WorldWideScience

Sample records for supersonic free-flight wind

  1. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  2. Drag of a Supercritical Body of Revolution in Free Flight at Transonic Speeds and Comparison with Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Wallace, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The forebody drag of a supercritical body of revolution was measured in free flight over a Mach number range of 0.85 to 1.05 and a Reynolds number range of 11.5 x 10 to the 6th power to 19.4 x 10 to the 6th power and was compared with wind-tunnel data. The forebody drag coefficient for a Mach number less than 0.96 was 0.111 compared with the wind-tunnel value of 0.103. A gradual increase in the drag occurred in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at a lower Mach number than in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel or in the free-flight test. The sharp drag rise occurred near Mach 0.98 in free flight whereas the rise occurred near Mach 0.99 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The sharp rise was not as pronounced in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and was probably affected by tunnel-wall-interference effects. The increase occurred more slowly and at a higher Mach number. These results indicate that the drag measurements made in the wind tunnels near Mach 1 were significantly affected by the relative size of the model and the wind tunnel.

  3. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  4. 1 Ft. x 1 Ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel, Bldg. 37

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1x), located in the Engine Research Building, is one of the most active test facilities at the Glenn Research Center. Used...

  5. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  6. Investigation of nozzle contours in the CSIR supersonic wind tunnel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vallabh, Bhavya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contours in the CSIR Supersonic Wind Tunnel B Vallabha,b and BW Skewsa Received 17 February 2017, in revised form 23 June 2017 and accepted 25 June 2017 R & D Journal of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineering 2017, 33, 32-41 http... with the Sivells’ nozzle design method and the method of characteristics technique to design the nozzle profiles for the full supersonic Mach number range 𝟏𝟏 ≀ 𝑎𝑎 ≀ 𝟒𝟒.5 of the facility. Automatic computation was used for the profile...

  7. Thermal effects influencing measurements in a supersonic blowdown wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Đorđe S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a supersonic run of a blowdown wind tunnel, temperature of air in the test section drops which can affect planned measurements. Adverse thermal effects include variations of the Mach and Reynolds numbers, variation of airspeed, condensation of moisture on the model, change of characteristics of the instrumentation in the model, et cetera. Available data on thermal effects on instrumentation are pertaining primarily to long-run-duration wind tunnel facilities. In order to characterize such influences on instrumentation in the models, in short-run-duration blowdown wind tunnels, temperature measurements were made in the wing-panel-balance and main-balance spaces of two wind tunnel models tested in the T-38 wind tunnel. The measurements showed that model-interior temperature in a run increased at the beginning of the run, followed by a slower drop and, at the end of the run, by a large temperature drop. Panel-force balance was affected much more than the main balance. Ways of reducing the unwelcome thermal effects by instrumentation design and test planning are discussed.

  8. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M A )/2, where M A is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ c /(8τ diff )), where τ c /τ diff is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ diff /τ c . Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c –5 (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk and Gloeckler

  9. Static Aeroelastic Deformation Effects in Preliminary Wind-tunnel Tests of Silent Supersonic Technology Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Yoshikazu; Ohira, Keisuke; Makimoto, Takuya; Mitomo, Toshiteru; 牧野, 好和; 大平, 啓介; 牧本, 卓也; 三友, 俊輝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of static aeroelastic deformation of a wind-tunnel test model on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed in wind-tunnel tests in the preliminary design phase of the silent supersonic technology demonstrator (S3TD). The static aeroelastic deformation of the main wing is estimated for JAXA 2m x 2m transonic wind-tunnel and 1m x 1m supersonic wind-tunnel by a finite element method (FEM) structural analysis in which its structural model is tuned with the model deformation calibratio...

  10. Supersonic and transonic Mach probe for calibration control in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius PANAIT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A supersonic and high speed transonic Pitot Prandtl is described as it can be implemented in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel for calibration and verification of Mach number precision. A new calculation method for arbitrary precision Mach numbers is proposed and explained. The probe is specially designed for the Trisonic wind tunnel and would greatly simplify obtaining a precise Mach calibration in the critical high transonic and low supersonic regimes, where typically wind tunnels exhibit poor performance. The supersonic Pitot Prandtl combined probe is well known in the aerospace industry, however the proposed probe is a derivative of the standard configuration, combining a stout cone-cylinder probe with a supersonic Pitot static port which allows this configuration to validate the Mach number by three methods: conical flow method – using the pressure ports on a cone generatrix, the Schlieren-optical method of shock wave angle photogrammetry and the Rayleigh supersonic Pitot equation, while having an aerodynamic blockage similar to that of a scaled rocket model commonly used in testing. The proposed probe uses an existing cone-cylinder probe forebody and support, adding only an afterbody with a support for a static port.

  11. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  12. High Response Dew Point Measurement System for a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new high response on-line measurement system has been developed to continuously display and record the air stream dew point in the NASA Lewis 10 x 10 supersonic wind tunnel. Previous instruments suffered from such problems as very slow response, erratic readings, and high susceptibility to contamination. The system operates over the entire pressure level range of the 10 x 10 SWT, from less than 2 psia to 45 psia, without the need for a vacuum pump to provide sample flow. The system speeds up tunnel testing, provides large savings in tunnel power costs and provides the dew point input for the data-reduction subroutines which calculate test section conditions.

  13. An experimental system for release simulation of internal stores in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic parameters obtained from separation experiments of internal stores in a wind tunnel are significant in aircraft designs. Accurate wind tunnel tests can help to improve the release stability of the stores and in-flight safety of the aircrafts in supersonic environments. A simulative system for free drop experiments of internal stores based on a practical project is provided in this paper. The system contains a store release mechanism, a control system and an attitude measurement system. The release mechanism adopts a six-bar linkage driven by a cylinder, which ensures the release stability. The structure and initial aerodynamic parameters of the stores are also designed and adjusted. A high speed vision measurement system for high speed rolling targets is utilized to measure the pose parameters of the internal store models and an optimizing method for the coordinates of markers is presented based on a priori model. The experimental results show excellent repeatability of the system, and indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.13 mm, and the attitude measurement precision for pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.126°, satisfying the requirements of practical wind tunnel tests. A separation experiment for the internal stores is also conducted in the FL-3 wind tunnel of China Aerodynamics Research Institute.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis of the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Julia; Hubbard, Erin; Walter, Joel; McElroy, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents methods and results of a detailed measurement uncertainty analysis that was performed for the 8- by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The statistical methods and engineering judgments used to estimate elemental uncertainties are described. The Monte Carlo method of propagating uncertainty was selected to determine the uncertainty of calculated variables of interest. A detailed description of the Monte Carlo method as applied for this analysis is provided. Detailed uncertainty results for the uncertainty in average free stream Mach number as well as other variables of interest are provided. All results are presented as random (variation in observed values about a true value), systematic (potential offset between observed and true value), and total (random and systematic combined) uncertainty. The largest sources contributing to uncertainty are determined and potential improvement opportunities for the facility are investigated.

  15. New Model Exhaust System Supports Testing in NASA Lewis' 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, James W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In early 1996, the ability to run NASA Lewis Research Center's Abe Silverstein 10- by 10- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10) at subsonic test section speeds was reestablished. Taking advantage of this new speed range, a subsonic research test program was scheduled for the 10x10 in the fall of 1996. However, many subsonic aircraft test models require an exhaust source to simulate main engine flow, engine bleed flows, and other phenomena. This was also true of the proposed test model, but at the time the 10x10 did not have a model exhaust capability. So, through an in-house effort over a period of only 5 months, a new model exhaust system was designed, installed, checked out, and made ready in time to support the scheduled test program.

  16. User manual for NASA Lewis 10 by 10 foot supersonic wind tunnel. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    This manual describes the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this facility. Tunnel performance operating envelopes of altitude, dynamic pressure, Reynolds number, total pressure, and total temperature as a function of test section Mach number are presented. Operating envelopes are shown for both the aerodynamic (closed) cycle and the propulsion (open) cycle. The tunnel test section Mach number range is 2.0 to 3.5. General support systems, such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, fuel system, and Schlieren system, are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also described. Pretest meeting formats and schedules are outlined. Tunnel user responsibility and personnel safety are also discussed.

  17. ACCRETION OF SUPERSONIC WINDS ONTO BLACK HOLES IN 3D: STABILITY OF THE SHOCK CONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia-Linares, M.; Guzmán, F. S. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-10

    Using numerical simulations we present the accretion of supersonic winds onto a rotating black hole in three dimensions. We study five representative directions of the wind with respect to the axis of rotation of the black hole and focus on the evolution and stability of the high-density shock cone that is formed during the process. We explore both the regime in which the shock cone is expected to be stable in order to confirm previous results obtained with two-dimensional simulations, and the regime in which the shock cone is expected to show a flip–flop (FF) type of instability. The methods used to attempt a triggering of the instability were (i) the accumulation of numerical errors and (ii) the explicit application of a perturbation on the velocity field after the shock cone was formed. The result is negative, that is, we did not find the FF instability within the parameter space we explored, including cases that are expected to be unstable.

