressure structures are found to have similar Lagrangian time and spatial scales as the acoustic sources near the wall. As the Mach number increases, the freestream acoustic fluctuations exhibit increased radiation intensity, enhanced energy content at high frequencies, shallower orientation of wave fronts with respect to the flow direction, and larger propagation velocity.
Streamline correction for the analysis of boundary layer turbulence
Lee, Zoë S.; Baas, Andreas C. W.
2012-10-01
Improvements in the design and affordability of ultrasonic anemometers have provided significant contributions to aeolian research, by facilitating high frequency monitoring of three dimensional wind velocities. From these data it is possible to calculate quasi-instantaneous Reynolds stresses to evaluate boundary layer turbulence, moving beyond time-averaged measures, such as shear velocity (U*). As ultrasonic anemometry is used more frequently in aeolian geomorphology it is important to question accepted conventions concerning data processing and analysis. This paper examines data processing questions associated with the application of ultrasonic anemometry to field studies in aeolian geomorphology, through an investigation of three streamline correction routines, the two-step, three-step and planar-fit methods, on data recorded on a gently sloping beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland in May 2010. The planar-fit technique has not previously been used in aeolian geomorphology. Results are compared with data that have been corrected only for wind direction (yaw). The effects that these different methods have on quadrant analysis and Reynolds stress calculation are discussed. Streamline correction is applied as a time-variable procedure using a characteristic timescale of 8 s following analysis of the resultant wind speed energy spectrum. It is found that Reynolds shear stress is dependent on streamline correction method, with run mean estimates of resultant horizontal shear stress ranging from 0.05 to 0.11 N m- 2 depending on the technique. The two-step method consistently maximises the shear stress and when the resultant horizontal shear is calculated, it produces the most robust estimate for application to aeolian research. In contrast, the different methods have little effect on the identification or sequencing of turbulent structures using quadrant analysis. Streamline correction is an essential processing step when using Reynolds decomposition, however
Afsar, Mohammed; Sescu, Adrian; Sassanis, Vasileios; Bres, Guillaume; Towne, Aaron; Lele, Sanjiva
2016-11-01
The Goldstein-Sescu-Afsar asymptotic theory postulated that the appropriate distinguished limit in which non-parallel mean flow effects introduces a leading order change in the 'propagator' (which is related adjoint linearized Euler Green's function) within Goldstein's acoustic analogy must be when the jet spread rate is the same order as Strouhal number. We analyze the low frequency structure of the acoustic spectrum using Large-eddy simulations of two axi-symmetric jets (heated & unheated) at constant supersonic jet Mach number to obtain the mean flow for the asymptotic theory. This approach provides excellent quantitative agreement for the peak jet noise when the coefficients of the turbulence model are tuned for good agreement with the far-field acoustic data. Our aim in this talk, however, is to show the predictive capability of the asymptotics when the turbulence model in the acoustic analogy is 'exactly' re-constructed by numerically matching the length scale coefficients of an algebraic-exponential model for the 1212-component of the Reynolds stress auto-covariance tensor (1 is streamwise & 2 is radial direction) with LES data at any spatial location and temporal frequency. In this way, all information is obtained from local unsteady flow. We thank Professor Parviz Moin for supporting this work as part of the Center for Turbulence Research Summer Program 2016.
Om, D.; Childs, M. E.; Viegas, J. R.
1982-01-01
Detailed pitot, static and wall pressure measurements have been obtained for a transonic normal shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.28, 1.37 and 1.48 and at a constant unit Reynolds number of 4.92 x 10 to the 6th per meter in an axisymmetric, internal flow. Measurements have also been obtained at a unit Reynolds number of 9.84 x 10 to the 6th per meter at a free-stream Mach number of 1.29. The interaction depends very strongly on the Mach number. The effect of Reynolds number under study is small. Flow confinement due to the wind-tunnel wall boundary layer produces a weaker interaction and a much larger supersonic tongue than is observed for planar flows. Comparisons are made with solutions to the time-dependent, mass-averaged, Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a two-equation, Wilcox-Rubesin turbulence model (1980). The computations are in agreement with the experimental results.
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment
Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de, A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical turbulence, with a strong diurnal cycle. The late afternoon transition, from the daytime dry convection to the night-time stable boundary layer, still raises a lot of issues and is poorly represented in ...
Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brillant, G.; Husson, S.; Bataille, F.; Ducros, F.
2008-01-01
We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations
Study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer using Thermal Large Eddy Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brillant, G. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Husson, S. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bataille, F. [INSA/Centre de Thermique de Lyon (UMR CNRS 5008), Bat. Sadi Carnot 69621, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francoise.Daumas-Bataille@univ-perp.fr; Ducros, F. [CEA/Grenoble DEN/DER/SSTH/LMDL, 17 rue des Martyrs 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2008-12-15
We investigate Thermal Large Eddy Simulation in a complex case using Trio U. We develop a thermal turbulent inflow condition based on parallel flows in order to simulate a turbulent thermal boundary layer. This inflow condition is tested with a turbulent channel flow. We show that it produces fine profiles for velocity and temperature. Later, this inlet condition is used in the case of blowing through a porous plate. Two different blowing regimes are studied: the classical turbulent boundary layer and the blown off boundary layer. Comparisons show that we obtain similar experimental and numerical profiles (Brillant, G., Husson, S., Bataille, F., 2008. Experimental study of the blowing impact on a hot turbulent boundary layer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (7-8), 1996-2005.). We finish with additional results obtained only through numerical simulations.
Wiswall, John D.
For many aerospace applications, mixing enhancement between co-flowing streams has been identified as a critical and enabling technology. Due to short fuel residence times in scramjet combustors, combustion is limited by the molecular mixing of hydrogen (fuel) and air. Determining the mixedness of fuel and air in these complex supersonic flowfields is critical to the advancement of novel injection schemes currently being developed at UTA in collaboration with NASA Langley and intended to be used on a future two-stage to orbit (~Mach 16) hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for space access. Expanding on previous work, an instrument has been designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure mean concentrations of injected helium (a passive scalar used instead of hazardous hydrogen) and to quantitatively characterize the nature of the high-frequency concentration fluctuations encountered in the compressible, turbulent, and high-speed (up to Mach 3.5) complex flows associated with the new supersonic injection schemes. This important high-frequency data is not yet attainable when employing other techniques such as Laser Induced Fluorescence, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering or mass spectroscopy in the same complex supersonic flows. The probe operates by exploiting the difference between the thermodynamic properties of two species through independent massflow measurements and calibration. The probe samples isokinetically from the flowfield's area of interest and the helium concentration may be uniquely determined by hot-film anemometry and internally measured stagnation conditions. The final design has a diameter of 0.25" and is only 2.22" long. The overall accuracy of the probe is 3% in molar fraction of helium. The frequency response of mean concentration measurements is estimated at 103 Hz, while high-frequency hot-film measurements were conducted at 60 kHz. Additionally, the work presents an analysis of the probe's internal mixing effects and the effects of the spatial
The Physics of Turbulence in the Boundary Layer
Kline, Stephen; Cantwell, Brian
1995-01-01
The geometry of the velocity field in a numerically simulated incompressible turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re theta=670 has been studied using the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor. These invariants are computed at every grid point in the flow and used to form the discriminant. Of primary interest are those regions in the flow where the discriminant is positive; regions where, according to the characteristic equation, the eigenvalues of the velocity gradient tensor are complex. An observer moving with a frame of reference which is attached to a fluid particle lying within such a region would see a local flow pattern of the type stable-focus-stretching or unstable-focus-compressing. When the flow is visualized this way, continuous, connected, large-scale structures are revealed that extend from the point just below the buffer layer out to the beginning of the wake region. These structures are aligned with the mean shear close to the wall and arch in the cross-stream direction away from the wall. In some cases the structures observed are very similar to to the hairpin eddy vision of boundary layer structure proposed by Theodorsen. That the structure of the flow is revealed more effectively by the discriminant rather than by the vorticity is important and adds support to recent observations of the discriminant in a channel flow simulation. Of particular importance is the fact that the procedure does not require the use of an arbitrary threshold in the discriminant. Further analysis using computer flow visualization shows a high degree of spatial correlation between regions of positive discriminant, extreme negative pressure fluctuations and large instantaneous values of Reynolds shear stress.
Low speed streak formation in a separating turbulent boundary layer
Santos, Leonardo; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Bonacci, Andrew
2017-11-01
Separation control mechanisms present on the skin of the shortfin mako shark may permit higher swimming speeds. The morphology of the scales varies over the entire body, with maximum scale flexibility found on the flank region with an adverse pressure gradient(APG). It is hypothesized that reversing flow close the skin bristles the scales inhibiting further flow reversal and controlling flow separation. Experiments are conducted in water tunnel facility and the flow field of a separating turbulent boundary layer(TBL) is measured using DPIV and Insight V3V. Flow separation is induced by a rotating cylinder which generates a controlled APG over a flat plate (Re = 510000 and 620000). Specifically, the low speed streak(LSS) formation is documented and matches predicted sizing based on viscous length scale calculations. It is surmised that shark scale width corresponds to this LSS sizing for real swimming TBL conditions. However, flow separation control has been demonstrated over real skin specimens under much lower speed conditions which indicates the mechanism is fairly Re independent if multiple scales are bristled as the width of the LSS increases. The formation of reversing flow within the streaks is studied specifically to better understand the process by which this flow initiates scale bristling on shortfin mako skin as a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. The authors would like to greatefully acknowledge the Army Research Office for funding this project.
Large Scale Organization of a Near Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer
Stanislas, Michel; Dekou Tiomajou, Raoul Florent; Foucaut, Jean Marc
2016-11-01
This study lies in the context of large scale coherent structures investigation in a near wall turbulent boundary layer. An experimental database at high Reynolds numbers (Re θ = 9830 and Re θ = 19660) was obtained in the LML wind tunnel with stereo-PIV at 4 Hz and hot wire anemometry at 30 kHz. A Linear Stochastic Estimation procedure, is used to reconstruct a 3 component field resolved in space and time. Algorithms were developed to extract coherent structures from the reconstructed field. A sample of 3D view of the structures is depicted in Figure 1. Uniform momentum regions are characterized with their mean hydraulic diameter in the YZ plane, their life time and their contribution to Reynolds stresses. The vortical motions are characterized by their position, radius, circulation and vorticity in addition to their life time and their number computed at a fixed position from the wall. The spatial organization of the structures was investigated through a correlation of their respective indicative functions in the spanwise direction. The simplified large scale model that arise is compared to the ones available in the literature. Streamwise low (green) and high (yellow) uniform momentum regions with positive (red) and negative (blue) vortical motions. This work was supported by Campus International pour la Sécurité et l'Intermodalité des Transports.
Internal Layer Hierarchy in Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary
Mehdi, Faraz; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Ebner, Rachel; Klewicki, Joseph
2009-11-01
The existence of an internal layer hierarchy is centric to the characteristic properties of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Its presence, which is revealed through an analysis of the mean momentum balance (MMB), accounts for the dynamics undergoing a continuous self-similar variation over a length scale range spanning the viscous length scale to the outer scale, ν/uτSurface roughness introduces multiple new length scales which are often reduced (for simplification and comparison) to a single ``working'' scale given by the equivalent sandgrain roughness ks^+. We report on our continuing efforts to study how this imposition modifies the continuous hierarchy of scaling layers admitted by the MMB. The establishment of log-like behavior closer to the wall in rough-wall flows is one such effect. It is speculated to be the direct consequence of the roughness causing the vorticity field to three-dimensionalize more rapidly compared to a smooth-wall. Data sets comprising of experiments being performed at UNH and high quality data sets available in the literature are being used for this combined roughness--Reynolds number study. The current experiments are conducted in a 8m long boundary layer wind-tunnel. Roughness is introduced in the form of sandpaper attached to the entire lower wall and profiles are taken using hot-wires and two-dimensional laser velocimetry.
Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.
1992-01-01
Nonintrusive measurements of density and temperature and their turbulent fluctuation levels have been obtained in the boundary layer of an unseeded, Mach 2 wind tunnel flow. The spectroscopic technique that was used to make the measurements is based on the combination of laser-induced oxygen fluorescence and Raman scattering by oxygen and nitrogen from the same laser pulse. Results from this demonstration experiment compare favorably with previous measurements obtained in the same facility from conventional probes and an earlier spectroscopic technique.
Mechanisms of Turbulent Mixing in the Continental Shelf Bottom Boundary Layer
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shaw, William
2000-01-01
.... In this thesis, the problem of turbulent mixing in the coastal bottom boundary layer is investigated with a unique set of field measurements of velocity and sound speed that span a significant...
Budget of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in a Shock Wave Boundary-Layer Interaction
Vyas, Manan A.; Waindim, Mbu; Gaitonde, Datta V.
2016-01-01
Implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES) of a shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) was performed. Quantities present in the exact equation of the turbulent kinetic energy transport were accumulated and used to calculate terms like production, dissipation, molecular diffusion, and turbulent transport. The present results for a turbulent boundary layer were validated by comparison with direct numerical simulation data. It was found that a longer development domain was necessary for the boundary layer to reach an equilibrium state and a finer mesh resolution would improve the predictions. In spite of these findings, trends of the present budget match closely with that of the direct numerical simulation. Budgets for the SBLI region are presented at key axial stations. These budgets showed interesting dynamics as the incoming boundary layer transforms and the terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget change behavior within the interaction region.
Turbulence Models: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exp: Shock Boundary Layer Interaction at M=2.05. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence models. This...
Intermittent turbulence and oscillations in the stable boundary layer over land
Wiel, van de B.
2002-01-01
As the title of this thesis indicates, our main subject of interest is: "Intermittent turbulence and oscillation in the stable boundary layer over land". As such, this theme connects the different chapters. Here, intermittent turbulence is defined as a sequence of events were 'burst' of
New-Tolley, Matthew; Zhang, Yibin; Shneider, Mikhail; Miles, Richard
2017-11-01
Accurate velocimetry measurements of turbulent flows are essential for improving our understanding of turbulent phenomena and validating numerical approaches. Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) is an unseeded molecular tagging method for velocimetry measurements in flows which contain nitrogen. A femtosecond laser pulse is used to ionize and dissociate nitrogen molecules within its focal zone. The decaying plasma fluoresces in the visible and infrared spectrum over a period of microseconds which allows the displacement of the tagged region to be photographed to determine velocity. This study compares the experimental and numerical advection of the tagged region in a turbulent boundary layer generated by a supersonic flow over a flat plate. The tagged region in the simulation is approximated as an infinitely thin cylinder while the flow field is generated using the steady state boundary layer equations with an algebraic turbulence model. This approximation is justified by previous computational analyses, using an unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, which indicate that the radial perturbations of the tagged region are negligible compared to its translation. This research was conducted with government support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Dr. Ivett Leyva and the Army Research Office under Dr. Matthew Munson.
Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.
2000-01-01
The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents...
Experiments on Plasma Turbulence Created by Supersonic Plasma Flows with Shear
2014-04-01
University of California Department of Physics and Astronomy Los Angeles, CA 90095- 1547 REPORT NUMBER 444025-ST-25188 9. SPONSORING...S. Mudaliar. Scattering of electromagnetic waves in the presence of wave turbulence excited by a flow with velocity shear. IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci., 38
Alhamdi, Sabah F. H.; Bailey, Sean C. C.
2017-11-01
Measurements of the small-scale dissipation statistics of turbulent boundary layer flows with and without free-stream turbulence are reported for Reτ ≈ 1000 (Reθ ≈ 2000). The scaling of the dissipation scale distribution is examined in these two boundary conditions. Results demonstrated that the local large-scale Reynolds number based on the measured longitudinal integral length scale fails to properly normalize the dissipation scale distribution near the wall in these two free-stream conditions due to the imperfect characterization of the upper bound of the inertial cascade by the integral length scale. A surrogate found from turbulent kinetic energy and mean dissipation rate only moderately improved the scaling of the dissipation scales, relative to the measured integral length scale. When a length scale based on the distance from the wall [as suggested by Bailey and Witte, "On the universality of local dissipation scales in turbulent channel flow," J. Fluid Mech. 786, 234-252 (2015)] was utilized to scale the dissipation scale distribution, in the region near the wall, there was a noticeable improvement in the collapse of the normalized distribution of dissipation scales. In addition, unlike in channel flows, in the outer layer of the turbulent boundary layer, the normalized distributions of the local dissipation scales were observed to be dependent on the wall-normal position. This was found to be attributable to the presence of external intermittency in the outer layer as the presence of free-stream turbulence was found to restore the scaling behavior by replacing the intermittent laminar flow with turbulent flow.
Numerical investigation of turbulence models for shock separated boundary-layer flows
Viegas, J. R.; Coakley, T. J.
1977-01-01
Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for shock separated turbulent boundary-layer flows are presented. Several turbulence models are investigated and assessed by their ability to predict the physical phenomena associated with two extensively documented experiments. The experimental flows consist of shock-wave boundary-layer interactions in axisymmetric internal and external geometries at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 7, respectively. Algebraic and one-equation eddy viscosity models are used to describe the Reynolds shear stress. Calculated values of skin friction, wall pressure distribution, kinetic energy of turbulence, and heat transfer are compared with measurements.
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Fan
2011-01-01
lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution. The results indicate that, in general, as the number of modelled layers increases the resuspension fraction of the whole deposit after a certain time decreases significantly. In other words, it takes a much longer time to re-suspend a thicker deposit. Taking account of the particle size distribution slightly increases the short-term resuspension. However, this change decreases the long-term resuspension significantly. The model results have been compared with data from the STORM SR11 test (ISP-40) and the BISE experiments. In general, both comparisons indicate that with smaller spread of the adhesive force distribution the new multilayer model agrees very well with the experimental data. It can be inferred that multilayer deposits lead to much narrower distributions of adhesive force
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Fan
2011-10-20
uncorrelated curve-fitted model. In view of recent numerical data for lift and drag forces in turbulent boundary layers, the lift and drag we have con sidered and the impact of these data on predictions made by the non-Gaussian R'n'R model are compared with those based on O'Neill formula. The results indicate that, in terms of the long-term resuspension fraction, the difference is minor. It is concluded that as the particle size decreases the L and B method will lead to less-and-less long-term resuspension. Finally the ultimate model that has been developed in this work is a hybrid version of the R'n'R model adapted for application to multilayer deposits based on the Friess and Yadigaroglu multilayer approach. The deposit is modelled in several overlying layers where the coverage effect (masking) of the deposit layers has been studied; in the first instance a monodisperse deposit with a coverage ratio factor was modelled where this was subsequently replaced by the more general case of a polydisperse deposit with a particle size distribution.
Study on turbulent characteristics and transition behavior of combined-convection boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hattori, Yasuo
2001-01-01
The stabilizing mechanism of the turbulent combined-convection boundary layer along an isothermally-heated flat plate in air aided by a weak freestream are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The turbulent statistics of the combined-convection boundary layer measured with hot- and cold wires at different Grashof numbers indicates that with an increase in the freestream velocity, a similar change in the turbulent quantities appears independently of local Grashof number. Then based on the such experimental results, it is verified that the laminarization of the boundary layer due to an increase in freestream velocity arises at Grx / Rex 6 . Then, through the experiments with a particle image velocimetry (PIV), the spatio-temporal structure of the turbulent combined-convection boundary layer is investigated. For instantaneous velocity vectors obtained with PIV, large-scale fluid motions, which play a predominant role in the generation of turbulence, are frequently observed in the outer layer, while quasi-coherent structures do not exist in the near-wall region. Thus, it is revealed that increasing freestream restricts large-scale fluid motions in the outer layer, and consequently the generation of turbulence is suppressed and the boundary layer becomes laminar. (author)
2017-04-04
jet and coflow issue into open air, and the coflow velocity is less than 1 m/s. The jet gas is provided by compressed gas cylinders and the coflow...probability distribution function (pdf) of the turbulent fluctuations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS nonequillibrium and aerothermodynamic, hypersonic and gas ...diameter was installed and a conical shroud reduced the coflow diameter to 100 mm. The reacting-flow configuration is illustrated below in Fig. 1b
The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment
Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Large artificially generated turbulent boundary layers for the study of atmospheric flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guimaraes, Joao Henrique D.; Santos Junior, Sergio J.F. dos; Freire, Atila P. Silva; Jian, Su
1999-01-01
The present work discusses in detail the experimental conditions for the establishment of thick artificially generated turbulent boundary layer which can be classified as having the near characteristics of an atmospheric boundary layer. The paper describes the experimental arrangement, including the features of the designed wind tunnel and of the instrumentation. the boundary layer is made to develop over a surface fitted with wedge generators which are used to yield a very thick boundary layer. The flow conditions were validated against the following features: growth, structure, equilibrium and turbulent transport momentum. Results are presented for the following main flow variables: mean velocity, local skin-friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum thickness and the Clauser factor. The velocity boundary layer characteristics were shown to be in good agreement with the expected trend in view of the classical expressions found in literature. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent
2016-01-04
We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.
A perspective on coherent structures and conceptual models for turbulent boundary layer physics
Robinson, Stephen K.
1990-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers have been analyzed to develop a unified conceptual model for the kinematics of coherent motions in low Reynolds number canonical turbulent boundary layers. All classes of coherent motions are considered in the model, including low-speed streaks, ejections and sweeps, vortical structures, near-wall and outer-region shear layers, sublayer pockets, and large-scale outer-region eddies. The model reflects the conclusions from the study of the simulated boundary layer that vortical structures are directly associated with the production of turbulent shear stresses, entrainment, dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy, and the fluctuating pressure field. These results, when viewed from the perspective of the large body of published work on the subject of coherent motions, confirm that vortical structures may be considered the central dynamic element in the maintenance of turbulence in the canonical boundary layer. Vortical structures serve as a framework on which to construct a unified picture of boundary layer structure, providing a means to relate the many known structural elements in a consistent way.
Turbulence vertical structure of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition
Darbieu, Clara; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; Couvreux, Fleur; Durand, Pierre; Pino, David; Patton, Ned; Nilsson, Erik; Blay-Carreras, Estel; Gioli, Beniamino
2015-04-01
The transition from a well-mixed convective boundary layer to a residual layer overlying a stabilized nocturnal layer raises several issues, which remain difficult to address from both modeling and observational perspectives. The well mixed convective boundary layer is mainly forced by buoyancy, with fully developed turbulence. The daily decrease of the surface buoyancy flux leads to the decay of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and a possible change of the structure of the turbulence before it reaches the stable regime, with more anisotropy and intermittency. It is important to better understand these processes, as they can impact on the dispersion of tracers in the atmosphere, and on the development of the nocturnal and daytime boundary layers of the following days. The presented work is based on both observations from the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Later Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) experiment and Large-Eddy Simulation (NCAR LES code). The field campaign took place in summer 2011 in France, on the northern side of the Pyrenean foothills. A well-documented cloud-free weak wind day is considered here to analyze in details the evolution of the turbulence along the day, from midday to sunset. The case study combines observations of the mean structure and of the turbulence. It is the base of a complementary idealized numerical study with a large eddy simulation. From both observations and numerical simulations, the turbulence is described, according to time and height, with the characteristics of the spectral energy density, especially the typical turbulence lengthscales and the sharpness of the transition from energy-containing eddies to the inertial subrange. An analytical model proposed by Kristensen and Lenschow (1988) for homogeneous nonisotropic turbulence is used to approximate the observed and LES-modeled spectra and estimate their characteristics. The study points out the LES ability to reproduce the turbulence evolution throughout the afternoon. Two
Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2005-01-01
fluctuation wave forms and transport statistics are also in a good agreement with those derived from the experiments. Associated with the turbulence bursts are relaxation oscillations in the particle and heat confinements as well as in the kinetic energy of the sheared poloidal flows. The formation of blob...... a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region...
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan
2014-03-01
We describe a framework for large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate. This framework uses a fractional-step method with fourth-order finite difference on a staggered mesh. We present several laminar examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer flow. We find that the case with Reθ ≈ 2.5 × 105 agrees well with available experimental measurements of wall friction, streamwise velocity profiles and turbulent intensities. We demonstrate that for cases with extremely large Reynolds numbers (Reθ = 1012), the present LES can reasonably predict the flow with a coarse mesh. The parallel implementation of the LES code demonstrates reasonable scaling on O(103) cores. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Morkovia, Mark V.
2007-01-01
In order to understand the end-stages of boundary layer transition in low as well as high disturbance environments it is desirable to establish a unified view of the sequences of physico-mathematical phenomena that lead from laminar flow to self-sustained "bursting" in wall turbulence. The dominant driving disturbances: oncoming free turbulence, unsteady pressure fields, inhomogeneous density fields, inhomogeneities in wall geometry, all force disturbed motions within the boundary layer via multiple competitive receptivity mechanisms. For small disturbances, a sequence of instabilities then leads to sporadic local bursting very near the wall which can sustain turbulence. The local seeds of turbulence then somehow propagate to engulf quite rapidly the surrounding disturbed but still laminar regions.
Boundary Layer Response to an Unsteady Turbulent Environment
1988-12-01
Anermometer and \\ Vde I Rittire 6. Wjint/W~ing Mount and Periodic Turbulence Generator histalled in NPS Wind Tunmid S~on (:x~d~ic:cr. i mourc shows, the 11...0011 .930 .0064 .930 -.0009 .920 .0080 .920 -.0007 .910 . 0100 .910 -.0003 .900 .0121 .900 .0000 .890 .0142 .890 .0006 .850 .0220 .880 .0010 .800
Turbulent boundary layer approaches to resistance coefficient in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A logarithmic velocity profile has been used, in conjunction with a formulation for the origin of the profile, to study the nature of wall roughness and influence of roughness elements on turbulent flow through circular pipes with part smooth, part rough walls. Experimental data on velocity distribution and frictional head loss ...
Statistical characterization of turbulence in the boundary plasma of EAST
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Ning; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G.S.
2013-01-01
In Ohmic heated low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the intermittent statistical characteristics of turbulent fluctuations have been investigated in the edge and the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma on EAST (the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) by fast reciprocating Langmuir probe...
Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer
Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2017-11-01
The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).
Lee, Jin; Zaki, Tamer
2017-11-01
Transitional boundary layers feature long coherent motions of streamwise velocity fluctuation, u', in both the laminar and turbulent regions. In the former, Klebanoff streaks amplify and become seats for breakdown to turbulence. In the fully turbulent region, large-scale motions contribute appreciably to the turbulence energy and shear stresses. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of boundary-layer bypass transition over a flat plate with a leading edge is performed. Instantaneous realizations of spatially and temporally resolved fields are stored in a database. Structure identification techniques are used to identify these coherent flow structures. The inception rate, lifetime and amplification rate of Klebanoff streaks are evaluated in the laminar region, and conditional averaging is used to examine the early stages of streak formation. Structure identification and tracking is also used to study the inception of large-scale coherent motion in the nascent turbulent spots and fully turbulent boundary layer downstream. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF, Grant 1605404). The computations were performed using the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by NSF (Grant ACI-1053575).
Density effects on turbulent boundary layer structure: From the atmosphere to hypersonic flow
Williams, Owen J. H.
This dissertation examines the effects of density gradients on turbulent boundary layer statistics and structure using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Two distinct cases were examined: the thermally stable atmospheric surface layer characteristic of nocturnal or polar conditions, and the hypersonic bounder layer characteristic of high speed aircraft and reentering spacecraft. Previous experimental studies examining the effects of stability on turbulent boundary layers identified two regimes, weak and strong stability, separated by a critical bulk stratification with a collapse of near-wall turbulence thought to be intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. To examine the characteristics of these two regimes, PIV measurements were obtained in conjunction with the mean temperature profile in a low Reynolds number facility over smooth and rough surfaces. The turbulent stresses were found to scale with the wall shear stress in the weakly stable regime prior relaminarization at a critical stratification. Changes in profile shape were shown to correlate with the local stratification profile, and as a result, the collapse of near-wall turbulence is not intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. The critical bulk stratification was found to be sensitive to surface roughness and potentially Reynolds number, and not constant as previously thought. Further investigations examined turbulent boundary layer structure and changes to the motions that contribute to turbulent production. To study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Mach 8, significant improvements were required to the implementation and error characterization of PIV. Limited resolution or dynamic range effects were minimized and the effects of high shear on cross-correlation routines were examined. Significantly, an examination of particle dynamics, subject to fluid inertia, compressibility and non-continuum effects, revealed that particle frequency responses to turbulence can be up to an
DENSITY AND VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS IN TURBULENT HE-AIR BOUNDARY LAYERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A SOUDANI
2003-06-01
Full Text Available A turbulent boundary layer with large density variations has been generated by tangential injection of air or helium Into a boundary layer of air-helium mixture. Instrumentation based on thermo- anemometry has been successfully developed for the investigation of this flow Analysis or the mean and fluctuating density fields shows that the flow is mainly governed by the ratio of the injection to the external velocity and that the density ratio plays a secondary role in the mixing processes. However, a sight enhancement of turbulent activity is observed when helium is injected.
Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers
2015-10-01
ZT ). The initial acceleration of the rising buoyant air will be a = g∆T/TA. This is simply Archimedes ’ principle applied to the buoyant air. The... applications . 1 Various rules are employed to model C2n in the surface layer, but a key question is how to extend this estimation technique into the lower...in terms of wind turbulence the structure of the fluctuations produces a Reynolds stress tensor whose principle axes are not equal, meaning that at the
Parwani, Ajit K.; Talukdar, Prabal; Subbarao, P. M. V.
2015-03-01
Heat flux at the boundary of a duct is estimated using the inverse technique based on conjugate gradient method (CGM) with an adjoint equation. A two-dimensional inverse forced convection hydrodynamically fully developed turbulent flow is considered. The simulations are performed with temperature data measured in the experimental test performed on a wind tunnel. The results show that the present numerical model with CGM is robust and accurate enough to estimate the strength and position of boundary heat flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seki, Yohji; Kawamura, Hiroshi
2005-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) have been performed for the turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow. In the present study, effect of thermal boundary condition is examined. DNS has been carried out for streamwisely thermal boundary conditions (Re τ =180) with Pγ=0.71 to obtain statistical mean temperatures, temperature variances, budget terms and time scale ratios etc. The obtained results have indicated that the time scale ratio varies along a streamwise. (author)
Structure and dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flow over healthy and algae-covered corals
Stocking, Jonathan B.; Rippe, John P.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.
2016-09-01
Fine-scale velocity measurements over healthy and algae-covered corals were collected in situ to characterize combined wave-current boundary layer flow and the effects of algal canopies on turbulence hydrodynamics. Data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Flow over healthy corals is well described by traditional wall-bounded shear layers, distinguished by a logarithmic velocity profile, a local balance of turbulence production and dissipation, and high levels of bed shear stress. Healthy corals exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in boundary layer flow structure resulting from variations in large-scale coral topography. By contrast, the turbulence structure of algae-covered corals is best represented by a plane mixing layer, with a sharp inflection point in mean velocity at the canopy top, a large imbalance of turbulence production and dissipation, and strongly damped flow and shear stresses within the canopy. The presence of an algal canopy increases turbulent kinetic energy within the roughness sublayer by ~2.5 times compared to healthy corals while simultaneously reducing bed shear stress by nearly an order of magnitude. Reduced bed shear at the coral surface and within-canopy turbulent stresses imply reduced mass transfer of necessary metabolites (e.g., oxygen, nutrients), leading to negative impacts on coral health.
DHMPIV and Tomo-PIV measurements of three-dimensional structures in a turbulent boundary layer
Amili, O.; Atkinson, C.; Soria, J.
In turbulent boundary layers, a large portion of total turbulence production happens in the near wall region, y/δ memory intensive reconstruction algorithm. It is based on a multiplicative line-of-sight (MLOS) estimation that determines possible particle locations in the volume, followed by simultaneous iterative correction. Application of MLOS-SART and MART to a turbulent boundary layer at Refθ=2200 using a 4 camera Tomo-PIV system with a volume of 1000×1000×160 voxels is discussed. In addition, near wall velocity measurement attempt made by digital holographic microscopic particle image velocimetry (DHMPIV). The technique provides a solution to overcome the poor axial accuracy and the low spatial resolution which are common problems in digital holography [5]. By reducing the depth of focus by at least one order of magnitude as well as increasing the lateral spatial resolution, DHMPIV provides the opportunity to resolve the small-scale structures existing in near wall layers.
Resolving vorticity and dissipation in a turbulent boundary layer by tomographic PTV and VIC+
Schneiders, J.F.G.; Scarano, F.; Elsinga, G.E.
2017-01-01
The existing time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements by Jodai and Elsinga (J Fluid Mech 795:611–633; Jodai, Elsinga, J Fluid Mech 795:611–633, 2016) in a turbulent boundary layer (Re_{θ} = 2038) are reprocessed using tomographic particle tracking
Krol, M.C.; Molemaker, M.J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.
2000-01-01
Photochemistry is studied in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The essential reactions that account for the ozone formation and depletion are included in the chemical mechanism which, as a consequence, contains a wide range of timescales. The turbulent reacting flow is modeled with a
Embedded-LES and experiment of turbulent boundary layer flow around a floor-mounted cube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.
An Embedded LES approach is used to numerically simulate fluctuating surface pressures on a floor-mounted cube in a turbulent boundary layer flow and compared to wind tunnel experiments. The computation were performed with the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at cube height of Reh = 1...
Near Wall Velocity and Vorticity Measurements, In A Very High R(theta) Turbulent Boundary Layer
2006-06-15
velocity and vorticity. Extensive work has been carried out at low Reynolds numbers including Balint et al (1990) who studied statistical properties of...boundary layers." J. Fluid Mech. 439, 131-163. Balint , J., Wallace, J.M. & Vukoslavcevic, P. 1991 "The velocity and vorticity vector fields of a turbulent
The structure of turbulent jets, vortices and boundary layer: laboratory and field observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekula, E.; Redondo, J.M.
2008-01-01
The main aim of this work is research, understand and describe key aspects of the turbulent jets and effects connected with them such as boundary layer interactions on the effect of a 2D geometry. Work is based principally on experiments but there are also some comparisons between experimental and field results. A series of experiments have been performed consisting in detailed turbulent measurements of the 3 velocity components to understand the processes of interaction that lead to mixing and mass transport between boundaries and free shear layers. The turbulent wall jet configuration occurs often in environmental and industrial processes, but here we apply the laboratory experiments as a tool to understand jet/boundary interactions in the environment. We compare the structure of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images of coastal jets and vortices and experimental jets (plumes) images searching for the relationship between these two kinds of jets at very different Reynolds numbers taking advantage of the self-similarity of the processes. In order to investigate the structure of ocean surface detected jets (SAR) and vortices near the coast, we compare wall and boundary effects on the structure of turbulent jets (3D and 2D) which are non-homogeneous, developing multifractal and spectral techniques useful for environmental monitoring in space.
(Sub-)inertial wave boundary turbulence in the Gulf of Valencia
van Haren, H.; Ribó, M.; Puig, P.
2013-01-01
The bottom boundary layer above sloping topography can be highly turbulent, even in deep seas. This is demonstrated here using high-resolution 1-Hz sampling temperature sensors that were moored for 5 months every 0.5 m between 6.5 and 61 m above a 572 m deep seafloor promontory on the continental
Pressure estimation from single-snapshot tomographic PIV in a turbulent boundary layer
Schneiders, J.F.G.; Pröbsting, S.; Dwight, R.P.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Scarano, F.
2016-01-01
A method is proposed to determine the instantaneous pressure field from a single tomographic PIV velocity snapshot and is applied to a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. The main concept behind the single-snapshot pressure evaluation method is to approximate the flow acceleration using the
Eulerian and Lagrangian views of a turbulent boundary layer flow using time-resolved tomographic PIV
Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Staack, K.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Wieneke, B.; Henning, A.; Poelma, C.; Westerweel, J.
2010-01-01
Coherent structures and their time evolution in the logarithmic region of a turbulent boundary layer investigated by means of 3D space–time correlations and time-dependent conditional averaging techniques are the focuses of the present paper. Experiments have been performed in the water tunnel at TU
Scheel, Janet D.; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-12-01
We discuss two aspects of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) on the basis of high-resolution direct numerical simulations in a unique setting: a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio of one. First, we present a comprehensive comparison of statistical quantities such as energy dissipation rates and boundary layer thickness scales. Data are used from three simulation run series at Prandtl numbers Pr that cover two orders of magnitude. In contrast to most previous studies in RBC the focus of the present work is on convective turbulence at very low Prandtl numbers including Pr=0.021 for liquid mercury or gallium and Pr=0.005 for liquid sodium. In this parameter range of RBC, inertial effects cause a dominating turbulent momentum transport that is in line with highly intermittent fluid turbulence both in the bulk and in the boundary layers and thus should be able to trigger a transition to the fully turbulent boundary layers of the ultimate regime of convection for higher Rayleigh number. Second, we predict the ranges of Rayleigh numbers for which the viscous boundary layer will transition to turbulence and the flow as a whole will cross over into the ultimate regime. These transition ranges are obtained by extrapolation from our simulation data. The extrapolation methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. Two of the three methods predict similar ranges for the transition to ultimate convection when their uncertainties are taken into account. All three extrapolation methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers Rac is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller.