  18. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  19. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  20. Free-flight experiments in LISA Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Cutler, C; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this ‘suspension noise’. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlying disturbances that are of interest to the designers of LISA-like instruments. This article provides a high-level overview of these experiments and the methods under development to analyze the resulting data. (paper)

  1. CAN-DO, CFD-based Aerodynamic Nozzle Design and Optimization program for supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, John J.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, D. J.; White, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A design program is developed which incorporates a modern approach to the design of supersonic/hypersonic wind-tunnel nozzles. The approach is obtained by the coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with design optimization. The program can be used to design a 2D or axisymmetric, supersonic or hypersonic, wind-tunnel nozzles that can be modeled with a calorically perfect gas. The nozzle design is obtained by solving a nonlinear least-squares optimization problem (LSOP). The LSOP is solved using an iterative procedure which requires intermediate flowfield solutions. The nozzle flowfield is simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the subsonic and transonic flow regions and the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations for the supersonic flow regions. The advantages of this method are that the design is based on the solution of the viscous equations eliminating the need to make separate corrections to a design contour, and the flexibility of applying the procedure to different types of nozzle design problems.

  2. Investigation of Materials for Boundary Layer Control in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braafladt, Alexander; Lucero, John M.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    During operation of the NASA Glenn Research Center 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT), a significant, undesirable corner flow separation is created by the three-dimensional interaction of the wall and floor boundary layers in the tunnel corners following an oblique-shock/ boundary-layer interaction. A method to minimize this effect was conceived by connecting the wall and floor boundary layers with a radius of curvature in the corners. The results and observations of a trade study to determine the effectiveness of candidate materials for creating the radius of curvature in the SWT are presented. The experiments in the study focus on the formation of corner fillets of four different radii of curvature, 6.35 mm (0.25 in.), 9.525 mm (0.375 in.), 12.7 mm (0.5 in.), and 15.875 mm (0.625 in.), based on the observed boundary layer thickness of 11.43 mm (0.45 in.). Tests were performed on ten candidate materials to determine shrinkage, surface roughness, cure time, ease of application and removal, adhesion, eccentricity, formability, and repeatability. Of the ten materials, the four materials which exhibited characteristics most promising for effective use were the heavy body and regular type dental impression materials, the basic sculpting epoxy, and the polyurethane sealant. Of these, the particular material which was most effective, the heavy body dental impression material, was tested in the SWT in Mach 2 flow, and was observed to satisfy all requirements for use in creating the corner fillets in the upcoming experiments on shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction.

  3. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  4. A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.

  5. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  6. Development of a Free-Flight Simulation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eric S.; Wing, David J.; Davis, Paul C.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of a projected rise in demand for air transportation, NASA and the FAA are researching new air-traffic-management (ATM) concepts that fall under the paradigm known broadly as ":free flight". This paper documents the software development and engineering efforts in progress by Seagull Technology, to develop a free-flight simulation (FFSIM) that is intended to help NASA researchers test mature-state concepts for free flight, otherwise referred to in this paper as distributed air / ground traffic management (DAG TM). Under development is a distributed, human-in-the-loop simulation tool that is comprehensive in its consideration of current and envisioned communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) components, and will allow evaluation of critical air and ground traffic management technologies from an overall systems perspective. The FFSIM infrastructure is designed to incorporate all three major components of the ATM triad: aircraft flight decks, air traffic control (ATC), and (eventually) airline operational control (AOC) centers.

  7. Store Separations From a Supersonic Cone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simko, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... analyses of supersonic store separations. Also included in this research is a study of supersonic base pressure profiles, near-wake velocity profiles, wind tunnel shock interactions and force/moment studies on a conical store and parent vehicle...

  8. Feasibility Study for Implementing Magnetic Suspension in the Glenn Research Center 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for Testing the Dynamic Stability of Blunt Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Abigail; Davis, David O.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Barnhart, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of a magnetic suspension system in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 225 cm2 Supersonic Wind Tunnel would be a powerful test technique that could accurately determine the dynamic stability of blunt body entry vehicles with no sting interference. This paper explores initial design challenges to be evaluated before implementation, including defining the lowest possible operating dynamic pressure and corresponding model size, developing a compatible video analysis technique, and incorporating a retractable initial support sting.

  9. Model Deformation Measurements of Sonic Boom Models in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Garbeff, Theodore J.; Heineck, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The deformations of two sonic-boom models were measured by stereo photogrammetry during tests in the 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The models were geometrically similar but one was 2.75 times as large as the other. Deformation measurements were made by simultaneously imaging the upper surfaces of the models from two directions by calibrated cameras that were mounted behind windows of the test section. Bending and twist were measured at discrete points using conventional circular targets that had been marked along the leading and trailing edges of the wings and tails. In addition, continuous distributions of bending and twist were measured from ink speckles that had been applied to the upper surfaces of the model. Measurements were made at wind-on (M = 1.6) and wind-off conditions over a range of angles of attack between 2.5 deg. and 5.0 deg. At each condition, model deformation was determined by comparing the wind-off and wind-on coordinates of each measurement point after transforming the coordinates to reference coordinates tied to the model. The necessary transformations were determined by measuring the positions of a set of targets on the rigid center-body of the models whose model-axes coordinates were known. Smoothly varying bending and twist measurements were obtained at all conditions. Bending displacements increased in proportion to the square of the distance to the centerline. Maximum deflection of the wingtip of the larger model was about 5 mm (2% of the semispan) and that of the smaller model was 0.9 mm (1% of the semispan). The change in wing twist due to bending increased in direct proportion to distance from the centerline and reached a (absolute) maximum of about -1? at the highest angle of attack for both models. The measurements easily resolved bending displacements as small as 0.05 mm and bending-induced changes in twist as small as 0.05 deg.

  10. Technique for smoothing free-flight oscillation data.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, ME

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique based on superposition of tricyclic solutions has been proposed for smoothing free-flight angular motion. When incorporated into a conventional tricyclic data reduction program, the method is convenient to use and does not require a...

  11. In-pipe aerodynamic characteristics of a projectile in comparison with free flight for transonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, R.; Klatt, D.

    2018-03-01

    The transient shock dynamics and drag characteristics of a projectile flying through a pipe 3.55 times larger than its diameter at transonic speed are analyzed by means of time-of-flight and pipe wall pressure measurements as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, free-flight drag of the 4.5-mm-pellet-type projectile was also measured in a Mach number range between 0.5 and 1.5, providing a means for comparison against in-pipe data and CFD. The flow is categorized into five typical regimes the in-pipe projectile experiences. When projectile speed and hence compressibility effects are low, the presence of the pipe has little influence on the drag. Between Mach 0.5 and 0.8, there is a strong drag increase due to the presence of the pipe, however, up to a value of about two times the free-flight drag. This is exactly where the nose-to-base pressure ratio of the projectile becomes critical for locally sonic speed, allowing the drag to be estimated by equations describing choked flow through a converging-diverging nozzle. For even higher projectile Mach numbers, the drag coefficient decreases again, to a value slightly below the free-flight drag at Mach 1.5. This behavior is explained by a velocity-independent base pressure coefficient in the pipe, as opposed to base pressure decreasing with velocity in free flight. The drag calculated by CFD simulations agreed largely with the measurements within their experimental uncertainty, with some discrepancies remaining for free-flying projectiles at supersonic speed. Wall pressure measurements as well as measured speeds of both leading and trailing shocks caused by the projectile in the pipe also agreed well with CFD.

  12. Characteristics of Control Laws Tested on the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christhilf, David M.; Moulin, Boris; Ritz, Erich; Chen, P. C.; Roughen, Kevin M.; Perry, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Span Supersonic Transport (S4T) is an aeroelastically scaled wind-tunnel model built to test active controls concepts for large flexible supersonic aircraft in the transonic flight regime. It is one of several models constructed in the 1990's as part of the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. Control laws were developed for the S4T by M4 Engineering, Inc. and by Zona Technologies, Inc. under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contracts. The model was tested in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) four times from 2007 to 2010. The first two tests were primarily for plant identification. The third entry was used for testing control laws for Ride Quality Enhancement, Gust Load Alleviation, and Flutter Suppression. Whereas the third entry only tested FS subcritically, the fourth test demonstrated closed-loop operation above the open-loop flutter boundary. The results of the third entry are reported elsewhere. This paper reports on flutter suppression results from the fourth wind-tunnel test. Flutter suppression is seen as a way to provide stability margins while flying at transonic flight conditions without penalizing the primary supersonic cruise design condition. An account is given for how Controller Performance Evaluation (CPE) singular value plots were interpreted with regard to progressing open- or closed-loop to higher dynamic pressures during testing.

  13. Design and preliminary test results at Mach 5 of an axisymmetric slotted sound shield. [for supersonic wind tunnels (noise reduction in wind tunnel nozzles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Spokowski, A. J.; Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic theory and sound attenuation mechanisms, the design procedures, and preliminary experimental results are presented for a small axisymmetric sound shield for supersonic wind tunnels. The shield consists of an array of small diameter rods aligned nearly parallel to the entrance flow with small gaps between the rods for boundary layer suction. Results show that at the lowest test Reynolds number (based on rod diameter) of 52,000 the noise shield reduced the test section noise by about 60 percent ( or 8 db attenuation) but no attenuation was measured for the higher range of test reynolds numbers from 73,000 to 190,000. These results are below expectations based on data reported elsewhere on a flat sound shield model. The smaller attenuation from the present tests is attributed to insufficient suction at the gaps to prevent feedback of vacuum manifold noise into the shielded test flow and to insufficient suction to prevent transition of the rod boundary layers to turbulent flow at the higher Reynolds numbers. Schlieren photographs of the flow are shown.

  14. Design and Numerical Calculation of Variable Test Section for Small Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav DVOŘÁK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with numerical modelling of transition in a separated boundary layer. The model of laminar/turbulent transition is based on the combination of empirical terms determining position of the transition and averaged Navier – Stokes equations closed by the k – ω SST turbulence model. The model of transition is applied in computation of 2D flow past NACA63A421 airfoil. Computation is performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 6.3.26, in which the transition method is implemented as a User-Defined-Function. Computed distributions of Cp along the airfoil are verified by comparison with experimental data, which were obtained by measurements in a closed circuit wind tunnel at the constant Reynolds number and several angles of attack. Comparisons prove applicability of the implemented transitional model.

  15. Two-Dimensional Bifurcated Inlet Variable Cowl Lip Test Completed in 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully tested a variable cowl lip inlet at simulated takeoff conditions in Glenn s 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) as part of the High-Speed Research Program. The test was a follow-on to the Two-Dimensional Bifurcated (2DB) Inlet/Engine test. At the takeoff condition for a High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft, the inlet must provide adequate airflow to the engine with an acceptable distortion level and high-pressure recovery. The test was conducted to study the effectiveness of installing two rotating lips on the 2DB Inlet cowls to increase mass flow rate and eliminate or reduce boundary layer flow separation near the lips. Hardware was mounted vertically in the test section so that it extended through the tunnel ceiling and that the 2DB Inlet was exposed to the atmosphere above the test section. The tunnel was configured in the aerodynamic mode, and exhausters were used to pump down the tunnel to vacuum levels and to provide a maximum flow rate of approximately 58 lb/sec. The test determined the (1) maximum flow in the 2DB Inlet for each variable cowl lip, (2) distortion level and pressure recovery for each lip configuration, (3) boundary layer conditions near variable lips inside the 2DB Inlet, (4) effects of a wing structure adjacent to the 2DB Inlet, and (5) effects of different 2DB Inlet exit configurations. It also employed flow visualization to generate enough qualitative data on variable lips to optimize the variable lip concept. This test was a collaborative effort between the Boeing Company and Glenn. Extensive inhouse support at Glenn contributed significantly to the progress and accomplishment of this test.

  16. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. [Lewis 8 by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a coannular exhaust nozzle for a proposed variable stream control supersonic propulsion system. Tests were conducted with two simulated configurations differing primarily in the fan duct flowpaths: a short flap mechanism for fan stream control with an isentropic contoured flow splitter, and an iris fan nozzle with a conical flow splitter. Both designs feature a translating primary plug and an auxiliary inlet ejector. Tests were conducted at takeoff and simulated cruise conditions. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. At simulated supersonic cruise, both configurations demonstrated good performance, comparable to levels assumed in earlier advanced supersonic propulsion studies. However, at subsonic cruise, both configurations exhibited performance that was 6 to 7.5 percent less than the study assumptions. At take off conditions, the iris configuration performance approached the assumed levels, while the short flap design was 4 to 6 percent less.

  17. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test force and moment data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilz, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.

  18. Flight and wind-tunnel calibrations of a flush airdata sensor at high angles of attack and sideslip and at supersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angle-of-attack and sideslip regions studied.

  19. Visualizing Flutter Mechanism as Traveling Wave Through Animation of Simulation Results for the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christhilf, David M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that frequency and phasing of structural modes in the presence of airflow play a fundamental role in the occurrence of flutter. Animation of simulation results for the long, slender Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) wind-tunnel model demonstrates that, for the case of mass-ballasted nacelles, the flutter mode can be described as a traveling wave propagating downstream. Such a characterization provides certain insights, such as (1) describing the means by which energy is transferred from the airflow to the structure, (2) identifying airspeed as an upper limit for speed of wave propagation, (3) providing an interpretation for a companion mode that coalesces in frequency with the flutter mode but becomes very well damped, (4) providing an explanation for bursts of response to uniform turbulence, and (5) providing an explanation for loss of low frequency (lead) phase margin with increases in dynamic pressure (at constant Mach number) for feedback systems that use sensors located upstream from active control surfaces. Results from simulation animation, simplified modeling, and wind-tunnel testing are presented for comparison. The simulation animation was generated using double time-integration in Simulink of vertical accelerometer signals distributed over wing and fuselage, along with time histories for actuated control surfaces. Crossing points for a zero-elevation reference plane were tracked along a network of lines connecting the accelerometer locations. Accelerometer signals were used in preference to modal displacement state variables in anticipation that the technique could be used to animate motion of the actual wind-tunnel model using data acquired during testing. Double integration of wind-tunnel accelerometer signals introduced severe drift even with removal of both position and rate biases such that the technique does not currently work. Using wind-tunnel data to drive a Kalman filter based upon fitting coefficients to

  20. Multi-angular Flame Measurements and Analysis in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Using Fiber-Based Endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    residence time for chemical reac- tions to occur within the cavity [2]. These types of combustors have previously been demonstrated as a suitable...release distributions when imaging com- bustion chemiluminescence. POD was first applied to turbulent flows by Lumley and coworkers [30] but to date...and quantitatively different. This relationship has been previously observed in subsonic and supersonic combustion with V-gutter, blunt-body combustion

  1. Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Digital Control Systems for the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Christhilf, David; Perry, Boyd, III

    2012-01-01

    An important objective of the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) wind tunnel model program was the demonstration of Flutter Suppression (FS), Gust Load Alleviation (GLA), and Ride Quality Enhancement (RQE). It was critical to evaluate the stability and robustness of these control laws analytically before testing them and experimentally while testing them to ensure safety of the model and the wind tunnel. MATLAB based software was applied to evaluate the performance of closed-loop systems in terms of stability and robustness. Existing software tools were extended to use analytical representations of the S4T and the control laws to analyze and evaluate the control laws prior to testing. Lessons were learned about the complex windtunnel model and experimental testing. The open-loop flutter boundary was determined from the closed-loop systems. A MATLAB/Simulink Simulation developed under the program is available for future work to improve the CPE process. This paper is one of a series of that comprise a special session, which summarizes the S4T wind-tunnel program.

  2. A Particle System for Safety Verification of Free Flight in Air Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Krystul, J.; Bakker, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Under free flight, an aircrew has both the freedom to select their trajectory and the responsibility of resolving conflicts with other aircraft. The general belief is that free flight can be made safe under low traffic conditions. Increasing traffic, however, raises safety verification issues. This

  3. Free-flight measurement technique in the free-piston high-enthalpy shock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, H.; Komuro, T.; Sato, K.; Fujita, K.; Laurence, S. J.

    2014-04-01

    A novel multi-component force-measurement technique has been developed and implemented at the impulse facility JAXA-HIEST, in which the test model is completely unrestrained during the test and thus experiences free-flight conditions for a period on the order of milliseconds. Advantages over conventional free-flight techniques include the complete absence of aerodynamic interference from a model support system and less variation in model position and attitude during the test itself. A miniature on-board data recorder, which was a key technology for this technique, was also developed in order to acquire and store the measured data. The technique was demonstrated in a HIEST wind-tunnel test campaign in which three-component aerodynamic force measurement was performed on a blunted cone of length 316 mm, total mass 19.75 kg, and moment of inertia 0.152 kgm2. During the test campaign, axial force, normal forces, and pitching moment coefficients were obtained at angles of attack from 14° to 32° under two conditions: H0 = 4 MJ/kg, P0 = 14 MPa; and H0 = 16 MJ/kg, P0 = 16 MPa. For the first, low-enthalpy condition, the test flow was considered a perfect gas; measurements were thus directly compared with those obtained in a conventional blow-down wind tunnel (JAXA-HWT2) to evaluate the accuracy of the technique. The second test condition was a high-enthalpy condition in which 85% of the oxygen molecules were expected to be dissociated; high-temperature real-gas effects were therefore evaluated by comparison with results obtained in perfect-gas conditions. The precision of the present measurements was evaluated through an uncertainty analysis, which showed the aerodynamic coefficients in the HIEST low enthalpy test agreeing well with those of JAXA-HWT2. The pitching-moment coefficient, however, showed significant differences between low- and high-enthalpy tests. These differences are thought to result from high-temperature real-gas effects.

  4. Computational results for the effects of external disturbances on transition location of bodies of revolution from subsonic to supersonic speeds and comparisons with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, S. H.; Bobbitt, P. J.; Harvey, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Computational experiments have been performed for a few configurations in order to investigate the effects of external flow disturbances on the extent of laminar flow and wake drag. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental data for the AEDC cone, for Mach numbers from subsonic to supersonic, and for both free flight and wind tunnel environments. The comparisons have been found to be very satisfactory, thus establishing the utility of the present method for the design and development of laminar flow configurations and for the assessment of wind tunnel data. In addition, results of calculations concerning the effects of unit Reynolds numbers on transition are presented. In addition to the AEDC cone, computations have been performed for an ogive body of revolution at zero angle of attack and supersonic Mach numbers. Results are presented for transition Reynolds number and wake drag for external disturbances corresponding to free air and the test section of the AEDC-VKF tunnel. These results have been found to compare quite well with wind tunnel data for cases when surface suction is applied as well as when suction is absent.

  5. Time-Accurate Calculations of Free-Flight Aerodynamics of Maneuvering Projectiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Jubaraj

    2007-01-01

    ...) have been successfully fully coupled on high performance computing (HPC) platforms for "Virtual Fly-Outs" of munitions similar to actual free flight tests in the aerodynamic experimental facilities...

  6. Hypersonic Free-Flight Measurement of Aeroshell Forces and Flowfields, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Hypersonic Gun Tunnel and laser based high speed imaging systems will be used to generate a unique, free flight, aerodynamic data base of potential Mars aeroshell...