Farhat, Charbel; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.
2014-04-01
Embedded Boundary Methods (EBMs) for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are usually constructed in the Eulerian setting. They are particularly attractive for complex Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems characterized by large structural motions and deformations. They are also critical for flow problems with topological changes and FSI problems with cracking. For all of these problems, the alternative Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods are often unfeasible because of the issue of mesh crossovers. However for viscous flows, Eulerian EBMs for CFD do not track the boundary layers around dynamic rigid or flexible bodies. Consequently, the application of these methods to viscous FSI problems requires either a high mesh resolution in a large part of the computational fluid domain, or adaptive mesh refinement. Unfortunately, the first option is computationally inefficient, and the second one is labor intensive. For these reasons, an alternative approach is proposed in this paper for maintaining all moving boundary layers resolved during the simulation of a turbulent FSI problem using an EBM for CFD. In this approach, which is simple and computationally reasonable, the underlying non-body-fitted mesh is rigidly translated and/or rotated in order to track the rigid component of the motion of the dynamic obstacle. Then, the flow computations away from the embedded surface are performed using the ALE framework, and the wall boundary conditions are treated by the chosen Eulerian EBM for CFD. Hence, the solution of the boundary layer tracking problem proposed in this paper can be described as an ALE implementation of a given EBM for CFD. Its basic features are illustrated with the Large Eddy Simulation using a non-body-fitted mesh of a turbulent flow past an airfoil in heaving motion. Its strong potential for the solution of challenging FSI problems at reasonable computational costs is also demonstrated with the simulation of turbulent flows past a family of
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow
1988-09-29
wall- norma 6caling or Rao’s wall-normal scaling. Other measurements of the mean velocity in a cylindrical boundary layer should be mentioned for...located near the wall at three azimuthal locations that wre 900 apa ,-t and at several streamwise spacings for flow conditions resulting in 8/a=8
Separation bubbles dynamics in turbulent boundary layer separation region
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janeček, Vladislav; Uruba, Václav
2010-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 345-355 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer * separation * bubble * dynamics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
First Signs of Flow Reversal Within a Separated Turbulent Boundary Layer
Hammerton, Jared; Lang, Amy
2015-11-01
A shark's skin is covered in millions of microscopic scales that have been shown to be able to bristle in a reversing flow. The motive of this project is to further explore a potential bio-inspired passive separation control mechanism which can reduce drag. To better understand this mechanism, a more complete understanding of flow reversal within the turbulent boundary layer is required. In order to capture this phenomenon, water tunnel testing at The University of Alabama was conducted. Using a long flat plate and a rotating cylinder, a large turbulent boundary layer and adverse pressure gradient were generated. Under our testing conditions the boundary layer had a Reynolds number of 200,000 and a boundary layer height in the testing window of 5.6 cm. The adverse pressure gradient causes the viscous length scale to increase and thus increase the size of the individual components of the turbulent boundary layer. This will make the low speed streaks approximately 1 cm in width and thus large enough to measure. Results will be presented that test our hypothesis that the first signs of flow reversal will occur within the section of lowest momentum located furthest from the wall, or within the low speed streaks. This Project was funded by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.
Investigation of turbulence models with compressibility corrections for hypersonic boundary flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Tang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The applications of pressure work, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation-dissipation (Sarkar, Zeman, and Wilcox models to hypersonic boundary flows are investigated. The flat plate boundary layer flows of Mach number 5–11 and shock wave/boundary layer interactions of compression corners are simulated numerically. For the flat plate boundary layer flows, original turbulence models overestimate the heat flux with Mach number high up to 10, and compressibility corrections applied to turbulence models lead to a decrease in friction coefficients and heating rates. The pressure work and pressure-dilatation models yield the better results. Among the three dilatation-dissipation models, Sarkar and Wilcox corrections present larger deviations from the experiment measurement, while Zeman correction can achieve acceptable results. For hypersonic compression corner flows, due to the evident increase of turbulence Mach number in separation zone, compressibility corrections make the separation areas larger, thus cannot improve the accuracy of calculated results. It is unreasonable that compressibility corrections take effect in separation zone. Density-corrected model by Catris and Aupoix is suitable for shock wave/boundary layer interaction flows which can improve the simulation accuracy of the peak heating and have a little influence on separation zone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik
2011-01-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) study of turbulent non-equilibrium boundary layer flow over 2 D Bump, at comparatively low Reynolds number Reh = U∞h/ν = 1950, was conducted. A well-known LES issue of obtaining and sustaining turbulent flow inside the computational domain at such low Re, is addresse...... partially confirm a close interdependency between generation and evolution of internal layers and the abrupt changes in the skin friction, previously reported in the literature. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....
Estimation of turbulent energy dissipation in the boundary layer using Smoke Image Velocimetry
Mikheev, N. I.; Goltsman, A. E.; Saushin, I. I.; Dushina, O. A.
2017-08-01
Turbulent energy dissipation in the turbulent boundary layer has been estimated experimentally. Dissipation has been derived from dynamics of two-component instantaneous velocity vector fields measured by an optical method. Smoke Image Velocimetry technique based on digital processing of smoke visualization of flow and adapted to relatively large smoke displacement between two consecutive video frames has been employed. The obtained dissipation profiles have been compared with measurements by multi-sensor hot-wire anemometers, stereo PIV, Tomo-3D-PTV with VIC+, and DNS results.
Turbulent properties of axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction flows
Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.; Coakley, T. J.
1986-01-01
A combined experimental and computational investigation of an axisymmetric turbulent shock-wave boundary-layer interaction flow is presented. Experimental measurements include both mean and fluctuating data obtained by LDV techniques and identify large scale unsteady motions associated with shock induced separation. Computations using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and a two-equation turbulence model are in relatively good agreement with experimental measurements. It is found that the large scale unsteady motions do not appear to have a critical impact on the ability to compute the mean properties of the flows investigated in this paper.
Puleo, J.A.; Mouraenko, O.; Hanes, D.M.
2004-01-01
Six one-dimensional-vertical wave bottom boundary layer models are analyzed based on different methods for estimating the turbulent eddy viscosity: Laminar, linear, parabolic, k—one equation turbulence closure, k−ε—two equation turbulence closure, and k−ω—two equation turbulence closure. Resultant velocity profiles, bed shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy are compared to laboratory data of oscillatory flow over smooth and rough beds. Bed shear stress estimates for the smooth bed case were most closely predicted by the k−ω model. Normalized errors between model predictions and measurements of velocity profiles over the entire computational domain collected at 15° intervals for one-half a wave cycle show that overall the linear model was most accurate. The least accurate were the laminar and k−ε models. Normalized errors between model predictions and turbulence kinetic energy profiles showed that the k−ω model was most accurate. Based on these findings, when the smallest overall velocity profile prediction error is required, the processing requirements and error analysis suggest that the linear eddy viscosity model is adequate. However, if accurate estimates of bed shear stress and TKE are required then, of the models tested, the k−ω model should be used.
Hackett, Erin E.; Luznik, Luksa; Nayak, Aditya R.; Katz, Joseph; Osborn, Thomas R.
2011-02-01
In situ particle image velocimetry measurements, at a resolution of 3.5 Kolmogorov scales, have been performed in the inner part of the coastal bottom boundary layer. The spatial details enable us to directly determine the vertical distributions of mean velocity, Reynolds shear stress, shear production and dissipation rates, energy spectra, and abundance of eddies. Focusing on cases with wave velocity of similar magnitude as the mean current, velocity profiles have logarithmic distributions in the upper half of the sample area. Below the log layer, but well above the bottom ripples, an inflection point appears, indicating a region of flow instability. Based on data interpretation, which includes variations in wave phase with height, this inflection occurs near the interface between current and thinner wave boundary layer (WBL) below it. Scaling of mean velocity profiles with shear velocity and characteristic roughness is effective only above the inflection point, while turbulence parameters scale reasonably well at all elevations. Instabilities associated with the inflection are manifested by a peak in turbulent shear production rate and a rapid increase in small-scale turbulence, as is evident from trends of the dissipation rate, energy spectra, and distribution of eddies with elevation. Therefore, the presence of a WBL generates a shear production peak and rapid increase in the dissipation rate at higher elevations than those found in rough-wall steady boundary layers. Transition between current and wave boundary layers is also characterized by broad Reynolds stress peaks and shear production exceeding the dissipation rate.
Wind tunnel study of a vertical axis wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer flow
Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2015-04-01
Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are in a relatively infant state of development when compared to their cousins the horizontal axis wind turbines. Very few studies have been carried out to characterize the wake flow behind VAWTs, and virtually none to observe the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we present results from an experiment carried out at the EPFL-WIRE boundary-layer wind tunnel and designed to study the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer flow and a VAWT. Specifically we use stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to observe and quantify the influence of the boundary layer flow on the wake generated by a VAWT, as well as the effect the VAWT has on the boundary layer flow profile downstream. We find that the wake behind the VAWT is strongly asymmetric, due to the varying aerodynamic forces on the blades as they change their position around the rotor. We also find that the wake adds strong turbulence levels to the flow, particularly on the periphery of the wake where vortices and strong velocity gradients are present. The boundary layer is also shown to cause greater momentum to be entrained downwards rather than upwards into the wake.
Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation control of Mako shark skin
Afroz, Farhana
The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is one of the fastest swimmers in nature. They have an incredible turning agility and are estimated to achieve speeds as high as ten body lengths per second. Shark skin is known to contain flexible denticles or scales, capable of being actuated by the flow whereby a unique boundary layer control (BLC) method could reduce drag. It is hypothesized that shark scales bristle when the flow is reversed, and this bristling may serve to control flow separation by (1) inhibiting the localized flow reversal near the wall and (2) inducing mixing within the boundary layer by cavities formed between the scales that increases the momentum of the flow near the wall. To test this hypothesis, samples of Mako shark skin have been studied under various amounts of adverse pressure gradient (APG). These samples were collected from the flank region of a Shortfin Mako shark where the scales have the greatest potential for separation control due to the highest bristling angles. An easy technique for inducing boundary layer separation has been developed where an APG can be generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Both the experimental and numerical studies showed that the amount of APG can be varied as a function of cylinder rotation speed or cylinder gap height for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. This method of generating an APG is used effectively for inducing both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation over a flat plate. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation studies conducted over a smooth plate have been compared with the same setup repeated over shark skin. The time-averaged DPIV results showed that shark scale bristling controlled both laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation to a measurable extent. It shows that the shark scales cause an early transition to turbulence and reduce the degree of laminar separation. For turbulent separation, reverse flow near the wall and inside the boundary layer is
Time-Series Analysis of Intermittent Velocity Fluctuations in Turbulent Boundary Layers
Zayernouri, Mohsen; Samiee, Mehdi; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-11-01
Classical turbulence theory is modified under the inhomogeneities produced by the presence of a wall. In this regard, we propose a new time series model for the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the inertial sub-layer of turbulent boundary layers. The new model employs tempered fractional calculus and seamlessly extends the classical 5/3 spectral model of Kolmogorov in the inertial subrange to the whole spectrum from large to small scales. Moreover, the proposed time-series model allows the quantification of data uncertainties in the underlying stochastic cascade of turbulent kinetic energy. The model is tested using well-resolved streamwise velocity measurements up to friction Reynolds numbers of about 20,000. The physics of the energy cascade are briefly described within the context of the determined model parameters. This work was supported by the AFOSR Young Investigator Program (YIP) award (FA9550-17-1-0150) and partially by MURI/ARO (W911NF-15-1-0562).
Marvin, J. G.; Horstman, C. C.; Rubesin, M. W.; Coakley, T. J.; Kussoy, M. I.
1975-01-01
A thoroughly documented experiment is reported that was specifically designed to test and guide computations of the interaction of an impinging shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Detailed mean flow field and surface data are presented for two shock strengths which resulted in attached and separated flows, respectively. Numerical computations are used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. Models appropriate for zero pressure gradient flows predicted the overall features of the flow fields, but were deficient in predicting many of the details of the interaction regions. Improvements to the turbulence model parameters were sought through a combination of detailed data analysis and computer simulations which tested the sensitivity of the solutions to model parameter changes. Computer simulations using these improvements are presented and discussed.
Shock-wave-induced turbulent boundary-layer separation at hypersonic speeds
Horstman, C. C.; Kussoy, M. I.; Coakley, T. J.; Rubesin, M. W.; Marvin, J. G.
1975-01-01
An experiment is described that tests and guides computations of the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Numerical solutions of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for the entire flow field employing algebraic eddy viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models for shear stress and heat flux are presented and used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. To guide modifications in the models, the mean flow profiles and surface measurements of pressure, shear, and heat flux are analyzed critically. The results show that the models of eddy viscosity require substantial modifications in the interaction region. Improved solutions employing the experimentally modified models are presented.
Near-wall structure of a turbulent boundary layer with riblets
Choi, Kwing-So
1989-11-01
A detailed wind tunnel study has been carried out on the near-wall turbulence structure over smooth and riblet wall surfaces under zero pressure gradient. Time-average quantities as well as conditionally sampled profiles were obtained using hot-wire/film anemometry, along with a simultaneous flow visualization using the smoke-wire technique and a sheet of laser light. The experimental results indicated a significant change of the structure in the turbulent boundary layer near the riblet surface. The change was confined within a small volume of the flow close to the wall surface. A conceptual model for the sequence of the bursts was then proposed based on an extensive study of the flow visualization, and was supported by the results of conditionally sampled velocity fields. A possible mechanism of turbulent drag reduction by riblets is discussed.
SPH modelling of depth‐limited turbulent open channel flows over rough boundaries
Kazemi, Ehsan; Nichols, Andrew; Tait, Simon
2016-01-01
Summary A numerical model based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is developed to simulate depth‐limited turbulent open channel flows over hydraulically rough beds. The 2D Lagrangian form of the Navier–Stokes equations is solved, in which a drag‐based formulation is used based on an effective roughness zone near the bed to account for the roughness effect of bed spheres and an improved sub‐particle‐scale model is applied to account for the effect of turbulence. The sub‐particle‐scale model is constructed based on the mixing‐length assumption rather than the standard Smagorinsky approach to compute the eddy‐viscosity. A robust in/out‐flow boundary technique is also proposed to achieve stable uniform flow conditions at the inlet and outlet boundaries where the flow characteristics are unknown. The model is applied to simulate uniform open channel flows over a rough bed composed of regular spheres and validated by experimental velocity data. To investigate the influence of the bed roughness on different flow conditions, data from 12 experimental tests with different bed slopes and uniform water depths are simulated, and a good agreement has been observed between the model and experimental results of the streamwise velocity and turbulent shear stress. This shows that both the roughness effect and flow turbulence should be addressed in order to simulate the correct mechanisms of turbulent flow over a rough bed boundary and that the presented smoothed particle hydrodynamics model accomplishes this successfully. © 2016 The Authors International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28066121
A theoretical study on the overlap region in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, Michio
2010-01-01
This paper studies the wall-law defect-law overlap region in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. By taking account of the non-parallel flow effect, a system of differential equations is derived, which describes the velocity profile for the overlap layer and the velocity and length scales for the outer layer. Two kinds of solutions are obtained for the velocity profile in combination with corresponding solutions for the outer layer scales. One is of log-law type and the other is of power-law type. These are possible solutions that represent the necessary condition for the existence of the overlap layer. In the light of the present solutions, recent experimental data for a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are examined. It is found that the observed velocity data follow the log-law solution for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers R θ above 20 000.
The Production of Turbulence in Boundary Layers -- The Role of Microscale Coherent Motions.
1987-06-01
collaspe of the rms w. across most of the layer, when scaled on wall variables. Agreement with measurements of Balint , Vukoslavcevic and Wallace (1986...number dependence in the log and outer regions. The data of Balint er. al. agrees well in both of these regions. The decreasing skewness as we move...Influence of Reynolds number on characteristics of turbulent wall boundary layers. Balint , J.L., Vukoslavcevic, P. and Wallace, J.M. 1986: A study of
Study of Reynolds number effect on turbulent boundary layer near the separation
Dróżdż, A.; Elsner, W.
2016-10-01
The paper deals with the experimental analysis of strong decelerated turbulent boundary layer developed on a flat plate. The special design of the test section equipped with perforated, movable upper wall allow to generate on the bottom wall turbulent boundary layer, which is at the verge of separation. The objective of the work is to examine the effect of Reynolds number on non-equilibrium boundary layer. A momentum thickness Reynolds number at the inlet to a test section was in the range from 6300 to 10150 what was achieved by varying wind tunnel speed. The emphasis is on the analysis of the streamwise Reynolds stress and mean velocity profiles and on related scaling issues problem. It was found that for the same external conditions defined by the pressure gradient coefficient Cp the effect of Reynolds number close the wall is seen even for such a narrow range of Reynolds number. In particular, the shape factor revealed more flow resistance on separation with increase in Reynolds number. The difference where observed mainly at the beginning of incipient detachment, where there is a drop of turbulence activity near the wall while it reaches a maximum value in the outer region.
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
An investigation of the numerical simulation with two-equation turbulence models of a three-dimensional hypersonic intersecting (SWTBL) shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flow is presented. The flows are solved with an efficient implicit upwind flux-difference split Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code. Numerical results are compared with experimental data for a flow at Mach 8.28 and Reynolds number 5.3x10(exp 6) with crossing shock-waves and expansion fans generated by two lateral 15 fins located on top of a cold-wall plate. This experiment belongs to the hypersonic database for modeling validation. Simulations show the development of two primary counter-rotating cross-flow vortices and secondary turbulent structures under the main vortices and in each corner singularity inside the turbulent boundary layer. A significant loss of total pressure is produced by the complex interaction between the main vortices and the uplifted jet stream of the boundary layer. The overall agreement between computational and experimental data is generally good. The turbulence modeling corrections show improvements in the predictions of surface heat transfer distribution and an increase in the strength of the cross-flow vortices. Accurate predictions of the outflow flowfield is found to require accurate modeling of the laminar/turbulent boundary layers on the fin walls.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large amplitude, unsteady heating loads and steep flow gradients produced in regions of shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction (SWTBLI) pose a serious and...
Lee, Zoe; Baas, Andreas
2013-04-01
It is widely recognised that boundary layer turbulence plays an important role in sediment transport dynamics in aeolian environments. Improvements in the design and affordability of ultrasonic anemometers have provided significant contributions to studies of aeolian turbulence, by facilitating high frequency monitoring of three dimensional wind velocities. Consequently, research has moved beyond studies of mean airflow properties, to investigations into quasi-instantaneous turbulent fluctuations at high spatio-temporal scales. To fully understand, how temporal fluctuations in shear stress drive wind erosivity and sediment transport, research into the best practice for calculating shear stress is necessary. This paper builds upon work published by Lee and Baas (2012) on the influence of streamline correction techniques on Reynolds shear stress, by investigating the time-averaging interval used in the calculation. Concerns relating to the selection of appropriate averaging intervals for turbulence research, where the data are typically non-stationary at all timescales, are well documented in the literature (e.g. Treviño and Andreas, 2000). For example, Finnigan et al. (2003) found that underestimating the required averaging interval can lead to a reduction in the calculated momentum flux, as contributions from turbulent eddies longer than the averaging interval are lost. To avoid the risk of underestimating fluxes, researchers have typically used the total measurement duration as a single averaging period. For non-stationary data, however, using the whole measurement run as a single block average is inadequate for defining turbulent fluctuations. The data presented in this paper were collected in a field study of boundary layer turbulence conducted at Tramore beach near Rosapenna, County Donegal, Ireland. High-frequency (50 Hz) 3D wind velocity measurements were collected using ultrasonic anemometry at thirteen different heights between 0.11 and 1.62 metres above
Influence of tall vegetation canopy on turbulence kinetic energy budget in the stable boundary layer
Babić, Karmen; Rotach, Mathias W.
2017-04-01
While a considerable amount of research has been done on turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget studies in the surface layer over horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF) surfaces, little research focused on budgets above heterogeneous and rough surfaces. Only few studies have investigated TKE budgets above fetch-limited forest focusing on statically neutral conditions, while studies in the stable boundary layer (SBL) are still scarce in the literature. Therefore, we present turbulence characteristics above tall, deciduous forest in the wintertime SBL and make a comparison with a well-known results of HHF terrain. Turbulence measurements performed at five levels above the canopy height (approximately h = 18 m) allowed the investigation of combined influence of the roughness sublayer (RSL) found above tall vegetation and the internal boundary layer (IBL) on the TKE budget terms. Each term of the TKE budget is investigated within the framework of local similarity theory. Kolomogorov's similarity hypothesis assumes local isotropy within the inertial subrange. Testing the local isotropy hypothesis more thoroughly resulted in a ratio of the horizontal spectral densities (Sv/Su) approaching the 4/3, while the ratio of the vertical to the longitudinal spectral density (Sw/Su) was less than 1 for all levels indicating an anisotropic turbulence above the canopy. As a consequence, estimated values of TKE dissipation rate (ɛ) for the vertical component (ɛw) were smaller (underestimated) compared to the ɛ estimates obtained from the horizontal velocity components. This finding has a direct influence on the applicability of classical Kansas spectral models valid for HHF terrain as well as on the budget of wind variances. Additionally, the dimensionless wind shear function associated with "Kolmogorov turbulence" (existence of a well-defined inertial subrange with -5/3 slopes) was found to depart from linear prediction suggesting that the stability is a stronger determinant of
Mean turbulence statistics in boundary layers over high-porosity foams
Efstathiou, Christoph; Luhar, Mitul
2018-04-01
This paper reports turbulent boundary layer measurements made over open-cell reticulated foams with varying pore size and thickness, but constant porosity ($\\epsilon \\approx 0.97$). The foams were flush-mounted into a cutout on a flat plate. A Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) was used to measure mean streamwise velocity and turbulence intensity immediately upstream of the porous section, and at multiple measurement stations along the porous substrate. The friction Reynolds number upstream of the porous section was $Re_\\tau \\approx 1690$. For all but the thickest foam tested, the internal boundary layer was fully developed by $30\\%$ of the free stream velocity) and a mean velocity deficit relative to the canonical smooth-wall profile further from the wall. While the magnitude of the mean velocity deficit increased with average pore size, the slip velocity remained approximately constant. Fits to the mean velocity profile suggest that the logarithmic region is shifted relative to a smooth wall, and that this shift increases with pore size until it becomes comparable to substrate thickness $h$. For all foams, the turbulence intensity was found to be elevated further into the boundary layer to $y/ \\delta \\approx 0.2$. An outer peak in intensity was also evident for the largest pore sizes. Velocity spectra indicate that this outer peak is associated with large-scale structures resembling Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices that have streamwise length scale $2\\delta-4\\delta$. Skewness profiles suggest that these large-scale structures may have an amplitude-modulating effect on the interfacial turbulence.
Turbulence in the statically unstable oceanic boundary layer under Arctic leads
McPhee, Miles G.; Stanton, Timothy P.
1996-03-01
Measurements of turbulent stress, heat flux, salinity flux, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation were made in the oceanic boundary layer under freezing leads during the 1992 Lead Experiment project in the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. Results from two instrument systems, one comprising a vertical array of four turbulence-measuring instrument clusters, the other an automated, loose-tethered microstructure profiler, show that forcing by modest surface fluxes (surface friction velocity u*0 ˜ 0.7 cm s-1, surface buoyancy flux 0 ˜ -0.7 × 10-7 W kg-1) substantially changes the scales and character of boundary layer turbulence relative to forcing by stress alone. Despite continuous freezing at the surface, a diurnal cycle of heating and cooling of the mixed layer was seen, with downward oceanic heat flux as high as 70 W m-2 observed at middepth in the mixed layer near solar noon. Heat flux was determined both by direct eddy covariance of temperature and vertical velocity at fixed levels and from TKE and thermal dissipation estimates from the profiling instrument, with reasonable agreement. Similarly, there was close correspondence between TKE dissipation estimates obtained from inertial subrange spectral levels at the fixed instruments and from microstructure shear profiles. TKE production was dominated by buoyancy flux through most of the boundary layer. Thermal and saline eddy diffusivities were computed from directly measured fluxes and mixed layer temperature and salinity gradients, with mean values of 0.046 and 0.049 m2 s-1 for temperature and salinity, respectively. Kolmogorov constants for relating thermal and saline dissipations to inertial subrange spectral levels were found to be 0.9 and 1.0, respectively, but with large scatter.
Controlling turbulent boundary layer separation using biologically inspired 2D transverse grooves
Lang, Amy; Jones, Emily; Afroz, Farhana
2013-11-01
It is theorized that the presence of grooves, such as the sinusoidal ones found on dolphin skin or the cavities that form between bristled shark skin scales, can lead to induced boundary layer mixing and result in the control of turbulent boundary layer separation. To test this hypothesis, a series of water tunnel experiments using DPIV studied the characteristics of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer whereby a rotating cylinder was used to induce an adverse pressure gradient and resulting flow separation. The experiments were repeated with the use of a plate covered with two types of grooves, rectangular and sinusoidal, with a spacing of 2 mm in size. Flow similarity of the cavity flow was preserved between the experiments and flow over bristled shark skin scales. Both geometries resulted in a reduction of flow separation as measured by backflow coefficient. In addition, Reynolds stress profiles showed that as the pressure gradient was increased, the sinusoidal geometry outperformed the rectangular grooves in terms of increased mixing close to the wall. The sinusoidal plate also generated a lower momentum deficit within the boundary layer which would indicate a smaller drag penalty. Support from NSF grant CBET 0932352 and a UA Graduate Council Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged.
A theory for natural convection turbulent boundary layers next to heated vertical surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, W.K. Jr.; Capp, S.P.
1979-01-01
The turbulent natural convection boundary layer next to a heated vertical surface is analyzed by classical scaling arguments. It is shown that the fully developed turbulent boundary layer must be treated in two parts: and outer region consisting of most of the boundary layer in which viscous and conduction terms are negligible and an inner region in which the mean convection terms are negligible. The inner layer is identified as a constant heat flux layer. A similarity analysis yields universal profiles for velocity and temperature in the outer and constant heat flux layers. An asymptotic matching of these profiles in an intermediate layer (the buoyant sublayer) yields analytical expressions for the buoyant sublayer profiles. Asymptotic heat transfer and friction laws are obtained for the fully developed boundary layers. Finally, conductive and thermo-viscous sublayers characterized by a linear variation of velocity and temperature are shown to exist at the wall. All predictions are seen to be in excellent agreement with the abundant experimental data. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandon M. Witte
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the components and usage of an unmanned aerial vehicle developed for measuring turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. A method of computing the time-dependent wind speed from a moving velocity sensor data is provided. The physical system built to implement this method using a five-hole probe velocity sensor is described along with the approach used to combine data from the different on-board sensors to allow for extraction of the wind speed as a function of time and position. The approach is demonstrated using data from three flights of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs measuring the lower atmospheric boundary layer during transition from a stable to convective state. Several quantities are presented and show the potential for extracting a range of atmospheric boundary layer statistics.
Modeling and analysis of large-eddy simulations of particle-laden turbulent boundary layer flows
Rahman, Mustafa M.
2017-01-05
We describe a framework for the large-eddy simulation of solid particles suspended and transported within an incompressible turbulent boundary layer (TBL). For the fluid phase, the large-eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent boundary layer employs stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and a virtual wall model similar to the work of Cheng, Pullin & Samtaney (J. Fluid Mech., 2015). This LES model is virtually parameter free and involves no active filtering of the computed velocity field. Furthermore, a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow is implemented. For the particle phase, the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is chosen in which the weights and abscissas of the quadrature approximation are tracked directly rather than the moments themselves. The numerical method in this framework is based on a fractional-step method with an energy-conservative fourth-order finite difference scheme on a staggered mesh. This code is parallelized based on standard message passing interface (MPI) protocol and is designed for distributed-memory machines. It is proposed to utilize this framework to examine transport of particles in very large-scale simulations. The solver is validated using the well know result of Taylor-Green vortex case. A large-scale sandstorm case is simulated and the altitude variations of number density along with its fluctuations are quantified.
An experimental investigation of a compliant surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer
Hess, David Earl
The interaction between a passive compliant surface and a turbulent boundary layer was studied using a 0.6 m diameter water tunnel. The key idea was the simultaneous determination of surface displacement and turbulence structure. A standard turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate was identified by measuring the first four moments of the streamwise velocity component. Then, two compliant surfaces, consisting of different mixtures of silicone elastomer and silicone oil, were studied by replacing a rigid insert in the flat plate. Varying the amount and viscosity of the oil in the mix allowed one to alter the response of the surface at a variety of Reynolds numbers of interest; in each case, a stable pattern of small amplitude displacements representing the footprints of individual flow structures was obtained. A localized averaging technique (VITA) was used to study any changes in the bursting process that might occur in the presence of a compliant surface. The results indicate that positive pressure pulses which are known to accompany bursting events in the buffer layer produced associated negative displacements in the compliant material beneath.
Interference heating from interactions of shock waves with turbulent boundary layers at Mach 6
Johnson, C. B.; Kaufman, L. G., II
1974-01-01
An experimental investigation of interference heating resulting from interactions of shock waves and turbulent boundary layers was conducted. Pressure and heat-transfer distributions were measured on a flat plate in the free stream and on the wall of the test section of the Langley Mach 6 high Reynolds number tunnel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 million to 400 million. Various incident shock strengths were obtained by varying a wedge-shock generator angle (from 10 deg to 15 deg) and by placing a spherical-shock generator at different vertical positions above the instrumented flat plate and tunnel wall. The largest heating-rate amplification factors obtained for completely turbulent boundary layers were 22.1 for the flat plate and 11.6 for the tunnel wall experiments. Maximum heating correlated with peak pressures using a power law with a 0.85 exponent. Measured pressure distributions were compared with those calculated using turbulent free-interaction pressure rise theories, and separation lengths were compared with values calculated by using different methods.
Momentum and energy transport in the accelerated fully rough turbulent boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, H.W.
1976-06-01
The behavior of the fully rough turbulent boundary layer subjected to favorable pressure gradients was investigated experimentally using a porous test surface composed of densely packed spheres of uniform size. Measurements of profiles of mean velocity, mean temperature and the components of the Reynolds stress tensor are reported for both unblown and blown layers. Stanton numbers were determined from energy balances on the test surface and skin friction coefficients from measurements of the Reynolds shear stress and mean velocity. A new acceleration parameter, K/sub r/, for fully rough layers is defined and shown to be dependent on a characteristic roughness dimension but independent of molecular viscosity. For fully rough turbulent flow, acceleration causes an increase in Stanton number compared to zero pressure gradient values at the same enthalpy thickness, Reynold number, or position. The fully rough Stanton number behavior observed in this study is contrary to that previously reported for unblown accelerated smooth wall layers. Acceleration of a fully rough layer decreases the normalized turbulent kinetic energy and makes the turbulence field much less isotropic in the inner region (for F equal zero) compared to zero pressure gradient fully rough layers. Increasing values of roughness Reynolds number with acceleration indicate that the fully rough layer does not tend toward the transitionally rough or smooth wall state when accelerated.
Li, Shi-Yao; She, Zhen-Su; Chen, Jun
2017-11-01
A velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) analysis is applied to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent boundary layer (CTBL) at Mach numbers, Ma = 2.25 , 4.50 and 6.0 . It is shown that the VVCS analysis captures the geometry variation in the streamwise direction during the transition and in the wall-normal direction in the fully developed regime. Specifically, before transition, the VVCS captures the instability wave number, while in the transition region it displays a distinct scaling change of the dimensions. The fully developed turbulence regime is characterized by a nearly constant spatial extension of the VVCS. Particularly, after turbulence is well developed, a multi-layer structure in the wall normal direction is observed in the maximum correlation coefficient and in the length scales of the VVCS, as expected from a recent symmetry-based theory, the ensemble structure dynamics (SED). The most interesting outcome is an observed linear dependence of the length scale of the VVCS from y+ 50 to 200, which is a direct support to Townsend's attached-eddy theory. In conclusion, the VVCS analysis quantifies the geometrical characteristics of the coherent structures in turbulent compressible shear flows throughout the whole domain. Supported by NSFC (11172006, 11221062, 11452002) and by MOST (China) 973 project (2009CB724100).
Structuring of turbulence and its impact on basic features of Ekman boundary layers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Esau
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The turbulent Ekman boundary layer (EBL has been studied in a large number of theoretical, laboratory and modeling works since F. Nansen's observations during the Norwegian Polar Expedition 1893–1896. Nevertheless, the proposed analytical models, analysis of the EBL instabilities, and turbulence-resolving numerical simulations are not fully consistent. In particular, the role of turbulence self-organization into longitudinal roll vortices in the EBL and its dependence on the meridional component of the Coriolis force remain unclear. A new set of large-eddy simulations (LES are presented in this study. LES were performed for eight different latitudes (from 1° N to 90° N in the domain spanning 144 km in the meridional direction. Geostrophic winds from the west and from the east were used to drive the development of EBL turbulence. The emergence and growth of longitudinal rolls in the EBL was simulated. The simulated rolls are in good agreement with EBL stability analysis given in Dubos et al. (2008. The destruction of rolls in the westerly flow at low latitude was observed in simulations, which agrees well with the action of secondary instability on the rolls in the EBL. This study quantifies the effect of the meridional component of the Coriolis force and the effect of rolls in the EBL on the internal EBL parameters such as friction velocity, cross-isobaric angle, parameters of the EBL depth and resistance laws. A large impact of the roll development or destruction is found. The depth of the EBL in the westerly flow is about five times less than it is in the easterly flow at low latitudes. The EBL parameters, which depend on the depth, also exhibit large difference in these two types of the EBL. Thus, this study supports the need to include the horizontal component of the Coriolis force into theoretical constructions and parameterizations of the boundary layer in models.
Experimental study of a turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trijoulet, Alexandre
1999-01-01
This research thesis reports the definition and results of an experimental study of a two-dimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a rough wall in presence of pressure gradients. This study is motivated by problems met on pump blades by EDF. The author first reports a detailed bibliographical study on the current knowledge regarding the structure of turbulent boundary layers on smooth and rough walls, while more particularly focusing on the notion of wall law. Based on an analysis of Navier-Stokes equations, the author discusses the elaboration of a local partial similitude between two-dimensional flows obtained in wind tunnel and three-dimensional flows in presence of a uniform rotation for flows present within pumps. Thus, the author reproduces the main characteristics of boundary layers on pump walls in a simplified experimental arrangement in which detailed and reliable measurements are possible. In the next part, the author addresses the case of helical-centrifugal pumps. Based on calculation performed by other authors, the above-mentioned similitude parameters are assessed. Results are used to define experimental arrangements suitable for this study. An experimental installation is then presented, as well as the data processing scheme. Experimental results are presented and discussed for flows without pressure gradient, slowed down or accelerated on different surface conditions [fr
Derivation of Zagarola-Smits scaling in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers
Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan
2018-01-01
This Rapid Communication derives the Zagarola-Smits scaling directly from the governing equations for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers (ZPG TBLs). It has long been observed that the scaling of the mean streamwise velocity in turbulent boundary layer flows differs in the near surface region and in the outer layer. In the inner region of small-velocity-defect boundary layers, it is generally accepted that the proper velocity scale is the friction velocity, uτ, and the proper length scale is the viscous length scale, ν /uτ . In the outer region, the most generally used length scale is the boundary layer thickness, δ . However, there is no consensus on velocity scales in the outer layer. Zagarola and Smits [ASME Paper No. FEDSM98-4950 (1998)] proposed a velocity scale, U ZS=(δ1/δ ) U∞ , where δ1 is the displacement thickness and U∞ is the freestream velocity. However, there are some concerns about Zagarola-Smits scaling due to the lack of a theoretical base. In this paper, the Zagarola-Smits scaling is derived directly from a combination of integral, similarity, and order-of-magnitude analysis of the mean continuity equation. The analysis also reveals that V∞, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, is a proper scale for the mean wall-normal velocity V . Extending the analysis to the streamwise mean momentum equation, we find that the Reynolds shear stress in ZPG TBLs scales as U∞V∞ in the outer region. This paper also provides a detailed analysis of the mass and mean momentum balance in the outer region of ZPG TBLs.