  7. Stereo Photogrammetry Measurements of the Position and Attitude of a Nozzle-Plume/Shock-Wave Interaction Model in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Drain, Bethany A.; Heineck, James T.; Durston, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Stereo photogrammetry was used to measure the position and attitude of a slender body of revolution during nozzle-plume/shock-wave interaction tests in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The model support system was designed to allow the model to be placed at many locations in the test section relative to a pressure rail on one sidewall. It included a streamwise traverse as well as a thin blade that offset the model axis from the sting axis. With these features the support system was more flexible than usual resulting in higher-than-usual uncertainty in the position and attitude of the model. Also contributing to this uncertainty were the absence of a balance, so corrections for sting deflections could not be applied, and the wings-vertical orientation of the model, which precluded using a gravity-based accelerometer to measure pitch angle. Therefore, stereo photogrammetry was chosen to provide independent measures of the model position and orientation. This paper describes the photogrammetry system and presents selected results from the test.

  8. Supersonic compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2016-04-12

    A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  9. Determination of allowable time for decision making in Collision Avoidance Systems in Free Flight Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  A method of a sequential time evaluation of choice of variant and decision making to avoid predicted dangerous approach of the aircraft at implementation of Free Flight concept in air traffic management is presented. Expressions for an evaluation of boundary instants by using the spline method are derived. Interval estimation is given by calculation of a confidence time interval.

  10. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  11. Lessons in the Design and Characterization Testing of the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T) Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on some of the more challenging design processes and characterization tests of the Semi-Span Super-Sonic Transport (S4T)-Active Controls Testbed (ACT). The model was successfully tested in four entries in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to satisfy the goals and objectives of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonic Project Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic effort. Due to the complexity of the S4T-ACT, only a small sample of the technical challenges for designing and characterizing the model will be presented. Specifically, the challenges encountered in designing the model include scaling the Technology Concept Airplane to model scale, designing the model fuselage, aileron actuator, and engine pylons. Characterization tests included full model ground vibration tests, wing stiffness measurements, geometry measurements, proof load testing, and measurement of fuselage static and dynamic properties.

  12. Aerodynamic interactions from reaction controls for lateral control of the M2-F2 lifting-body entry configuration at transonic and supersonic and supersonic Mach numbers. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. O.; Brownson, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel to determine the interaction of reaction jets for roll control on the M2-F2 lifting-body entry vehicle. Moment interactions are presented for a Mach number range of 0.6 to 1.7, a Reynolds number range of 1.2 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th power (based on model reference length), an angle-of-attack range of -9 deg to 20 deg, and an angle-of-sideslip range of -6 deg to 6 deg at an angle of attack of 6 deg. The reaction jets produce roll control with small adverse yawing moment, which can be offset by horizontal thrust component of canted jets.

  13. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  14. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  15. Study of Pressure Oscillations in Supersonic Parachute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Nimesh; Fukiba, Katsuyoshi; Mizuta, Kazuki; Maru, Yusuke

    2018-04-01

    Supersonic parachutes are a critical element of planetary mission whose simple structure, light-weight characteristics together with high ratio of aerodynamic drag makes them the most suitable aerodynamic decelerators. The use of parachute in supersonic flow produces complex shock/shock and wake/shock interaction giving rise to dynamic pressure oscillations. The study of supersonic parachute is difficult, because parachute has very flexible structure which makes obtaining experimental pressure data difficult. In this study, a supersonic wind tunnel test using two rigid bodies is done. The wind tunnel test was done at Mach number 3 by varying the distance between the front and rear objects, and the distance of a bundle point which divides suspension lines and a riser. The analysis of Schlieren movies revealed shock wave oscillation which was repetitive and had large pressure variation. The pressure variation differed in each case of change in distance between the front and rear objects, and the change in distance between riser and the rear object. The causes of pressure oscillation are: interaction of wake caused by front object with the shock wave, fundamental harmonic vibration of suspension lines, interference between shock waves, and the boundary layer of suspension lines.

  16. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  17. Flow Studies of Decelerators at Supersonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests recorded the effect of decelerators on flow at various supersonic speeds. Rigid parachute models were tested for the effects of porosity, shroud length, and number of shrouds. Flexible model parachutes were tested for effects of porosity and conical-shaped canopy. Ribbon dive brakes on a missile-shaped body were tested for effect of tension cable type and ribbon flare type. The final test involved a plastic sphere on riser lines.

  18. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  19. Transition Experiments on Blunt Bodies with Distributed Roughness in Hypersonic Free Flight in Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Blunt-body geometries were flown through carbon dioxide in the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility to investigate the influence of distributed surface roughness on transition to turbulence in CO2-dominated atmospheres, such as those of Mars and Venus. Tests were also performed in air for direct comparison with archival results. Models of hemispherical and spherically-blunted large-angle conical geometries were flown at speeds between 2.8 km/s and 5.1 km/s and freestream pressures between 50 Torr and 228 Torr. Transition fronts were determined from global surface heat flux distributions measured using thermal imaging techniques. Distributed surface roughness was produced by grit-blasting the model surfaces. Real-gas Navier-Stokes solutions were used to calculate non-dimensional correlating parameters at the measured transition onset locations. Transition-onset locations correlated well with a constant roughness Reynolds number based on the mean roughness element height. The critical roughness Reynolds number for transition onset determined for flight in CO2 was 223 +/- 25%. This mean value is lower than the critical value of 250 +/- 20% previously-established from tests conducted in air, but within the bounds of the expected measurement uncertainty.

  20. Effect of wing mass in free flight by a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Okada, Iori; Yoshino, Masato

    2016-11-01

    The effect of wing mass in free flight of a flapping wing is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. We consider a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-model consisting of two square wings with uniform mass density connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate free flights of the wing-body model with various mass ratios of the wing to the whole of the model. As a result, it is found that the lift and thrust forces decrease as the mass ratio increases, since the body with a large mass ratio experiences large vertical and horizontal oscillations in one period and consequently the wing tip speed relatively decreases. In addition, we find the critical mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight for various Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K18012.

  1. Geared-elevator flutter study. [wind tunnel tests of transonic flutter effects on control surfaces of supersonic transport tail assemblies, conducted in a NASA-Langley transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator (2.8 to 1.0 gear ratio) and one with locked-elevator (1.0 to 1.0 gear ratio), were flutter tested in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel with an empennage cantilever-mounted on a sting. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter dynamic pressure boundaries for both configurations were nearly flat over a Mach number range from 0.9 to 1.1. Flutter calculations (mathematical models) were made for the geared-elevator configuration using three subsonic lifting-surface methods. In one method, the elevator was treated as a discrete surface, and in the other two methods, the stabilizer and elevator were treated as a single warped-surface with the primary difference between these two methods being in the mathematical implementation used. A comparison of the experimental and analytical results shows that the discrete-elevator method predicted best the experimental flutter dynamic pressure level. However, the single warped-surface methods predicts more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  2. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  3. Supersonic Testing of 0.8 m Disk Gap Band Parachutes in the Wake of a 70 Deg Sphere Cone Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Wernet, Mark; Roeder, James; Kelsch, Richard; Witkowski, Al; Jones, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic wind tunnel testing of Viking-type 0.8 m Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10'x10' wind-tunnel. The tests were conducted in support of the Mars Science Laboratory Parachute Decelerator System development and qualification program. The aerodynamic coupling of the entry-vehicle wake to parachute flow-field is under investigation to determine the cause and functional dependence of a supersonic canopy breathing phenomenon referred to as area oscillations, characteristic of DGB's above Mach 1.5 operation. Four percent of full-scale parachutes (0.8 m) were constructed similar to the flight-article in material and construction techniques. The parachutes were attached to a 70-deg sphere-cone entry-vehicle to simulate the Mars flight configuration. The parachutes were tested in the wind-tunnel from Mach 2 to 2.5 in a Reynolds number range of 2x105 to 1x106, representative of a Mars deployment. Three different test configurations were investigated. In the first two configurations, the parachutes were constrained horizontally through the vent region to measure canopy breathing and wake interaction for fixed trim angles of 0 and 10 degrees from the free-stream. In the third configuration the parachute was unconstrained, permitted to trim and cone, similar to free-flight (but capsule motion is constrained), varying its alignment relative to the entry-vehicle wake. Non-intrusive test diagnostics were chosen to quantify parachute performance and provide insight into the flow field structure. An in-line loadcell provided measurement of unsteady and mean drag. Shadowgraph of the upstream parachute flow field was used to capture bow-shock motion and wake coupling. Particle image velocimetry provided first and second order flow field statistics over a planar region of the flow field, just upstream of the parachute. A photogrammetric technique was used to quantify fabric motion using multiple high speed video cameras to record

  4. Aerodynamic results of wind tunnel tests on a 0.010-scale model (32-QTS) space shuttle integrated vehicle in the AEDC VKF-40-inch supersonic wind tunnel (IA61)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daileda, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Plotted and tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data from a wind tunnel test of the integrated space shuttle vehicle are presented. The primary test objective was to determine proximity force and moment data for the orbiter/external tank and solid rocket booster (SRB) with and without separation rockets firing for both single and dual booster runs. Data were obtained at three points (t = 0, 1.25, and 2.0 seconds) on the nominal SRB separation trajectory.

  5. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  6. Feasibility of Determining Aerodynamic Coefficients for a NASA Apollo Body With the Use of Telemetry Data From Free Flight Range Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Topper, Benjamin; Brown, T. G; Bukowski, Edward; Davis, Bradford S; Hall, Rex A; Muller, Peter C; Vong, Timothy T; Brandon, Fred J

    2007-01-01

    ... s) Langley Research Center to perform a free-flight experiment with telemetry (TM) instrumented sub-scaled re-entry vehicle in order to determine the feasibility of using TM to obtain aerodynamic coefficients...