Luo, Kun; Hu, Chenshu; Wu, Fan; Fan, Jianren
2017-05-01
In the present work, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of dilute particulate flow in a turbulent boundary layer has been conducted, containing thousands of finite-sized solid rigid particles. The particle surfaces are resolved with the multi-direct forcing immersed-boundary method. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first DNS study of a turbulent boundary layer laden with finite-sized particles. The particles have a diameter of approximately 11.3 wall units, a density of 3.3 times that of the fluid, and a solid volume fraction of 1/1000. The simulation shows that the onset and the completion of the transition processes are shifted earlier with the inclusion of the solid phase and that the resulting streamwise mean velocity of the boundary layer in the particle-laden case is almost consistent with the results of the single-phase case. At the same time, relatively stronger particle movements are observed in the near-wall regions, due to the driving of the counterrotating streamwise vortexes. As a result, increased levels of dissipation occur on the particle surfaces, and the root mean square of the fluctuating velocities of the fluid in the near-wall regions is decreased. Under the present parameters, including the particle Stokes number St+ = 24 and the particle Reynolds number Rep = 33 based on the maximum instantaneous fluid-solid velocity lag, no vortex shedding behind the particle is observed. Lastly, a trajectory analysis of the particles shows the influence of turbophoresis on particle wall-normal concentration, and the particles that originated between y+ = 60 and 2/3 of the boundary-layer thickness are the most influenced.
Flow and turbulence control in a boundary layer wind tunnel using passive hardware devices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Ribičić, Mihael; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Plut, Mihael; Trush, Arsenii; Kozmar, H.
2017-01-01
Roč. 41, č. 6 (2017), s. 643-661 ISSN 0732-8818 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : turbulent flow * atmospheric boundary layer * wind-tunnel simulation * castellated barrier wall * Counihan vortex generators * surface roughness elements * hot-wire measurements Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-017-0196-z
Nowotarski, C. J.
2017-12-01
Though most strong to violent tornadoes are associated with supercell thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs) pose a risk of tornadoes, often at times and locations where supercell tornadoes are less common. Because QLCS low-level mesocyclones and tornado signatures tend to be less coherent, forecasting such tornadoes remains particularly difficult. The majority of simulations of such storms rely on horizontally homogeneous base states lacking resolved boundary layer turbulence and surface fluxes. Previous work has suggested that heterogeneities associated with boundary layer turbulence in the form of horizontal convective rolls can influence the evolution and characteristics of low-level mesocyclones in supercell thunderstorms. This study extends methods for generating boundary layer convection to idealized simulations of QLCSs. QLCS simulations with resolved boundary layer turbulence will be compared against a control simulation with a laminar boundary layer. Effects of turbulence, the resultant heterogeneity in the near-storm environment, and surface friction on bulk storm characteristics and the intensity, morphology, and evolution of low-level rotation will be presented. Although maximum surface vertical vorticity values are similar, when boundary layer turbulence is included, a greater number of miso- and meso-scale vortices develop along the QLCS gust front. The source of this vorticity is analyzed using Eulerian decomposition of vorticity tendency terms and trajectory analysis to delineate the relative importance of surface friction and baroclinicity in generating QLCS vortices. The role of anvil shading in suppressing boundary layer turbulence in the near-storm environment and subsequent effects on QLCS vortices will also be presented. Finally, implications of the results regarding inclusion of more realistic boundary layers in future idealized simulations of deep convection will be discussed.
A physical model of the turbulent boundary layer consonant with mean momentum balance structure.
Klewicki, Joe; Fife, Paul; Wei, Tie; McMurtry, Pat
2007-03-15
Recent studies by the present authors have empirically and analytically explored the properties and scaling behaviours of the Reynolds averaged momentum equation as applied to wall-bounded flows. The results from these efforts have yielded new perspectives regarding mean flow structure and dynamics, and thus provide a context for describing flow physics. A physical model of the turbulent boundary layer is constructed such that it is consonant with the dynamical structure of the mean momentum balance, while embracing independent experimental results relating, for example, to the statistical properties of the vorticity field and the coherent motions known to exist. For comparison, the prevalent, well-established, physical model of the boundary layer is briefly reviewed. The differences and similarities between the present and the established models are clarified and their implications discussed.
RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna
2013-01-01
with bed and suspended load descriptions, the latter based on an unsteady turbulent-diffusion equation, for simulation of sheet-flow sediment transport processes. In addition to standard features common within such RANS-based approaches, the present model includes: (1) hindered settling velocities at high...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... agreement with experimental and/or previous numerical work. The sediment transport model is likewise validated against oscillatory tunnel experiments involving both velocity-skewed and acceleration-skewed flows, as well as against measurements beneath real progressive waves.Model capabilities are exploited...
Skin friction and velocity profile family for compressible turbulent boundary layers
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1993-01-01
The paper presents a general approach to constructing mean velocity profiles for compressible turbulent boundary layers with isothermal or adiabatic walls. The theory is based on a density-weighted transformation that allows the extension of the incompressible similarity laws of the wall to the compressible regions. The velocity profile family is compared to a range of experimental data, and excellent agreement is obtained. A self-consistent skin friction law, which satisfies the proposed velocity profile family, is derived and compared with the well-known Van Driest II theory for boundary layers in zero pressure gradient. The results are found to be at least as good as those obtained by using the Van Driest II transformation.
Interaction of a conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer
Teh, S. L.; Gai, S. L.
The paper reports an investigation on the interaction of an incident conical shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Although a conical shock theoretically creates a hyperbolic shock trace on the flat plate, the line joining all the experimental interaction origins takes a different form due to varying upstream influence. The existence of strong pressure gradients in the spanwise direction after the shock leads to the boundary-layer twist. A model based on the upstream influence of the shock when combined with McCabe's secondary-flow theory showed separation to occur at an external flow deflection of 11.8 deg. The oil flow measurements however show this to occur at 9.2 deg. This discrepancy is of the same order as that found by McCabe. Detailed data involving Schlieren and shadowgraph photography, surface-flow visualization, and surface-pressure measurements are presented.
Experimental and numerical investigation of low-drag intervals in turbulent boundary layer
Park, Jae Sung; Ryu, Sangjin; Lee, Jin
2017-11-01
It has been widely investigated that there is a substantial intermittency between high and low drag states in wall-bounded shear flows. Recent experimental and computational studies in a turbulent channel flow have identified low-drag time intervals based on wall shear stress measurements. These intervals are a weak turbulence state characterized by low-speed streaks and weak streamwise vortices. In this study, the spatiotemporal dynamics of low-drag intervals in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated using experiments and simulations. The low-drag intervals are monitored based on the wall shear stress measurement. We show that near the wall conditionally-sampled mean velocity profiles during low-drag intervals closely approach that of a low-drag nonlinear traveling wave solution as well as that of the so-called maximum drag reduction asymptote. This observation is consistent with the channel flow studies. Interestingly, the large spatial stretching of the streak is very evident in the wall-normal direction during low-drag intervals. Lastly, a possible connection between the mean velocity profile during the low-drag intervals and the Blasius profile will be discussed. This work was supported by startup funds from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin
2015-01-01
An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)
Simulations of Turbulent Flow Over Complex Terrain Using an Immersed-Boundary Method
DeLeon, Rey; Sandusky, Micah; Senocak, Inanc
2018-02-01
We present an immersed-boundary method to simulate high-Reynolds-number turbulent flow over the complex terrain of Askervein and Bolund Hills under neutrally-stratified conditions. We reconstruct both the velocity and the eddy-viscosity fields in the terrain-normal direction to produce turbulent stresses as would be expected from the application of a surface-parametrization scheme based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. We find that it is essential to be consistent in the underlying assumptions for the velocity reconstruction and the eddy-viscosity relation to produce good results. To this end, we reconstruct the tangential component of the velocity field using a logarithmic velocity profile and adopt the mixing-length model in the near-surface turbulence model. We use a linear interpolation to reconstruct the normal component of the velocity to enforce the impermeability condition. Our approach works well for both the Askervein and Bolund Hills when the flow is attached to the surface, but shows slight disagreement in regions of flow recirculation, despite capturing the flow reversal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakao, Keisuke; Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A large-eddy simulation of a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer is conducted. • First- and second-order moments of the heat and momentum showed a reasonable agreement with past experiments. • Coherent structure of turbulent vortex inherent in this boundary layer is discussed. - Abstract: Large-eddy simulation (LES) on a spatially developing natural convection boundary layer along a vertical heated plate was conducted. The heat transfer rate, friction velocity, mean velocity and temperature, and second-order turbulent properties both in the wall-normal and the stream-wise direction showed reasonable agreement with the findings of past experiments. The spectrum of velocity and temperature fluctuation showed a -2/3-power decay slope and -2-power decay slope respectively. Quadrant analysis revealed the inclination on Q1 and Q3 in the Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, changing their contribution along the distance from the plate surface. Following the convention, we defined the threshold region where the stream-wise mean velocity takes local maximum, the inner layer which is closer to the plate than the threshold region, the outer layer which is farther to the plate than the threshold region. The space correlation of stream-wise velocity tilted the head toward the wall in the propagating direction in the outer layer; on the other hand, the correlated motion had little inclination in the threshold region. The time history of the second invariant of gradient tensor Q revealed that the vortex strength oscillates both in the inner and the outer layers in between the laminar and the transition region. In the turbulent region, the vortex was often dominant in the outer layer. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of Q revealed the existence of high-speed fluid parcels associated with arch-shape vortices. These results were considered as an intrinsic structure in the outer layer, which is symmetrical to the structure of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramov, Alexey G; Smirnov, Evgueni M; Goryachev, Valery D
2014-01-01
Results of direct numerical simulations for time-developing air natural-convection boundary layer are presented. Computations have been performed assuming periodicity conditions in both the directions parallel to the vertical isothermal hot plate. The contribution is mainly focused on understanding of laminar–turbulent transition peculiarities in the case of perturbation action of external turbulence that is modeled by isotropic disturbances initially introduced into the computational domain. Special attention is paid to identification and analysis of evolving three-dimensional vortices that clearly manifest themselves through the whole stages of laminar–turbulent transition in the boundary layer. A comparison of computed profiles of mean velocity, mean temperature and fluctuation characteristics for turbulent regimes of convection with experimental data is performed as well. (paper)
Sircar, A.; Paul, C.; Ferreyro, S.; Imren, A.; Haworth, D. C.; Roy, S.; Ge, W.; Modest, M. F.
2016-11-01
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive CFD models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating conditions typical of heavy-duty CI engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. NSF, DOE.
Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Campo, Laura; Larsson, Johan; Emory, Mike; Bodart, Julien; Palacios, Francisco; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Eaton, John
2013-11-01
We study the interaction between an oblique shock wave and the turbulent boundary layers inside a nearly-square duct by combining wall-modeled LES, 2D and 3D RANS simulations, targeting the experiment of Campo, Helmer & Eaton, 2012 (nominal conditions: M = 2 . 05 , Reθ = 6 , 500). A primary objective is to quantify the effect of aleatory and epistemic uncertainties on the STBLI. Aleatory uncertainties considered include the inflow conditions (Mach number of the incoming air stream and thickness of the boundary layers) and perturbations of the duct geometry upstream of the interaction. The epistemic uncertainty under consideration focuses on the RANS turbulence model form by injecting perturbations in the Reynolds stress anisotropy in regions of the flow where the model assumptions (in particular, the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity hypothesis) may be invalid. These perturbations are then propagated through the flow solver into the solution. The uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is done through 2D and 3D RANS simulations, assessing the importance of the three-dimensional effects imposed by the nearly-square duct geometry. Wall-modeled LES are used to verify elements of the UQ methodology and to explore the flow features and physics of the STBLI for multiple shock strengths. Financial support from the United States Department of Energy under the PSAAP program is gratefully acknowledged.
Confinement effects in shock/turbulent-boundary-layer interaction through wall-modeled LES
Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Campo, Laura; Larsson, Johan; Bodart, Julien; Helmer, David; Eaton, John
2016-11-01
Wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) are used to investigate three-dimensional effects imposed by lateral confinement on the interaction of oblique shock waves impinging on turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) developed along the walls of a nearly-square duct. A constant Mach number, M = 2 . 05 , of the incoming air stream is considered, with a Reynolds number based on the incoming turbulent boundary layer momentum thickness Reθ 14 , 000 . The strength of the impinging shock is varied by increasing the height of a compression wedge located at a constant streamwise location that spans the top wall of the duct at a 20° angle. Simulation results are first validated with particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental data obtained at several vertical planes. Emphasis is placed on the study of the instantaneous and time-averaged structure of the flow for the stronger-interaction case, which shows mean flow reversal. By performing additional spanwise-periodic simulations, it is found that the structure and location of the shock system and separation bubble are significantly modified by the lateral confinement. Low-frequency unsteadiness and downstream evolution of corner flows are also investigated. Financial support from the United States Department of Energy under the PSAAP program is gratefully acknowledged.
Hwang, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Jae Hwa
2017-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over spanwise heterogeneous surface roughness are performed to investigate the characteristics of secondary flow. The longitudinal surface roughness, which features lateral change in bed elevation, is described by immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness is varied in the range of Reθ = 300-900. As the TBLs over the roughness elements spatially develop in the streamwise direction, a secondary flow emerges in a form of counter-rotating vortex pair. As the spanwise spacing between the roughness elements and roughness width vary, it is shown that the size of the secondary flow is determined by the valley width between the roughness elements. In addition, the strength of the secondary flow is mostly affected by the spanwise distance between the cores of the secondary flow. Analysis of the Reynolds-averaged turbulent kinetic energy transport equation reveals that the energy redistribution terms in the TBLs over-the ridge type roughness play an important role to derive low-momentum pathways with upward motion over the roughness crest, contrary to the previous observation with the strip-type roughness. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000537) and the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A5A1015311).
The Interaction of a Turbulent Ship-Hull Boundary Layer and a Free Surface
Masnadi, N.; Washuta, N.; Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.
2013-11-01
The free-surface deformation pattern caused by subsurface turbulent velocity fluctuations in the boundary layer at the mid-length of a naval ship is studied with a novel laboratory scale experimental technique. In this technique, the boundary layer is created in a large tank (13.4 m long, 1.3 m tall, and 2.4 m wide) with a surface-piercing meter-wide stainless steel belt that travels in a horizontal loop around two vertically oriented rollers whose axes are separated by 7.5 m. The device is enclosed in a dry box except for one of the two lengths between the rollers where a straight 6-meter-long section is exposed to the water and represents one side of the ship hull. The belt operates at full-scale ship speeds (up to 15 m/s) in order to match the Reynolds, Froude, and Weber numbers to those of naval ships, thus faithfully modeling the interaction of the turbulence with the free surface at laboratory scale. The water surface profile history midway between the rollers is recorded cinematically in a vertical plane normal to the belt using a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. This surface profile data is used to study the near-wall and far-field frequency content and propagation behavior of the surface ripples. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall
Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.
2014-11-01
Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Influence of Evaporating Droplets in the Turbulent Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Peng, Tianze; Richter, David
2017-12-01
Sea-spray droplets ejected into the marine atmospheric boundary layer take part in a series of complex transport processes. By capturing the air-droplet coupling and feedback, we focus on how droplets modify the total heat transfer across a turbulent boundary layer. We implement a high-resolution Eulerian-Lagrangian algorithm with varied droplet size and mass loading in a turbulent open-channel flow, revealing that the influence from evaporating droplets varies for different dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of droplets. Droplets that both respond rapidly to the ambient environment and have long suspension times are able to modify the latent and sensible heat fluxes individually, however the competing signs of this modification lead to an overall weak effect on the total heat flux. On the other hand, droplets with a slower thermodynamic response to the environment are less subjected to this compensating effect. This indicates a potential to enhance the total heat flux, but the enhancement is highly dependent on the concentration and suspension time.
Turbulence radiation coupling in boundary layers of heavy-duty diesel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sircar, Arpan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Paul, Chandan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Imren, Abdurrahman [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Haworth, Daniel C [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Roy, Somesh P [Marquette University (United States); Ge, Wenjun [University of California Merced (United States); Modest, Michael F [University of California Merced (United States)
2017-04-05
The lack of accurate submodels for in-cylinder radiation and heat transfer has been identified as a key shortcoming in developing truly predictive, physics-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to develop combustion systems for advanced high-efficiency, low-emissions engines. Recent measurements of wall layers in engines show discrepancies of up to 100% with respect to standard CFD boundary-layer models. And recent analysis of in-cylinder radiation based on the most recent spectral property databases and high-fidelity radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers has shown that at operating pressures and exhaust-gas recirculation levels typical of modern heavy-duty compression-ignition engines, radiative emission can be as high as 40% of the wall heat losses, that molecular gas radiation (mainly CO2 and H2O) can be more important than soot radiation, and that a significant fraction of the emitted radiation can be reabsorbed before reaching the walls. That is, radiation not only contributes to heat losses, but also changes the in-cylinder temperature distribution, which in turn affects combustion and emissions. The goal of this research is to develop models that explicitly account for the potentially strong coupling between radiative and turbulent boundary layer heat transfer. For example, for optically thick conditions, a simple diffusion model might be formulated in terms of an absorption-coefficient-dependent turbulent Prandtl number.
Skin friction drag reduction on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer using synthetic jets
Belanger, Randy; Boom, Pieter D.; Hanson, Ronald E.; Lavoie, Philippe; Zingg, David W.
2017-11-01
In these studies, we investigate the effect of mild synthetic jet actuation on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with the goal of interacting with the large scales in the log region of the boundary layer and manipulating the overall skin friction. Results will be presented from both large eddy simulations (LES) and wind tunnel experiments. In the experiments, a large parameter space of synthetic jet frequency and amplitude was studied with hot film sensors at select locations behind a pair of synthetic jets to identify the parameters that produce the greatest changes in the skin friction. The LES simulations were performed for a selected set of parameters and provide a more complete evaluation of the interaction between the boundary layer and synthetic jets. Five boundary layer thicknesses downstream, the skin friction between the actuators is generally found to increase, while regions of reduced skin friction persist downstream of the actuators. This pattern is reversed for forcing at low frequency. Overall, the spanwise-averaged skin friction is increased by the forcing, except when forcing at high frequency and low amplitude, for which a net skin friction reduction persists downstream. The physical interpretation of these results will be discussed. The financial support of Airbus is gratefully acknowledged.
Trajectory of a synthetic jet issuing into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
Berk, Tim; Baidya, Rio; de Silva, Charitha; Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-11-01
Synthetic jets are zero-net-mass-flux actuators that can be used in a range of flow control applications. For several pulsed/synthetic jet in cross-flow applications the variation of the jet trajectory in the mean flow with jet and boundary layer parameters is important. This trajectory will provide an indication of the penetration depth of the pulsed/synthetic jet into a boundary layer. Trajectories of a synthetic jet in a turbulent boundary layer are measured for a range of actuation parameters in both low- and high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ = 13000). The important parameters influencing the trajectory are determined from these measurements. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is shown to only have a small effect on the trajectory. In fact, the critical parameters are found to be the Strouhal number of the jet based on jet dimensions as well as the velocity ratio of the jet (defined as a ratio between peak jet velocity and the freestream velocity). An expression for the trajectory of the synthetic (or pulsed) jet is derived from the data, which (in the limit) is consistent with known expressions for the trajectory of a steady jet in a cross-flow. T.B. and B.G. are grateful to the support from the ERC (Grant Agreement No. 277472) and the EPSRC (Grant ref. no. EP/L006383/1).
Simultaneous wall-shear-stress and wide-field PIV measurements in a turbulent boundary layer
Gomit, Guillaume; Fourrie, Gregoire; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2015-11-01
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hot-film shear stress sensor measurements were performed to study the large-scale structures associated with shear stress events in a flat plate turbulent boundary layer at a high Reynolds number (Reτ ~ 4000). The PIV measurement was performed in a streamwise-wall normal plane using an array of six high resolution cameras (4 ×16MP and 2 ×29MP). The resulting field of view covers 8 δ (where δ is the boundary layer thickness) in the streamwise direction and captures the entire boundary layer in the wall-normal direction. The spatial resolution of the measurement is approximately is approximately 70 wall units (1.8 mm) and sampled each 35 wall units (0.9 mm). In association with the PIV setup, a spanwise array of 10 skin-friction sensors (spanning one δ) was used to capture the footprint of the large-scale structures. This combination of measurements allowed the analysis of the three-dimensional conditional structures in the boundary layer. Particularly, from conditional averages, the 3D organisation of the wall normal and streamwise velocity components (u and v) and the Reynolds shear stress (-u'v') related to a low and high shear stress events can be extracted. European Research Council Grant No-277472-WBT.
Plasma-based actuators for turbulent boundary layer control in transonic flow
Budovsky, A. D.; Polivanov, P. A.; Vishnyakov, O. I.; Sidorenko, A. A.
2017-10-01
The study is devoted to development of methods for active control of flow structure typical for the aircraft wings in transonic flow with turbulent boundary layer. The control strategy accepted in the study was based on using of the effects of plasma discharges interaction with miniature geometrical obstacles of various shapes. The conceptions were studied computationally using 3D RANS, URANS approaches. The results of the computations have shown that energy deposition can significantly change the flow pattern over the obstacles increasing their influence on the flow in boundary layer region. Namely, one of the most interesting and promising data were obtained for actuators basing on combination of vertical wedge with asymmetrical plasma discharge. The wedge considered is aligned with the local streamlines and protruding in the flow by 0.4-0.8 of local boundary layer thickness. The actuator produces negligible distortion of the flow at the absence of energy deposition. Energy deposition along the one side of the wedge results in longitudinal vortex formation in the wake of the actuator providing momentum exchange in the boundary layer. The actuator was manufactured and tested in wind tunnel experiments at Mach number 1.5 using the model of flat plate. The experimental data obtained by PIV proved the availability of the actuator.
Experimental study of laminar and turbulent boundary layer separation control of shark skin.
Afroz, Farhana; Lang, Amy; Habegger, Maria Laura; Motta, Philip; Hueter, Robert
2016-12-20
The Shortfin Mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a fast swimmer and has incredible turning agility, and has flexible scales known to bristle up to 50° in the flank regions. It is purported that this bristling capability of the scales may result in a unique pass flow control method to control flow separation and reduce drag. It appears that the scales have evolved to be only actuated when the flow over the body is reversed; thereby inducing a method of inhibiting flow reversal close to the surface. In addition, bristled scales form cavities which could induce boundary layer mixing and further assist in delaying flow separation. To substantiate the hypothesis, samples of skin from the flank region of the mako have been tested in a water tunnel facility under various strengths of adverse pressure gradient (APG). Laminar and turbulent separation over the skin was studied experimentally using time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry, where the APG was generated and varied using a rotating cylinder. Shark skin results were compared with that of a smooth plate data for a given amount of APG. Both the instantaneous and time-averaged results reveal that shark skin is capable of controlling laminar as well as turbulent separation. Under laminar conditions, the shark skin also induces an early transition to turbulence and reduces the degree of laminar separation. For turbulent separation, the presence of the shark skin reduces the amount of backflow and size of the separation region. Under both flow conditions, the shark skin also delayed the point of separation as compared to a smooth wall.
Resolving vorticity and dissipation in a turbulent boundary layer by tomographic PTV and VIC+
Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.
2017-04-01
The existing time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements by Jodai and Elsinga (J Fluid Mech 795:611-633; Jodai, Elsinga, J Fluid Mech 795:611-633, 2016) in a turbulent boundary layer ( Re θ = 2038) are reprocessed using tomographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and vortex-in-cell-plus (VIC+). The resulting small-scale flow properties, i.e. vorticity and turbulence dissipation, are compared. The VIC+ technique was recently proposed and uses the concept of pouring time into space to increase reconstruction quality of instantaneous velocity. The tomographic PTV particle track measurements are interpolated using VIC+ to a dense grid, making use of both particle velocity and Lagrangian acceleration. Comparison of the vortical structures by visualization of isosurfaces of vorticity magnitude shows that the two methods return similar coherent vortical structures, but their strength in terms of vorticity magnitude is increased when using VIC+, which suggests an improvement in spatial resolution. Further statistical evaluation shows that the root mean square (rms) of vorticity fluctuations from tomographic PIV is approximately 40% lower in comparison to a reference profile available from a DNS simulation, while the VIC+ technique returns rms vorticity fluctuations to within 10% of the reference. The dissipation rate is heavily underestimated by tomographic PIV with approximately 50% damping, whereas the VIC+ analysis yields a dissipation rate to within approximately 5% for y + > 25. The fact that dissipation can be directly measured by a volumetric experiment is novel. It differs from existing approaches that involve 2d measurements combined with isotropic turbulence assumptions or apply corrections based on sub-grid scale turbulence modelling. Finally, the study quantifies the spatial response of VIC+ with a sine-wave lattice analysis. The results indicate a twofold increase of spatial resolution with respect to cross
Ha Minh, H.; Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.; Spalart, P.; Vandromme, D. D.
1989-01-01
The turbulent boundary layer under a freestream whose velocity varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is computed using two second order turbulence closure models. The time or phase dependent behavior of the Reynolds stresses are analyzed and results are compared to those of a previous SPALART-BALDWIN direct simulation. Comparisons show that the second order modeling is quite satisfactory for almost all phase angles, except in the relaminarization period where the computations lead to a relatively high wall shear stress.
Goradia, Suresh H.; Morgan, Harry L., Jr.
1987-01-01
Laminarization of the boundary layer on the surface of aircraft wings can be accomplished by the use of concepts such as Natural Laminar Flow (NLF), Laminar-Flow Control (LFC), and Hybrid Laminar-Flow Control (HLFC). Several integral boundary-layer methods were developed for the prediction of laminar, transition, and separating turbulent boundary layers. These methods were developed for use at either subsonic or supersonic speeds, have small computer execution times, and are simple to use. The theoretical equations and assumptions which form the basis of the boundary-layer method, are briefly outlined and the results of several correlation cases with exciting experimental data are presented.
SPH simulations of turbulence in fixed and rotating boxes in two dimensions with no-slip boundaries
Valizadeh, Alireza; Monaghan, Joe. J.
2012-01-01
In this paper we study decaying turbulence in fixed and rotating boxes in two dimen- sions using the particle method SPH. The boundaries are specified by boundary force particles, and the turbulence is initiated by a set of gaussian vortices. In the case of fixed boxes we recover the results of Clercx and his colleagues obtained using both a high accuracy spectral method and experiments. Our results for fixed boxes are also in close agreement with those of Monaghan1 and Robinson and Monaghan2...
Sun, Zheng; Ning, Hui; Song, Shihui; Yan, Dongmei
2016-10-01
Nocturnal radiative cooling is a main driver for atmospheric duct formation. Within this atmospheric process, the impacts of intermittent turbulence on ducting have seldom been studied. In this paper, we reported two confusing ducting events observed in the early morning in August 2014 over Bosten Lake, China, when a stable boundary layer (SBL) still survived, by using tethered high-resolution GPS radiosondes. Elevated ducts with strong humidity inversions were observed during the balloon ascents but were absent during observations made upon the balloon descents several minutes later. This phenomenon was initially hypothesized to be attributable to turbulence motions in the SBL, and the connection between the turbulence event and the radar duct was examined by the statistical Thorpe method. Turbulence patches were detected from the ascent profiles but not from the descent profiles. The possible reasons for the duct formation and elimination were discussed in detail. The turbulent transport of moisture in the SBL and the advection due to airflows coming from the lake are the most probable reasons for duct formation. In one case, the downward transport of moisture by turbulence mixing within a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow at the top of the low-level jet resulted in duct elimination. In another case, the passage of density currents originating from the lake may have caused the elimination of the duct. Few studies have attempted to associate intermittent turbulence with radar ducts; thus, this work represents a pioneering study into the connection between turbulent events and atmospheric ducts in a SBL.
Numerical Study of Outlet Boundary Conditions for Unsteady Turbulent Internal Flows Using the NCC
Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results of studies on the outlet boundary conditions for turbulent internal flow simulations. Several outlet boundary conditions have been investigated by applying the National Combustion Code (NCC) to the configuration of a LM6000 single injector flame tube. First of all, very large eddy simulations (VLES) have been performed using the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS) approach, in which both the nonlinear and linear dynamic subscale models were employed. Secondly, unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier- Stokes (URANS) simulations have also been performed for the same configuration to investigate the effects of different outlet boundary conditions in the context of URANS. Thirdly, the possible role of the initial condition is inspected by using three different initial flow fields for both the PRNS/VLES simulation and the URANS simulation. The same grid is used for all the simulations and the number of mesh element is about 0.5 million. The main purpose of this study is to examine the long-time behavior of the solution as determined by the imposed outlet boundary conditions. For a particular simulation to be considered as successful under the given initial and boundary conditions, the solution must be sustainable in a physically meaningful manner over a sufficiently long period of time. The commonly used outlet boundary condition for steady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is a fixed pressure at the outlet with all the other dependent variables being extrapolated from the interior. The results of the present study suggest that this is also workable for the URANS simulation of the LM6000 injector flame tube. However, it does not work for the PRNS/VLES simulation due to the unphysical reflections of the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. This undesirable situation can be practically alleviated by applying a simple unsteady convection equation for the pressure disturbances at the outlet boundary. The
Air Entrainment and Surface Ripples in a Turbulent Ship Hull Boundary Layer
Masnadi, Naeem; Erinin, Martin; Duncan, James H.
2017-11-01
The air entrainment and free-surface fluctuations caused by the interaction of a free surface and the turbulent boundary layer of a vertical surface-piercing plate is studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes. This belt device is mounted inside a large water tank with the water level set just below the top edge of the belt. The belt, rollers, and supporting frame are contained within a sheet metal box to keep the device dry except for one 6-meter-long straight test section. The belt is accelerated suddenly from rest until reaching constant speed in order to create a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer that would exist along a surface-piercing towed flat plate. Surface ripples are measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with the laser sheet oriented parallel or normal to the belt surface. Air entrainment events and bubble motions are recorded from underneath the water surface using a stereo imaging system. Measurements of small bubbles, that tend to stay submerged for a longer time, are planned via a high-speed digital in-line holographic system. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.
Drag Reduction for Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows Using an Oscillating Wall
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bogard, David
2000-01-01
This research program used experimental measurements and computational simulations to study the drag reduction, and the resulting effects on turbulence structure, for a turbulent wall flow subjected...
Mesoscale model parameterizations for radiation and turbulent fluxes at the lower boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somieski, F.
1988-11-01
A radiation parameterization scheme for use in mesoscale models with orography and clouds has been developed. Broadband parameterizations are presented for the solar and the terrestrial spectral ranges. They account for clear, turbid or cloudy atmospheres. The scheme is one-dimensional in the atmosphere, but the effects of mountains (inclination, shading, elevated horizon) are taken into account at the surface. In the terrestrial band, grey and black clouds are considered. Furthermore, the calculation of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat and momentum at an inclined lower model boundary is described. Surface-layer similarity and the surface energy budget are used to evaluate the ground surface temperature. The total scheme is part of the mesoscale model MESOSCOP. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs [de
Saltation and incipient suspension above a flat particle bed below a turbulent boundary layer
Nishimura, K.; Hunt, J. C. R.
2000-08-01
Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel in which a turbulent boundary layer was naturally grown over flat beds of three types of nearly mono-disperse spherical particles with different diameters, densities and coefficient of restitution (r) (snow, 0.48 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3; mustard seeds, 1.82 mm, 1670 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.7; ice particles, 2.80 mm, 910 kg m[minus sign]3, r = 0.8 0.9). The surface wind speeds (defined by the friction velocity u[low asterisk]) were varied between 1.0 and 1.9 times the threshold surface wind speed (defined by u[low asterisk]t). The trajectories, and ejection and impact velocities of the particles were recorded and analysed, even those that were raised only about one diameter into the flow.
Boundary layers in turbulent convection for air, liquid gallium and liquid sodium
Scheel, Janet; Schumacher, Joerg
2017-11-01
The scaling of physical quantities that characterize the shape and dynamics of the viscous and thermal boundary layers with respect to the Rayleigh number will be presented for three series of three-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection (RBC) in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio one. The simulations have been conducted for convection in air at a Prandtl number Pr = 0.7, in liquid gallium at Pr = 0.021 and in liquid sodium at Pr = 0.005. Then we discuss three statistical analysis methods which have been developed to predict the transition of turbulent RBC into the ultimate regime. The methods are based on the large-scale properties of the velocity profile. All three methods indicate that the range of critical Rayleigh numbers is shifted to smaller magnitudes as the Prandtl number becomes smaller. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Wedel-Heinen, Jens Jakob
as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry...... evolution 4. atmospheric stability effects on wake deficit evolution and meandering The conducted research is to a large extent based on detailed wake investigations and reference data generated through computational fluid dynamics simulations, where the wind turbine rotor has been represented......This thesis describes the further development and validation of the dynamic meandering wake model for simulating the flow field and power production of wind farms operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The overall objective of the conducted research is to improve the modelling...
Bailon-Cuba, Jorge
2005-11-01
A numerical implementation of the theory of George and Castillo (GC-97) for smooth and Seo (2003) for rough, is being done for the computation of the Reynolds shear stresses, -, and the eddy viscosity /ν. Starting with the similarity solutions of the Navier Stockes equations for the inner and outer flow, the resulting partial differential equations are integrated considering asymptotic boundary conditions consistent with the physics of the inner and outer flow. The empirical and theoretical velocity profiles proposed by GC-97 are used for the inner and outer flow respectively. The results are compared with experimental data showing an excellent agreement in the inner region, and a reasonable accuracy in the outer region, for hydraulically smooth surfaces (k^+ , allows the resulting eddy viscosity, , can be used in turbulence modeling and simulations (i.e. LES subgrid scale model).
Direct Numerical Simulation of dense particle-laden turbulent flows using immersed boundaries
Wang, Fan; Desjardins, Olivier
2009-11-01
Dense particle-laden turbulent flows play an important role in many engineering applications, ranging from pharmaceutical coating and chemical synthesis to fluidized bed reactors. Because of the complexity of the physics involved in these flows, current computational models for gas-particle processes, such as drag and heat transfer, rely on empirical correlations and have been shown to lack accuracy. In this work, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of dense particle-laden flows are conducted, using immersed boundaries (IB) to resolve the flow around each particle. First, the accuracy of the proposed approach is tested on a range of 2D and 3D flows at various Reynolds numbers, and resolution requirements are discussed. Then, various particle arrangements and number densities are simulated, the impact on particle wake interaction is assessed, and existing drag models are evaluated in the case of fixed particles. In addition, the impact of the particles on turbulence dissipation is investigated. Finally, a strategy for handling moving and colliding particles is discussed.
Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie
Wang, H
2014-06-16
Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.
Hairpin packet structure of a turbulent boundary layer in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes
Lee, Jae Hwa; Sung, Hyung Jin
2009-11-01
Turbulent coherent structures associated with hairpin packet motions have been scrutinized using the instantaneous flow fields obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL). The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness was varied in the range Reθ=890˜2560. This study focused on the hairpin packet motions in inclined wall-normal/spanwise planes. The hairpin vortex signature associated with the hairpin leg components in the vertical inclined plane consists of a counter-rotating vortex pair, upward and downward motions and a stagnation point induced by the Q2 and Q4 events. These hairpin signatures were observed in the instantaneous flow field, in the two-point correlations and in the conditionally averaged flow fields, respectively. We considered three inclined planes (45^o, 90^o, and 135^o) to investigate the spatial characteristics of the hairpin packet motions in the log and wake regions. The statistical flow fields showed that significantly different flow patterns are induced by the intersections of the three inclined planes with the hairpin packet motions.
Evaluation of Turbulence Models Through Predictions of a Simple 3D Boundary Layer.
Jammalamadaka, A.
2005-11-01
Although a number of popular turbulence models are now commonly used to predict complex 3D flows, in particular for industrial applications, very limited full evaluation of their performance has been carried out using thoroughly documented experiments. One such experiment is that of Bruns, Fernholz and Monkewitz (JFM, vol. 393; 1999) in a boundary layer on the wall of an S-shaped duct, where the wall shear stress was measured accurately and independently in the original work and more recently with oil-film interferometry by Reudi et al. (Exp Fluids vol. 35; 2003). Results from various models including k-ɛ, Spalart-Alamaras, k-φ, Menter's SST, and RSM are compared with the experimental results to extract better understanding of strengths and limitations of the various models. In addition to the various pressure distributions along the S-duct and the shear stress development on the test surface, the various normal stresses are compared for all the models with some surprising results in reference to the difficulty in predicting even such a simple 3D turbulent flow. Comparisons of other Reynolds stresses with models that predict them directly also reveal interesting results. In general the predictions of models are more in agreement with each other than with the experiment, suggesting that they suffer from common shortcomings. Also, the deviations of the predictions from the experiment grow to significant levels just beyond the development of the cross-over transverse velocity profile.
Time-resolved PIV of a turbulent boundary layer over a spanwise-oscillating surface
Gouder, Kevin; Morrison, Jonathan
2012-11-01
This work reports measurements of a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ ~ 2500, over a resonant spanwise-oscillating surface driven by a linear electromagnetic motor. Time-resolved PIV measurements of velocity are presented and supplemented by hot-wire measurements of velocity and direct drag measurements of friction drag using a drag balance. A maximum of 16% surface friction reduction, as calculated by the diminution of the wall-normal streamwise velocity gradient was obtained. The PIV laser beam was parallel to the plane of the oscillating surface at a height of y+ ~ 15, hence, top-down views of the near-wall turbulence activity and the effect of the surface oscillation on its evolution were obtained. It has been shown that the imposition of a spanwise Stokes-like layer at a non-dimensional period of T+ =Tuτ2 / ν ~ 100 at peak-peak oscillation amplitudes equal to or larger than the mean streak spacing enabled the direct manipulation of the quasi-streamwise near-wall structures and caused fundamental changes in their evolution leading to reductions, for example, in the near-wall values of the mean-square of the streamwise fluctuating velocity component. This work was supported by Qinetiq, Airbus and EPSRC.
Influence of solid boundary conditions on the evolution of free and wall-bounded turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Addio, Paolo; Sassun, David; Orlandi, Paolo; Flores, Oscar
2014-01-01
The effect of the boundary conditions on the organization of vortex clusters is analyzed in two separate cases: rough channel flow and grid-generated turbulence. The aim is to understand how far the fluid structures are affected by the presence of roughness and the geometry of the grid. The grid-turbulence cases show that the single- and multi-scale geometries generate a flow strongly dominated by the shear at the beginning. The shear is initially caused by the presence of the body and, for the multi-scale grids, subsequently by the large differences between the scales. Further downstream from the grid these shear-dominated structures break up and form more isotropic clusters, whose dimensions seem to depend little on the particular geometry of the grid. For fractal grids, clusters are formed right downstream of the grid, resulting in a flow with less inhomogeneities than for single- and multi-scale grids. Eight different rough surfaces have been analyzed. In the smooth channel, both attached and detached clusters have been found and, depending on the geometry, the roughness affects the attached structures. Roughnesses made of aligned obstacles with a large separation seem to reduce the number of these structures in the flow. When the roughness elements are closely packed, both for transverse and aligned obstacles, the attached clusters are not able to reach within the roughness elements, and they seem to be anchored to the plane of the crests.
An observational investigation of transitory turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer
Jensen, Derek D.
Within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), atmospheric fluid flow is in a constant state of transition in both time and space. Under calm conditions through the mid-daytime hours and over quasi-uniform terrain, the temporal and spatial evolution of the atmosphere is gradual. The structure and governing equations are well understood, allowing for numerical models to accurately forecast the evolution of the ABL. Under nocturnal conditions, the atmospheric processes are more complicated, yet numerical models still perform reasonably well. When changes in the state of the atmosphere occur abruptly, whether in time or space, the fidelity of most numerical weather models diminishes appreciably. This occurs because many of the simplifying assumptions intrinsic in most numerical models are no longer valid. The objective of this dissertation is to use observational data collected within such transitions to gain more insight into the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of the rapidly evolving ABL. First, near-surface turbulence data are used to study countergradient heat fluxes that occur through the evening transition. The countergradient heat flux may be produced by the sign change of the sensible heat flux preceding the sign change of the local temperature gradient and vice versa. The phenomenon is studied by considering the budget equations of both temperature and sensible heat flux. The behaviour of the countergradient heat flux is governed by the surface and subsurface characteristics. The duration of the countergradient flux may be prognosed by considering a ratio of terms in the heat flux budget equation evaluated during the mid- to late afternoon. Next, data collected over an arid shallow slope (2-4°) are used to study the structure and onset of katabatic flow through the evening transition. The katabatic onset, jet velocity and jet height all show a large degree of interdiurnal variability. The slope-aligned budgets of momentum and potential temperature are
Marro, Massimo; Salizzoni, Pietro; Soulhac, Lionel; Cassiani, Massimo
2018-01-01
We analyze the reliability of the Lagrangian stochastic micromixing method in predicting higher-order statistics of the passive scalar concentration induced by an elevated source (of varying diameter) placed in a turbulent boundary layer. To that purpose we analyze two different modelling approaches by testing their results against the wind-tunnel measurements discussed in Part I (Nironi et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 2015, Vol. 156, 415-446). The first is a probability density function (PDF) micromixing model that simulates the effects of the molecular diffusivity on the concentration fluctuations by taking into account the background particles. The second is a new model, named VPΓ, conceived in order to minimize the computational costs. This is based on the volumetric particle approach providing estimates of the first two concentration moments with no need for the simulation of the background particles. In this second approach, higher-order moments are computed based on the estimates of these two moments and under the assumption that the concentration PDF is a Gamma distribution. The comparisons concern the spatial distribution of the first four moments of the concentration and the evolution of the PDF along the plume centreline. The novelty of this work is twofold: (i) we perform a systematic comparison of the results of micro-mixing Lagrangian models against experiments providing profiles of the first four moments of the concentration within an inhomogeneous and anisotropic turbulent flow, and (ii) we show the reliability of the VPΓ model as an operational tool for the prediction of the PDF of the concentration.
Bodony, Daniel; Ostoich, Christopher; Geubelle, Philippe
2013-11-01
The interaction between a thin metallic panel and a Mach 2.25 turbulent boundary layer is investigated using a direct numerical simulation approach for coupled fluid-structure problems. The solid solution uses a finite-strain, finite-deformation formulation, while the direct numerical simulation of the boundary layer uses a finite-difference compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The initially laminar boundary layer contains low amplitude unstable eigenmodes that grow in time and excite traveling bending waves in the panel. As the boundary layer transitions to a fully turbulent state, with Reθ ~ 1200 , the panel's bending waves coalesce into a standing wave pattern exhibiting flutter with a final amplitude approximately 20 times the panel thickness. The corresponding panel deflection is roughly 25 wall units and reaches across the sonic line in the boundary layer profile. Once it reaches a limit cycle state, the panel/boundary layer system is examined in detail where it is found that turbulence statistics, especially the main Reynolds stress - , appear to be modified by the presence of the compliant panel, the effect of which is forgotten within one integral length downstream of the panel. Supported by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Air Vehicles Directorate under contract number FA8650-06-2-3620.
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles
2015-01-01
We use the recently introduced coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model to predict the e ect of turbulence intensity on the performance of a wind farm. The CWBL model combines a standard wake model with a \\top-down" approach to get improved predictions for the power output compared to a stand-alone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. V. S. Namboodiri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The study discusses the features of wind, turbulence, and surface roughness parameter over the coastal boundary layer of the Peninsular Indian Station, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS. Every 5 min measurements from an ultrasonic anemometer at 3.3 m agl from May 2007 to December 2012 are used for this work. Symmetries in mesoscale turbulence, stress off-wind angle computations, structure of scalar wind, resultant wind direction, momentum flux (M, Obukhov length (L, frictional velocity (u*, w-component, turbulent heat flux (H, drag coefficient (CD, turbulent intensities, standard deviation of wind directions (σθ, wind steadiness factor-σθ relationship, bivariate normal distribution (BND wind model, surface roughness parameter (z0, z0 and wind direction (θ relationship, and variation of z0 with the Indian South West monsoon activity are discussed.
Marvin, J. G.; Horstman, C. C.; Rubesin, M. W.; Coakley, T. J.; Kussoy, M. I.
1975-01-01
An experiment designed to test and guide computations of the interaction of an impinging shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer is described. Detailed mean flow-field and surface data are presented for two shock strengths which resulted in attached and separated flows, respectively. Numerical computations, employing the complete time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations along with algebraic eddy-viscosity and turbulent Prandtl number models to describe shear stress and heat flux, are used to illustrate the dependence of the computations on the particulars of the turbulence models. Models appropriate for zero-pressure-gradient flows predicted the overall features of the flow fields, but were deficient in predicting many of the details of the interaction regions. Improvements to the turbulence model parameters were sought through a combination of detailed data analysis and computer simulations which tested the sensitivity of the solutions to model parameter changes. Computer simulations using these improvements are presented and discussed.
Liang, J.; Zhang, L.; Yuan, G.
2017-12-01
Accurate determination of surface turbulent fluxes in a stable boundary layer is of great practical importance in weather prediction and climate simulations, as well as applications related to air pollution. To gain an insight into the characteristics of turbulence in a stable boundary layer over the complex terrain of the Loess Plateau, we analyzed the data from the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL). We proposed a method to identify and efficiently isolate nonstationary motions from turbulence series, and examined the characteristics of nonstationary motions (nonstationary motions refer to gusty events on a greater scale than local shear-generated turbulence). The occurrence frequency of nonstationary motions was found to depend on the mean flow, being more frequent in weak wind conditions and vanishing when the wind speed, U, was greater than 3.0 m s-1. When U exceeded the threshold value of 1.0 m s-1 for the gradient Richardson number Ri ≤ 0.3 and 1.5 m s-1 for Ri > 0.3, local shear-generated turbulence depended systematically on U with an average rate of 0.05 U. However, for the weak wind condition, neither the mean wind speed nor the stability was an important factor for local turbulence. Under the weak wind stable condition, affected by topography-induced nonstationary motions, the local turbulence was anisotropic with a strong horizontal fluctuation and a weak vertical fluctuation, resulting in weakened heat mixing in the vertical direction and stronger un-closure of energy. These findings accessed the validity of similarity theory in the stable boundary layer over complex terrain, and revealed one reason for the stronger un-closure of energy in the night.
Turbulence production in an APG-boundary-layer transition induced by randomized perturbations
Borodulin, V. I.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Roschektayev, A. P.
This paper is devoted to an experimental investigation of formation and development of coherent vortical structures at late stages of a laminar-turbulent transition initiated by a harmonic, almost two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave perturbed by weak (initially) broadband disturbances. The initial base flow represented a self-similar boundary layer with an adverse pressure gradient (APG) with Hartree parameter ßH = -0.115. Experiments were performed at controlled disturbance conditions with the help of the ‘deterministic noise’ method and a universal disturbance source of instability waves. The main measurements were carried out by means of a hot-wire anemometer in a broad spatial region of the flow starting with stages of quasi-sinusoidal small-amplitude instability wave and ending with final stages of transition characterized by formation of concentrated localized vortical structures. The excited perturbations were partly random (within 20 TS-wave fundamental periods) but periodical at very large time scales during which the flow passes the model several times. The detailed measurements and the experimental data processing gave us the possibility to obtain instantaneous velocity and vorticity fields in the (x, y, z, t)-space and to perform computer-aided ‘visualization’ of the instantaneous flow structure. Specific features of the turbulence production mechanism occurring at late stages of transition are studied and compared with previously reported data obtained at sinusoidal excitation. A qualitative similarity is found between essentially nonlinear stages of transition observed in the present (randomized) case and those studied previously in cases of transition initiated by a harmonic TS wave or by a TS wave packet. It is found that interaction of primary wave with a broadband ‘noise’ of 3D TS waves leads at late stages of transition to formation of ?-vortices, intensive ? -shaped high-shear (HS) layers, O -shaped vortices, ring
Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth
2016-11-01
Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.
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Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.
2016-11-25
High resolution numerical simulation can provide insight into important physical processes that occur within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The present work employs large eddy simulation (LES) using the Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) model, with the LES domain nested within mesoscale simulation, to simulate real conditions in the convective PBL over an area of complex terrain. A multiple nesting approach has been used to downsize the grid spacing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). A careful selection of grid spacing in the WRF Meso domain has been conducted to minimize artifacts in the WRF-LES solutions. The WRF-LES results have been evaluated with in situ and remote sensing observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia BasinWind Energy Study (CBWES). Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function (PDF) of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and data. Furthermore, the WRF-LES variables show a great deal of variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. The WRF-LES results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day. In addition to basic studies related to boundary-layer meteorology, results from these simulations can be used in other applications, such as studying wind energy resources, atmospheric dispersion, fire weather etc.
Turbulent transport and production/destruction of ozone in a boundary layer over complex terrain
Greenhut, Gary K.; Jochum, Anne M.; Neininger, Bruno
1994-01-01
The first Intensive Observation Period (IOP) of the Swiss air pollution experiment POLLUMET took place in 1990 in the Aare River Valley between Bern and Zurich. During the IOP, fast response measurements of meteorological variables and ozone concentration were made within the boundary layer aboard a motorglider. In addition, mean values of meteorological variables and the concentrations of ozone and other trace species were measured using other aircraft, pilot balloons, tethersondes, and ground stations. Turbulent flux profiles of latent and sensible heat and ozone are calculated from the fast response data. Terms in the ozone mean concentration budget (time rate of change of mean concentration, horizontal advection, and flux divergence) are calculated for stationary time periods both before and after the passage of a cold front. The source/sink term is calculated as a residual in the budget, and its sign and magnitude are related to the measured concentrations of reactive trace species within the boundary layer. Relationships between concentration ratios of trace species and ozone concentration are determined in order to understand the influence of complex terrain on the processes that produce and destroy ozone.
Rai, Raj K.; Berg, Larry K.; Kosović, Branko; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shaw, William J.
2017-04-01
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be used to simulate atmospheric processes ranging from quasi-global to tens of m in scale. Here we employ large-eddy simulation (LES) using the WRF model, with the LES-domain nested within a mesoscale WRF model domain with grid spacing decreasing from 12.15 km (mesoscale) to 0.03 km (LES). We simulate real-world conditions in the convective planetary boundary layer over an area of complex terrain. The WRF-LES model results are evaluated against observations collected during the US Department of Energy-supported Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study. Comparison of the first- and second-order moments, turbulence spectrum, and probability density function of wind speed shows good agreement between the simulations and observations. One key result is to demonstrate that a systematic methodology needs to be applied to select the grid spacing and refinement ratio used between domains, to avoid having a grid resolution that falls in the grey zone and to minimize artefacts in the WRF-LES model solutions. Furthermore, the WRF-LES model variables show large variability in space and time caused by the complex topography in the LES domain. Analyses of WRF-LES model results show that the flow structures, such as roll vortices and convective cells, vary depending on both the location and time of day as well as the distance from the inflow boundaries.
Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer
Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph
2017-11-01
On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.
Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.
Zhou, Bowen; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng
2017-04-01
Compared to the representation of vertical turbulent mixing through various PBL schemes, the treatment of horizontal turbulence mixing in the boundary layer within mesoscale models, with O(10) km horizontal grid spacing, has received much less attention. In mesoscale models, subgrid-scale horizontal fluxes most often adopt the gradient-diffusion assumption. The horizontal mixing coefficients are usually set to a constant, or through the 2D Smagorinsky formulation, or in some cases based on the 1.5-order turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure. In this work, horizontal turbulent mixing parameterizations using physically based characteristic velocity and length scales are proposed for the convective boundary layer based on analysis of a well-resolved, wide-domain large-eddy simulation (LES). The proposed schemes involve different levels of sophistication. The first two schemes can be used together with first-order PBL schemes, while the third uses TKE to define its characteristic velocity scale and can be used together with TKE-based higher-order PBL schemes. The current horizontal mixing formulations are also assessed a priori through the filtered LES results to illustrate their limitations. The proposed parameterizations are tested a posteriori in idealized simulations of turbulent dispersion of a passive scalar. Comparisons show improved horizontal dispersion by the proposed schemes, and further demonstrate the weakness of the current schemes.
Turbulence and dispersion flow of radioisotopes in the atmospheric Boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Said, S.I.M.
2013-01-01
There is an increase in the study of atmospheric pollution and harmful impact on environment, in this work attention was forward to atmospheric diffusion equation to evaluate the concentration pollution with different methods under different stability conditions. The material in the present thesis is organized in six chapters in the following way: Chapter (1), it describe as. In section 1.1, General Introduction, In section 1.2, Turbulence, In section 1.3, Turbulence of the atmosphere. In section 1.4, Atmospheric stability. In section 1.5, Atmospheric pollution. In section 1.6, Behavior of effluent released to the atmosphere. In section 1.7, Source Types. In section 1.8, Atmospheric Dispersion Theories (Modeling). In section 1.9 Comparison between Some Models. In section 1.10, The Planetary Boundary Layer. Chapter (2), it describe as: In section 2.1 , Introduction. In section 2.2, Analytical Method. In section 2.3, Numerical Method. In section 2.4, Statistical method. In chapter (3), it describe as: In section 3.1, Introduction. In section 3.2, Analytical solution. In section 3.3, statically methods.Chapter (4), it contain following: In section 4.1, Introduction. In section 4.2, Proposed model structure. In section 4.3, the effective height. In section 4.4, Mathematical technique In section 4. 5, Case study. In section 4.6, Verification. Chapter (5), one can find as: In section 5.1, Introduction. In section 5.2, Gaussian distributions. In section 5.3, Dispersion parameters schemes. In section 5.4, Result and discussion. In section 5.5 Statistical methods. Chapter (6), it can be arranged in the following: In section 6.1, Introduction. In section 6.2, Model formulation. In section 6.3, Results and Discussion. In section 6.4, Statistical method.
Ghannam, Khaled
The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the
Jimenez, Maria A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Bazile, Eric; Couvreux, Fleur; Cuxart, Joan; Pino, David; Sastre, Mariano
2014-05-01
The Convective (diurnal, CBL) and Stably stratified (nocturnal, SBL) Boundary Layers over land have been extensively observed and relatively successfully modeled. But the early morning transition, when the CBL emerges from the nocturnal boundary layer, and the late afternoon transition, when the CBL decays to an intermittently turbulent residual layer overlying a SBL, are difficult to observe and model due to the intermittency and anisotropy of turbulence, horizontal heterogeneity and rapid changes in time. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign took place in Lannemezan, a plateau located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, during June and July 2011. The aim of this project is to have more and better observations of the late afternoon and morning transitions and to further explore the mechanisms that control it. In this work, different mesoscale models (WRF, MesoNH, AROME, ARPEGE) are run under the same conditions during 24 hours (from 0000 UTC 25th June 2011 to the next day) to evaluate their performance during both transitions. Particular effort has been made to analyze the surface conditions. For this reason, the WRF simulations include a novel technique to spin-up soil conditions to obtain a better representation of surface fluxes. The model outputs are compared to the observations (soundings, UAV, radar and surface stations). It is found that the results depend on the initial conditions but also on the parameterizations of the boundary layer and the surface.
Euler-Lagrange Modeling of Vortex Interaction with a Particle-Laden Turbulent Boundary Layer
Morales, Fernando
Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than
Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer
Cheng, W.
2015-11-11
© 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.
Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation
Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee
2010-01-01
Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.
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Weiss, J. [Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70550, Stuttgart (Germany); ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Bovery Strasse 7, 5401, Baden (Switzerland); Knauss, H.; Wagner, S. [Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70550, Stuttgart (Germany)
2003-10-01
The free-stream disturbance field in a short-duration supersonic wind tunnel is investigated at a nominal Mach number of Ma=2.54. A specially designed constant-temperature anemometer is used to be able to draw a complete fluctuation diagram within one wind tunnel run (testing time: 120 ms). It is shown that the disturbance field is dominated by acoustic waves radiated from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle and the sidewalls, like in conventional supersonic wind tunnels. The acoustic field appears to be composed of highly localized shivering Mach waves superimposed on a background of eddy Mach waves. (orig.)
Itoh, Motoyuki; Tamano, Shinji; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Shinya
The effect of a spanwise traveling-wave motion on a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer over a flexible sheet was investigated at low Reynolds numbers using a single hot-wire anemometer for turbulence statistics and two laser displacement sensors for displacements of the flexible sheet. It was found that the log-law region of the mean velocity on the flexible sheet was slightly narrower compared with a rigid wall. The energy spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations on the flexible sheet undergoing the spanwise traveling-wave motion were smaller in a region of frequency which corresponded to the bursting frequency in the canonical wall turbulence. This indicates that the bursting event near the flexible sheet was directly affected by the surface wave motion. It was revealed that a drag reduction of up to 7.5% could be obtained by the spanwise traveling-wave motion, estimating the friction coefficients through the growth rate of the momentum thickness.
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Ames, Forrest E. [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota
2015-06-17
Full coverage shaped-hole film cooling and downstream heat transfer measurements have been acquired in the accelerating flows over a large cylindrical leading edge test surface. The shaped holes had an 8° lateral expansion angled at 30° to the surface with spanwise and streamwise spacings of 3 diameters. Measurements were conducted at four blowing ratios, two Reynolds numbers and six well documented turbulence conditions. Film cooling measurements were acquired over a four to one range in blowing ratio at the lower Reynolds number and at the two lower blowing ratios for the higher Reynolds number. The film cooling measurements were acquired at a coolant to free-stream density ratio of approximately 1.04. The flows were subjected to a low turbulence condition (Tu = 0.7%), two levels of turbulence for a smaller sized grid (Tu = 3.5%, and 7.9%), one turbulence level for a larger grid (8.1%), and two levels of turbulence generated using a mock aero-combustor (Tu = 9.3% and 13.7%). Turbulence level is shown to have a significant influence in mixing away film cooling coverage progressively as the flow develops in the streamwise direction. Effectiveness levels for the aero-combustor turbulence condition are reduced to as low as 20% of low turbulence values by the furthest downstream region. The film cooling discharge is located close to the leading edge with very thin and accelerating upstream boundary layers. Film cooling data at the lower Reynolds number, show that transitional flows have significantly improved effectiveness levels compared with turbulent flows. Downstream effectiveness levels are very similar to slot film cooling data taken at the same coolant flow rates over the same cylindrical test surface. However, slots perform significantly better in the near discharge region. These data are expected to be very useful in grounding computational predictions of full coverage shaped hole film cooling with elevated turbulence levels and acceleration. IR
Tan, Yan Ming; Longmire, Ellen
2016-11-01
A canonical turbulent boundary layer (Reτ = 2500) was perturbed by a narrowly spaced (0.2 δ) array of cylinders extending normal to the wall. Two array heights were considered, H = 0.2 δ and H = δ . Volumetric PTV measurements were acquired to understand 3-D variations in large scale structures within the log region of the unperturbed and perturbed flow. The recovery in the streamwise velocity coherence across the depth of the log region was analyzed using cross correlations between wall parallel planes. Conditional cross correlations are analyzed to examine the recovery in coherence specific to low momentum regions (LMRs), which can be signatures of vortex packets. The measurement volume was 0.70 δ (streamwise,x), 0.90 δ (spanwise,y), 0.12 δ (wall-normal,z). In the unperturbed flow, LMRs frequently extended through the entire depth (155 PIV measurements at z+ = 500 that showed hardly any long LMRs over distances up to 7 δ downstream of the H = δ array.
Scaling of mean inertia and theoretical basis for a log law in turbulent boundary layers
Philip, Jimmy; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-11-01
Log law in the mean streamwise velocity (U) for pipes/channels is well accepted based on the derivation from the mean momentum balance (MMB) equation and support from experimental data. For flat plate turbulent boundary layers (TBLs), however, there is only empirical evidence and a theoretical underpinning of the kind available for pipes/channels in lacking. The main difficultly is the mean inertia (MI) term in the MMB equation, which, unlike in pipes/channels, is not a constant in TBLs. We present results from our paper (JFM `` 2017, Vol 813, pp 594-617), where the MI term for TBL is transformed so as to render it invariant in the outer region, corroborated with high Re (δ+) data from Melbourne Wind Tunnel and New Hampshire Flow Physics Facility. The transformation is possible because the MI term in the TBL has a `shape' which becomes invariant with increasing δ+ and a `magnitude' which is proportional to 1 /δ+ . The transformed equation is then employed to derive a log law for U with κ an order one (von-Karman) constant. We also show that the log law begins at y+ =C1√{δ+} , and the peak location of the Reynolds shear stress, ym+ =C2√{δ+} , where, C1 3.6 and C2 2.17 are from high Re data. Australian Research Council and the US National Science Foundation.
Convection of wall shear stress events in a turbulent boundary layer
Pabon, Rommel; Mills, David; Ukeiley, Lawrence; Sheplak, Mark
2017-11-01
The fluctuating wall shear stress is measured in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer of Reτ 1700 simultaneously with velocity measurements using either hot-wire anemometry or particle image velocimetry. These experiments elucidate the patterns of large scale structures in a single point measurement of the wall shear stress, as well as their convection velocity at the wall. The wall shear stress sensor is a CS-A05 one-dimensional capacitice floating element from Interdisciplinary Consulting Corp. It has a nominal bandwidth from DC to 5 kHz and a floating element size of 1 mm in the principal sensing direction (streamwise) and 0.2 mm in the cross direction (spanwise), allowing the large scales to be well resolved in the current experimental conditions. In addition, a two sensor array of CS-A05 aligned in the spanwise direction with streamwise separations O (δ) is utilized to capture the convection velocity of specific scales of the shear stress through a bandpass filter and peaks in the correlation. Thus, an average wall normal position for the corresponding convecting event can be inferred at least as high as the equivalent local streamwise velocity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138.
Reversing flow causes passive shark scale actuation in a separating turbulent boundary layer
Lang, Amy; Gemmell, Bradford; Motta, Phil; Habegger, Laura; Du Clos, Kevin; Devey, Sean; Stanley, Caleb; Santos, Leo
2017-11-01
Control of flow separation by shortfin mako skin in experiments has been demonstrated, but the mechanism is still poorly understood yet must be to some extent Re independent. The hypothesized mechanisms inherent in the shark skin for controlling flow separation are: (1) the scales, which are capable of being bristled only by reversing flow, inhibit flow reversal events from further development into larger-scale separation and (2) the cavities formed when scales bristle induces mixing of high momentum flow towards the wall thus energizing the flow close to the surface. Two studies were carried out to measure passive scale actuation caused by reversing flow. A small flow channel induced an unsteady, wake flow over the scales prompting reversing flow events and scale actuation. To resolve the flow and scale movements simultaneously we used specialized optics at high magnification (1 mm field of view) at 50,000 fps. In another study, 3D printed models of shark scales, or microflaps (bristling capability up to 50 degrees), were set into a flat plate. Using a tripped, turbulent boundary layer grown over the long flat plate and a localized adverse pressure gradient, a separation bubble was generated within which the microflaps were placed. Passive flow actuation of both shark scales and microflaps by reversing flow was observed. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant.
Comparison of PIV and Hot-Wire statistics of turbulent boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dróżdż, A; Uruba, V
2014-01-01
The paper shows a cross checking of turbulent boundary layer measurements using large field of view PIV and hot-wire anemometry techniques. The time-resolved PIV method was used for the experiments. The measuring plane was oriented perpendicularly to the wall and parallel to the mean flow. Hot wire measurement has been performed using the special probe with perpendicular hot wire. The HW point measurements were performed in the same place as PIV experiments. The hot-wire probe has the wire length of l + < 20 in considered range of Reynolds numbers. Various evaluation methods were applied on PIV data. The profiles of statistical characteristics of streamwise velocity components were evaluated from the data. Mean values, standard deviations as well as skewness and kurtosis coefficients were compared for a few values of Re θ . Reynolds number ranges from 1000 to 5500. The result shows that with the increasing Reynolds number the attenuation of fluctuations maximum in PIV measurements occurs with respect to Hot-Wire measurements, however representation of velocity fluctuations using the PIV method is satisfactory. The influence of wall-normal fluctuation component on Hot-Wire near wall peak was also investigated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
SHI, Xiao-jun; Jacobsen, Finn
2010-01-01
overwhelm the true source pressure in some cases. In this paper, the model of the sound intensity caused by the TBL pressure fluctuation is described firstly. Based upon the developed model, the sound intensity caused by the TBL pressure fluctuation is calculated using the available models of the wave......The influence of turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuation on the sound intensity measurement in a flow is a subject of practical concern, because the sound intensity probe is generally exposed to the airflow and is sensed the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) pressure fluctuation which may even...... spatial response function of the microphone. Also, the characteristics of the measured sound intensity are consistent with that of the calculated sound intensity....
Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.
2016-01-01
An important goal for modern fluid mechanics experiments is to provide datasets which present a challenge for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations to reproduce. Such "CFD validation experiments" should be well-characterized and well-documented, and should investigate flows which are difficult for CFD to calculate. It is also often convenient for the experiment to be challenging for CFD in some aspects while simple in others. This report is part of the continuing documentation of a series of experiments conducted to characterize the flow around an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Computation of this flow is easy in some ways - subsonic flow over a simple shape - while being complex in others - separated flow and boundary layer interactions. The primary set of experiments were performed on a 15.2 cm high, 45.7 cm base diameter machined aluminum model that was tested at mean speeds of 50 m/s (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000). The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3. The flow was characterized using surface oil flow visualization, Cobra probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction magnitude and direction. A set of pathfinder experiments were also performed in a water channel on a smaller scale (5.1 cm high, 15.2 cm base diameter) sintered nylon model. The water channel test was conducted at a mean test section speed of 3 cm/s (Reynolds Number of 1500), but at the same ratio of model height to boundary layer thickness. Dye injection from both the model and an upstream rake was used to visualize the flow. This report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, and data
Cheng, Wan
2015-06-30
We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.
Free-stream turbulence effects on the boundary layer of a high-lift low-pressure-turbine blade
Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Ampellio, E.
2016-06-01
The suction side boundary layer evolution of a high-lift low-pressure turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated at low and high free-stream turbulence intensity conditions. Measurements have been carried out in order to analyze the boundary layer transition and separation processes at a low Reynolds number, under both steady and unsteady inflows. Static pressure distributions along the blade surfaces as well as total pressure distributions in a downstream tangential plane have been measured to evaluate the overall aerodynamic efficiency of the blade for the different conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry has been adopted to analyze the time-mean and time-varying velocity fields. The flow field has been surveyed in two orthogonal planes (a blade-to-blade plane and a wall-parallel one). These measurements allow the identification of the Kelvin-Helmholtz large scale coherent structures shed as a consequence of the boundary layer laminar separation under steady inflow, as well as the investigation of the three-dimensional effects induced by the intermittent passage of low and high speed streaks. A close inspection of the time-mean velocity profiles as well as of the boundary layer integral parameters helps to characterize the suction side boundary layer state, thus justifying the influence of free-stream turbulence intensity on the blade aerodynamic losses measured under steady and unsteady inflows.
Levine, J. N.
1971-01-01
A finite difference turbulent boundary layer computer program has been developed. The program is primarily oriented towards the calculation of boundary layer performance losses in rocket engines; however, the solution is general, and has much broader applicability. The effects of transpiration and film cooling as well as the effect of equilibrium chemical reactions (currently restricted to the H2-O2 system) can be calculated. The turbulent transport terms are evaluated using the phenomenological mixing length - eddy viscosity concept. The equations of motion are solved using the Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique. The analysis and computer program have been checked out by solving a series of both laminar and turbulent test cases and comparing the results to data or other solutions. These comparisons have shown that the program is capable of producing very satisfactory results for a wide range of flows. Further refinements to the analysis and program, especially as applied to film cooling solutions, would be aided by the acquisition of a firm data base.
Pearson, Juli K.
The growing demand for increased efficiency in turbine engine designs has sparked a growing interest for research of air flow around curved surfaces. The turbine's operating conditions result in material property constraints, especially in the first stage turbine vanes and blades. These turbine vane components experience extreme loading conditions of both high temperature and high turbulence intensities exiting the combustor. The surface of the turbine blades has cylindrical leading edges that promote stabilizing flow accelerations. These convex surfaces can cause a reduced eddy diffusivity across the boundary layer. This thesis reviews measurements of velocity and turbulence intensities taken just shy of the thirty degrees offset from the stagnation line of a two-dimensional cylindrical leading edge under a wide range of turbulence and flow conditions flow conditions. Flow conditions and velocity measurements were gathered with respect to the distance to the surface. The length of the measurements extended from the surface to beyond the boundary layer's edge. The instrumentation used to collect data was a single wire driven by a constant temperature anemometer bridge. The hot wire is specially modified to measure data near the cylindrical leading edges curved surface. The traversing system allowed the acquisition of high-resolution boundary layer data. The traversing system was installed internally to the cylindrical leading edge to reduce probe blockage.
Lee, Z. S.; Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.
2010-12-01
Recent studies have suggested the significant role of boundary layer turbulence and coherent flow structures on sand transport by wind over beaches and desert dunes. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated a move beyond the basic monitoring of shear velocities and bulk sediment transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a small-scale point-location field study of boundary layer turbulence and shear stresses conducted under obliquely onshore winds over a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. High-frequency (25 Hz) 3D wind vector measurements were collected at five different heights between 0.13 and 1.67 metres above the bed using sonic anemometry for durations of several hours, and the associated sand transport response was measured using an array of Safires. The wind data are used to investigate the vertical structure of Reynolds shear stresses and burst-sweep event characteristics, as well as a comparison with the standard logarithmic (law-of-the-wall) wind profile. The study explores the identification and selection of a characteristic event duration based on integral time-scales as well as spectral analysis, and includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results show how the contributions to shear stress and the average pitch of bursts and sweeps changes as a function of height above the bed, indicating the transformation of top-down turbulent eddies as they travel toward the surface. A comparison between the turbulence data and the synchronous sand transport events, meanwhile, reveals the potential effects of enhanced saltation layer roughness feedback on eddies close to the bed.
McCorquodale, Mark W.; Munro, R. J.
2018-01-01
New experimental results are presented that investigate the nature of the intercomponent energy transfer that occurs in the interaction between oscillating-grid turbulence and a solid impermeable boundary, using instantaneous velocity measurements obtained from two-dimensional particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Estimates of the pressure-strain correlation term (Πij s) of the transport equation of the Reynolds stress tensor, which represents intercomponent energy transfer, are obtained using the PIV data from a balance of the remaining terms of the transport equation. The influence of Πij s on the flow is examined by computing the energy spectra and conditional turbulent statistics associated with events in which intercomponent energy transfer is thought to be concentrated. Data reported here are in support of viscous and "return-to-isotropy" mechanisms governing the intercomponent energy transfer previously proposed, respectively, by Perot and Moin [J. Fluid Mech. 295, 199-227 (1995)] and Walker et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 320, 19-51 (1996)]. However, the data reported also indicate the presence of a weak net intercomponent energy transfer from the boundary-normal velocity components to the boundary-tangential velocity components over a thin region outside the viscous sublayer which is not captured within existing models of intercomponent energy transfer at the boundary.
Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.
2018-04-01
Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage
Guala, Michele; Chamorro, Leonardo P.
2011-11-01
Turbulent boundary layer measurements in wind tunnels and in the near neutral atmospheric surface layer outlined a significant contribution of the large scale motions to turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses for a wide range of Reynolds number, providing evidence of complex scale interactions across the wall region. In order to understand the effect of the large scales on the near wall turbulence and extend the predictive models of amplitude modulation to more realistic atmospheric conditions, different thermal stability conditions must be explored. In this study, experiments are performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory independently controlling air flow and floor temperatures. Measurements of fluctuating temperature simultaneously with the streamwise and wall normal velocity components are obtained with an ad hoc calibrated and customized triple-wire sensor. Scaling quantities and the dominant terms in the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance budget equations are estimated and discussed. A comparative analysis of the weakly stable, convective and neutral conditions based on the power spectra of the streamwise, wall normal and Reynolds stress contributions is presented. Appreciable differences in the energetic contributions of the large scales were observed.
Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Pickett
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Polar Spacecraft Observations of the Turbulent Outer Cusp/Magnetopause Boundary Layer of Earth
Pickett, J. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Dowell, J. H.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scudder, J. D.
1999-01-01
The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 R(sub E). The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfven waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.
Turbulent boundary layer over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls
Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Hamed, Ali M.; Castillo, Luciano
2015-11-01
In this work, an experimental investigation of the developing and developed flow over two- and three-dimensional large-scale wavy walls was performed using high-resolution planar particle image velocimetry in a refractive-index-matching flume. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05. The 3D wall is defined with an additional wave superimposed on the 2D wall in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The flow was characterized at Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the flume half height. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale topography and the turbulence dynamics near the wall. Turbulence statistics show the presence of a well-structured shear layer that enhances the turbulence for the 2D wavy wall, whereas the 3D wall exhibits different flow dynamics and significantly lower turbulence levels, particularly for which shows about 30% reduction. The likelihood of recirculation bubbles, levels and spatial distribution of turbulence, and the rate of the turbulent kinetic energy production are shown to be severely affected when a single spanwise mode is superimposed on the 2D wall. POD analysis was also performed to further understand distinctive features of the flow structures due to surface topography.
Gal-Chen, Tzvi; Xu, Mei; Eberhard, Wynn L.