  7. Indeterminacy of drag exerted on an arrow in free flight: arrow attitude and laminar-turbulent transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Ando, R.; Ortiz, J.; Sugiura, H.

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic properties of an arrow (A/C/E; Easton) were investigated in an extension of our previous work, in which the laminar-turbulent transition of the boundary layer on the arrow shaft was found to take place in the Re number range of 1.2 × 104 aligned with the flow, the boundary layer remains laminar for Re < 1.5 × 104, and the drag coefficient is approximately 1.5 for 1.0 × 104 < Re < 1.5 × 104. If the arrow has an angle of attack of 0.75 ° with the flow, the transition to turbulence takes place at approximately Re = 1.1 × 104, and the drag coefficient increases to approximately 3.1. In addition, free flight experiments are performed. The arrow’s velocity and angular velocity are recorded using five high-speed video cameras. By analysing the recorded images, we obtain the initial and final velocities from which the drag coefficient is determined. The trajectory and attitude of the arrow in free flight are computed numerically by integrating the equations of motion for a rigid body using the initial data obtained from the video images. The laminar-turbulent transition of the boundary layer is shown to take place, if the maximum angle of attack exceeds about 0.4° at Re = 1.75 × 104. The crucial influence of the initial angular velocity on the angle of attack is also examined.

  8. On the Comparison of the Long Penetration Mode (LPM) Supersonic Counterflowing Jet to the Supersonic Screech Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Jones, Jess H.; Dougherty, N. Sam

    2015-01-01

    Classic tonal screech noise created by under-expanded supersonic jets; Long Penetration Mode (LPM) supersonic phenomenon -Under-expanded counter-flowing jet in supersonic free stream -Demonstrated in several wind tunnel tests -Modeled in several computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations; Discussion of LPM acoustics feedback and fluid interactions -Analogous to the aero-acoustics interactions seen in screech jets; Lessons Learned: Applying certain methodologies to LPM -Developed and successfully demonstrated in the study of screech jets -Discussion of mechanically induced excitation in fluid oscillators in general; Conclusions -Large body of work done on jet screech, other aero-acoustic phenomenacan have direct application to the study and applications of LPM cold flow jets

  9. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  10. Evaluation of Large-Scale Wing Vortex Wakes from Multi-Camera PIV Measurements in Free-Flight Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, Carl F. v.; Heider, André; Schröder, Andreas; Konrath, Robert; Agocs, Janos; Gilliot, Anne; Monnier, Jean-Claude

    Multiple-vortex systems of aircraft wakes have been investigated experimentally in a unique large-scale laboratory facility, the free-flight B20 catapult bench, ONERA Lille. 2D/2C PIV measurements have been performed in a translating reference frame, which provided time-resolved crossvelocity observations of the vortex systems in a Lagrangian frame normal to the wake axis. A PIV setup using a moving multiple-camera array and a variable double-frame time delay has been employed successfully. The large-scale quasi-2D structures of the wake-vortex system have been identified using the QW criterion based on the 2D velocity gradient tensor ∇H u, thus illustrating the temporal development of unequal-strength corotating vortex pairs in aircraft wakes for nondimensional times tU0/b≲45.

  11. Free-flight odor tracking in Drosophila is consistent with an optimal intermittent scale-free search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Reynolds

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available During their trajectories in still air, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster explore their landscape using a series of straight flight paths punctuated by rapid 90 degrees body-saccades [1]. Some saccades are triggered by visual expansion associated with collision avoidance. Yet many saccades are not triggered by visual cues, but rather appear spontaneously. Our analysis reveals that the control of these visually independent saccades and the flight intervals between them constitute an optimal scale-free active searching strategy. Two characteristics of mathematical optimality that are apparent during free-flight in Drosophila are inter-saccade interval lengths distributed according to an inverse square law, which does not vary across landscape scale, and 90 degrees saccade angles, which increase the likelihood that territory will be revisited and thereby reduce the likelihood that near-by targets will be missed. We also show that searching is intermittent, such that active searching phases randomly alternate with relocation phases. Behaviorally, this intermittency is reflected in frequently occurring short, slow speed inter-saccade intervals randomly alternating with rarer, longer, faster inter-saccade intervals. Searching patterns that scale similarly across orders of magnitude of length (i.e., scale-free have been revealed in animals as diverse as microzooplankton, bumblebees, albatrosses, and spider monkeys, but these do not appear to be optimised with respect to turning angle, whereas Drosophila free-flight search does. Also, intermittent searching patterns, such as those reported here for Drosophila, have been observed in foragers such as planktivorous fish and ground foraging birds. Our results with freely flying Drosophila may constitute the first reported example of searching behaviour that is both scale-free and intermittent.

  12. Active Control of Supersonic Impinging Jets Using Supersonic Microjets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvi, Farrukh

    2005-01-01

    .... Supersonic impinging jets occur in many applications including in STOVL aircraft where they lead to a highly oscillatory flow with very high unsteady loads on the nearby aircraft structures and the landing surfaces...

  13. Detonation in supersonic radial outflow

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Korneev, Svyatoslav

    2014-01-01

    We report on the structure and dynamics of gaseous detonation stabilized in a supersonic flow emanating radially from a central source. The steady-state solutions are computed and their range of existence is investigated. Two-dimensional simulations

  14. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, S.E.; Boulos, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders

  15. Pulsar Wind Nebulae Created by Fast-Moving Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy

    2017-01-01

    We review multiwavelength properties of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) created by supersonically moving pulsars and the effects of pulsar motion on the PWN morphologies and the ambient medium. Supersonic pulsar wind nebulae (SPWNe) are characterized by bow-shaped shocks around the pulsar and/or cometary tails filled with the shocked pulsar wind. In the past several years significant advances in SPWN studies have been made in deep observations with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories as...

  16. Supersonic propulsion technology. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, A. G.; Coltrin, R. E.; Stitt, L. E.; Weber, R. J.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion concepts for commercial supersonic transports are discussed. It is concluded that variable cycle engines, together with advanced supersonic inlets and low noise coannular nozzles, provide good operating performance for both supersonic and subsonic flight. In addition, they are reasonably quiet during takeoff and landing and have acceptable exhaust emissions.

  17. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  18. Cosmic ray acceleration in sources of the supersonic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.M.; Toptygin, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of particle acceleration by the supersonic turbulence is studied. The supersonic turbulence is defined as an ensemble of large- and small-scale plasma motions, in which along with the ranges of smooth parameter variation there are randomly distributed shock wave fronts. Particle interaction with the large-scale turbulence is described by the transfer equation which is true at any relation between the Larmor radius and the transport length. The large-scale turbulence can accelerate particles only due to compressibility effects of the medium. The basic theoretical results concerning turbulence properties in compressed media are presented. Concrete physical conditions and the possibility of acceleration of cosmic rays in the interplanetary space, in the vicinity of suppergiant stars of the O and B class with a great loss of mass and strong stellar winds, in supernova remnants, in the interstellar medium and some extragalactic radio sources are considered [ru

  19. A Risk Assessment Model for Reduced Aircraft Separation: A Quantitative Method to Evaluate the Safety of Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Smith, Alex; Connors, Mary; Wojciech, Jack; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    As new technologies and procedures are introduced into the National Airspace System, whether they are intended to improve efficiency, capacity, or safety level, the quantification of potential changes in safety levels is of vital concern. Applications of technology can improve safety levels and allow the reduction of separation standards. An excellent example is the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM). By taking advantage of the surveillance and display advances of PRM, airports can run instrument parallel approaches to runways separated by 3400 feet with the same level of safety as parallel approaches to runways separated by 4300 feet using the standard technology. Despite a wealth of information from flight operations and testing programs, there is no readily quantifiable relationship between numerical safety levels and the separation standards that apply to aircraft on final approach. This paper presents a modeling approach to quantify the risk associated with reducing separation on final approach. Reducing aircraft separation, both laterally and longitudinally, has been the goal of several aviation R&D programs over the past several years. Many of these programs have focused on technological solutions to improve navigation accuracy, surveillance accuracy, aircraft situational awareness, controller situational awareness, and other technical and operational factors that are vital to maintaining flight safety. The risk assessment model relates different types of potential aircraft accidents and incidents and their contribution to overall accident risk. The framework links accident risks to a hierarchy of failsafe mechanisms characterized by procedures and interventions. The model will be used to assess the overall level of safety associated with reducing separation standards and the introduction of new technology and procedures, as envisaged under the Free Flight concept. The model framework can be applied to various aircraft scenarios, including parallel and in

  20. Turbulence models in supersonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, E.; Ahmadikia, H.; Talebi, S.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate five different turbulence models when used in rather complicated two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic flows. They are Baldwin-Lomax, k-l, k-ε, k-ω and k-ζ turbulence models. The compressibility effects, axisymmetric correction terms and some modifications for transition region are used and tested in the models. Two computer codes based on the control volume approach and two flux-splitting methods. Roe and Van Leer, are developed. The codes are used to simulate supersonic mixing layers, flow behind axisymmetric body, under expanded jet, and flow over hollow cylinder flare. The results are compared with experimental data and behavior of the turbulence models is examined. It is shown that both k-l and k-ζ models produce very good results. It is also shown that the compressibility correction in the model is required to obtain more accurate results. (author)

  1. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.; Johnson, J.; Sabatella, J.; Sewall, T.

    1976-01-01

    The variable stream control engine is determined to be the most promising propulsion system concept for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. This concept uses variable geometry components and a unique throttle schedule for independent control of two flow streams to provide low jet noise at takeoff and high performance at both subsonic and supersonic cruise. The advanced technology offers a 25% improvement in airplane range and an 8 decibel reduction in takeoff noise, relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines.