1992-11-01
Techniques for extraction of boundary layer parameters from measurements of a short pulse (≈0.4 μs) CO2 Doppler lidar (λ = 10.6 μm) are described. The lidar is operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL). The measurements are those collected during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE). The recorded radial velocity measurements have a range resolution of 150 m. With a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz it is possible to perform scannings in two perpendicular vertical planes (x-z and y-z) in approximately 72 s. By continuously operating the lidar for about an hour, one can extract stable statistics of the radial velocities. Assuming that the turbulence is horizontally homogeneous, we have estimated the mean wind, its standard deviations, and the momentum fluxes. We have estimated the first, second, and, third moments of the vertical velocity from the vertically pointing beam. Spectral analysis of the radial velocities is also performed, from which (by examining the amplitude of the power spectrum at the inertial range) we have deduced the kinetic energy dissipation. Finally, using the statistical form of the Navier-Stokes equations, the surface heat flux is derived as the residual balance between the vertical gradient of the third moment of the vertical velocity and the kinetic energy dissipation. With the exception of the vertically pointing beam an individual radial velocity estimate is accurate only to ±0.7 m s-1. Combining many measurements would normally reduce the error, provided that it is unbiased and uncorrelated. The nature of some of the algorithms, however, is such that biased and correlated errors may be generated even though the "raw" measurements are not. We have developed data processing procedures that eliminate bias and minimize error correlation. Once bias and error correlations are accounted for, the large sample size is
Sterk, H.A.M.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2013-01-01
To enhance the understanding of the impact of small-scale processes in the polar climate, this study focuses on the relative role of snow-surface coupling, radiation and turbulent mixing in an Arctic stable boundary layer. We extend the GABLS1 (GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Study 1) model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flageul, Cédric; Benhamadouche, Sofiane; Lamballais, Éric; Laurence, Dominique
2015-01-01
Highlights: • DNS of a turbulent channel flow with a Robin boundary condition on the scalar. • Budgets of second-order moments for conjugate and non-conjugate heat-transfer. • Original theoretical analysis for compatibility conditions at the wall. - Abstract: Budgets of turbulent heat fluxes and temperature variance obtained from the Direct Numerical Simulation of an incompressible periodic channel flow with a Reynolds number of 150 (based on friction velocity) and a Prandtl number of 0.71 are presented and analysed for four cases: locally imposed temperature at the wall (constant Dirichlet), locally imposed heat flux (constant Neumann), heat exchange coefficient (Robin) and 3D conjugate heat transfer. The dissipation rate associated with the temperature variance is strongly impacted by the thermal boundary condition. For non-conjugate cases, a straightforward analytical analysis establishes the connection between the boundary condition, the temperature variance and the wall-normal part of the thermal dissipation rate at the wall. For the conjugate case, the two-point correlations of the thermal field in the solid domain confirms the existence of very large scale thermal structures.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Olomen, M
1998-01-01
.... Distribution of measured static pressure variation on the wall, turbulent kinetic energy and some derived quantities such as the flow angle, flow gradient angle, shear stress angle, and modeling parameters are also discussed.
Beardsell, Guillaume; Blanquart, Guillaume
2017-11-01
In direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows, it is often prohibitively expensive to simulate complete flow geometries. For example, to study turbulence-flame interactions, one cannot perform a DNS of a full combustor. Usually, a well-selected portion of the domain is chosen, in this particular case the region around the flame front. In this work, we perform a Reynolds decomposition of the velocity field and solve for the fluctuating part only. The resulting equations are the same as the original Navier-Stokes equations, except for turbulence-generating large scale features of the flow such as mean shear, which appear as forcing terms. This approach allows us to achieve high Reynolds numbers and sustained turbulence while keeping the computational cost reasonable. We have already applied this strategy to incompressible flows, but not to compressible ones, where special care has to be taken regarding the energy equation. Implementation of the resulting additional terms in the finite-difference code NGA is discussed and preliminary results are presented. In particular, we look at the budget of turbulent kinetic energy and internal energy. We are considering applying this technique to turbulent premixed flames.
Cross correlation coefficients of turbulent boundary layer with micro-bubble injection
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Claudia del Carmen Gutierrez-Torres; Yassin A Hassan; Jose Alfredo Jimenez-Bernal
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Injection of micro-bubbles within the turbulent boundary layer has been investigated for a several years as a method to achieve drag reduction. However, the physical mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Experiments in a channel flow for single phase (water) and two phase (water and micro-bubbles) flows under different void fraction conditions are reported for a Reynolds number of 5128. Particle Image Velocimetry technique is used to measure instantaneous velocity fields. Consequently the cross-correlation coefficient Ruv can be calculated along the stream-wise direction for various different y + positions and along the normal direction for the fluctuating components of the velocity obtained from the instantaneous velocity fields. The experiments were carried out in a rectangular acrylic channel, whose dimensions are 4.8 m length, 20.6 cm wide and 5.6 cm height. Water was driven trough the channel by gravity from a tank, which was located 3 m above the channel. Then, water was conducted to a lower tank; from which water was pumped to the upper thank forming a closed loop. Upper tank's water level was kept constant through the tests to ensure constant flow rate trough the channel. The velocity field in the x-y plane was obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) at 3.15 m downstream from the channel inlet. A Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm (green light) and power of 350 mJ per pulse is utilized. The particles used for seeding have a diameter that goes from 6-9 μm with a specific gravity almost identical to water s specific gravity. The laser light scattered from the seeding particles was recorded using a CCD Kodak Megaplus camera, Model ES 1.0, 1008 x 1018 pixels. The viewing area was 1.28 cm 2 and was located close to the channel wall. The system recorded 30 velocity fields per second. Each velocity field was obtained from a pair of consecutive images capturing the second image of the pair 1 ms after
1983-01-01
Influence Scaling of 2D and 3D Shock/Turbulent ioundary Layer Interactions at Compression Corners." AIM Paper 81-334, January 1981. 5. Kubota, H...generating 3D shock wave/boundary layer interactions 2 Unswept sharp fin interaction and coordinate system 3 Cobra probe measurements of Peake (4) at Mach 4...were made by two Druck 50 PSI transducers, each in- stalled in a computer-controlled 48-port Model 48J4 Scani- valve and referenced to vacuum. A 250
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yano, H. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yamashita, S.; Naruse, Y.; Kondo, K. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-09-25
The mean velocity and turbulent field in a three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on a thin cylinder rotating in a uniform stream are examined experimentally. Measurements of mean velocity and all Reynolds stresses are made by means of a single rotatable hot-wire method. Mean velocity distribution is well represented in the relative main flow direction with respect to the rotating cylinder by a logarithmic law deduced in an earlier study. Johnston`s logarithmic law for 3-D turbulent boundary layers also accurately describes the present flow. Although turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses all increased with rotation speed of the cylinder, their distributions are well represented by non-dimensionalization using the resultant velocity of the main flow and the peripheral velocity of the cylinder. Both eddy viscosities and mixing lengths increase with the rotation speed, and there is no evidence of isotropic eddy viscosity. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Hetsroni, Gad
2011-01-01
A comparison between two- and three-dimensional analyses using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is performed. The investigated flow field is a turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The decomposition is applied to the vorticity fields measured using a multi-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system. The decomposition was applied using two methods: A) two-dimensional slices of the data that were used separately in a so-called slice-POD, and B) as a volumetric dataset that provides 3D-POD modes. Linear combination of the first three modes, energy distribution and reconstruction of snapshots are compared. Both decompositions capture most of the turbulent flow patterns; yet, the lower order modes show significant discrepancies between the slice-POD and 3D-POD. Therefore, in order to characterize coherent structures in turbulent flows, it is essential to perform both two- and three-dimensional decompositions. These two methods complement each other and can provide an improved interpretation of various flow features.
Alfvénic turbulence in solar wind originating near coronal hole boundaries: heavy-ion effects?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Bavassano
2006-03-01
Full Text Available The mid-latitude phases of the Ulysses mission offer an excellent opportunity to investigate the solar wind originating near the coronal hole boundaries. Here we report on Alfvénic turbulence features, revealing a relevant presence of in-situ generated fluctuations, observed during the wind rarefaction phase that charaterizes the transition from fast to slow wind. Heavy-ion composition and magnetic field measurements indicate a strict time correspondence of the locally generated fluctuations with 1 the crossing of the interface between fast and slow wind and 2 the presence of strongly underwound magnetic field lines (with respect to the Parker spiral. Recent studies suggest that such underwound magnetic configurations correspond to fast wind magnetic lines that, due to footpoint motions at the Sun, have their inner leg transferred to slow wind and are stretched out by the velocity gradient. If this is a valid scenario, the existence of a magnetic connection across the fast-slow wind interface is a condition that, given the different state of the two kinds of wind, may favour the development of processes acting as local sources of turbulence. We suggest that heavy-ion effects could be responsible of the observed turbulence features.
Parishani, H.; Pritchard, M. S.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wyant, M. C.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Singh, B.
2017-12-01
Biases and parameterization formulation uncertainties in the representation of boundary layer clouds remain a leading source of possible systematic error in climate projections. Here we show the first results of cloud feedback to +4K SST warming in a new experimental climate model, the ``Ultra-Parameterized (UP)'' Community Atmosphere Model, UPCAM. We have developed UPCAM as an unusually high-resolution implementation of cloud superparameterization (SP) in which a global set of cloud resolving arrays is embedded in a host global climate model. In UP, the cloud-resolving scale includes sufficient internal resolution to explicitly generate the turbulent eddies that form marine stratocumulus and trade cumulus clouds. This is computationally costly but complements other available approaches for studying low clouds and their climate interaction, by avoiding parameterization of the relevant scales. In a recent publication we have shown that UP, while not without its own complexity trade-offs, can produce encouraging improvements in low cloud climatology in multi-month simulations of the present climate and is a promising target for exascale computing (Parishani et al. 2017). Here we show results of its low cloud feedback to warming in multi-year simulations for the first time. References: Parishani, H., M. S. Pritchard, C. S. Bretherton, M. C. Wyant, and M. Khairoutdinov (2017), Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 9, doi:10.1002/2017MS000968.
Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan
2010-08-26
This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djouimaa, S. [Physical Department, Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Messaoudi, L. [Mechanical Department, Engineering Sciences Faculty, Batna University, Ave Chahid Boukhlouf Med, El-Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Giel, Paul W. [QSS Group, Inc., NASAGlenn Research Center Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)
2007-03-15
The objective of this study is to simulate the transonic gas turbine blade-to-blade compressible fluid flow. We are interested mainly in the determination of the pressure distribution around the blade. The particular blade architecture makes these simulations more complex due to the variety of phenomena induced by this flow. Our study is based on the experiment performed by Giel and colleagues. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article was a turbine rotor with design flow turning of 136{sup o} and an axial chord of 12.7cm. Simulations were performed on an irregular quadratic structured grid with the FLUENT software package which solves the Navier-Stokes equations by using finite volume methods. Two-dimensional stationary numerical simulations were made under turbulent conditions allowing us to compare the characteristic flow effects of Reflecting Boundary Conditions (RBC) and Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions (NRBC) newly implemented in FLUENT 6.0. Many simulations were made to compare different turbulence models: a one equation model (Spalart-Allmaras), several two-equation models (k-{epsilon}, RNG k-{epsilon}, Realizable k-{epsilon}, SST k-{omega}), and a Reynolds-stress model (RSM). Also examined were the effects of the inlet turbulence intensities (0.25% and 7%), the exit Mach numbers (1.0 and 1.3) and the inlet Reynolds numbers (0.5x10{sup 6} and 1x10{sup 6}). The results obtained show a good correlation with the experiment. (author)
Steiner, J. F.; Stigter, E.; Litt, M.; Shea, J.; Bierkens, M. F.; Immerzeel, W. W.
2017-12-01
Debris-covered glaciers play an important role in the water cycle in high altitude catchments in the Himalaya. The melt dynamics of these glaciers are complex as a result of the debris. A thin debris layer (up to a few cm) may act as a facilitator of melt, whereas a thick layer serves primarily as an insulator. The debris cover itself shows a strong diurnal variation in temperature and humidity resulting in a complex interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Energy balance models are a common way to quantify sub-debris melt, but the importance of turbulent fluxes in this energy balance have so far been poorly investigated. We hypothesize that they may play a substantial role during phases of wetting and drying. In this study, ABL characteristics and surface turbulent fluxes are measured using an automatic weather station including an eddy-correlation (EC) system on the debris-covered Lirung glacier in Nepal over a 10 day period in late 2016, during the transition period from monsoon to the drier post-monsoon. The measurements are combined with surface temperature measurements and thermal UAV flights covering the footprint area of the EC tower to quantify the surface fluxes over a larger area. Our results show that turbulent fluxes do play a substantial role in the energy balance of debris-covered glaciers, and need to be accounted for to accurately simulate glacier melt. The EC tower results are subsequently evaluated against a number of different bulk approaches to quantify sensible and latent heat fluxes and are evaluated against turbulence characteristics. If found accurate enough, these approaches require less advanced measurement set-ups and can be applied on a wider scale.
Thaxton, C.; Sherman, J. P.; Krintz, I. A.; Scher, A.; Ross, D.; Schlesselman, D.
2017-12-01
Atmospheric aerosol and contaminant transport and mixing over complex terrain are influenced by a broad-spectrum of turbulence production and dissipation mechanisms that are not, at present, considered in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model v3.9 numerical schemes that are constrained to parameterize the dynamic effects of small-scale turbulent structures. Unresolved thermally-driven processes, such slope and valley flows and associated recirculations, as well as orographically-produced or enhanced mechanical turbulence structures, may express as systematic yet potentially predictable model biases in the diurnal evolution of measurables and diagnostic parameters such as planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. Herein, we present an assessment of the (non-LES) WRF PBL schemes - YSU, MYJ, MYNNx, and ACM2 - over a range of synoptic conditions in the warm months of 2013 through comparison to a subset of 76 radiosonde launches taken at various times throughout the day, as well as continuous ground weather station data and ground-based lidar-derived diagnostics. Preliminary results, many of which may be explained by known passive and active mechanisms in complex terrain, include an over-prediction of PBL heights for non-local PBL schemes; an enhanced surface layer cold bias and under-prediction of PBL heights for local PBL schemes; and peak variance in potential temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed for all schemes at or near the entrainment zone. Suppressed amplitudes in the diurnal lidar-derived PBL height time series also suggest enhanced turbulence production during a range of nocturnal flow conditions. The aim of this investigation is to develop a recommended suite of coupled WRF PBL-surface layer parameterizations optimized to support modeling of aerosol load dynamics, aerosol-meteorology coupling, and operational forecasting in the Southern Appalachians, as well as to inform future WRF PBL scheme use and development.
Li, Q.; Gentine, P.; Mellado, J. P.; Mccoll, K. A.
2017-12-01
According to Townsend's hypothesis, so-called `wall-attached' eddies are believed to be the main contributors to turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer. This is also the cornerstone for one of the assumptions of Monin-Oubkhov similarity theory (MOST). However, previous evidence shows that the outer-scale eddies can interact and impact the surface layer, resulting in deviations from the classic MOST scaling. We conduct large-eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of a dry convective boundary layer to investigate the impact of buoyancy on coherent structures in the surface layer. The turbulent coherent structures are identified by releasing a height-dependent passive tracer and categorized as updrafts and subsidence. The MOST similarity functions computed from the simulation results indicate a larger deviation of φ_m from φ_m (-z/L)^{1/4} than the corresponding temperature similarity function (φ_h), consistent with other previous simulations results. Analyses of turbulent coherent structures show that as instability increases, there is a general change in the structure of updrafts and subsidence. Updrafts act as active eddies and are the dominant contributor in the surface layer for different stabilities. Subsidence, which comprises eddies that originate from aloft, contribute increasingly to the transport of temperature but less so for momentum with increasing instability. Such differences can be attributed to the pressure effect on momentum, which results in significant structural difference in the spatial variability of u' in subsidence. These results demonstrate the mechanism for deviation from MOST might be the involvement of stronger subsidence, relating the possible cause of distinction between and to the difference in turbulent structures.
PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.
2017-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.
On the energy transfer between flows and turbulence in the plasma boundary of fusion devices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sánchez, E.; Hidalgo, C.; Goncalves, B.; Silva, C.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hron, Martin; Erents, K.
337-339, - (2005), s. 296-300 ISSN 0022-3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : radial electric fields * turbulence * fluctuations * Langmuir probe * JET Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005
Physically-consistent wall boundary conditions for the k-ω turbulence model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Dixen, Martin; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
2010-01-01
A model solving Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-v turbulence closure, is used to simulate steady channel flow on both hydraulically smooth and rough beds. Novel experimental data are used as model validation, with k measured directly from all three components...
An investigation of small scales of turbulence in a boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers
Wallace, James M.; Ong, L.; Balint, J.-L.
1993-01-01
The assumption that turbulence at large wave-numbers is isotropic and has universal spectral characteristics which are independent of the flow geometry, at least for high Reynolds numbers, has been a cornerstone of closure theories as well as of the most promising recent development in the effort to predict turbulent flows, viz. large eddy simulations. This hypothesis was first advanced by Kolmogorov based on the supposition that turbulent kinetic energy cascades down the scales (up the wave-numbers) of turbulence and that, if the number of these cascade steps is sufficiently large (i.e. the wave-number range is large), then the effects of anisotropies at the large scales are lost in the energy transfer process. Experimental attempts were repeatedly made to verify this fundamental assumption. However, Van Atta has recently suggested that an examination of the scalar and velocity gradient fields is necessary to definitively verify this hypothesis or prove it to be unfounded. Of course, this must be carried out in a flow with a sufficiently high Reynolds number to provide the necessary separation of scales in order unambiguously to provide the possibility of local isotropy at large wave-numbers. An opportunity to use our 12-sensor hot-wire probe to address this issue directly was made available at the 80'x120' wind tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center, which is normally used for full-scale aircraft tests. An initial report on this high Reynolds number experiment and progress toward its evaluation is presented.
Thermal boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical sample
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Zhou, Q.; Grossmann, S.; Verzicco, Roberto; Xia, K.Q.; Lohse, Detlef
2012-01-01
We numerically investigate the structures of the near-plate temperature profiles close to the bottom and top plates of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flow in a cylindrical sample at Rayleigh numbers Ra=108 to Ra=2×1012 and Prandtl numbers Pr=6.4 and Pr=0.7 with the dynamical frame method [ Zhou and Xia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiko, A.V.; Westin, K.J.A.; Klingmann, B.G.B.; Kozlov, V.V.; Alfredsson, P.H.
1993-12-01
The natural occurrence of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves has so far only been observed in boundary layers subjected to moderate levels of free stream turbulence (Tu <1%), due to the difficulty in detecting small-amplitude waves in highly perturbed boundary layers. By introducing controlled oscillations with a vibrating ribbon, it is possible to study small amplitude waves using phase-selective filtering techniques. In the present work, the effect of TS-waves on the transition is studied at Tu = 1.5%. It is demonstrated that TS-waves can exist and develop in a similar way as in an undisturbed boundary layer. It is also found that TS-waves with quite small amplitudes are involved in nonlinear interactions which lead to a regeneration of TS-waves in the whole unstable frequency band. This results in a significant increase in the number of turbulent spots, which promote the onset of turbulence. 28 refs
Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selezneva, S.E.; Boulos, M.I.
2001-01-01
Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders
Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selezneva, S.E. E-mail: svetlana2@hermes.usherbS_Selezneva2@hermes.usherb; Boulos, M.I
2001-06-01
Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders.
Marine boundary layer and turbulent fluxes over the Baltic Sea: Measurements and modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.
2002-01-01
Two weeks of measurements of the boundary-layer height over a small island (Christianso) in the Baltic Sea are discussed. The meteorological conditions are characterised by positive heat flux over the sea. The boundary-layer height was simulated with two models, a simple applied high-resolution (...
Status of Turbulence Modeling for Hypersonic Propulsion Flowpaths
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.
2012-01-01
This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer meth- ods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers) and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.
Coherent structures in a supersonic complex nozzle
Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark
2016-11-01
The jet flow from a complex supersonic nozzle is studied through experimental measurements. The nozzle's geometry is motivated by future engine designs for high-performance civilian and military aircraft. This rectangular jet has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet), and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. The core flow operates at a Mach number of Mj , c = 1 . 6 , and the wall jet is choked (Mj , w = 1 . 0). This high Reynolds number jet flow is comprised of intense turbulence levels, an intricate shock structure, shear and boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. In the present study, stereo PIV measurements are simultaneously sampled with high-speed pressure measurements, which are embedded in the aft deck, and far-field acoustics in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Time-resolved schlieren measurements have indicated the existence of strong flow events at high frequencies, at a Strouhal number of St = 3 . 4 . These appear to result from von Kàrmàn vortex shedding within the nozzle and pervade the entire flow and acoustic domain. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied on the current data to identify coherent structures in the jet and study the influence of this vortex street. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1992-01-01
Turbulence modeling for high-speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models, and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary-layer flows, shock-wave boundary-layer interactions, and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Tassa, Y.; Anderson, B. H.; Reshotko, E.
1977-01-01
An interactive procedure was developed for supersonic viscous flows that can be used for either two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations. The procedure is directed to supersonic internal flows as well as those supersonic external flows that require consideration of mutual interaction between the outer flow and the boundary layer flow. The flow field is divided into two regions: an inner region which is highly viscous and mostly subsonic and an outer region where the flow is supersonic and in which viscous effects are small but not negligible. For the outer region a numerical solution is obtained by applying the method of characteristics to a system of equations which includes viscous and conduction transport terms only normal to the streamlines. The inner region is treated by a system of equations of the boundary layer type that includes higher order effects such as longitudinal and transverse curvature and normal pressure gradients. These equations are coupled and solved simultaneously in the physical coordinates by using an implicit finite difference scheme. This system can also be used to calculate laminar and turbulent boundary layers using a scalar eddy viscosity concept.
Turbulent Flow and Large Surface Wave Events in the Marine Boundary Layers
2013-08-22
AIAA, 2011 • Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill and Ecosystem Conference, 2013 150 s time averaged streamlines (U,W) Vectors and Pressure over Incipient...observations78 of the sea surface from field campaigns ( Romero and Melville 2010). Although our main79 computational target is building a turbulence resolving...the LES; this observational data is generally unknown. In the absence of a full description228 of the wavefield kinematics and dynamics (e.g., Romero
Similarity Scaling for the Inner Region of the Turbulent Boundary Layer
2009-11-20
layers, this search for "similarity" was mostly unsuccessful. This led to the practice of dividing the turbulent profile into two regions, an inner...work over the whole profile. This led to the concept of an inner and outer layer. This has evolved to where it is now assumed the regions are...and George using the y-axis scale uluzs instead of (ue -u) luzs , then the profiles do not show good collapse as contended by Castillo and George
Three-Dimensional Shock Wave-Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions at Mach 6
1975-06-01
separation which, in the three-dimensional case, will scavenge off the low energy flow of the boundary layer. The reattaching flow consists of high energy ... energy flow in the boundary layer is scavenged off by the crossflow vortex, and only the outer flow in the boundary layer has sufficient energy to...a I2 01I . . 0.0 1.0 2.0 - 3.0 4.0 y/ s Figure 91. Surface Pressure and Heat Transfer Distributions for Re = 3.0 x 10 7 ft-1 and 6 = L60 30 - BSG
Hebbar, K. S.; Melnik, W. L.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted at selected locations of the near-wall region of a three dimensional turbulent air boundary layer relaxing in a nominally zero external pressure gradient behind a transverse hump (in the form of a 30 deg swept, 5-foot chord wing-type model) faired into the side wall of a low speed wind tunnel. Wall shear stresses measured with a flush-mounted hot-film gage and a sublayer fence were in very good agreement with experimental data obtained with two Preston probes. With the upstream unit Reynolds number held constant at 325,000/ft. approximately one-fourth of the boundary layer thickness adjacent to the wall was surveyed with a single rotated hot-wire probe mounted on a specially designed minimum interference traverse mechanism. The boundary layer (approximately 3.5 in thick near the first survey station where the length Reynolds number was 5.5 million) had a maximum crossflow velocity ratio of 0.145 and a maximum crossflow angle of 21.875 deg close to the wall.
Advances in CFD Prediction of Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Knight, Doyle; Yan, Hong; Panaras, Argyris G; Zheltovodov, Alexander
2006-01-01
... on the same topic by Knight and Degrez ("Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interactions in High Mach Number Flows - A Critical Survey of Current CFD Prediction Capabilities," AGARD Advisory Report AR-319, Volume II, December 1998...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Kabiri, M.; Paranthoen, P.; Rosset, L.; Lecordier, J.C. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)
1997-12-31
An experimental study of heat transport downstream of a linear source installed in a turbulent boundary layer is performed. Second and third order momenta of velocity and temperature fields are presented and compared to gradient-type modeling. (J.S.) 7 refs.
Anderson, E. C.; Lewis, C. H.
1971-01-01
Turbulent boundary layer flows of non-reacting gases are predicted for both interal (nozzle) and external flows. Effects of favorable pressure gradients on two eddy viscosity models were studied in rocket and hypervelocity wind tunnel flows. Nozzle flows of equilibrium air with stagnation temperatures up to 10,000 K were computed. Predictions of equilibrium nitrogen flows through hypervelocity nozzles were compared with experimental data. A slender spherically blunted cone was studied at 70,000 ft altitude and 19,000 ft/sec. in the earth's atmosphere. Comparisons with available experimental data showed good agreement. A computer program was developed and fully documented during this investigation for use by interested individuals.
van Hout, René; Eisma, Jerke; Elsinga, Gerrit E.; Westerweel, Jerry
2018-02-01
In many applications, finite-sized particles are immersed in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and it is of interest to study wall effects on the instantaneous shedding of turbulence structures and associated mean velocity and Reynolds stress distributions. Here, 3D flow field dynamics in the wake of a prototypical, small sphere (D+=50 , 692 measured using time-resolved tomo-PIV. Increasing wall proximity increasingly tilted the mean recirculating wake away from the wall implying a negative lift force. Mean velocity deficit recovery scaled with the mean wake length with minor effects of wall proximity. Farthest from the wall, streamwise Reynolds normal stresses encircled the mean wake as an axisymmetric tubular "shell," while transverse and wall-normal stresses extended off its tip as axisymmetric tapered cones. Wall proximity removed axisymmetry and attenuated values near the wall. Reynolds shear stresses were distributed as antisymmetric lobes extending off the mean wake displaying increasing values with reducing sphere-wall gap. Instantaneous snapshots revealed a wake densely populated by "archlike" vortices with shedding frequencies lower than for a sphere in uniform flow except in the buffer layer. Tilting of the wake away from the wall resulted from self-induced motion of shed hairpinlike vortices whose symmetry plane was increasingly wall-normal oriented with reduced sphere-wall gap.
Atkinson, Callum; Buchmann, Nicolas; Kuehn, Matthias; Soria, Julio
2011-11-01
Large-scale three-dimensional (3D) structures in a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ = 2000 are examined via the streamwise extrapolation of time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements in a wall-normal spanwise plane using Taylor's hypothesis. Two overlapping SPIV systems are used to provide a field of view similar to that of direct numerical simulations (DNS) on the order of 50 δ × 1 . 5 δ × 3 . 0 δ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively, with an interrogation window size of 40+ ×20+ ×60+ wall units. Velocity power spectra are compared with DNS to examine the effective resolution of these measurements and two-point correlations are performed to investigate the integral length scales associated with coherent velocity and vorticity fluctuations. Individual coherent structures are detected to provide statistics on the 3D size, spacing, and angular orientation of large-scale structures, as well as their contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress. The support of the ARC through Discovery (and LIEF) grants is gratefully acknowledged.
Grisogono, Branko; Subanović, Nebojša; Koračin, Darko
1989-01-01
It is shown that the process of the air-cooling is dominated by the divergence of the longwave radiative flux in cases of night-time clear-sky conditions and with weak wind conditions. The parameterization of the longwave radiative flux divergence is derived according to the emissivity concept and the Stefan-Boltzman law, assuming that the water vapor is the only absorber of longwave radiative. The parameterization of the turbulent temperature flux divergence has been based on the O’Brie...
A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1993-11-01
A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.
Adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient influenced by separated supersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leontiev Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Investigations of supersonic air flow around plane surface behind a rib perpendicular to the flow direction are performed. Research was carried out for free stream Mach number 2.25 and turbulent flow regime - Rex>2·107. Rib height was varied in range from 2 to 8 mm while boundary layer thickness at the nozzle exit section was about 6 mm. As a result adiabatic wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient are obtained for flow around plane surface behind a rib incontrast with the flow around plane surface without any disturbances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilhousen, D.B.
1979-01-01
Objective forecasts of many weather elements produced twice daily for about 230 US cities are made by applying the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique (Glahn and Lowry, 1972). This technique relates by a statistical method the output of numerical models interpolated to a location (predictors) to a corresponding sample of observed local weather at that location (predictand). This study describes the development and testing of MOS wind forecasts for an instrumented TV tower located near the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). If shown to be useful, these forecasts could serve as valuable guidance in case of a nuclear incident at the installation. This study introduces several new applications of the MOS technique. In addition to forecasts of wind speed and direction, forecasts of two turbulence parameters were developed and evaluated. These turbulence parameters were the standard deviations of both the azimuth and elevation of the wind. These quantities help to estimate the amount of plume and puff spread. Forecasts of all these elements were produced for several levels on the 335 m WJBF-TV tower. Tests were conducted to see if MOS forecasts of each element were capable of resolving differences between tower levels. MOS forecasts were compared to two other types of forecasts to determine their utility. Short range persistence forecasts served as one type of comparison since SRL uses the current observed winds in their diffusion models. Climatology forecasts served as the other comparison set
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamonis, M.M.; Dagis, L.I.; Zhukauskas, A.A.
1978-04-01
Reported is the correlation with dimensionless relationships of data generated by previous numerical calculations of the frictional drag and heat transfer rate in the turbulent boundary layer of a stream of air and natural gas combustion products over a wide range of values of the temperature and the Reynolds number. 5 tables, 3 figs.
Dosio, A.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Builtjes, P.J.H.
2005-01-01
Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) are studied by means of large eddy simulation (LES). Spectra analysis is performed in both the Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, autocorrelations are calculated, and the integral length and time scales are
Experimental study of the turbulent boundary layer in acceleration-skewed oscillatory flow
van der A, D.A.; O' Donoghue, T.; Davies, A.G; Ribberink, Jan S.
2011-01-01
Experiments have been conducted in a large oscillatory flow tunnel to investigate the effects of acceleration skewness on oscillatory boundary layer flow over fixed beds. As well as enabling experimental investigation of the effects of acceleration skewness, the new experiments add substantially to
Shapkalijevski, M.M.
2017-01-01
This thesis deals with the representation of the exchange of energy, momentum and chemically reactive compounds between the land, covered by high vegetation, and the lowest part of the atmosphere, named as atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).
The study presented in this thesis introduces the
The Thermal And Hydrodynamic Behavior of Thick, Rough-Wall, Turbulent Boundary Layers,
1979-08-01
34match point") and then extrap - olating to x = 0, the virtual origin of the hydrodynamic flow field. The values of L for the artificially thickened...boundary layers developing over rough sur- faces is important for the design of many engineering components, including reentry vehicles, nuclear reactors
Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huang, Jing; Golaz, Jean-Christophe
2011-11-01
A disconnect remains between our improved physical understanding of boundary layers stabilized by buoyancy and how we parameterize them in coarse atmospheric models. Most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing in such conditions to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. Using Large-eddy simulation, we revisit some of the basic challenges in parameterizing stable atmospheric boundary layers: eddy-viscosity closure is found to be more reliable due to an improved alignment of vertical Reynolds stresses and mean strains under stable conditions, but the dependence of the magnitude of the eddy viscosity on stability is not well represented by several models tested here. Thus, we propose a new closure that reproduces the different stability regimes better. Subsequently, tests of this model in the GFDL's single-column model (SCM) are found to yield good agreement with LES results in idealized steady-stability cases, as well as in cases with gradual and sharp changes of stability with time.
Effects of turbulence model selection on the prediction of complex aerodynamic flows
Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.
1979-01-01
Numerical simulations of viscous transonic flow over a circular-arc airfoil and in a diffuser are described. The simulations are made with a new computer program designed to serve as a tool in the development of improved turbulence models for complex flows. The program incorporates zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models and includes a variety of subsonic and supersonic boundary conditions. The airfoil flow contains a shock-separated boundary-layer interaction that has resisted previous attempts at simulation. The diffuser flow also contains a shock-boundary-layer interaction, which has not been simulated previously. Calculations using standard turbulence models, developed originally for incompressible unseparated flows, are described. Results indicate that although there are interesting differences in predictions between the various models, none of them predict the flows accurately. Suggestions for improved turbulence models are discussed.
New Higher-Order Boundary-Layer Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow Past Axisymmetric Bodies.
1982-04-01
regions is postulated (e.g. Baker & Launder 0974), Kwon & Pletcher 0979)). The distributions of km and vt are then described by two separate empirical...nsdrcio s hr egho umre oy influence the upstream region of the still attached boundary layer. However, we will test the performance of our parabolic...press). O.K. KWON AND R.H. PLETCHER (1979), Prediction o6 incomptezsible sepatated bowidaty tayer icZudbig vtscous-invi.cid intvzaction, Trans. ASME, J
Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Karki, S.; Kinney, G.; Shaw, R.
2017-12-01
Many of the climate impacts of boundary layer clouds are modulated by aerosol particles. As two examples, their interactions with incoming solar and upwelling terrestrial radiation and their propensity for precipitation are both governed by the population of aerosol particles upon which the cloud droplets formed. In turn, clouds are the primary removal mechanism for aerosol particles smaller than a few micrometers and larger than a few nanometers. Aspects of these interconnected phenomena are known in exquisite detail (e.g. Köhler theory), but other parts have not been as amenable to study in the laboratory (e.g. scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets). As a complicating factor, boundary layer clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, which introduces fluctuations in the water vapor concentration and temperature, which govern the saturation ratio which mediates aerosol-cloud interactions. We have performed laboratory measurements of aerosol-cloud coupling and feedbacks, using Michigan Tech's Pi Chamber (Chang et al., 2016). In conditions representative of boundary layer clouds, our data suggest that the lifetime of most interstitial particles in the accumulation mode is governed by cloud activation - particles are removed from the Pi Chamber when they activate and settle out of the chamber as cloud droplets. As cloud droplets are removed, these interstitial particles activate until the initially polluted cloud cleans itself and all particulates are removed from the chamber. At that point, the cloud collapses. Our data also indicate that smaller particles, Dp Chamber. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00203.1
Huang, J.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Golaz, J.
2011-12-01
Parameterization of the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary-layer is of crucial importance to different aspects of numerical weather prediction at regional scales and climate modeling at global scales, such as land-surface temperature forecasts, fog and frost prediction, and polar climate. It is well-known that most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing of the stable boundary-layer to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component under strong stability, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. In this study we develop and test a general turbulence mixing model of the stable boundary-layer which works under different stabilities and for steady as well as unsteady conditions. A-priori large-eddy simulation (LES) tests are presented to motivate and verify the new parameterization. Subsequently, an assessment of this model using the GFDL single-column model (SCM) is performed. Idealized test cases including continuously varying stability, as well as stability discontinuity, are used to test the new SCM against LES results. A good match of mean and flux profiles is found when the new parameterization is used, while other traditional first-order turbulence models using the concept of stability function perform poorly. SCM spatial resolution is also found to have little impact on the performance of the new turbulence closure, but temporal resolution is important and a numerical stability criterion based on the model time step is presented.
Blackman, Karin; Perret, Laurent; Calmet, Isabelle; Rivet, Cédric
2017-08-01
In the present work, a boundary layer developing over a rough-wall consisting of staggered cubes with a plan area packing density λp = 25% is studied within the wind tunnel using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to investigate the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) budget. To access the full TKE budget, an estimation of the dissipation (ɛ) using both the transport equation of the resolved-scale kinetic energy and Large-Eddy (LE) PIV models based on the use of a subgrid-scale model following the methodology used in large-eddy simulations is employed. A low-pass filter, larger than the Taylor microscale, is applied to the data prior to the computation of the velocity gradients ensuring a clear cutoff in the inertial range where the models are valid. The presence of the cube roughness elements has a significant influence on the TKE budget due to the region of strong shear that develops over the cubes. The shear layer is shown to produce and dissipate energy, as well as transport energy through advection, turbulent transport, and pressure transport. The recirculation region that forms through the interaction of the shear layer and the canopy layer, which is the region below the height of the cube roughness, creates rapid longitudinal evolution of the mean flow thereby inducing weak production. Finally, through stochastic estimation of the conditional average, it is shown that localized regions of backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales) and forward scatter (energy transfer from resolved to unresolved scales) occur as a result of coherent vortical structures.
Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-11-01
The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.
Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.
2017-11-01
Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.
Hydrodynamic and hydroelastic analyses of a plate excited by the turbulent boundary layer
Ciappi, E.; Magionesi, F.; de Rosa, S.; Franco, F.
2009-02-01
Recent studies have demonstrated that the characterisation of wall-pressure fluctuations for surface ships is of great interest not only for military applications but also for civil marine vehicles. A ship model towed in a towing tank is used to perform pressure and structural measurements at high Reynolds numbers. This facility provides ideal flow conditions because background turbulence and noise are almost absent. Free surface effects are naturally included in the analysis, although in the particular section chosen for the present study do not have significant consequences on pressure spectra. Scaling laws for the power spectral density are identified providing the possibility to estimate pressure spectra for different flow conditions and in particular for full-scale applications. The range of validity of some theoretical models for the cross-spectral density representation is analysed by direct comparison with experimental data of wall-pressure fluctuations measured in streamwise and spanwise direction. In a second phase, an indirect validation is performed by comparing the measured vibrational response of an elastic plate inserted in the catamaran hull with that obtained numerically using, as a forcing function, the modelled pressure load. In general, marine structures are able to accept energy mainly from the sub-convective components of the pressure field because the typical bending wavenumber values are usually lower than the convective one; thus, a model that gives an accurate description of the phenomenon at low wavenumbers is needed. In this work, it is shown that the use of the Chase model for the description of the pressure field provides a satisfactory agreement between the numerical and the experimental response of the hull plate. These experimental data, although acquired at model scale, represent a significant test case also for the real ship problem.
Experimental observations of a complex, supersonic nozzle concept
Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark; Ruscher, Christopher; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry; Skytop Turbulence Labs, Syracuse University Team; Spectral Energies, LLC. Team; Air Force Research Laboratory Team
2015-11-01
A complex nozzle concept, which fuses multiple canonical flows together, has been experimentally investigated via pressure, schlieren and PIV in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Motivated by future engine designs of high-performance aircraft, the rectangular, supersonic jet under investigation has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet) and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. Operating near a Reynolds number of 3 ×106 , the nozzle architecture creates an intricate flow field comprised of high turbulence levels, shocks, shear & boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. Current data suggest that the wall jet, which is an order of magnitude less energetic than the core, has significant control authority over the acoustic power through some non-linear process. As sound is a direct product of turbulence, experimental and analytical efforts further explore this interesting phenomenon associated with the turbulent flow. The authors acknowledge the funding source, a SBIR Phase II project with Spectral Energies, LLC. and AFRL turbine engine branch under the direction of Dr. Barry Kiel.
Aircraft measurement of ozone turbulent flux in the atmospheric boundary layer
Affre, Ch.; Carrara, A.; Lefebre, F.; Druilhet, A.; Fontan, J.; Lopez, A.
In May 1995, the "Chimie-Creil 95" experiment was undertaken in the north of France. The field data are first used to validate the methodology for airborne measurement of ozone flux. A certain number of methodological problems due to the location of the fast ozone sensor inside the airplane are, furthermore discussed. The paper describes the instrumentation of the ARAT (Avion de Recherche Atmosphérique et de Télédétection), an atmospheric research and remote-sensing aircraft used to perform the airborne measurements, the area flown over, the meteorological conditions and boundary layer stability conditions. These aircraft measurements are then used to determine ozone deposition velocity and values are proposed for aerodynamic, bulk transfer coefficients (ozone and momentum). The paper also establishes the relationship between the normalised standard deviation and stability parameters ( z/ L) for ozone, temperature, humidity and vertical velocity. The laws obtained are then presented.
The effects of forest canopy shading and turbulence on boundary layer ozone.
Makar, P A; Staebler, R M; Akingunola, A; Zhang, J; McLinden, C; Kharol, S K; Pabla, B; Cheung, P; Zheng, Q
2017-05-18
The chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere close to the surface is known to be strongly influenced by vegetation. However, two critical aspects of the forest environment have been neglected in the description of the large-scale influence of forests on air pollution: the reduction of photolysis reaction rates and the modification of vertical transport due to the presence of foliage. Here we show that foliage shading and foliage-modified vertical diffusion have a profound influence on atmospheric chemistry, both at the Earth's surface and extending throughout the atmospheric boundary layer. The absence of these processes in three-dimensional models may account for 59-72% of the positive bias in North American surface ozone forecasts, and up to 97% of the bias in forested regions within the continent. These processes are shown to have similar or greater influence on surface ozone levels as climate change and current emissions policy scenario simulations.
Turbulent Boundary Layer Driven Acoustic Radiation of a Solid Body of Revolution.
Corriveau, Pierre Joseph
The flow induced radiated noise from a body of revolution was measured in a large acoustic tank. Two solid bodies were constructed without appendages to minimize structural reradiation and eliminate other flow noise sources. One body remained uncoated and the other was clad with an acoustic decoupler. The bodies were propelled at several initial velocities using a pneumatic launcher. A retrieval mechanism decelerated the bodies and returned them to a starting position. To maintain a vertical flight path, the vehicles traveled downward concentric with a guide wire. Direct radiation measurements were achieved by placing hydrophones near the flight path, but away from tank boundaries. Analog data were acquired on multiple runs, and at each initial velocity, using a multi-track tape recorder. The data were digitized into 10 msec record lengths then Fourier transformed into 25 KHz spectra. One-third octave bands were used for frequency averaging. Equations of motion were developed to determine body position at any point throughout the trajectory. Acoustic sources were observed at two locations on the body: at the nose and tail. Slant ranges to the hydrophones were computed, and the acoustic source level was estimated at each source location for 1/3 octave bands from 1-20 KHZ. Only data determined to be spherically spreading were ensemble averaged by class and within run. Nose and tail 1/3 O.B. source level spectra at each speed, including confidence intervals, were computed. The averaged spectra were collapsed to a common speed (7.6 m/s) using standard scaling techniques. The coated body nose radiation is 9 dB lower than the uncoated case. Up to 8.4 m/s, similar tail radiation is measured on each vehicle. At 9.4 m/s the tail radiation is atypical and coating effects are observed. Radiation up to 8.4 m/s is governed by the trailing edge geometry while radiation at 9.4 m/s is the result of boundary layer separation. A simple acoustic model adequately predicts the measured
Marvin, Joseph G.; Brown, James L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.
2013-01-01
A database compilation of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments is provided. The experiments selected for the database are either 2D or axisymmetric, and include both compression corner and impinging type SWTBL interactions. The strength of the interactions range from attached to incipient separation to fully separated flows. The experiments were chosen based on criterion to ensure quality of the datasets, to be relevant to NASA's missions and to be useful for validation and uncertainty assessment of CFD Navier-Stokes predictive methods, both now and in the future. An emphasis on datasets selected was on surface pressures and surface heating throughout the interaction, but include some wall shear stress distributions and flowfield profiles. Included, for selected cases, are example CFD grids and setup information, along with surface pressure and wall heating results from simulations using current NASA real-gas Navier-Stokes codes by which future CFD investigators can compare and evaluate physics modeling improvements and validation and uncertainty assessments of future CFD code developments. The experimental database is presented tabulated in the Appendices describing each experiment. The database is also provided in computer-readable ASCII files located on a companion DVD.
Ailinger, K. G.; Simpson, R. L.
1990-04-01
Measurements of surface shear stress magnitude and direction are reported for a three-dimensional, pressure driven, turbulent boundary layer around a wing body junction. Measurements were made using a dual-beam oil film laser interferometer at 56 locations. An iterative procedure was developed which increased the precision of the data extracted from the data records. Skin friction directions computed using a least square error fit were compared to angles obtained from surface oil flows, hot wire anemometry, and LDV measurements. Also, the magnitude of the skin friction coefficients were compared to independently obtained skin friction coefficients. The data agreed to within experimental error outside the effects from the vortex legs present along the side of the wing-body. No accurate data was available for quantitative comparison under the effects of the vortex, but the magnitudes followed the qualitative trends expected. This method failed badly in the region of large three-dimensional effects and requires further study in this area of application.
Barr, P. K.
1980-01-01
An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.
Brown, James L.
2014-01-01
Examined is sensitivity of separation extent, wall pressure and heating to variation of primary input flow parameters, such as Mach and Reynolds numbers and shock strength, for 2D and Axisymmetric Hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer interactions obtained by Navier-Stokes methods using the SST turbulence model. Baseline parametric sensitivity response is provided in part by comparison with vetted experiments, and in part through updated correlations based on free interaction theory concepts. A recent database compilation of hypersonic 2D shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments extensively used in a prior related uncertainty analysis provides the foundation for this updated correlation approach, as well as for more conventional validation. The primary CFD method for this work is DPLR, one of NASA's real-gas aerothermodynamic production RANS codes. Comparisons are also made with CFL3D, one of NASA's mature perfect-gas RANS codes. Deficiencies in predicted separation response of RANS/SST solutions to parametric variations of test conditions are summarized, along with recommendations as to future turbulence approach.
Long-term Evolution of Decaying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Multiphase Interstellar Medium
Kim, Chang-Goo; Basu, Shantanu
2013-12-01
Supersonic turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) is believed to decay rapidly within a flow crossing time irrespective of the degree of magnetization. However, this general consensus of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence relies on local isothermal simulations, which are unable to take into account the roles of the global structures of magnetic fields and the ISM. Utilizing three-dimensional MHD simulations including interstellar cooling and heating, we investigate decaying MHD turbulence within cold neutral medium sheets embedded in a warm neutral medium. The early evolution of turbulent kinetic energy is consistent with previous results for decaying compressible MHD turbulence characterized by rapid energy decay with a power-law form of Evpropt -1 and by a short decay time compared with the flow crossing time. If initial magnetic fields are strong and perpendicular to the sheet, however, long-term evolution of the kinetic energy shows that a significant amount of turbulent energy (~0.2E 0) still remains even after 10 flow crossing times for models with periodic boundary conditions. The decay rate is also greatly reduced as the field strength increases for such initial and boundary conditions, but not if the boundary conditions are those for a completely isolated sheet. We analyze velocity power spectra of the remaining turbulence to show that in-plane, incompressible motions parallel to the sheet dominate at later times.
Tanny, Josef; Lukyanov, Victor; Neiman, Michael; Cohen, Shabtai; Teitel, Meir
2017-04-01
The area of agricultural crops covered by screens is constantly increasing worldwide. While irrigation requirements for open canopies are well documented, corresponding information for covered crops is scarce. Therefore much effort in recent years has focused on measuring and modeling evapotranspiration of screen-covered crops. One model that can be utilized for such estimations is the mixing length model. As a first step towards future application of this model, selected mean and turbulent properties of the boundary layer above and below a shading screen were measured and analyzed. Experiments were carried out in a large banana plantation, covered by a light-weight horizontal shading screen deployed 5.5 m high. During the measurement period, plant height increased from 2.5 to 4.1 m. A 3D ultrasonic anemometer and temperature and humidity sensors were mounted on a lifting tower with a manual crank that could measure between 2.8 and 10.2 m height, i.e., both below and above the screen. In each profile, the sensors measured at different heights during consecutive time intervals of about 15 min each. Vertical profiles were measured around noon when external meteorological conditions were relatively stable. An additional stationary tower installed within the screenhouse about 20 m to the north of the lifting tower, continuously measured corresponding reference values at 4.5 m height. Footprint analysis shows that out of the 62 measured time intervals, only in 4 cases the 90% flux contribution originated from outside the screenhouse. Both horizontal air velocity, Uh, and normalized horizontal air velocity increased with height. Air temperature generally decreased with height, indicating that the boundary layer was statically unstable. Specific humidity decreased with height, as is typical for a well irrigated crop. Friction velocity, u∗, was higher above than below the screen, illustrating the role of the screen as a momentum sink. The mean ratio between friction
Numerical investigation of air flow in a supersonic wind tunnel
Drozdov, S. M.; Rtishcheva, A. S.
2017-11-01
In the framework of TsAGI’s supersonic wind tunnel modernization program aimed at improving flow quality and extending the range of test regimes it was required to design and numerically validate a new test section and a set of shaped nozzles: two flat nozzles with flow Mach number at nozzle exit M=4 and M=5 and two axisymmetric nozzles with M=5 and M=6. Geometric configuration of the nozzles, the test section (an Eiffel chamber) and the diffuser was chosen according to the results of preliminary calculations of two-dimensional air flow in the wind tunnel circuit. The most important part of the work are three-dimensional flow simulation results obtained using ANSYS Fluent software. The following flow properties were investigated: Mach number, total and static pressure, total and static temperature and turbulent viscosity ratio distribution, heat flux density at wind tunnel walls (for high-temperature flow regimes). It is demonstrated that flow perturbations emerging from the junction of the nozzle with the test section and spreading down the test section behind the boundaries of characteristic rhomb’s reverse wedge are nearly impossible to eliminate. Therefore, in order to perform tests under most uniform flow conditions, the model’s center of rotation and optical window axis should be placed as close to the center of the characteristic rhomb as possible. The obtained results became part of scientific and technical basis of supersonic wind tunnel design process and were applied to a generalized class of similar wind tunnels.
Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.
1992-01-01
A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.
Low Density Supersonic Decelerators
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamashita, S.; Inoue, Y. [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yano, H. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)
1998-10-25
This study is concerned with the turbulent structure of three-dimensional boundary layer on a thin cylinder rotating in a uniform stream. A ratio of the turbulent shear-stress to the turbulent intensity, that is, a structure parameter, is significantly larger than the turbulent boundary layer on a stationary cylinder which has nearly the same value as in two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Terms appearing in the equations for the turbulent energy of each component of fluctuating velocities are estimated, and their roles in the energy budgets in this boundary layer are clarified. Particularly, the importance of redistribution terms and exchange terms between v- and w-energy is reconfirmed. Cross-spectra between u*- and w-fluctuating velocities are examined across the boundary layer. The distribution of co-spectra and quad-spectra (i.e., the real and imaginary parts of the cross-spectra respectively) shows the existence of large-scale organized structure in this turbulent boundary layer. 12 refs., 8 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)
2017-10-15
A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.
Caiazzo, A.; Alujević, N.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.
2018-05-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of active control of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) induced sound transmission through the cavity-backed double panels. The aerodynamic model used is based on the Corcos wall pressure distribution. The structural-acoustic model encompasses a source panel (skin panel), coupled through an acoustic cavity to the radiating panel (trim panel). The radiating panel is backed by a larger acoustic enclosure (the back cavity). A feedback control unit is located inside the acoustic cavity between the two panels. It consists of a control force actuator and a sensor mounted at the actuator footprint on the radiating panel. The control actuator can react off the source panel. It is driven by an amplified velocity signal measured by the sensor. A fully coupled analytical structural-acoustic model is developed to study the effects of the active control on the sound transmission into the back cavity. The stability and performance of the active control system are firstly studied on a reduced order model. In the reduced order model only two fundamental modes of the fully coupled system are assumed. Secondly, a full order model is considered with a number of modes large enough to yield accurate simulation results up to 1000 Hz. It is shown that convincing reductions of the TBL-induced vibrations of the radiating panel and the sound pressure inside the back cavity can be expected. The reductions are more pronounced for a certain class of systems, which is characterised by the fundamental natural frequency of the skin panel larger than the fundamental natural frequency of the trim panel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budaev, V P; Savin, Sergei P; Zelenyi, Lev M
2011-01-01
A comparative analysis of the fundamental properties of fluctuations in the vicinity of boundaries in fusion plasmas and in plasmas of magnetospheric turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) shows the similarity of their basic statistical characteristics, including the scaling of the structure functions and mutifractal parameters. Important features observed include intermittent fluctuations and anomalous mass and momentum transport, due to sporadic plasma flow injections with large flow amplitudes occuring with a much higher probability than predicted for classical Gaussian diffusion. Turbulence in edge fusion plasmas and in TBLs exhibits general self-similarity in a wide range of scales extending to the dissipation scale. Experimental scalings obtained for plasma TBLs are compared with neutral fluid results, revealing the universal properties of developed turbulence. TBL scalings are described within the log-Poisson model, which takes quasi-one-dimensional dissipative structures into account. The time (τ) dependence of the mean-square displacement 2 > obtained from the experimental parameters of the log-Poisson distribution takes the form 2 > ∝τ α with α∼ 1.2 - 1.8 and indicates the presence of superdiffusion in the TBLs studied. Determining the nature of the generalized diffusion process from available regular data is a necessary step toward the quantitative description of TBL transport. (reviews of topical problems)
Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim
2015-04-01
the spray of droplets generation, especially heat transfer. The work was supported by RFBR grants (14-05-91767, 14-08-31740, 15-35-20953) and RSF grant 14-17-00667 and by President grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5 References: 1. Emanuel, K. A. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to surface exchange coefficients and a revised steady-state model incorporating eye dynamics // J. Atmos. Sci., 52(22), 3969-3976,1995. 2. Brian K. Haus, Dahai Jeong, Mark A. Donelan, Jun A. Zhang, and Ivan Savelyev Relative rates of sea-air heat transfer and frictional drag in very high winds // GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L07802, doi:10.1029/2009GL042206, 2010 3. Yu. I. Troitskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, V.I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions // JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, C00J21, 13 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JC007778 4. Yu.I.Troitskaya, D.A.Sergeev, A.A.Kandaurov, M.I. Vdovin, A.A. Kandaurov, E.V.Ezhova, S.S.Zilitinkevich Momentum and buoyancy exchange in a turbulent air boundary layer over a wavy water surface. Part 2. Wind wave spectra // Nonlinear. Geoph. Processes, Vol. 20, P. 841-856, 2013.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaouat, B.
1998-07-01
Numerical simulations of flows inside a solid propellant rocket engine with parietal injection are performed using the numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations in a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Boundary conditions are defined considering laminar and turbulent fluid injections on the wall. In parallel, a Couette-type model is used to determine the velocity profile near the wall and the wall constraint for a laminar fluid injection. An analysis of simulations shows the influence of boundary conditions on the transition of the flow from the laminar to the turbulent regime, on the velocity profile near the wall, and on the evolution of Reynolds pressures. The average velocity profile is well reproduced but the first-order k-{epsilon} turbulence model shows limitations for the reproduction of turbulent pressure levels. A second-order Reynolds pressure model should be more appropriate. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Cheng, Anning [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)
2015-11-24
The intermediately-prognostic higher-order turbulence closure (IPHOC) introduces a joint double-Gaussian distribution of liquid water potential temperature (θ_{l} ), total water mixing ratio (q_{t}), and vertical velocity (w) to represent any skewed turbulence circulation. The distribution is inferred from the first-, second-, and third-order moments of the variables given above, and is used to diagnose cloud fraction and gridmean liquid water mixing ratio, as well as the buoyancy term and fourth-order terms in the equations describing the evolution of the second- and third-order moments. Only three third-order moments, i.e., the triple moments of θ_{l}, q_{t}, and w, are predicted in IPHOC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shun Takahashi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.
Nandi, Tarak Nath
Relevant to utility scale wind turbine functioning and reliability, the present work focuses on enhancing our understanding of wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique data set from a GE field experiment and computer simulations at two levels of fidelity. Previous studies have shown that the stability state of the lower troposphere has a major impact on the coherent structure of the turbulence eddies, with corresponding differences in wind turbine loading response. In this study, time-resolved aerodynamic data measured locally at the leading edge and trailing edge of three outer blade sections on a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine blade and high-frequency SCADA generator power data from a daytime field campaign are combined with computer simulations that mimic the GE wind turbine within a numerically generated atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow field which is a close approximation of the atmospheric turbulence experienced by the wind turbine in the field campaign. By combining the experimental and numerical data sets, this study describes the time-response characteristics of the local loadings on the blade sections in response to nonsteady nonuniform energetic atmospheric turbulence eddies within a daytime ABL which have spatial scale commensurate with that of the turbine blade length. This study is the first of its kind where actuator line and blade boundary layer resolved CFD studies of a wind turbine field campaign are performed with the motivation to validate the numerical predictions with the experimental data set, and emphasis is given on understanding the influence of the laminar to turbulent transition process on the blade loadings. The experimental and actuator line method data sets identify three important response time scales quantified at the blade location: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25 - 50 s), blade rotation (1P
Osman, M.; Turner, D. D.; Heus, T.; Newsom, R. K.
2016-12-01
The high temporal and vertical resolution and the ability to operate continuously under most atmospheric conditions make Raman lidars outstanding tools for studying turbulence in the convective boundary layer (CBL). Raman lidars have been used to study the turbulent structure of the CBL and the entrainment zone; however, previous studies have been in general based on a limited number of cases, which restricts the representativeness of the results for different atmospheric conditions. This study uses data from the autonomous Raman lidars that measure water vapor over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site located at Lamont, Oklahoma (USA) and the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site located at Darwin (Australia) as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data from SGP used here spans 4 years from January 2012 to December 2015 and the TWP data span 6 years from January 2010 to December 2015. The vertical profiles of turbulent fluctuations have been derived using an auto covariance technique to separate out the instrument random error from the atmospheric variability over a set of 2-h period time series during which the CBL is quasi-stationary and well mixed. The temporal and vertical resolutions of water vapor are 10 s and 37.5 m, respectively. The error analysis of the Raman lidars observations demonstrates that the lidars are capable of resolving the vertical structure of turbulence in the CBL, and the small noise errors allow us to thoroughly examine different moments up to the fourth-order. The monthly, seasonal and yearly variations of the vertical profiles of variance, skewness, kurtosis and integral scale have been carefully analyzed. We particularly highlight noticeable differences between the structure of turbulence in the CBL and the entrainment zone at the SGP and TWP sites.
1980-03-01
distributions could be obtained. The pressure tappings were sampled using two computer controlled 48 port Model 48J4 Scanivalves equipped with Druck ...the boundary layer becomes turbulent, the upstream in- fluence drops to between 2 and 3D . 3.2 Pressure Distributions Off the Plane of Symmetry 3.2.1...upstream influence varies between 0.3 cm (0.12") and 7.6 cm (3.0"), a ratio of about 25, yet in terms of D , Iu lies between 2 and 3D . The figure shows
Hybrid Large-Eddy/Reynolds-Averaged Simulation of a Supersonic Cavity Using VULCAN
Quinlan, Jesse; McDaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2013-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters a three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and the effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case and indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. Simulations are performed with and without inflow turbulence recycling on the coarse grid to isolate the effect of the recycling procedure, which is demonstrably critical to capturing the relevant shear layer dynamics. Shock sensor formulations of Ducros and Larsson are found to predict mean flow statistics equally well.
Laser transit anemometer experiences in supersonic flow
Hunter, William W., Jr.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present examples of velocity measurements obtained in supersonic flow fields with the laser transit anemometer system. Velocity measurements of a supersonic jet exhausting in a transonic flow field, a cone boundary survey in a Mach 4 flow field, and a determination of the periodic disturbance frequencies of a sonic nozzle flow field are presented. Each of the above three cases also serves to illustrate different modes of laser transit anemometer operation. A brief description of the laser transit anemometer system is also presented.
Interstellar MHD Turbulence and Star Formation
Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique
This chapter reviews the nature of turbulence in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and its connections to the star formation (SF) process. The ISM is turbulent, magnetized, self-gravitating, and is subject to heating and cooling processes that control its thermodynamic behavior, causing it to behave approximately isobarically, in spite of spanning several orders of magnitude in density and temperature. The turbulence in the warm and hot ionized components of the ISM appears to be trans- or subsonic, and thus to behave nearly incompressibly. However, the neutral warm and cold components are highly compressible, as a consequence of both thermal instability (TI) in the atomic gas and of moderately-to-strongly supersonic motions in the roughly isothermal cold atomic and molecular components. Within this context, we discuss: (1) the production and statistical distribution of turbulent density fluctuations in both isothermal and polytropic media; (2) the nature of the clumps produced by TI, noting that, contrary to classical ideas, they in general accrete mass from their environment in spite of exhibiting sharp discontinuities at their boundaries; (3) the density-magnetic field correlation (and, at low densities, lack thereof) in turbulent density fluctuations, as a consequence of the superposition of the different wave modes in the turbulent flow; (4) the evolution of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio (MFR) in density fluctuations as they are built up by dynamic compressions; (5) the formation of cold, dense clouds aided by TI, in both the hydrodynamic (HD) and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) cases; (6) the expectation that star-forming molecular clouds are likely to be undergoing global gravitational contraction, rather than being near equilibrium, as generally believed, and (7) the regulation of the star formation rate (SFR) in such gravitationally contracting clouds by stellar feedback which, rather than keeping the clouds from collapsing, evaporates and disperses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose
2007-01-01
associated with large excursions from the mean [2]. Thus, the more extreme turbulence excursions (i.e. the upper tail of the turbulence PDF) seem to follow an Exponential-like distribution rather than a Gaussian distribution, and a Gaussian estimate may under-predict the probability of large turbulence......The statistical distribution of extreme wind excursions above a mean level, for a specified recurrence period, is of crucial importance in relation to design of wind sensitive structures. This is particularly true for wind turbine structures. Based on an assumption of a Gaussian "mother......" distribution, Cartwright and Longuet-Higgens [1] derived an asymptotic expression for the distribution of the largest excursion from the mean level during an arbitrary recurrence period. From its inception, this celebrated expression has been widely used in wind engineering (as well as in off-shore engineering...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu. I. Troitskaya
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for shorter waves. This effect is more pronounced in the unstable and neutral stratification. The stable stratification suppresses turbulence, which leads to weakening of the momentum and mass transfer.
Chen, Quan
1991-02-01
A seven-phase experimental investigation documented the three-dimensional separation region in front of a surface-mounted rectangular obstruction. The obstruction was centered between sidewalls of a wind tunnel in a turbulent approaching boundary layer. The major feature of this flow was a horseshoe vortex system near the junction. Real-time vortex structures were visualized with a laser sheet. Interior velocity, turbulence intensity and velocity power spectrum measurements were obtained with a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) and a hot-wire anemometer. Ink dot surface flow visualizations and pressure measurements were acquired on the endwall under the vortex system. Endwall heat transfer coefficients were nonintrusively measured by an infrared imaging system. Laser sheet flow visualizations indicated a vortex system with randon oscillations. In the time-averaged sense, ink-dot flow visualizations, LDA measurements and endwall pressure measurements indicated a well defined primary vortex. The separation region was 70 percent larger, in the streamwise direction, than that in front of a cylinder with a diameter the same as the obstruction width. The time-averaged primary vortex center, where maximum values of turbulence intensity were measured, was located farther away from the obstruction leading edge at higher freestream velocities. Endwall heat transfer coefficient distribution measurements on the endwall surface revealed that the obstruction established a complex heat transfer pattern. Local heat transfer rates as much as 80 percent greater than the undisturbed two-dimensional level were recorded upstream of the obstruction along the test section centerline. A local heat transfer coefficient peak was associated with the local maximum turbulence intensity measured near the endwall by LDA.
Due to their highly-structured canopy, turbulent characteristics within and above vineyards, may not conform to those typically exhibited by other agricultural and natural ecosystems. Using data collected as a part of the Grape Remote sensing and Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experime...
van Haren, H.
2015-01-01
The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kellnerová, Radka; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Uruba, Václav; Jaňour, Zbyněk
2011-01-01
Roč. 318, - (2011), s. 1-10 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European Turbulence Conference /13./. Warsaw, 12.09.2011-15.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : Wavelet analysis * street canyon * POD Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/318/6/062012?fromSearchPage=true
Zhou, Quan; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Sugiyama, K.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Xia, K.
2010-01-01
The shapes of the velocity and temperature profiles near the horizontal conducting plates' centre regions in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection are studied numerically and experimentally over the Rayleigh number range 108 ≲ Ra ≲ 3 × 1011 and the Prandtl number range 0.7 ≲ Pr ≲ 5.4. The results
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry
Braam, M.
2014-01-01
Aspects of atmospheric turbulence related to scintillometry Atmospheric turbulence is the main vertical transport mechanism in the atmospheric boundary layer. The surface fluxes related to this turbulent transport are the sensible (
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foucaut, J.M.; Coudert, S.; Braud, C.
2012-01-01
The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup and meas......The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup...... of measurements by increasing the velocity dynamic range especially. It also presents the enhancement of accuracy due to the light sheets separation for characterizing streamwise vortices (i.e. perpendicular to the sheet). The present experiment was performed in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel...
Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown
Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.
1993-01-01
Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.
Bianco, L.; McCaffrey, K.; Wilczak, J. M.; Olson, J. B.; Kenyon, J.
2016-12-01
When forecasting winds at a wind plant for energy production, the turbulence parameterizations in the forecast models are crucial for understanding wind plant performance. Recent research shows that the turbulence (eddy) dissipation rate in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes introduces significant uncertainty in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thus, developing the capability to measure dissipation rates in the PBL will allow for identification of weaknesses in, and improvements to the parameterizations. During a preliminary field study at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in spring 2015, a 915-MHz wind profiling radar (WPR) measured dissipation rates concurrently with sonic anemometers mounted on a 300-meter tower. WPR set-up parameters (e.g., spectral resolution), post-processing techniques (e.g., filtering for non-atmospheric signals), and spectral averaging were optimized to capture the most accurate Doppler spectra for measuring spectral widths for use in the computation of the eddy dissipation rates. These encouraging results lead to the implementation of the observing strategy on a 915-MHz WPR in Wasco, OR, operating as part of the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2). These observations are compared to dissipation rates calculated from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model, a WRF-based mesoscale numerical weather prediction model run for WFIP2 at 3000 m horizontal grid spacing and with a nest, which has 750-meter horizontal grid spacing, in the complex terrain region of the Columbia River Gorge. The observed profiles of dissipation rates are used to evaluate the PBL parameterization schemes used in the HRRR model, which are based on the modeled turbulent kinetic energy and a tunable length scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurence, D.
1997-01-01
This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-ε two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the 'standard' (R ij -ε) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called 'feasible'. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author)
Ronda, R.J.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.
2012-01-01
The proper forecasting of the occurrence of radiation fog is still one of the challenging topics in boundary-layer meteorology, despite its high societal importance like for aviation and road traffic. In fact radiation fog depends on many processes that all critically interact on relatively short
Aspects of turbulent-shear-layer dynamics and mixing
Slessor, Michael David
Experiments have been conducted in the GALCIT Supersonic Shear Layer Facility to investigate some aspects of high-Reynolds-number, turbulent, shear-layer flows in both incompressible- and compressible-flow regimes. Experiments designed to address several issues were performed; effects of inflow boundary conditions, freestream conditions (supersonic/subsonic flow), and compressibility, on both large-scale dynamics and small-scale mixing, are described. Chemically-reacting and non-reacting flows were investigated, the former relying on the (Hsb2 + NO)/Fsb2 chemical system, in the fast-kinetic regime, to infer the structure and amount of molecular-scale mixing through use of "flip" experiments. A variety of experimental techniques, including a color-schlieren visualization system developed as part of this work, were used to study the flows. Both inflow conditions and compressibility are found to have significant effects on the flow. In particular, inflow conditions are "remembered" for long distances downstream, a sensitivity similar to that observed in low-dimensionality, non-linear (chaotic) systems. The global flowfields (freestreams coupled by the shear layer) of transonic flows exhibit a sensitivity to imposed boundary conditions, a.e., local area ratios. A previously-proposed mode-selection rule for turbulent-structure convection speeds, based on the presence of a lab-frame subsonic freestream, was experimentally demonstrated to be incorrect. Compressibility, when decoupled from ail other parameters, e.g., Reynolds number, velocity and density ratios, etc., reduces large-scale entrainment and turbulent growth, but slightly enhances small-scale mixing, with an associated change in the structure of the molecularly-mixed fluid. This reduction in shear-layer growth rate is examined and a new parameter that interprets compressibility as an energy-exchange mechanism is proposed. The parameter reconciles and collapses experimentally-observed growth rates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico
2017-12-01
The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.
Tangential inlet supersonic separators: a novel apparatus for gas purification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yang, Yan
2016-01-01
A novel supersonic separator with a tangential inlet is designed to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. The dynamic parameters of natural gas in the supersonic separation process are numerically calculated using the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Peng-Robinson real gas...... be generated by the tangential inlet, and it increases to the maximum of 200 m/s at the nozzle throat due to decrease of the nozzle area of the converging part. The tangential velocity can maintain the value of about 160 m/s at the nozzle exit, and correspondingly generates the centrifugal acceleration of 3...
A planar Mie scattering technique for visualizing supersonic mixing flows
Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.
1991-01-01
A planar Mie scattering technique is described which allows for the direct visualization of fluid mixing in supersonic flows. The mixed fluid is visualized by laser light sheet scattering from small alcohol droplets which condense as a result of the mixing of a vapor laden subsonic stream with a cold supersonic stream. Issues related to the formation, growth and size of the droplets are addressed. The technique reveals details of the turbulent structure which are masked by the spatial integration of schlieren and shadowgraph methods. Comparative visualizations using the vapor screen method to uniformly mark the high-speed fluid are also shown.
Properties of Supersonic Impinging Jets
Alvi, F. S.; Iyer, K. G.; Ladd, J.
1999-11-01
A detailed study examining the behavior of axisymmetric supersonic jets impinging on a ground plane is described. Our objective is to better understand the aeroacoustics governing this complex flowfield which commonly occurs in the vicinity of STOVL aircraft. Flow issuing through a Mach 1.5 C-D and a converging sonic nozzle is examined over a wide parametric range. For some cases a large diameter circular 'lift' plate, with an annular hole through which the jet is issued, is attached at the nozzle exit to simulate a generic airframe. The impinging jet flowfield was examined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which provides the velocity field for the entire region and shadowgraph visualization techniques. Near-field acoustic, as well as, mean and unsteady pressure measurements on the ground and lift plate surfaces were also obtained. The velocity field data, together with the surface flow measurements have resulted in a much better understanding of this flow from a fundamental standpoint while also identifying critical regions of interest for practical applications. Some of these findings include the presence of a stagnation bubble with recirculating flow; a very high speed (transonic/supersonic) radial wall jet; presence of large, spatially coherent turbulent structures in the primary jet and wall jet and high unsteady loads on the ground plane and lift plates. The results of a companion CFD investigation and its comparison to the experimental data will also be presented. Very good agreement has been found between the computational and experimental results thus providing confidence in the development of computational tools for the study of such flows.
RANS Modeling of Benchmark Shockwave / Boundary Layer Interaction Experiments
Georgiadis, Nick; Vyas, Manan; Yoder, Dennis
2010-01-01
This presentation summarizes the computations of a set of shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock / boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Three turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Shear Stress Transport wavenumber-angular frequency two-equation model, and an explicit algebraic stress wavenumber-angular frequency formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.!
THERMAL AND AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCES OF THE SUPERSONIC MOTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dejan P Ninković
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Generally speaking, Mach number of 4 can be taken as a boundary value for transition from conditions for supersonic, into the area of hypersonic flow, distinguishing two areas: area of supersonic in which the effects of the aerodynamic heating can be neglected and the area of hypersonic, in which the thermal effects become dominant. This paper presents the effects in static and dynamic areas, as well as presentation of G.R.O.M. software for determination of the values of aerodynamic derivatives, which was developed on the basis of linearized theory of supersonic flow. Validation of developed software was carried out through different types of testing, proving its usefulness for engineering practice in the area of supersonic wing aerodynamic loading calculations, even at high Mach numbers, with dominant thermal effects.
Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.
2008-12-01
A digital holographic microscope is used to simultaneously measure the instantaneous 3D flow structure in the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer over a smooth wall, and the spatial distribution of wall shear stresses. The measurements are performed in a fully developed turbulent channel flow within square duct, at a moderately high Reynolds number. The sample volume size is 90 × 145 × 90 wall units, and the spatial resolution of the measurements is 3 8 wall units in streamwise and spanwise directions and one wall unit in the wall-normal direction. The paper describes the data acquisition and analysis procedures, including the particle tracking method and associated method for matching of particle pairs. The uncertainty in velocity is estimated to be better than 1 mm/s, less than 0.05% of the free stream velocity, by comparing the statistics of the normalized velocity divergence to divergence obtained by randomly adding an error of 1 mm/s to the data. Spatial distributions of wall shear stresses are approximated with the least square fit of velocity measurements in the viscous sublayer. Mean flow profiles and statistics of velocity fluctuations agree very well with expectations. Joint probability density distributions of instantaneous spanwise and streamwise wall shear stresses demonstrate the significance of near-wall coherent structures. The near wall 3D flow structures are classified into three groups, the first containing a pair of counter-rotating, quasi streamwise vortices and high streak-like shear stresses; the second group is characterized by multiple streamwise vortices and little variations in wall stress; and the third group has no buffer layer structures.
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keylock, Christopher J; Nishimura, Kouichi
2016-01-01
Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)
Basic issues of atmospheric turbulence and turbulent diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortak, H.
1985-01-01
A major concern of the institutions commissioned with the protection of the environment is the prognostication of the environment's exposure to various pollutant emissions. The transport and turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances largely take place within a planetary boundary layer of a thickness between 500 to 1,500 m in which the atmosphere continues to be in a turbulent state of flow. The basic theories for the origination and formation of turbulence in flow fields, for the application of these theories to turbulent flows over complex terrain structures and, finally, for the turbulent diffusion of air-borne substances within the planetary boundary layer are presented. (orig./PW) [de
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Urban, Pavel; Hanzelka, Pavel; Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Srnka, Aleš; Skrbek, L.