  2. Supersonic Retropropulsion Flight Test Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Ethan A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Tanimoto, Rebekah L.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program has proposed plans for a series of three sub-scale flight tests at Earth for supersonic retropropulsion, a candidate decelerator technology for future, high-mass Mars missions. The first flight test in this series is intended to be a proof-of-concept test, demonstrating successful initiation and operation of supersonic retropropulsion at conditions that replicate the relevant physics of the aerodynamic-propulsive interactions expected in flight. Five sub-scale flight test article concepts, each designed for launch on sounding rockets, have been developed in consideration of this proof-of-concept flight test. Commercial, off-the-shelf components are utilized as much as possible in each concept. The design merits of the concepts are compared along with their predicted performance for a baseline trajectory. The results of a packaging study and performance-based trade studies indicate that a sounding rocket is a viable launch platform for this proof-of-concept test of supersonic retropropulsion.

  3. Fettered aircraft for using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.

    1980-08-28

    The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.

  4. Free flight simulations of a dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kosuke; Inamuro, Takaji

    2015-01-01

    Free flights of the dragonfly-like flapping wing-body model are numerically investigated using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The governing parameters of the problem are the Reynolds number Re, the Froude number Fr, and the non-dimensional mass m, and we set the parameters at Re = 200, Fr = 15, and m = 51. First, we simulate free flights of the model without the pitching rotation for various values of the phase lag angle ϕ between the forewing and the hindwing motions. We find that the wing-body model goes forward in spite of ϕ, and the model with ϕ = 0 ∘ and 90 ∘ goes upward against gravity. The model with ϕ =180 ∘ goes almost horizontally, and the model with ϕ =270 ∘ goes downward. That is, the moving direction of the model depends on the phase lag angle ϕ. Secondly, we simulate free flights with the pitching rotation for various values of the phase lag angle ϕ. It is found that in spite of ϕ the wing-body model turns gradually in the nose-up direction and goes back and down as the pitching angle Θ c increases. That is, the wing-body model cannot make a stable forward flight without control. Finally, we show a way to control the pitching motion by changing the lead–lag angle γ(t). We propose a simple proportional controller of γ(t) which makes stable flights within Θ c =±5 ∘ and works well even for a large disturbance. (paper)

  5. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  6. Factors Influencing Pitot Probe Centerline Displacement in a Turbulent Supersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Wendy I.

    1997-01-01

    When a total pressure probe is used for measuring flows with transverse total pressure gradients, a displacement of the effective center of the probe is observed (designated Delta). While this phenomenon is well documented in incompressible flow and supersonic laminar flow, there is insufficient information concerning supersonic turbulent flow. In this study, three NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels (SWT's) were used to investigate pitot probe centerline displacement in supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The relationship between test conditions and pitot probe centerline displacement error was to be determined. For this investigation, ten circular probes with diameter-to-boundary layer ratios (D/delta) ranging from 0.015 to 0.256 were tested in the 10 ft x 10 ft SWT, the 15 cm x 15 cm SWT, and the 1 ft x 1 ft SWT. Reynolds numbers of 4.27 x 10(exp 6)/m, 6.00 x 10(exp 6)/in, 10.33 x 10(exp 6)/in, and 16.9 x 10(exp 6)/m were tested at nominal Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.5. Boundary layer thicknesses for the three tunnels were approximately 200 mm, 13 mm, and 30 mm, respectively. Initial results indicate that boundary layer thickness, delta, and probe diameter, D/delta play a minimal role in pitot probe centerline offset error, Delta/D. It appears that the Mach gradient, dM/dy, is an important factor, though the exact relationship has not yet been determined. More data is needed to fill the map before a conclusion can be drawn with any certainty. This research provides valuable supersonic, turbulent boundary layer data from three supersonic wind tunnels with three very different boundary layers. It will prove a valuable stepping stone for future research into the factors influencing pitot probe centerline offset error.

  7. Base pressure and heat transfer tests of the 0.0225-scale space shuttle plume simulation model (19-OTS) in yawed flight conditions in the NASA-Lewis 10x10-foot supersonic wind tunnel (test IH83)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to determine pressures, heat transfer rates, and gas recovery temperatures in the base region of a rocket firing model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle during simulated yawed flight conditions. First and second stage flight of the space shuttle were simulated by firing the main engines in conjunction with the SRB rocket motors or only the SSME's into the continuous tunnel airstream. For the correct rocket plume environment, the simulated altitude pressures were halved to maintain the rocket chamber/altitude pressure ratio. Tunnel freestream Mach numbers from 2.2 to 3.5 were simulated over an altitude range of 60 to 130 thousand feet with varying angle of attack, yaw angle, nozzle gimbal angle and SRB chamber pressure. Gas recovery temperature data derived from nine gas temperature probe runs are presented. The model configuration, instrumentation, test procedures, and data reduction are described.

  8. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  9. Supersonic wave detection method and supersonic detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Koichi; Seto, Takehiro; Ishizaki, Hideaki; Asano, Rin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and device for a detection suitable to a channel box which is used while covering a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a probe for transmitting/receiving supersonic waves scans on the surface of the channel box. A data processing device determines an index showing a selective orientation degree of crystal direction of the channel box based on the signals received by the probe. A judging device compares the determined index with a previously determined allowable range to judge whether the channel box is satisfactory or not based on the result of the comparison. The judgement are on the basis that (1) the bending of the channel box is caused by the difference of elongation of opposed surfaces, (2) the elongation due to irradiation is caused by the selective orientation of crystal direction, and (3) the bending of the channel box can be suppressed within a predetermined range by suppressing the index determined by the measurement of supersonic waves having a correlation with the selective orientation of the crystal direction. As a result, the performance of the channel box capable of enduring high burnup region can be confirmed in a nondestructive manner. (I.S.)

  10. Detonation in supersonic radial outflow

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2014-11-07

    We report on the structure and dynamics of gaseous detonation stabilized in a supersonic flow emanating radially from a central source. The steady-state solutions are computed and their range of existence is investigated. Two-dimensional simulations are carried out in order to explore the stability of the steady-state solutions. It is found that both collapsing and expanding two-dimensional cellular detonations exist. The latter can be stabilized by putting several rigid obstacles in the flow downstream of the steady-state sonic locus. The problem of initiation of standing detonation stabilized in the radial flow is also investigated numerically. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  11. Absolute intensities of supersonic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Habets, A.H.M.; Verster, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    In a molecular beam experiment the center-line intensity I(0) (particles s -1 sterad -1 ) and the flow rate dN/dt (particles s -1 ) of a beam source are important features. To compare the performance of different types of beam sources the peaking factor, kappa, is defined as the ratio kappa=π(I(0)/dN/dt). The factor π is added to normalize to kappa=1 for an effusive source. The ideal peaking factor for the supersonic flow from a nozzle follows from continuum theory. Numerical values of kappa are available. Experimental values of kappa for an argon expansion are presented in this paper, confirming these calculations. The actual center-line intensity of a supersonic beam source with a skimmer is reduced in comparison to this ideal intensity if the skimmer shields part of the virtual source from the detector. Experimental data on the virtual source radius are given enabling one to predict this shielding quantitatively. (Auth.)

  12. Measurements of gas velocity in supersonic flow using a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.; Santos, R. dos

    1982-01-01

    A study of measurements of supersonic velocities in a wind tunnel using a laser beam was performed. Techniques using lasers are most suitable because they do not disturb the gas flow. This work presents the technique entitled as fringe technique. It works using interference patterns due to two perpendicular laser beams crossing the sample (i.e. the gas flow). Experimental results are compared with other usual techniques. (R.S.)

  13. Modeling Flight: The Role of Dynamically Scaled Free-Flight Models in Support of NASA's Aerospace Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art in aeronautical engineering has been continually accelerated by the development of advanced analysis and design tools. Used in the early design stages for aircraft and spacecraft, these methods have provided a fundamental understanding of physical phenomena and enabled designers to predict and analyze critical characteristics of new vehicles, including the capability to control or modify unsatisfactory behavior. For example, the relatively recent emergence and routine use of extremely powerful digital computer hardware and software has had a major impact on design capabilities and procedures. Sophisticated new airflow measurement and visualization systems permit the analyst to conduct micro- and macro-studies of properties within flow fields on and off the surfaces of models in advanced wind tunnels. Trade studies of the most efficient geometrical shapes for aircraft can be conducted with blazing speed within a broad scope of integrated technical disciplines, and the use of sophisticated piloted simulators in the vehicle development process permits the most important segment of operations the human pilot to make early assessments of the acceptability of the vehicle for its intended mission. Knowledgeable applications of these tools of the trade dramatically reduce risk and redesign, and increase the marketability and safety of new aerospace vehicles. Arguably, one of the more viable and valuable design tools since the advent of flight has been testing of subscale models. As used herein, the term "model" refers to a physical article used in experimental analyses of a larger full-scale vehicle. The reader is probably aware that many other forms of mathematical and computer-based models are also used in aerospace design; however, such topics are beyond the intended scope of this document. Model aircraft have always been a source of fascination, inspiration, and recreation for humans since the earliest days of flight. Within the scientific

  14. Nonlinear stability of supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N. (Principal Investigator); Bhat, T. R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations are presented. In this analysis the large scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.