2013-01-01
Roč. 110, 8 May (2013), 199402:1-1 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cryogenic turbulence * turbulent convection * Rayleigh-Bénard convection Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013
Simulation of underexpanded supersonic jet flows with chemical reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Debin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available To achieve a detailed understanding of underexpanded supersonic jet structures influenced by afterburning and other flow conditions, the underexpanded turbulent supersonic jet with and without combustions are investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. A program based on a total variation diminishing (TVD methodology capable of predicting complex shocks is created to solve the axisymmetric expanded Navier–Stokes equations containing transport equations of species. The finite-rate ratio model is employed to handle species sources in chemical reactions. CFD solutions indicate that the structure of underexpanded jet is typically influenced by the pressure ratio and afterburning. The shock reflection distance and maximum value of Mach number in the first shock cell increase with pressure ratio. Chemical reactions for the rocket exhaust mostly exist in the mixing layer of supersonic jet flows. This tends to reduce the intensity of shocks existing in the jet, responding to the variation of thermal parameters.
Suarez Mullins, Astrid
Terrain-induced gravity waves and rotor circulations have been hypothesized to enhance the generation of submeso motions (i.e., nonstationary shear events with spatial and temporal scales greater than the turbulence scale and smaller than the meso-gamma scale) and to modulate low-level intermittency in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Intermittent turbulence, generated by submeso motions and/or the waves, can affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of pollutants and hazardous materials. Thus, the study of these motions and the mechanisms through which they impact the weakly to very stable SBL is crucial for improving air quality modeling and hazard predictions. In this thesis, the effects of waves and rotor circulations on submeso and turbulence variability within the SBL is investigated over the moderate terrain of central Pennsylvania using special observations from a network deployed at Rock Springs, PA and high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts. The investigation of waves and rotors over central PA is important because 1) the moderate topography of this region is common to most of the eastern US and thus the knowledge acquired from this study can be of significance to a large population, 2) there have been little evidence of complex wave structures and rotors reported for this region, and 3) little is known about the waves and rotors generated by smaller and more moderate topographies. Six case studies exhibiting an array of wave and rotor structures are analyzed. Observational evidence of the presence of complex wave structures, resembling nonstationary trapped gravity waves and downslope windstorms, and complex rotor circulations, resembling trapped and jump-type rotors, is presented. These motions and the mechanisms through which they modulate the SBL are further investigated using high-resolution WRF forecasts. First, the efficacy of the 0.444-km horizontal grid spacing WRF model to reproduce submeso and meso
MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.
2011-01-01
It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.
PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert
2008-10-01
The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the
Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc
2015-04-01
Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are investigated. We argue that OGCM studies of intrinsic dynamic of WBCs are key to interpreting their observed total variability, which might result from a subtle mixing between a non-linear small-scale response of intrinsic modes to the atmospheric forcing and a direct basin-scale linear response to the atmosphere.
Investigation of nozzle contours in the CSIR supersonic wind tunnel
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vallabh, Bhavya
2017-09-01
Full Text Available technique to design the nozzle profiles for the full supersonic Mach number range 1=M=4.5 of the facility. Automatic computation was used for the profile design and a computational method analysed the test section flow characteristics. A boundary layer...
Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Air Supersonic Coaxial Jet
Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, Pulinbehari; Chakraborty, Debasis
2017-10-01
In the present study, the turbulent structure of coaxial supersonic H2-air jet is explored numerically by solving three dimensional RANS equations along with two equation k-ɛ turbulence model. Grid independence of the solution is demonstrated by estimating the error distribution using Grid Convergence Index. Distributions of flow parameters in different planes are analyzed to explain the mixing and combustion characteristics of high speed coaxial jets. The flow field is seen mostly diffusive in nature and hydrogen diffusion is confined to core region of the jet. Both single step laminar finite rate chemistry and turbulent reacting calculation employing EDM combustion model are performed to find the effect of turbulence-chemistry interaction in the flow field. Laminar reaction predicts higher H2 mol fraction compared to turbulent reaction because of lower reaction rate caused by turbulence chemistry interaction. Profiles of major species and temperature match well with experimental data at different axial locations; although, the computed profiles show a narrower shape in the far field region. These results demonstrate that standard two equation class turbulence model with single step kinetics based turbulence chemistry interaction can describe H2-air reaction adequately in high speed flows.
Hunter, W. W., Jr.; Ocheltree, S. L.; Russ, C. E., Jr.
1991-01-01
Laser transit anemometer (LTA) measurements of a 7 degree sharp cone boundary layer were conducted in the Air Force/AEDC Supersonic Tunnel A Mach 4 flow field. These measurements are compared with Pitot probe measurements and tricone theory provided by AEDC staff. Measurements were made both in laminar and turbulent boundary layers of the model. Comparison of LTA measurements with theory showed agreement to better than 1 percent for the laminar boundary layer cases. This level of agreement was obtained after small position corrections, 0.01 to 0.6 mm, were applied to the experimental data sets. Pitot probe data when compared with theory also showed small positioning errors. The Pitot data value was also limited due to probe interference with the flow near the model. The LTA turbulent boundary layer data indicated a power law dependence of 6.3 to 6.9. The LTA data was analyzed in the time (Tau) domain in which it was obtained and in the velocity domain. No significant differences were noted between Tau and velocity domain results except in one turbulent boundary layer case.
Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion
Magnotti, Gaetano
Successful design of hypersonic air-breathing engines requires new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence and turbulence-chemistry interaction in supersonic combustion. Unfortunately, not enough data are available to the modelers to develop and validate their codes, due to difficulties in taking measurements in such a harsh environment. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a non-intrusive, non-linear, laser-based technique that provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in H2-air flames. A dual-pump CARS instrument has been developed to obtain measurements in supersonic combustion and generate databases for the CFD community. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. The facility provides a central jet of hot "vitiated air" simulating the hot air entering the engine of a hypersonic vehicle flying at Mach numbers between 5 and 7. Three different silicon carbide nozzles, with exit Mach number 1, 1.6 and 2, are used to provide flows with the effects of varying compressibility. H2 co-flow is available in order to generate a supersonic combusting free jet. Dual-pump CARS measurements have been obtained for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Approximately one million Dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N 2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers
Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab
2016-12-01
We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.
Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.
1968-01-01
The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...
Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.
1969-01-01
The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...
Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian
1992-01-01
As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soudani, A. [Batna Univ., Dept. de Physique, Faculte des Sciences (Algeria); Bessaih, R. [Mentouri-Constantine Univ., Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur (Algeria)
2004-12-01
The study of turbulent boundary layer with strong differences of density is important for the understanding of practical situations occurring for example in the cooling of turbine blades through the tangential injection of a different gas or in combustion. In order to study the fine structure of wall turbulence in the presence of significant variations of density, a statistical analysis of the experimental data, obtained in a wind tunnel, is carried out. The results show that the relaxation of the skewness factor of u'(S{sub u'}) is carried out more quickly in the external layer than close to the wall, as well for the air injection as for the helium injection. S{sub u'} grows close to the injection slot in an appreciable way and this increase is accentuated for the air injection than for the helium injection. This growth of the skewness factor close to the injection slot can be explained by the increase in the longitudinal convective flux of turbulent energy in this zone. The results show for the distribution of the flatness factor F{sub u'} that there is no significant effect of the density gradient on the intermittent structure of the instantaneous longitudinal velocity in the developed zone, x/{delta} {>=} 5. The statistical analysis carried out in this study shows that the helium injection in the boundary layer generates more violent ejections than in the case of air injection. This result is confirmed by the significant contribution of the ejections to turbulent mass flux.
Investigation of the mixing layer of underexpanded supersonic jets by particle image velocimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
André, Benoît; Castelain, Thomas; Bailly, Christophe
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Particle image velocimetry is applied to slightly underexpanded supersonic jets. • The jet shock-cell structure and turbulence are investigated in detail. • An influence of the former on the latter is visible at higher Mach numbers. • The estimates of the wideband intrinsic length scales of turbulence are of the order of the shock-cell length. - Abstract: The present experimental study focuses on some properties of the turbulence and the shock-cell structure in underexpanded supersonic jets, which are of practical relevance in air transport. Choked jets at fully expanded Mach numbers M j = 1.10, 1.15, 1.35 and 1.50 are investigated using particle image velocimetry. The strength of the shock-cell structure is studied from mean velocity profiles, both in the jet core and in the mixing layer. The general geometry of the latter and its location relatively to the mean shock-cell structure are established. Furthermore, detailed accounts of mixing layer thickness, turbulence levels, spatial correlations and intrinsic turbulence length scales are given. While the mean velocity variations related to the shock-cell structure extend up to the subsonic part of the studied jets, their mixing layer is found to be mostly located in the subsonic region. Some of the observed turbulence properties, like the mixing layer thickness and turbulence levels, are close to what is found for subsonic jets. The effect of the shock-cell structure on turbulence is however visible for M j ⩾1.35. The spatial correlations of turbulence are used to estimate intrinsic turbulence length scales and these are found to be of the order of the shock-cell length. These data are used to make some comments upon the generation mechanism of shock-associated noise, a noise component produced by imperfectly expanded supersonic jets
Simulation of a Wall-Bounded Flow using a Hybrid LES/RAS Approach with Turbulence Recycling
Quinlan, Jesse R.; Mcdaniel, James; Baurle, Robert A.
2012-01-01
Simulations of a supersonic recessed-cavity flow are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/ Reynolds-averaged simulation approach utilizing an inflow turbulence recycling procedure and hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Calorically perfect air enters the three-dimensional domain at a free stream Mach number of 2.92. Simulations are performed to assess grid sensitivity of the solution, efficacy of the turbulence recycling, and effect of the shock sensor used with the hybridized inviscid flux scheme. Analysis of the turbulent boundary layer upstream of the rearward-facing step for each case indicates excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Mean velocity and pressure results are compared to Reynolds-averaged simulations and experimental data for each case, and these comparisons indicate good agreement on the finest grid. Simulations are repeated on a coarsened grid, and results indicate strong grid density sensitivity. The effect of turbulence recycling on the solution is illustrated by performing coarse grid simulations with and without inflow turbulence recycling. Two shock sensors, one of Ducros and one of Larsson, are assessed for use with the hybridized inviscid flux reconstruction scheme.
Progress in supersonic cruise technology
Driver, C.
1983-01-01
The Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program identified significant improvements in the technology areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements, when combined in a large supersonic cruise vehicle, offer a far greater technology advance than generally realized. They offer the promise of an advanced commercial family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. These same areas of technology have direct application to smaller advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft. Several possible applications will be addressed.
Active Control of Supersonic Impinging Jets Using Supersonic Microjets
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Alvi, Farrukh
2005-01-01
.... Supersonic impinging jets occur in many applications including in STOVL aircraft where they lead to a highly oscillatory flow with very high unsteady loads on the nearby aircraft structures and the landing surfaces...
An Entropy-Assisted Shielding Function in DDES Formulation for the SST Turbulence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Zhou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The intent of shielding functions in delayed detached-eddy simulation methods (DDES is to preserve the wall boundary layers as Reynolds-averaged Navier–Strokes (RANS mode, avoiding possible modeled stress depletion (MSD or even unphysical separation due to grid refinement. An entropy function fs is introduced to construct a DDES formulation for the k-ω shear stress transport (SST model, whose performance is extensively examined on a range of attached and separated flows (flat-plate flow, circular cylinder flow, and supersonic cavity-ramp flow. Two more forms of shielding functions are also included for comparison: one that uses the blending function F2 of SST, the other which adopts the recalibrated shielding function fd_cor of the DDES version based on the Spalart-Allmaras (SA model. In general, all of the shielding functions do not impair the vortex in fully separated flows. However, for flows including attached boundary layer, both F2 and the recalibrated fd_cor are found to be too conservative to resolve the unsteady flow content. On the other side, fs is proposed on the theory of energy dissipation and independent on from any particular turbulence model, showing the generic priority by properly balancing the need of reserving the RANS modeled regions for wall boundary layers and generating the unsteady turbulent structures in detached areas.
Christhilf, David M.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Stevens, William L.
2010-01-01
The Simulink-based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) was modified to incorporate linear models representing aeroservoelastic characteristics of the SemiSpan SuperSonic Transport (S4T) wind-tunnel model. The S4T planform is for a Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) design from the 1990s. The model has three control surfaces and is instrumented with accelerometers and strain gauges. Control laws developed for wind-tunnel testing for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression System functions were implemented in the simulation. The simulation models open- and closed-loop response to turbulence and to control excitation. It provides time histories for closed-loop stable conditions above the open-loop flutter boundary. The simulation is useful for assessing the potential impact of closed-loop control rate and position saturation. It also provides a means to assess fidelity of system identification procedures by providing time histories for a known plant model, with and without unmeasured turbulence as a disturbance. Sets of linear models representing different Mach number and dynamic pressure conditions were implemented as MATLAB Linear Time Invariant (LTI) objects. Configuration changes were implemented by selecting which LTI object to use in a Simulink template block. A limited comparison of simulation versus wind-tunnel results is shown.
A multiple-scales model of the shock-cell structure of imperfectly expanded supersonic jets
Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.; Seiner, J. M.
1985-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with the development of an analytical model of the quasi-periodic shock-cell structure of an imperfectly expanded supersonic jet. The investigation represents a part of a program to develop a mathematical theory of broadband shock-associated noise of supersonic jets. Tam and Tanna (1982) have suggested that this type of noise is generated by the weak interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream-propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet. In the model developed in this paper, the effect of turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet is simulated by the addition of turbulent eddy-viscosity terms to the momentum equation. Attention is given to the mean-flow profile and the numerical solution, and a comparison of the numerical results with experimental data.
Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.
2018-01-01
The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.
Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown
Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.
Numerical Simulations of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Transition
Bartkowicz, Matthew David
Numerical schemes for supersonic flows tend to use large amounts of artificial viscosity for stability. This tends to damp out the small scale structures in the flow. Recently some low-dissipation methods have been proposed which selectively eliminate the artificial viscosity in regions which do not require it. This work builds upon the low-dissipation method of Subbareddy and Candler which uses the flux vector splitting method of Steger and Warming but identifies the dissipation portion to eliminate it. Computing accurate fluxes typically relies on large grid stencils or coupled linear systems that become computationally expensive to solve. Unstructured grids allow for CFD solutions to be obtained on complex geometries, unfortunately, it then becomes difficult to create a large stencil or the coupled linear system. Accurate solutions require grids that quickly become too large to be feasible. In this thesis a method is proposed to obtain more accurate solutions using relatively local data, making it suitable for unstructured grids composed of hexahedral elements. Fluxes are reconstructed using local gradients to extend the range of data used. The method is then validated on several test problems. Simulations of boundary layer transition are then performed. An elliptic cone at Mach 8 is simulated based on an experiment at the Princeton Gasdynamics Laboratory. A simulated acoustic noise boundary condition is imposed to model the noisy conditions of the wind tunnel and the transitioning boundary layer observed. A computation of an isolated roughness element is done based on an experiment in Purdue's Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel. The mechanism for transition is identified as an instability in the upstream separation region and a comparison is made to experimental data. In the CFD a fully turbulent boundary layer is observed downstream.
Satellite sensing of submerged fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence
Gibson, Carl H.
2004-11-01
Surface brightness anomalies from a submerged municipal wastewater outfall trapped by buoyancy in an area 0.1 km^2 are surprisingly detected from space satellites in areas > 200 km^2. How is this possible? Microstructure measurements near the outfall diffuser reveal enhanced turbulence and temperature dissipation rates above the 50 m trapping depth. Near-vertical radiation of internal waves by fossil and zombie turbulence microstructure patches produce wind ripple smoothing with 30-50 m internal wave patterns in surface Fourier brightness anomalies near the outfall. Detections at 10-14 km distances are at 100-220 m bottom boundary layer (BBL) fossil turbulence scales. Advected outfall fossils form zombie turbulence patches in internal wave patterns as they extract energy, vorticity, turbulence and ambient vertical internal wavelength information as their density gradients are tilted by the waves. As the zombies fossilize, patterned energy radiates near-vertically to produce the detected Fourier anomalies. Zombie turbulence patches beam extracted energy in a preferred direction with a special frequency, like energized metastable molecules in a chemical maser. Thus, kilowatts to produce the submerged field of advected fossil outfall turbulence patches are amplified by beamed zombie turbulence maser action (BZTMA) into megawatts of turbulence dissipation to affect sea surface brightness on wide surface areas using gigawatts of BBL fossil turbulence wave energy available.
1978-03-01
based on model length. The primary measurements were impact probe pressures in the bound boundary layer. Local Mach numbers within the boundary layer...4 " N m~mt 4 w zg ~ ~ ~ Ma WM O*Mcccc.e.ccccc c ccec~0 00 ao oo ogm ~ 00 00.4...... 48w wQ o OO 0II i in U.1 U 2. S4 0 44 A w)4vp.QS )Pr- . -4 ’- A4L
Calculations of Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows using Compressible Wall Functions
Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1993-01-01
The present paper presents a numerical procedure to calculate supersonic and hypersonic flows using the compressible law of the wall. The turbulence models under consideration include the Launder-Reece-Rodi-Gibson Reynolds-stress model and the k-epsilon model. The models coupled with the proposed wall function technique have been tested in both separated and unseparated flows. The flows include (1) an insulated flat plate flow over a range of Mach numbers, (2) a Mach 5 flat plate flow with cold wall conditions, (3) a two dimensional supersonic compression corner flow, (4) a hypersonic flow over an axisymmetric flare, and (5) a hypersonic flow over a 2-D compression corner. Results indicate that the wall function technique gives improved predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in separated flows compared with models using wall dampers. Predictions of the extent of separation are not improved over the wall damper models except with the Reynolds-stress model for the supersonic compression corner flow case.
PROPERTIES OF SUPERSONIC EVERSHED DOWNFLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pozuelo, S. Esteban; Rubio, L. R. Bellot [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: sara.esteban@astro.su.se [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2016-12-01
We study supersonic Evershed downflows in a sunspot penumbra by means of high spatial resolution spectropolarimetric data acquired in the Fe i 617.3 nm line with the CRISP instrument at the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope. Physical observables, such as Dopplergrams calculated from line bisectors and Stokes V zero-crossing wavelengths, and Stokes V maps in the far red-wing, are used to find regions where supersonic Evershed downflows may exist. We retrieve the line-of-sight velocity and the magnetic field vector in these regions using two-component inversions of the observed Stokes profiles with the help of the SIR code. We follow these regions during their lifetime to study their temporal behavior. Finally, we carry out a statistical analysis of the detected supersonic downflows to characterize their physical properties. Supersonic downflows are contained in compact patches moving outward, which are located in the mid- and outer penumbra. They are observed as bright, roundish structures at the outer end of penumbral filaments that resemble penumbral grains. The patches may undergo fragmentations and mergings during their lifetime; some of them are recurrent. Supersonic downflows are associated with strong and rather vertical magnetic fields with a reversed polarity compared to that of the sunspot. Our results suggest that downflows returning back to the solar surface with supersonic velocities are abruptly stopped in dense deep layers and produce a shock. Consequently, this shock enhances the temperature and is detected as a bright grain in the continuum filtergrams, which could explain the existence of outward-moving grains in the mid- and outer penumbra.
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.
2003-01-01
The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)
PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond
Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.
2010-12-01
The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or
Study of the shock wave effects to the laser transmission at the supersonic speed
Zhang, Xiang-Jin; Shen, Na; Zhang, He; Wang, Xiao-Feng
2010-05-01
Pulse infrared laser launched by the prepositional laser fuse system reaches the target first. Laser echo pulse signal then arrive the surface of photodiode laser detection receiver, and penetrates through the boundary layer - shear layer - shock wave - atmosphere - shock wave - shear layer - boundary layer under supersonic velocity, finally, focuses on the photosensitive surface. As shock wave has an effect on the prepositional laser fuse in the optical path, a great deviation has been brought between distance determining methods on static state and in the course of the actual flight. In this paper, a model of the shock wave's influence on the prepositional laser fuse's optical distance under supersonic velocity is presented. Based on a certain projectile, the optical path difference is analyzed. The optical path differences under different projectile velocities are figured out with the MATLAB software, which will provide a feasible error analysis method for the exploration of laser fuse or laser weapon under supersonic velocity.
Turbulence in Natural Environments
Banerjee, Tirtha
Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be
Statnikov, V.; Saile, D.; Meiß, J.-H.; Henckels, A.; Meinke, M.; Gülhan, A.; Schröder, W.
2015-06-01
The turbulent wake of a generic space launcher at cold hypersonic freestream conditions is investigated experimentally and numerically to gain detailed insight into the intricate base flow phenomena of space vehicles at upper stages of the flight trajectory. The experiments are done at Ma∞ = 6 and ReD = 1.7 · 106 m-1 by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the corresponding computations are performed by the Institute of Aerodynamics Aachen using a zonal Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes / Large-Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) approach. Two different aft-body geometries consisting of a blunt base and an attached cylindrical nozzle dummy are considered. It is found that the wind tunnel model support attached to the upper side of the main body has a nonnegligible impact on the wake along the whole circumference, albeit on the opposite side, the effects are minimal compared to an axisymmetric configuration. In the blunt-base case, the turbulent supersonic boundary layer undergoes a strong aftexpansion on the model shoulder leading to the formation of a confined low-pressure (p/p∞ ≈ 0.2) recirculation region. Adding a nozzle dummy causes the shear layer to reattach on the its wall at x/D ˜ 0.6 and the base pressure level to increase (p/p∞ ≈ 0.25) compared to the blunt-base case. For both configurations, the pressure fluctuations on the base wall feature dominant frequencies at SrD ≈ 0.05 and SrD ≈ 0.2-0.27, but are of small amplitudes (prms/p∞ = 0.02-0.025) compared to the main body boundary layer. For the nozzle dummy configuration, when moving downstream along the nozzle extension, the wall pressure is increasingly influenced by the reattaching shear layer and the periodic low-frequency behavior becomes less pronounced. Directly behind the reattachment point, the wall pressure reaches maximum mean and root-mean-square (rms) values of about p/p∞ = 1 and p'rms/p∞ = 0.1 and features a broadband specrms trum without distinct frequencies determined by the
Boundary and initial conditions in protostar calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, M.J.
1976-01-01
On first fragmentation protostars probably form part of a larger protocluster cloud already in a state of dynamic collapse. In that case it is argued that the protostar boundary is initially collapsing at supersonic speed relative to the core. This prevents information from the boundary reaching the core and calls into question models like Larson's, which start homogeneously but become centrally condensed due to the propagation of a rarefaction wave from the boundary. (author)
Shape optimization of supersonic ejector for supersonic wind tunnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dvořák V.
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the shape optimization of a supersonic ejector for propulsion of an experimental supersonic wind tunnel. This ejector contains several primary nozzles arranged around the mixing chamber wall. CFD software Fluent was used to compute the flow in the ejector. A dynamic mesh method was applied to find an optimal shape of the three-dimensional geometry. During the work it was found out that the previously developed optimization method for subsonic ejectors must be modified. The improved method is more stable and the solution requires fewer optimization steps. The shapes of the mixing chamber, the diffuser, inlet parts and the optimal declination of the primary nozzles are obtained as the optimization results.
Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Khakhaleva, Larisa V.; Chukalin, Andrey V.; Bondarenko, Aleksandr A.; Kovrizhnykh, Evgeny N.
2017-07-01
Generalization of classical model of a displacement way on the transfer of heat exchange and mass exchange of a stream in the boundary layer, confirmed by the control action of the different nature, is undertaken. Here are given the results of numerical research which have allowed explaining the mechanism, to reveal efficiency and limits of various ways of management of intensity in exchange processes. The possibility of management of intensity in processes of a thermolysis and friction by use of the perforated surface with the damping cavities is analyzed.
Advancements in Dual-Pump Broadband CARS for Supersonic Combustion Measurements
Tedder, Sarah Augusta Umberger
2010-01-01
Space- and time-resolved measurements of temperature and species mole fractions of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen were obtained with a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion free jet flows. These measurements were taken to provide time-resolved fluid properties of turbulent supersonic combustion for use in the creation and verification of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. CFD models of turbulent supersonic combustion flow currently facilitate the design of air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines. Measurements were made in supersonic axi-symmetric free jets of two scales. First, the measurement system was tested in a laboratory environment using a laboratory-scale burner (approx.10 mm at nozzle exit). The flow structures of the laboratory-burner were too small to be resolved with the CARS measurements volume, but the composition and temperature of the jet allowed the performance of the system to be evaluated. Subsequently, the system was tested in a burner that was approximately 6 times larger, whose length scales are better resolved by the CARS measurement volume. During both these measurements, weaknesses of the CARS system, such as sensitivity to vibrations and beam steering and inability to measure temperature or species concentrations in hydrogen fuel injection regions were indentified. Solutions were then implemented in improved CARS systems. One of these improved systems is a dual-pump broadband CARS technique called, Width Increased Dual-pump Enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of the flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature. WIDECARS is also designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows
Advancements in Dual-Pump Broadband CARS for Supersonic Combustion Measurements
Tedder, Sarah Augusta Umberger
Space- and time-resolved measurements of temperature and species mole fractions of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen were obtained with a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system in hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustion free jet flows. These measurements were taken to provide time-resolved fluid properties of turbulent supersonic combustion for use in the creation and verification of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. CFD models of turbulent supersonic combustion flow currently facilitate the design of air- breathing supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines. Measurements were made in supersonic axi-symmetric free jets of two scales. First, the measurement system was tested in a laboratory environment using a laboratory-scale burner (˜10 mm at nozzle exit). The flow structures of the laboratory-burner were too small to be resolved with the CARS measurements volume, but the composition and temperature of the jet allowed the performance of the system to be evaluated. Subsequently, the system was tested in a burner that was approximately 6 times larger, whose length scales are better resolved by the CARS measurement volume. During both these measurements, weaknesses of the CARS system, such as sensitivity to vibrations and beam steering and inability to measure temperature or species concentrations in hydrogen fuel injection regions were identified. Solutions were then implemented in improved CARS systems. One of these improved systems is a dual-pump broadband CARS technique called, Width Increased Dual-pump Enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of the flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature. WIDECARS is also designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows fueled
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Effect of shock interactions on mixing layer between co-flowing supersonic flows in a confined duct
Rao, S. M. V.; Asano, S.; Imani, I.; Saito, T.
2018-03-01
Experiments are conducted to observe the effect of shock interactions on a mixing layer generated between two supersonic streams of Mach number M _{1} = 1.76 and M _{2} = 1.36 in a confined duct. The development of this mixing layer within the duct is observed using high-speed schlieren and static pressure measurements. Two-dimensional, compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the k-ω SST turbulence model in Fluent. Further, adverse pressure gradients are imposed by placing inserts of small ( boundary layer thickness) thickness on the walls of the test section. The unmatched pressures cause the mixing layer to bend and lead to the formation of shock structures that interact with the mixing layer. The mixing layer growth rate is found to increase after the shock interaction (nearly doubles). The strongest shock is observed when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow. This shock interacts with the mixing layer exciting flow modes that produce sinusoidal flapping structures which enhance the mixing layer growth rate to the maximum (by 1.75 times). Shock fluctuations are characterized, and it is observed that the maximum amplitude occurs when a wedge insert is placed in the M _{2} flow.
The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS)
Edward G. Patton; Thomas W. Horst; Donald H. Lenschow; Peter P. Sullivan; Steven Oncley; Sean Burns; Alex Guenther; Andreas Held; Thomas Karl; Shane Mayor; Luciana Rizzo; Scott Spuler; Jielun Sun; Andrew Turnipseed; Eugene Allwine; Steven Edburg; Brian Lamb; Roni Avissar; Heidi E. Holder; Ron Calhoun; Jan Kleissl; William Massman; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Jeffrey C. Weil
2008-01-01
Turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) well above the surface has been shown to be independent of the details of the surface roughness. In this region well-quantified similarity relationships work well when characterizing turbulent fluxes (e.g., Raupach, 1979). However, in the near-surface layer which is directly influenced by roughness elements, i.e., the...
Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Stenke
2008-02-01
Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m^{−2} (9.4 mW m^{−2} for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m^{−2} (9.3 mW m^{−2} for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in
A new Lagrangian random choice method for steady two-dimensional supersonic/hypersonic flow
Loh, C. Y.; Hui, W. H.
1991-01-01
Glimm's (1965) random choice method has been successfully applied to compute steady two-dimensional supersonic/hypersonic flow using a new Lagrangian formulation. The method is easy to program, fast to execute, yet it is very accurate and robust. It requires no grid generation, resolves slipline and shock discontinuities crisply, can handle boundary conditions most easily, and is applicable to hypersonic as well as supersonic flow. It represents an accurate and fast alternative to the existing Eulerian methods. Many computed examples are given.
Turbulence and star formation in molecular clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, R.B.
1981-01-01
Data for many molecular clouds and condensations show that the internal velocity dispersion of each region is well correlated with its size and mass, and these correlations are approximately of power-law form. The dependence of velocity dispersion on region size is similar to the Kolmogoroff law for subsonic turbulence, suggesting that the observed motions are all part of a common hierarchy of interstellar turbulent motions. The regions studied are mostly gravitationally bound and in approximate virial equilibrium. However, they cannot have formed by simple gravitational collapse, and it appears likely that molecular clouds and their substructures have been created at least partly by processes of supersonic hydrodynamics. The hierarchy of subcondensations may terminate with objects so small that their internal motions are no longer supersonic; this predicts a minimum protostellar mass of the order of a few tenths of a solar mass. Massive 'protostellar' clumps always have supersonic internal motions and will therefore develop complex internal structures, probably leading to the formation of many pre-stellar condensation nuclei that grow by accretion to produce the final stellar mass spectrum. Molecular clouds must be transient structures, and are probably dispersed after not much more than 10 7 yr. (author)
The supersonic fan engine: An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion
Franciscus, L. C.
1981-01-01
Engine performance and mission studies were carried out for turbofan engines equipped with supersonic through-flow fans. The mission was for a commercial supersonic transport with a Mach 2.32 capability. The advantages of the supersonic fan engines are discussed in terms of mission range comparisons with other engine types. The effects of fan efficiency, inlet losses, and engine weight on engine performance and mission range are shown. The range of a supersonic transport with supersonic fan engines could be 10 to 20 percent better than with other types having the same technology core.
Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars
2009-01-01
The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free ...
Behaviour of organised disturbances in fully developed turbulent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In our earlier work we have shown the relevance of stability theory in understanding the sustenance of turbulence in turbulent boundary layers. Here we adopt the same model to study the evolution of organised disturbances in turbulent channel flow. Since the dominant modes are wall modes we find that the stability ...
Behaviour of organised disturbances in fully developed turbulent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In our earlier work we have shown the relevance of stability theory in understanding the sustenance of turbulence in turbulent boundary layers. Here we adopt the same model to study the evolution of organised disturbances in turbulent channel flow. Since the dominant modes are wall modes we find that the ...
Beckwith, I. E.; Spokowski, A. J.; Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.
1975-01-01
The basic theory and sound attenuation mechanisms, the design procedures, and preliminary experimental results are presented for a small axisymmetric sound shield for supersonic wind tunnels. The shield consists of an array of small diameter rods aligned nearly parallel to the entrance flow with small gaps between the rods for boundary layer suction. Results show that at the lowest test Reynolds number (based on rod diameter) of 52,000 the noise shield reduced the test section noise by about 60 percent ( or 8 db attenuation) but no attenuation was measured for the higher range of test reynolds numbers from 73,000 to 190,000. These results are below expectations based on data reported elsewhere on a flat sound shield model. The smaller attenuation from the present tests is attributed to insufficient suction at the gaps to prevent feedback of vacuum manifold noise into the shielded test flow and to insufficient suction to prevent transition of the rod boundary layers to turbulent flow at the higher Reynolds numbers. Schlieren photographs of the flow are shown.
Flowfield Behavior of Supersonic Impinging Jets
Iyer, K. G.; Alvi, F. S.
1998-11-01
A detailed study is being conducted which examines the behavior of normally impinging, supersonic jets, issuing from axisymmetric a Mach 1.5 C-D and a sonic nozzle. Our goal is to understand the physics of this flowfield (commonly observed in STOVL aircraft) and its influence on the acoustic and aerodynamic loading on the ground plane and the airframe. The airframe is simulated by a circular disc ('lift' plate) with an annular hole from which the jet is issued. Tests are carried out for a wide range of pressure ratios and the ground plane distance is varied from 1.5 to 60 nozzle diameters. Flowfield measurements include Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and schlieren/shadowgraph visualization. Surface measurements on the ground and lift plates include mean and unsteady surface pressure distributions and the surface streamline visualization. Near-field acoustic measurements using a microphone are also obtained. For certain cases, the PIV measurements -- first of their kind, to our knowledge -- clearly show the presence of large-scale coherent turbulent structures which, upon jet impingement, propagate into the resulting wall jet. These structures are believed to generate very high unsteady pressure loads on the ground plane thus leading to ground erosion. They are also suspected to be the source of acoustic waves which lead to a feedback loop causing violent oscillations of the primary jet and can result in increased acoustic loading and subsequent damage to the aircraft. As a result of this detailed study over a wide parametric space, we hope to gain a much better understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this complex flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yee-Lin Wu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Linyuan (LY is a coastal station located down wind of the industrial city of Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan. This station is often affected by severe ozone pollution during sea breeze events. Intensive tethered ozone soundings were per formed at this station during a 4-day ozone episode in November, 2005. Back air trajectories were also calculated to track the origins of air masses arriving at the station during the experiment. The investigation revealed complicated ozone pro files in the lower at mo sphere (be low 1300 m both day and night. At night, industrial plumes forming no-ozone air layers were frequently distributed at 400 - 800 m. Mixing layers rapidly decreased from 800 - 1100 m down to 200 - 350 m in the late morning hours when sea breezes and thermal internal boundary layers (TIBLs developed. Recirculation of polluted in land air masses over the sea, the development of TIBLs, and the late development of sea-breeze events all are likely responsible for severe ozone pollution at the LY station. Elevated industrial plumes or ozone aloft above TIBLs revealed only aminor contribution to ozone pollution via a downward mixing process. Elevated ozone levels (140 - 170 ppb were of ten trapped within transitional layers of sea-breeze circulations at 600 - 800 m and were accompanied by ambient northerly flows parallel to the coast line, suggesting that an ozone pollution core likely formed over the west coast of Taiwan on ozone-episodic days when sea-breeze circulations developed.
Progress in supersonic cruise aircraft technology
Driver, C.
1978-01-01
The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Resarch (SCAR) program identified significant improvements in the technology areas of propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, take-off and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. A brief overview of the highlights of the NASA supersonic technology program is presented.
Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane
Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.
1992-01-01
Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.
CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet
Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.
2009-01-01
Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Detonation in supersonic radial outflow
Kasimov, Aslan R.
2014-11-07
We report on the structure and dynamics of gaseous detonation stabilized in a supersonic flow emanating radially from a central source. The steady-state solutions are computed and their range of existence is investigated. Two-dimensional simulations are carried out in order to explore the stability of the steady-state solutions. It is found that both collapsing and expanding two-dimensional cellular detonations exist. The latter can be stabilized by putting several rigid obstacles in the flow downstream of the steady-state sonic locus. The problem of initiation of standing detonation stabilized in the radial flow is also investigated numerically. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.
2014-01-01
An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M A )/2, where M A is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ c /(8τ diff )), where τ c /τ diff is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ diff /τ c . Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c –5 (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk and Gloeckler
Development of Modal Analysis for the Study of Global Modes in High Speed Boundary Layer Flows
Brock, Joseph Michael
Boundary layer transition for compressible flows remains a challenging and unsolved problem. In the context of high-speed compressible flow, transitional and turbulent boundary-layers produce significantly higher surface heating caused by an increase in skin-friction. The higher heating associated with transitional and turbulent boundary layers drives thermal protection systems (TPS) and mission trajectory bounds. Proper understanding of the mechanisms that drive transition is crucial to the successful design and operation of the next generation spacecraft. Currently, prediction of boundary-layer transition is based on experimental efforts and computational stability analysis. Computational analysis, anchored by experimental correlations, offers an avenue to assess/predict stability at a reduced cost. Classical methods of Linearized Stability Theory (LST) and Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) have proven to be very useful for simple geometries/base flows. Under certain conditions the assumptions that are inherent to classical methods become invalid and the use of LST/PSE is inaccurate. In these situations, a global approach must be considered. A TriGlobal stability analysis code, Global Mode Analysis in US3D (GMAUS3D), has been developed and implemented into the unstructured solver US3D. A discussion of the methodology and implementation will be presented. Two flow configurations are presented in an effort to validate/verify the approach. First, stability analysis for a subsonic cylinder wake is performed and results compared to literature. Second, a supersonic blunt cone is considered to directly compare LST/PSE analysis and results generated by GMAUS3D.
Chyczewski, Thomas Stanley, Jr.
A national interest in High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT) coupled with strict airport noise regulations has prompted the scientific community to investigate new and improved noise prediction strategies. Meeting these airport regulations is considered to be a major design challenge for the HSCT. In light of this effort, a direct simulation strategy for predicting supersonic jet noise is developed in this thesis. Direct simulations are quickly becoming the method of choice due to their generality and ever decreasing expense associated with the development of parallel processors. Supersonic jet noise is known to be dominated by the growth and decay of large scale turbulent structures. The direct simulation approach used here consists of solving the full Navier Stokes equations using high order finite difference techniques to simulate the evolution of these structures and the noise they radiate to the acoustic near field. This near field solution is then extrapolated to the far field using a Kirchhoff method. The numerical algorithm uses a fourth order Runge -Kutta method for the time integration. The spatial derivatives are approximated by a sixth order central scheme. A sixth order filter is used at each interior mesh point to damp frequencies that cannot be resolved by the spatial scheme. Second order filtering is provided only where required for stability. It is found to be confined to specific locations in the jet core and should have no effect on the acoustic solution. Characteristic based nonreflecting conditions are used to minimize reflections at the far field boundaries and have proven to be effective. Additional boundary conditions are required in the form of it model for the nozzle exit flow. The characteristics of the nozzle exit flow can have a significant impact on the noise radiation. This dependence is unfortunate since comprehensive experimental data is not available in this region of the jet. A model is developed here that addresses a variety of
Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alsbrooks, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1993-04-01
Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.
Examination of wall functions for a Parabolized Navier-Stokes code for supersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alsbrooks, T.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-01-01
Solutions from a Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code with an algebraic turbulence model are compared with wall functions. The wall functions represent the turbulent flow profiles in the viscous sublayer, thus removing many grid points from the solution procedure. The wall functions are intended to replace the computed profiles between the body surface and a match point in the logarithmic region. A supersonic adiabatic flow case was examined first. This adiabatic case indicates close agreement between computed velocity profiles near the wall and the wall function for a limited range of suitable match points in the logarithmic region. In an attempt to improve marching stability, a laminar to turbulent transition routine was implemented at the start of the PNS code. Implementing the wall function with the transitional routine in the PNS code is expected to reduce computational time while maintaining good accuracy in computed skin friction.
Tribological study of an aerodynamic thrust bearing in the supersonic regime
Dupuy, F.; Bou-Saïd, B.; Garcia, M.
2017-02-01
Nowadays, aerodynamic air thrust bearing are mainly used over a large panel of turbo-machineries. These systems become increasingly faster and up to operate in supersonic regime. They have not reached a sufficient level of research in terms of high speed. The possibility of an aerodynamic thrust bearing operating in a supersonic regime is studied. First, the air film dynamic study for high Reynolds number is based on the “modified Reynolds” equations, which take into account the inertia terms, the viscosity’s variation in the film thickness, and the turbulence. It’s an extension of the traditional model used in lubrication called the generalized Reynolds equation. The results show that a depression occur at the location of the change of slope of the tapper flat geometry. The hypothesis of presence of shock or rarefaction waves shows that the pressure gradient in the film thickness may be no longer negligible. The modified Reynolds equation may be not enough to describe the problem. A new system is built to study these phenomena: the Navier-Stokes equation are adapted to the film’s geometry. The dynamic air film’s behavior study in supersonic regime requires a shock capturing scheme called WENO scheme (“Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory”), mainly used in shock and turbulence studies. The numerical results give the film behavior modelling of a fixed air thrust bearing pad. The evolution of the quantities shows that shock wave can occur in a thin film.
PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets
Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.
2012-01-01
While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.
Stability of sonic boom metrics regarding signature distortions from atmospheric turbulence.
Doebler, William J; Sparrow, Victor W
2017-06-01
The degree of insensitivity to atmospheric turbulence was evaluated for five metrics (A-, B-, E-weighted sound exposure level, Stevens Mark VII Perceived Level, and NASA's Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance Predictor) that correlate to human annoyance from sonic booms. Eight N-wave shaped sonic booms from NASA's FaINT experiment and five simulated "low-boom" sonic booms were turbulized by Locey's ten atmospheric filter functions. The B-weighted sound exposure level value changed the least due to the turbulence filters for twelve of thirteen booms. This makes it the most turbulence stable metric which may be useful for quiet supersonic aircraft certification.
Absolute intensities of supersonic beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Habets, A.H.M.; Verster, N.F.
1977-01-01
In a molecular beam experiment the center-line intensity I(0) (particles s -1 sterad -1 ) and the flow rate dN/dt (particles s -1 ) of a beam source are important features. To compare the performance of different types of beam sources the peaking factor, kappa, is defined as the ratio kappa=π(I(0)/dN/dt). The factor π is added to normalize to kappa=1 for an effusive source. The ideal peaking factor for the supersonic flow from a nozzle follows from continuum theory. Numerical values of kappa are available. Experimental values of kappa for an argon expansion are presented in this paper, confirming these calculations. The actual center-line intensity of a supersonic beam source with a skimmer is reduced in comparison to this ideal intensity if the skimmer shields part of the virtual source from the detector. Experimental data on the virtual source radius are given enabling one to predict this shielding quantitatively. (Auth.)
Development of boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbst, R.
1980-01-01
Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Nonlinear stability of supersonic jets
Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Bhat, T. R. S. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
The stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations are presented. In this analysis the large scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.
On the shock cell structure and noise of supersonic jets
Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.
1983-01-01
A linear solution modeling the shock cell structure of an axisymmetric supersonic jet operated at off-design conditions is developed by the method of multiple-scales. The model solution takes into account the gradual spatial change of the mean flow in the downstream direction. Turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet has the tendency of smoothing out the sharp velocity and density gradients induced by the shocks. To simulate this effect, eddy viscosity terms are incorporated in the model. It is known that the interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet is responsible for the generation of broadband shock associated noise. Experimentally, the dominant part of this noise has been found to originate from the part of the jet near the end of the potential core. Calculated shock cell spacing at the end of the jet core according to the present model is used to estimate the peak frequencies of the shock associated noise for a range of observation angles. Very favorable agreement with experimental measurements is found.
Numerical Analysis of Combustion around a Strut in Supersonic Airflow
Minato, Ryojiro; Ju, Yiguang; Niioka, Takashi
Numerical simulation of combustion around a strut in supersonic airflow at Mach 1.5 was conducted. In previous papers, experimental results on flame-holding characteristics have been shown for the strut divided into two parts, indicating the effectiveness of the flame-holding characteristics of this strut. Stable flame-holding is due to a comparatively long residence time in the subsonic flow region between the two parts of the strut. The present study is analytical evidence of the stable flame-holding of this strut. The Stahl and Warnatz’s detailed chemistry of hydrogen/oxygen reactions and the Baldwin Lomax turbulence algebraic model were employed to simulate the chemical reaction and turbulent flow, respectively. Flame structures such as distributions of chemical species and temperature were obtained. For example, the predicted density distributions explicitly showed an attached shock wave, expansion fans and shear layers, and had good agreement with the shadowgraph of the experiment. The overall equivalence ratio in the space between two strut parts was calculated to evaluate the reaction time in the space between the struts and a particle trace analysis was performed to evaluate the residence time in the space. By obtaining the Damköhler number from two characteristic times, two flame-holding limits, namely the chemical kinetic limit at small interval between two struts and the dynamic limit at large interval, were discussed. The numerical results were qualitatively consistent with the previous experimental results.
Laser velocimetry applied to transonic and supersonic aerodynamics
Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Moddaress, D.
1976-01-01
As a further demonstration of the capabilities of laser velocity in compressible aerodynamics, measurements obtained in a Mach 2.9 separated turbulent boundary layer and in the transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil section are presented and compared to data realized by conventional techniques. In the separated-flow study, the comparisons were made against pitot-static pressure data. Agreement in mean velocities was realized where the pressure measurements could be considered reliable; however, in regions of instantaneous reverse velocities, the laser results were found to be consistent with the physics of the flow whereas the pressure data were not. The laser data obtained in regions of extremely high turbulence suggest that velocity biasing does not occur if the particle occurrence rate is low relative to the turbulent fluctuation rate. Streamwise turbulence intensities are also presented. In the transonic airfoil study, velocity measurements obtained immediately outside the upper surface boundary layer of a 6-inch chord MACA 64A010 airfoil are compared to edge velocities inferred from surface pressure measurements. For free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.8, the agreement in results was very good. Dual scatter optical arrangements in conjunction with a single particle, counter-type signal processor were employed in these investigations. Half-micron-diameter polystyrene spheres and naturally occurring condensed oil vapor acted as light scatterers in the two respective flows. Bragg-cell frequency shifting was utilized in the separated flow study.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Direct numerical simulation of supersonic combustion with finite-rate chemistry
Saghafian, Amirreza; Pitsch, Heinz
2011-11-01
Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting and inert compressible turbulent mixing layers have been performed. The simulations cover convective Mach numbers from subsonic to supersonic. A detailed chemistry mechanism with 9 species and 29 reactions for hydrogen is used in the reacting simulations. Effects of different initial conditions on the structure of the mixing layer, and time required to reach self-similarity are studied. Flame/turbulence interaction is analyzed by studying turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses, and their budgets in the reacting and inert simulations. The effects of different reactions on the heat release and mixture composition especially in the regions where shocklets impinge the flame are studied. These DNS databases will provide a better understanding for the compressibility effects on the combustion, and will be used to assess the accuracy of Flamelet/Progress variable approach in supersonic regime. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) at Stanford University, Award Number(s)DE-FC52-08NA28614.
Turbulent wedge spreading dynamics and control strategies
Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Goldstein, David; Brown, Garry
2017-11-01
Turbulent wedges are encountered in some routes to transition in wall bounded flows, particularly those involving surface roughness. They are characterized by strongly turbulent regions that are formed downstream of large disturbances, and spread into the non-turbulent flow. Altering the wedge spreading mechanism is a possible drag reduction strategy. Following recent studies of Goldstein, Chu and Brown (Flow Turbul. Combust. 98(1), 2017) and Kuester and White (Exp. Fluids 57(4), 2016), we explore the relation between the base flow vorticity field and turbulent wedge spreading using immersed boundary direct numerical simulations. The lateral spreading rate of the wedges are similar for high Reynolds number boundary layers and Couette flow, but differences emerge in wall normal propagation of turbulence. We also attempt to utilize the surface texture based strategy suggested by Strand and Goldstein (J. Fluid Mech. 668, 2011) to reduce the spreading of isolated turbulent spots, for turbulent wedge control. The effects of height, spacing and orientation of fins on the dynamics of wedge evolution are studied. The results are interpreted from a vorticity dynamics point of view. Supported by AFOSR # FA9550-15-1-0345.
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Numerical computation of compressible, turbulent high-speed flows
Suzen, Yildirim Bora
Separated flows and subsequent formation of shear layers are important fluid processes which play a dominant role in numerous engineering applications. Accurate prediction of this fluid process is an important element in the design and analysis of high speed vehicles and, ultimately, in performance and trajectory analysis. In this study, a two-dimensional/axisymmetric Navier-Stokes flow solver using Steger-Warming flux vector splitting technique is developed for the accurate simulation of high speed turbulent flows. Computations are performed for an underexpanded, supersonic, turbulent, axisymmetric jet and a two-stream supersonic turbulent wake flowfield behind a two-dimensional thick base as representative of high speed, compressible shear flows. Baldwin-Barth and Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence models and Baseline version of Menter's zonal k - omega/k - varepsilon two-equation turbulence models are used to investigate their performance for the applications considered. Modifications to these models are incorporated in order to improve their prediction capabilities for the types of flows considered. For two-equation models, modifications to include compressibility correction terms are considered and a modeled version of Menter's models including compressible dissipation and pressure dilatation terms is developed. Axisymmetric correction is incorporated to all models by means of coefficient changes. The computational results are compared to available experimental data. Results show that the modifications improve the computed solutions for all models.
Banda-Barragán, W. E.; Federrath, C.; Crocker, R. M.; Bicknell, G. V.
2018-01-01
We present a set of numerical experiments designed to systematically investigate how turbulence and magnetic fields influence the morphology, energetics, and dynamics of filaments produced in wind-cloud interactions. We cover 3D, magnetohydrodynamic systems of supersonic winds impacting clouds with turbulent density, velocity, and magnetic fields. We find that lognormal density distributions aid shock propagation through clouds, increasing their velocity dispersion and producing filaments with expanded cross-sections and highly magnetized knots and subfilaments. In self-consistently turbulent scenarios, the ratio of filament to initial cloud magnetic energy densities is ∼1. The effect of Gaussian velocity fields is bound to the turbulence Mach number: Supersonic velocities trigger a rapid cloud expansion; subsonic velocities only have a minor impact. The role of turbulent magnetic fields depends on their tension and is similar to the effect of radiative losses: the stronger the magnetic field or the softer the gas equation of state, the greater the magnetic shielding at wind-filament interfaces and the suppression of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Overall, we show that including turbulence and magnetic fields is crucial to understanding cold gas entrainment in multiphase winds. While cloud porosity and supersonic turbulence enhance the acceleration of clouds, magnetic shielding protects them from ablation and causes Rayleigh-Taylor-driven subfilamentation. Wind-swept clouds in turbulent models reach distances ∼15-20 times their core radius and acquire bulk speeds ∼0.3-0.4 of the wind speed in one cloud-crushing time, which are three times larger than in non-turbulent models. In all simulations, the ratio of turbulent magnetic to kinetic energy densities asymptotes at ∼0.1-0.4, and convergence of all relevant dynamical properties requires at least 64 cells per cloud radius.
Turbulent Boundary Layers - Experiments, Theory and Modelling
1980-01-01
1979 "Calcul des transferts thermiques entre film chaud et substrat par un modele ä deux dimensions", Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer ^2, p. 111-119...surface heat transfer a to the surface shear Cu/ ; here, corrections are compulsory because the wall shear,stress fluctuations are large (the r.m.s...technique is the mass transfer analogue of the constant temperature anemometer when the chemical reaction at the electrode embedded in the wall is
Measurements of a Separating Turbulent Boundary Layer.
1980-04-01
wire, and cross hot-wire anemometers. Note displaced ordinates. 26 M.. + 1226 2E I @ ~12: 3T :’+ , I 4,4 + I -= ++ + + nI 4, + I + 4+ I 4P z Figue lOa...PtAXJNE FRO SWUMR 9 SW nba aa 1 Y/MELT’q Figure 40(a). Angle of principal axis of stress to the flow direction, e = 1/2 tan(-2uv/(u’ 2 -V vs. y...MIRETIM~ _ U2 a~p U 6 a2u Pm 0 au2 I x clP zzI lbI lb Pb -x " Nba : 2Xl P pu IIP !a x L:.a U! a 142 F la ft 5L(C Wti ENTU m b r-.A RC Ef I N T HE X -3IRECTI
Highly turbulent combustion: A study of lifted and shredded flames
Ratner, Albert
The impact of turbulence on flame chemistry in highly turbulent flames has been studied in order to test existing theories and produce data that are useful to the computer modeling community. In these flames, the fuel is injected separately from the air, but a significant amount of premixing occurs prior to combustion. By employing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of chemical species, and exhaust gas sampling, the effect of turbulence on flame chemistry has been quantified for a highly lifted, supersonic flame and for a highly swirled, shredded flame. In the supersonic flame, OH PLIF measurements were combined with combustion efficiency measurements and PIV to help to understand the mixing and flame structure. Negative velocities of more than 200 m/s were identified in the recirculating zones. Mechanisms of fuel-air mixing that result in decreased combustion efficiencies were identified. In the shredded flame, an ultra-high turbulence region was generated to examine what occurs when reaction layers encounter high turbulence levels. The flame was probed with simultaneous CH and OH PLIF and then simultaneous PIV and OH PLIF. It was found that the normalized turbulence level, even though it was ten-times greater than any previous imaging study, still produced no measurable impact on flame reaction layer thickness. This flame was also quantified by measurements of Flame Surface Density (Sigma). The thin flamelet assumption of flamelet theory is found to be valid in these highly turbulent flames. Data are presented that can be used to assess computational models as well as to provide insight into the physical processes of turbulent combustion.
Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosker, R.P. Jr.
1993-01-01
The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange
Overview of the TurbSim Stochastic Inflow Turbulence Simulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.
2005-09-01
The TurbSim stochastic inflow turbulence code was developed to provide a numerical simulation of a full-field flow that contains coherent turbulence structures that reflect the proper spatiotemporal turbulent velocity field relationships seen in instabilities associated with nocturnal boundary layer flows that are not represented well by the IEC Normal Turbulence Models (NTM). Its purpose is to provide the wind turbine designer with the ability to drive design code (FAST or MSC.ADAMS) simulations of advanced turbine designs with simulated inflow turbulence environments that incorporate many of the important fluid dynamic features known to adversely affect turbine aeroelastic response and loading.
On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan
2012-01-01
Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... of efficient angular momentum transport in the inner disk regions. This suggests that the detailed structure of turbulent MHD accretion disk boundary layers could differ appreciably from those derived within the standard framework of turbulent shear viscosity...
Turbulent Sediment Suspension and Induced Ripple Dynamics Absent Mean Shear
Johnson, B. A.; Cowen, E.
2014-12-01
The uprush and backwash phases in the swash zone, the region of the beach that is alternately covered and uncovered by wave run-up, are fundamentally different events. Backwash is dominated by a growing boundary layer where the turbulence is set by the bed shear stress. In this phase traditional boundary layer turbulence models and Shields-type critical stress pickup functions work well. However, the uprush phase, while often viewed in the context of traditional boundary layer turbulence models, has little in common with the backwash phase. During uprush, the entire water column is turbulent, as it rapidly advects well-stirred highly turbulent flow generated offshore from breaking waves or collapsing bores. Turbulence levels in the uprush are several times higher than turbulent boundary layer theory would predict and hence the use of a boundary layer model to predict turbulence levels during uprush grossly under predicts the turbulence and subsequent sediment suspension in the swash zone. To study the importance of this advected turbulence to sediment suspension we conduct experiments in a water tank designed to generate horizontally homogeneous isotropic turbulence absent mean shear using randomly actuated synthetic jet arrays suspended above both a solid glass plate and a narrowly graded sediment bed. Using jet arrays with different jet spacings allows the generation of high Reynolds number turbulence with variable integral length scales, which we hypothesize control the characteristic length scales in the induced ripple field. Particle image velocimetry and acoustic Doppler velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the near-bed flow and this unique turbulent boundary layer. Metrics include the mean flow and turbulence intensities and stresses, temporal and spatial spectra, dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, and integral length scales of the turbulence. We leverage our unique dataset to compare the flows over impermeable fixed and permeable mobile
Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Jin
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being studied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after changing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heating efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 × 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma synthetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.
Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...
Learning to soar in turbulent environments.
Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Vergassola, Massimo
2016-08-16
Birds and gliders exploit warm, rising atmospheric currents (thermals) to reach heights comparable to low-lying clouds with a reduced expenditure of energy. This strategy of flight (thermal soaring) is frequently used by migratory birds. Soaring provides a remarkable instance of complex decision making in biology and requires a long-term strategy to effectively use the ascending thermals. Furthermore, the problem is technologically relevant to extend the flying range of autonomous gliders. Thermal soaring is commonly observed in the atmospheric convective boundary layer on warm, sunny days. The formation of thermals unavoidably generates strong turbulent fluctuations, which constitute an essential element of soaring. Here, we approach soaring flight as a problem of learning to navigate complex, highly fluctuating turbulent environments. We simulate the atmospheric boundary layer by numerical models of turbulent convective flow and combine them with model-free, experience-based, reinforcement learning algorithms to train the gliders. For the learned policies in the regimes of moderate and strong turbulence levels, the glider adopts an increasingly conservative policy as turbulence levels increase, quantifying the degree of risk affordable in turbulent environments. Reinforcement learning uncovers those sensorimotor cues that permit effective control over soaring in turbulent environments.
Supersonics Project - Airport Noise Tech Challenge
Bridges, James
2010-01-01
The Airport Noise Tech Challenge research effort under the Supersonics Project is reviewed. While the goal of "Improved supersonic jet noise models validated on innovative nozzle concepts" remains the same, the success of the research effort has caused the thrust of the research to be modified going forward in time. The main activities from FY06-10 focused on development and validation of jet noise prediction codes. This required innovative diagnostic techniques to be developed and deployed, extensive jet noise and flow databases to be created, and computational tools to be developed and validated. Furthermore, in FY09-10 systems studies commissioned by the Supersonics Project showed that viable supersonic aircraft were within reach using variable cycle engine architectures if exhaust nozzle technology could provide 3-5dB of suppression. The Project then began to focus on integrating the technologies being developed in its Tech Challenge areas to bring about successful system designs. Consequently, the Airport Noise Tech Challenge area has shifted efforts from developing jet noise prediction codes to using them to develop low-noise nozzle concepts for integration into supersonic aircraft. The new plan of research is briefly presented by technology and timelines.
Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics; Kozel, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
1999-12-01
The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special `laminar-kinetic-energy` equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)
Modelling of bypass transition including the pseudolaminar part of the boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prihoda, J.; Hlava, T. (Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Thermomechanics); Kozel, K. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)
1999-01-01
The boundary-layer transition in turbomachinery is accelerated by a number of parameters, especially by the free-stream turbulence. This so-called bypass transition is usually modelled by means of one-equation or two-equation turbulence models based on turbulent viscosity. Using of transport equations for turbulent energy and for dissipation rate in these models is questionable before the onset of the last stage of the transition, i.e. before the formation of turbulent spots. Used approximations of production and turbulent diffusion are the weak points of turbulence models with turbulent viscosity in the pseudolaminar boundary layer, as the Boussinesq assumption on turbulent viscosity is not fulfilled in this part of the boundary layer. In order to obtain a more reliable prediction of the transitional boundary layer, Mayle and Schulz (1997) proposed for the solution of pseudolaminar boundary layer a special 'laminar-kinetic-energy' equation based on the analysis of laminar boundary layer in flows with velocity fluctuations. The effect of production and turbulent diffusion on the development of turbulent energy in the pseudolaminar boundary layer was tested using a two-layer turbulence model. (orig.)
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Simulation of a 3D Turbulent Wavy Channel based on the High-order WENO Scheme
Tsai, Bor-Jang; Chou, Chung-Chyi; Tsai, Yeong-Pei; Chuang, Ying Hung
2018-02-01
Passive interest turbulent drag reduction, effective means to improve air vehicle fuel consumption costs. Most turbulent problems happening to the nature and engineering applications were exactly the turbulence problem frequently caused by one or more turbulent shear flows. This study was operated with incompressible 3-D channels with cyclic wavy boundary to explore the physical properties of turbulence flow. This research measures the distribution of average velocity, instant flowing field shapes, turbulence and pressure distribution, etc. Furthermore, the systematic computation and analysis for the 3-D flow field was also implemented. It was aimed to clearly understand the turbulence fields formed by wavy boundary of tube flow. The purpose of this research is to obtain systematic structural information about the turbulent flow field and features of the turbulence structure are discussed.
How non-parallel flow affects the low frequency sound of supersonic heated jets
Afsar, Mohammed; Sescu, Adrian
2015-11-01
Experiements show that the peak noise of heated supersonic jets is lower than the peak noise associated with isothermal jets at all observation angles. Attempts to explain this reduction via acoustic analogy approaches were based on theories in which the enthalpy or momentum flux co-variance (coupling term) reduces the acoustic spectrum at small observation angles. These results, that were derived using a parallel flow assumption and determined using a low frequency asymptotic analysis, indicate that the propagator in the coupling term possesses an odd power of inverse Doppler factors that change sign at small observation angles to the jet axis for supersonic jets. This result, however, does not take into account mean flow spreading. In this study, we extend a previously developed asymptotic theory for the propagator in non-parallel flows, to heated jets. Our calculations show that, non-parallelism re-distributes the spatial structure of the propagator at small observation angles for supersonic jets. Rather than introducing cancellation in the acoustic spectrum, as parallel flow asymptotics predict, the non-parallel flow asymptotic analysis suggests that heating shifts the propagator's peak much further downstream, into regions where turbulence becomes weak.
Effects of the shear layer growth rate on the supersonic jet noise
Ozawa, Yuta; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukushima, Naoya; Yamamoto, Makoto
2017-11-01
Strong acoustic waves emitted from rocket plume might damage to rocket payloads because their payloads consist of fragile structure. Therefore, understanding and prediction of acoustic wave generation are of importance not only in science, but also in engineering. The present study makes experiments of a supersonic jet flow at the Mach number of 2.0 and investigates a relationship between growth rate of a shear layer and noise generation of the supersonic jet. We conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) and acoustic measurements for three different shaped nozzles. These nozzles were employed to control the condition of a shear layer of the supersonic jet flow. We applied single-pixel ensemble correlation method (Westerweel et al., 2004) for the PIV images to obtain high-resolution averaged velocity profiles. This correlation method enabled us to obtain detailed data of the shear layer. For all cases, acoustic measurements clearly shows the noise source position at the end of a potential core of the jet. In the case where laminar to turbulent transition occurred in the shear layer, the sound pressure level increased by 4 dB at the maximum. This research is partially supported by Presto, JST (JPMJPR1678) and KAKENHI (25709009 and 17H03473).
An implicit Navier-Stokes code for turbulent flow modeling
Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a numerical approach to calculating turbulent flows employing advanced turbulence models. The main features include a line-by-line Gauss-Seidel algorithm using Roe's approximate Riemann solver, TVD numerical schemes, implicit boundary conditions and a decoupled turbulence-model solver. Based on the problems tested so far, the method has consistently demonstrated its ability in offering accuracy, boundedness and a fast rate of convergence to steady-state solution.
Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet
Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.
1991-01-01
This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.
Turbulence modification and multiphase turbulence transport modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besnard, D.C.; Kataoka, I.; Serizawa, A.
1991-01-01
It is shown here that in the derivation of turbulence transport models for multiphase flows, terms naturally appear that can be interpreted as related to turbulence modification of one field by the other. We obtain two such terms, one suggesting turbulence enhancement due to instabilities in two-phase flow, the second one showing turbulence damping due to the presence of the other field, both in gas-particle and gas-liquid cases
A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Özcan, Oktay
2007-01-01
Detailed instantaneous velocity fields of a jet in crossflow have been measured with stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The jet originated from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow and entered a crossflow with a turbulent boundary layer. The Reynolds number based on crossflow velocit...
A model for turbulent dissipation rate in a constant pressure ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Dey
for measuring the Taylor microscale from two hot-wire measurements. Once the Taylor microscale is available, the turbulent dissipation rate can be estimated, at least for isotropic turbulence. .... Reynolds number based on the boundary layer thickness. While the ... the laminar skin-friction term in pipe and channel flows.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.
2010-01-01
boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric...... boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer....
The supersonic fan engine - An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion
Franciscus, L. C.
1981-01-01
Engine performance and mission studies were conducted for a novel turbofan engine concept incorporating a supersonic through-flow fan, and comparisons were made with two supersonic transport (SST) engine concepts of equivalent thrust and technological sophistication. It was found that in the case of an SST with a cruise speed of Mach 2.32, the through-flow fan engine may yield ranges 10 to 20% greater than the two alternatives considered. The engine has a conventional core, with the supersonic fan being driven by a concentric low-pressure turbine that is uncoupled with the single, high pressure turbine/compressor core spool. Among the topics discussed are the methods of analysis employed and perturbation studies concerning supersonic fan adiabatic efficiency, fan discharge characteristics and propulsion system weight.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Virendra; Singhal, Gaurav; Subbarao, P.M.V.
2013-01-01
The constant rate of momentum change (CRMC) is a new approach towards design of supersonic ejectors. CRMC methodology was first proposed by Eames [1] in a study which was primarily based on isentropic flow inside the diffusing region of a supersonic ejector. The prime benefit that accrues from employing a CRMC ejector is that it can effectively eliminate the irreversibility associated with occurrence of thermodynamic shock process. The present study examines the supersonic flow in a CRMC ejector from the perspective of an adiabatic flow with frictional effects inside the variable cross-section of supersonic ejector, which is apparently more realistic. An analytical model has been discussed for the prediction of flow parameter variation in a space marching formulation taking into account change in localized frictional coefficient due to corresponding changes at each step. The analytical results have been validated by conducting a computational study based on 2-D axi-symmetric viscous compressible flow formulation with turbulence in FLUENT. The results are in good agreement at on-design conditions. The predictions especially for the recovered pressure made through the analytical formulation incorporating friction are found to be in significantly better agreement than the isentropic approach. The experimental validation for the approach has also been presented with the results being in close agreement with analytically predicted values. -- Highlights: • CRMC ejector eliminates the irreversibility due to occurrence of thermodynamic shock. • Frictional effect based apparently present more realistic solution for ejector. • Static pressure variation between proposed model and numerical study is nearly 2.29%. • Static pressure variation between analytical and experimental values is nearly 4%. • Experimentally observed entrainment ratio shows 3% variation w.r.t. design point value
Stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows
Grigoryev, Yurii N
2017-01-01
This book presents an in-depth systematic investigation of a dissipative effect which manifests itself as the growth of hydrodynamic stability and suppression of turbulence in relaxing molecular gas flows. The work describes the theoretical foundations of a new way to control stability and laminar turbulent transitions in aerodynamic flows. It develops hydrodynamic models for describing thermal nonequilibrium gas flows which allow the consideration of suppression of inviscid acoustic waves in 2D shear flows. Then, nonlinear evolution of large-scale vortices and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in relaxing shear flows are studied. Critical Reynolds numbers in supersonic Couette flows are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of both linear and nonlinear classical energy hydrodynamic stability theories. The calculations clearly show that the relaxation process can appreciably delay the laminar-turbulent transition. The aim of the book is to show the new dissipative effect, which can be used for flo...
TSALLIS STATISTICS AS A TOOL FOR STUDYING INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We used magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of interstellar turbulence to study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of increments of density, velocity, and magnetic field. We found that the PDFs are well described by a Tsallis distribution, following the same general trends found in solar wind and electron MHD studies. We found that the PDFs of density are very different in subsonic and supersonic turbulence. In order to extend this work to ISM observations, we studied maps of column density obtained from three-dimensional MHD simulations. From the column density maps, we found the parameters that fit to Tsallis distributions and demonstrated that these parameters vary with the sonic and Alfven Mach numbers of turbulence. This opens avenues for using Tsallis distributions to study the dynamical and perhaps magnetic states of interstellar gas.
The dependence of optical turbulence on thermal and mechanical forces over the sea
Eijk, A.M.J. van; Sprung, D.; Sucher, E.; Eisele, C.; Seiffer, D.; Stein, K.
2016-01-01
Optical turbulence for over-water conditions was investigated in a long-term experiment over False Bay near Cape Town, South Africa. A sonic anemometer and two boundary-layer scintillometers were deployed to access in-situ turbulence as well as the integrated turbulence over two 1.8 and 8.7 km
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1993-01-01
Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.
Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code for Supersonic Axisymmetric Base Flow
Tucker, P. Kevin
1993-01-01
The ability to accurately and efficiently calculate the flow structure in the base region of bodies of revolution in supersonic flight is a significant step in CFD code validation for applications ranging from base heating for rockets to drag for protectives. The FDNS code is used to compute such a flow and the results are compared to benchmark quality experimental data. Flowfield calculations are presented for a cylindrical afterbody at M = 2.46 and angle of attack a = O. Grid independent solutions are compared to mean velocity profiles in the separated wake area and downstream of the reattachment point. Additionally, quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy and shear layer growth rates are compared to the data. Finally, the computed base pressures are compared to the measured values. An effort is made to elucidate the role of turbulence models in the flowfield predictions. The level of turbulent eddy viscosity, and its origin, are used to contrast the various turbulence models and compare the results to the experimental data.
Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Cheng, Ting; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Wu, Xuetao
2018-02-01
Supersonic oxygen-supplying technologies, including the coherent supersonic jet and the conventional supersonic jet, are now widely applied in electric arc furnace steelmaking processes to increase the bath stirring, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the impact characteristics of the two supersonic jets. In the present study, by integrating theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, a hybrid model was developed and modified to calculate the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets. The computational fluid dynamics results were validated against water model experiments. The results show that the lance height has significant influence on the jet penetration depth and jet impact zone volume. The penetration depth decreases with increasing lance height, whereas the jet impact zone volume initially increases and then decreases with increasing lance height. In addition, the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent supersonic jet are larger than those of the conventional supersonic jet at the same lance height, which illustrates the advantages of the coherent supersonic jet in delivering great amounts of oxygen to liquid melt with a better stirring effect compared to the conventional supersonic jet. A newly defined parameter, the k value, reflects the velocity attenuation and the potential core length of the main supersonic jet. Finally, a hybrid model and its modifications can well predict the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets.
Turbulence Modeling Validation, Testing, and Development
Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1997-01-01
The primary objective of this work is to provide accurate numerical solutions for selected flow fields and to compare and evaluate the performance of selected turbulence models with experimental results. Four popular turbulence models have been tested and validated against experimental data often turbulent flows. The models are: (1) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Wilcox, (2) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Launder and Sharma, (3) the two-equation k-omega/k-epsilon SST model of Menter, and (4) the one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras. The flows investigated are five free shear flows consisting of a mixing layer, a round jet, a plane jet, a plane wake, and a compressible mixing layer; and five boundary layer flows consisting of an incompressible flat plate, a Mach 5 adiabatic flat plate, a separated boundary layer, an axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and an RAE 2822 transonic airfoil. The experimental data for these flows are well established and have been extensively used in model developments. The results are shown in the following four sections: Part A describes the equations of motion and boundary conditions; Part B describes the model equations, constants, parameters, boundary conditions, and numerical implementation; and Parts C and D describe the experimental data and the performance of the models in the free-shear flows and the boundary layer flows, respectively.
AEROELASTIC FLUTTER ANALYSIS OF SUPERSONIC WING WITH MULTIPLE EXTERNAL STORES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Azam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Flutter may be considered to be one of the most dangerous aeroelastic failure phenomenon. The flutter characteristic differs for each aircraft type, and depends on the wing geometry as well as its operational region of subsonic, transonic or supersonic speeds. Prior to performing a flight flutter test, extensive numerical simulations and Ground Vibration Test should be conducted where the structural finite element modes and the experimentation results should be matched, otherwise the numerical simulation model must be rejected. In this paper, the analysis of simulation of a supersonic wing equipped with external missiles loaded on the wing is presented. The structural mode shapes at each generated frequency are also visually presented. The analysis is carried out using MSC Nastran FEM software. The wing flutter with the external stores was simulated at different altitudes. The result shows that the flutter velocity is sensitive to the flight altitude. For this reason, the flutter analysis is conducted also for a negative altitude. The negative altitude is obtained by considering the constant equivalent speed-Mach number rule at the flutter speed boundary as a requirement in standard regulation of transport aircraft. ABSTRAK: Salah satu fenomena kegagalan aeroelastik yang paling membahayakan adalah kipasan (flutter. Ciri-ciri kegagalan kipasan (flutter adalah berbeza untuk setiap jenis pesawat bergantung pada geometri sayap dan regim operasi sama ada subsonik, transonik atau supersonik. Sebelum melakukan ujian penerbangan kipasan , simulasi berangka luas dan ujian getaran peringkat bawahan (darat perlu dijalankan di mana struktur mod unsur terhingga dan keputusan eksperimen harus dipadankan, sebaliknya model simulasi berangka boleh ditolak. Dalam kertas kerja ini, simulasi sayap supersonik dilengkapi dengan beban luaran peluru berpandu di sayap telah dianalisis di daerah supersonik tinggi. Bentuk mod struktur pada setiap mod frekuensi
Speculation about near-wall turbulence scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurchenko, N F
2008-01-01
A strategy to control near-wall turbulence modifying scales of fluid motion is developed. The boundary-layer flow is shown to respond selectively to the scale of streamwise vortices initiated, e.g. with the spanwise regular temperature distribution over a model surface. It is used to generate sustainable streamwise vortices and thus to optimize integral flow characteristics.
Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Tsinober
1994-01-01
Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.
Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence
Tsinober, A.
We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926). The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc.) - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992) and Kit et al. (1993). The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry) and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson) which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.
Energy transfer in compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Grete, Philipp; O'Shea, Brian W.; Beckwith, Kris; Schmidt, Wolfram; Christlieb, Andrew
2017-09-01
Magnetic fields, compressibility, and turbulence are important factors in many terrestrial and astrophysical processes. While energy dynamics, i.e., how energy is transferred within and between kinetic and magnetic reservoirs, has been previously studied in the context of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, we extend shell-to-shell energy transfer analysis to the compressible regime. We derive four new transfer functions specifically capturing compressibility effects in the kinetic and magnetic cascade, and capturing energy exchange via magnetic pressure. To illustrate their viability, we perform and analyze four simulations of driven isothermal MHD turbulence in the sub- and supersonic regime with two different codes. On the one hand, our analysis reveals robust characteristics across regime and numerical method. For example, energy transfer between individual scales is local and forward for both cascades with the magnetic cascade being stronger than the kinetic one. Magnetic tension and magnetic pressure related transfers are less local and weaker than the cascades. We find no evidence for significant nonlocal transfer. On the other hand, we show that certain functions, e.g., the compressive component of the magnetic energy cascade, exhibit a more complex behavior that varies both with regime and numerical method. Having established a basis for the analysis in the compressible regime, the method can now be applied to study a broader parameter space.