  15. Properties of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Iyer, K. G.; Ladd, J.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed study examining the behavior of axisymmetric supersonic jets impinging on a ground plane is described. Our objective is to better understand the aeroacoustics governing this complex flowfield which commonly occurs in the vicinity of STOVL aircraft. Flow issuing through a Mach 1.5 C-D and a converging sonic nozzle is examined over a wide parametric range. For some cases a large diameter circular 'lift' plate, with an annular hole through which the jet is issued, is attached at the nozzle exit to simulate a generic airframe. The impinging jet flowfield was examined using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), which provides the velocity field for the entire region and shadowgraph visualization techniques. Near-field acoustic, as well as, mean and unsteady pressure measurements on the ground and lift plate surfaces were also obtained. The velocity field data, together with the surface flow measurements have resulted in a much better understanding of this flow from a fundamental standpoint while also identifying critical regions of interest for practical applications. Some of these findings include the presence of a stagnation bubble with recirculating flow; a very high speed (transonic/supersonic) radial wall jet; presence of large, spatially coherent turbulent structures in the primary jet and wall jet and high unsteady loads on the ground plane and lift plates. The results of a companion CFD investigation and its comparison to the experimental data will also be presented. Very good agreement has been found between the computational and experimental results thus providing confidence in the development of computational tools for the study of such flows.

  16. The Experimental Measurement of Aerodynamic Heating About Complex Shapes at Supersonic Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 a wind tunnel test program was implemented to update the experimental data available for predicting protuberance heating at supersonic Mach numbers. For this test the Langley Unitary Wind Tunnel was also used. The significant differences for this current test were the advances in the state-of-the-art in model design, fabrication techniques, instrumentation and data acquisition capabilities. This current paper provides a focused discussion of the results of an in depth analysis of unique measurements of recovery temperature obtained during the test.

  17. An Interactive Method of Characteristics Java Applet to Design and Analyze Supersonic Aircraft Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The Method of Characteristics (MOC) is a classic technique for designing supersonic nozzles. An interactive computer program using MOC has been developed to allow engineers to design and analyze supersonic nozzle flow fields. The program calculates the internal flow for many classic designs, such as a supersonic wind tunnel nozzle, an ideal 2D or axisymmetric nozzle, or a variety of plug nozzles. The program also calculates the plume flow produced by the nozzle and the external flow leading to the nozzle exit. The program can be used to assess the interactions between the internal, external and plume flows. By proper design and operation of the nozzle, it may be possible to lessen the strength of the sonic boom produced at the rear of supersonic aircraft. The program can also calculate non-ideal nozzles, such as simple cone flows, to determine flow divergence and nonuniformities at the exit, and its effect on the plume shape. The computer program is written in Java and is provided as free-ware from the NASA Glenn central software server.

  18. A computational study of the supersonic coherent jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mi Seon; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2003-01-01

    In steel-making process of iron and steel industry, the purity and quality of steel can be dependent on the amount of CO contained in the molten metal. Recently, the supersonic oxygen jet is being applied to the molten metal in the electric furnace and thus reduces the CO amount through the chemical reactions between the oxygen jet and molten metal, leading to a better quality of steel. In this application, the supersonic oxygen jet is limited in the distance over which the supersonic velocity is maintained. In order to get longer supersonic jet propagation into the molten metal, a supersonic coherent jet is suggested as one of the alternatives which are applicable to the electric furnace system. It has a flame around the conventional supersonic jet and thus the entrainment effect of the surrounding gas into the supersonic jet is reduced, leading to a longer propagation of the supersonic jet. In this regard, gasdynamics mechanism about why the combustion phenomenon surrounding the supersonic jet causes the jet core length to be longer is not yet clarified. The present study investigates the major characteristics of the supersonic coherent jet, compared with the conventional supersonic jet. A computational study is carried out to solve the compressible, axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. The computational results of the supersonic coherent jet are compared with the conventional supersonic jets

  19. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  20. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  1. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  2. A fundamental study of the supersonic microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, M. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. D. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under-and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results; two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length.

  3. A fundamental study of the supersonic microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, M. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under-and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results; two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length

  4. An evaluation of supersonic STOVL technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, G. H., Jr.; Lampkin, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the status of supersonic STOVL aircraft technology. The major focus is the presentation of summaries of pertinent aspects of supersonic STOVL technology, such as justification for STOVL aircraft, current designs and their recognized areas of uncertainty, recent research programs, current activities, plans, etc. The remainder of the paper is an evaluation of the performance differential between a current supersonic STOVL design and three production (or near production) fighters, one of them the AV-8B. The results indicate that there is not a large range difference between a STOL aircraft and a STOVL aircraft, and that other aspects of performance, such as field performance or combat maneuverability, may more than make up for this decrement.

  5. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  6. Supersonic cruise vehicle research/business jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison study of a GE-21 variable propulsion system with a Multimode Integrated Propulsion System (MMIPS) was conducted while installed in small M = 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicles with military and business jet possibilities. The 1984 state of the art vehicles were sized to the same transatlantic range, takeoff distance, and sideline noise. The results indicate the MMIPS would result in a heavier vehicle with better subsonic cruise performance. The MMIPS arrangement with one fan engine and two satellite turbojet engines would not be appropriate for a small supersonic business jet because of design integration penalties and lack of redundancy.

  7. Free flight in parameter space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders

    2008-01-01

    with continuous interpolation between population members. With a suitable sound engine, the system forms a surprisingly expressive performance instrument, used by the electronic free impro duo pantoMorf in concerts and recording sessions over the last year.......The well-known difficulty of controlling many synthesis parameters in performance, for exploration and expression, is addressed. Inspired by interactive evolution, random vectors in parameter space are assigned to an array of pressure sensitive pads. Vectors are scaled with pressure and added...... to define the current point in parameter space. Vectors can be scaled globally, allowing exploration of the whole space or minute timberal expression. The vector origin can be shifted at any time, allowing exploration of subspaces. In essence, this amounts to mutation-based interactive evolution...

  8. COMMERCIAL SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT PROGRAM. PHASE II-C REPORT. HIGH STRENGTH STEEL EVALUATION FOR SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JET TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, *AIRFRAMES, SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, STEEL , STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, FRACTURE(MECHANICS), FATIGUE(MECHANICS), STRESS CORROSION...MICROPHOTOGRAPHY, HIGH TEMPERATURE, NICKEL ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, CARBON, BAINITE , COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

  9. A supersonic fan equipped variable cycle engine for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a variable cycle turbofan engine with an axially supersonic fan stage as powerplant for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport was evaluated. Quantitative cycle analysis was used to assess the effects of the fan inlet and blading efficiencies on engine performance. Thrust levels predicted by cycle analysis are shown to match the thrust requirements of a representative aircraft. Fan inlet geometry is discussed and it is shown that a fixed geometry conical spike will provide sufficient airflow throughout the operating regime. The supersonic fan considered consists of a single stage comprising a rotor and stator. The concept is similar in principle to a supersonic compressor, but differs by having a stator which removes swirl from the flow without producing a net rise in static pressure. Operating conditions peculiar to the axially supersonic fan are discussed. Geometry of rotor and stator cascades are presented which utilize a supersonic vortex flow distribution. Results of a 2-D CFD flow analysis of these cascades are presented. A simple estimate of passage losses was made using empirical methods.

  10. Supersonic flaw detection device for nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Moriki.

    1996-01-01

    In a supersonic flaw detection device to be attached to a body surface of a reactor pressure vessel for automatically detecting flaws of a welded portion of a horizontally connected nozzle by using supersonic waves, a running vehicle automatically running along a circumferential direction of the nozzle comprises a supersonic flaw detection means for detecting flaws of the welded portion of the nozzle by using supersonic waves, and an inclination angle sensor for detecting the inclination angle of the running vehicle relative to the central axis of the nozzle. The running distance of the vehicle running along the circumference of the nozzle, namely, the position of the running vehicle from a reference point of the nozzle can be detected accurately by dividing the distance around the nozzle by the inclination angle detected by the inclination angle sensor. Accordingly, disadvantages in the prior art, for example, that the detected values obtained by using an encoder are changed by slipping or idle running of the magnet wheels are eliminated, and accurate flaw detection can be conducted. In addition, an operation of visually adjusting the reference point for the device can be eliminated. An operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (N.H.)

  11. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  12. Study on the Impact Characteristics of Coherent Supersonic Jet and Conventional Supersonic Jet in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Cheng, Ting; Dong, Kai; Yang, Lingzhi; Wu, Xuetao

    2018-02-01

    Supersonic oxygen-supplying technologies, including the coherent supersonic jet and the conventional supersonic jet, are now widely applied in electric arc furnace steelmaking processes to increase the bath stirring, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the impact characteristics of the two supersonic jets. In the present study, by integrating theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, a hybrid model was developed and modified to calculate the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets. The computational fluid dynamics results were validated against water model experiments. The results show that the lance height has significant influence on the jet penetration depth and jet impact zone volume. The penetration depth decreases with increasing lance height, whereas the jet impact zone volume initially increases and then decreases with increasing lance height. In addition, the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent supersonic jet are larger than those of the conventional supersonic jet at the same lance height, which illustrates the advantages of the coherent supersonic jet in delivering great amounts of oxygen to liquid melt with a better stirring effect compared to the conventional supersonic jet. A newly defined parameter, the k value, reflects the velocity attenuation and the potential core length of the main supersonic jet. Finally, a hybrid model and its modifications can well predict the penetration depth and impact zone volume of the coherent and conventional supersonic jets.

  13. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  14. Numerical analysis on flows in supersonic air intakes. Choonsoku kuki toriireguchi no nagare no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, T.; Tamura, N.; Sekino, N.; Tsujimura, N. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-06-25

    By applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to a flow in the supersonic air intake of rocket, appropriateness of computational result was confirmed from a comparison with the wind tunnel test result. In order for the air intake type rocket to heighten the combustion efficiency of fuel and air, it is important to possibly minimize the total pressure loss of air which has been taken in and maintain the air flow rate. A numerical analysis was made through modeling the sectional shape of wind tunnel test body and analyzing the two-dimensional flow by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The computational result of analysis coincided well with the pressure measurement result in wind tunnel test. Having elucidated the main factors of total pressure loss in a two-dimensionally curved flow passage, the CFD computation gave a possibility that the total pressure loss is considerably low against that passage if improved in shape. If simultaneously used with a characteristic curve method, the CFD computation made it possible to optimize the pressure recovery characteristics in the axially symmetric air intake. The CFD can be expected to be an effective method of designing the basic shape of supersonic air intake. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.

    1975-01-01

    A low pressure plasma jet of considerable conductivity can be influenced by a magnetic field. On the other hand the influencing magnetic field is changed by currents induced in the plasma jet. New astrophysical examples of suchlike interaction have been found in the investigation of the moon, where the partially not currentfree solar wind is influenced by locally confined magnetic fields. In the experiment reported, the interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial, dipole-shaped magnetic field is investigated. A current is superimposed to the plasma jet. (Auth.)

  16. Influence of probe geometry on pitot-probe displacement in supersonic turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the varying effects of six different probe-tip and support-shaft configurations on pitot tube displacement. The study was stimulated by discrepancies between supersonic wind-tunnel tests conducted by Wilson and Young (1949) and Allen (1972). Wilson (1973) had concluded that these discrepancies were caused by differences in probe geometry. It is shown that in fact, no major differences in profiles of streamwise velocity over streamwise velocity at boundary-layer edge vs normal coordinate over boundary-layer total thickness result from geometry. The true cause of the discrepancies, however, remains to be discovered.

  17. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  18. Flow control of micro-ramps on supersonic forward-facing step flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qing-Hu; Zhu Tao; Wu Anping; Yi Shihe

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the micro-ramps on supersonic turbulent flow over a forward-facing step (FFS) was experimentally investigated in a supersonic low-noise wind tunnel at Mach number 3 using nano-tracer planar laser scattering (NPLS) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. High spatiotemporal resolution images and velocity fields of supersonic flow over the testing model were captured. The fine structures and their spatial evolutionary characteristics without and with the micro-ramps were revealed and compared. The large-scale structures generated by the micro-ramps can survive the downstream FFS flowfield. The micro-ramps control on the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness was investigated by PIV results. With the micro-ramps, the reduction in the range of the reversal flow zone in streamwise direction is 50% and the turbulence intensity is also reduced. Moreover, the reduction in the average separated region and in separation shock unsteadiness are 47% and 26%, respectively. The results indicate that the micro-ramps are effective in reducing the flow separation and the separation shock unsteadiness. (paper)

  19. A second-generation supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, W.; Grayson, G.; Gump, J.; Hutko, G.; Kubicko, R.; Obrien, J.; Orndorff, R.; Oscher, R.; Polster, M.; Ulrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ever since the advent of commercial flight vehicles, one goal of designers has been to develop aircraft that can fly faster and carry more passengers than before. After the development of practical supersonic military aircraft, this desire was naturally manifested in a search for a practical supersonic commercial aircraft. The first and, to date, only supersonic civil transport is the Concorde, manufactured by a consortium of British and French aerospace companies. Unfortunately, due to a number of factors, including low passenger capacity and limited range, the Concorde has not been an economic success. It is for this reason that there is considerable interest in developing a design for a supersonic civil transport that addresses some of the inadequacies of the Concorde. For the design of such an aircraft to be feasible in the near term, certain guidelines must be established at the outset. Based upon the experience with the Concorde, whose 100-passenger capacity is not large enough for profitable operation, a minimum capacity of 250 passengers is desired. Second, to date, because of the limited range of the Concorde, supersonic commercial flight has been restricted to trans-Atlantic routes. In order to broaden the potential market, any new design must have the capability of trans-Pacific flight. A summary of the potential markets involved is presented. Also, because of both the cost and complexity involved with actively cooling an entire aircraft, an additional design constraint is that the aircraft as a whole be passively cooled. One additional design constraint is somewhat less quantitative in nature but of great importance nonetheless. Any time a new design is attempted, the tendency is to assume great strides in technology that serve as the basis for actual realization of the design. While it is not always possible to avoid this dependence on 'enabling technology,' since this design is desired for the near term, it is prudent, wherever possible, to rely on

  20. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, A H.M.

    1977-01-21

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements.

  1. Li/Li2 supersonic nozzle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.R.; Crooks, J.B.; Yang, S.C.; Way, K.R.; Stwalley, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The characterization of a lithium supersonic nozzle beam was made using spectroscopic techniques. It is found that at a stagnation pressure of 5.3 kPa (40 torr) and a nozzle throat diameter of 0.4 mm the ground state vibrational population of Li 2 can be described by a Boltzmann distribution with T/sub v/ = 195 +- 30 0 K. The rotational temperature is found to be T/sub r/ = 70 +- 20 0 K by band shape analysis. Measurements by quadrupole mass spectrometer indicates that approximately 10 mole per cent Li 2 dimers are formed at an oven body temperature of 1370 0 K n the supersonic nozzle expansion. This measured mole fraction is in good agreement with the existing dimerization theory

  2. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements

  3. Characterization of supersonic radiation diffusion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Guymer, Thomas M.; Morton, John; Williams, Benjamin; Kline, John L.; Bazin, Nicholas; Bentley, Christopher; Allan, Shelly; Brent, Katie; Comley, Andrew J.; Flippo, Kirk; Cowan, Joseph; Taccetti, J. Martin; Mussack-Tamashiro, Katie; Schmidt, Derek W.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; Obrey, Kimberly; Lanier, Nicholas E.; Workman, Jonathan B.; Stevenson, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Supersonic and diffusive radiation flow is an important test problem for the radiative transfer models used in radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes owing to solutions being accessible via analytic and numeric methods. We present experimental results with which we compare these solutions by studying supersonic and diffusive flow in the laboratory. We present results of higher-accuracy experiments than previously possible studying radiation flow through up to 7 high-temperature mean free paths of low-density, chlorine-doped polystyrene foam and silicon dioxide aerogel contained by an Au tube. Measurements of the heat front position and absolute measurements of the x-ray emission arrival at the end of the tube are used to test numerical and analytical models. We find excellent absolute agreement with simulations provided that the opacity and the equation of state are adjusted within expected uncertainties; analytical models provide a good phenomenological match to measurements but are not in quantitative agreement due to their limited scope. - Highlights: • The supersonic, diffusion of x-rays through sub-solid density materials is studied. • The data are more diffusive and of higher velocity than any prior work. • Scaled 1D analytic diffusion models reproduce the heat front evolution. • Refined radiation transport approximations are tested in numerical simulations. • Simulations match the data if material properties are adjusted within uncertainties

  4. Trends in Supersonic Separator design development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altam Rami Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic separator is a new technology with applications in hydrocarbon dew pointing and gas dehydration which can be used to condensate and separate water and heavy hydrocarbons from natural gas. Many researchers have studied the design, performance and efficiency, economic viability, and industrial applications of these separators. The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review recent progress in the design and application of supersonic separators and their limitations. This review has found that while several aspects of this study are well studied, considerable gaps within the published literature still exists in the areas such as turndown flexibility which is a critical requirement to cater for variation of mass flow and since almost all the available designs have a fixed geometry and therefore cannot be considered suitable for variable mass flow rate, which is a common situation in actual site. Hence, the focus needs to be more on designing a flexible geometry that can maintain a high separation efficiency regardless of inlet conditions and mass flow variations. This review is focusing only on the design and application of the supersonic separators without going through the experimental facilities, industrial platform, pilot plants as well as theoretical, analytical, and numerical modelling.

  5. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  6. Effect of porous material heating on the drag force of a cylinder with gas-permeable porous inserts in a supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S. G.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of supersonic flow around a solid cylinder with a gas-permeable porous insert on its front end and of supersonic flow around a hollow cylinder with internal porous inserts in the presence of heating of the porous material. The experiments were performed in a supersonic wind tunnel with Mach number 4.85 and 7 with porous inserts of cellular-porous nickel. The results of measurements on the filtration stand of the air filtration rate through the cellular-porous nickel when it is heated are also shown. For a number of experiments, numerical modeling based on the skeletal model of a cellular-porous material was carried out.

  7. Supersonic plasma flow between high latitude conjugate ionospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The polar wind problem has been investigated for closed field lines in situations where one of the two conjugate ionospheric regions is fully illuminated by the sun and the other darkness (solstices at high latitudes). A supersonic flow between hemispheres is possible; the magnetospheric part of this flow must be symmetric with respect to the equator. The daytime fluxes are proportional to the neutral hydrogen density. Fluxes of the order of 10 8 cm -2 sec -1 are only possible with density considerably higher than given by CIRA models. For stationary solutions higher flow speeds are needed on the dark side than provided from the illuminated side. It is concluded that shock waves with upward velocities of about 5 km/sec would form above the dark ionosphere. This implies a reduction by a factor of 3 to 5 of the plasma influx into the dark hemisphere, whereby F-layer densities of only up to 2 x 10 4 cm -3 can be maintained. (orig.) [de

  8. Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Plume Induced Environment Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, B. L.; Smith, S. D.; Van Norman, J. W.; Muppidi, S.; Clark, I

    2016-01-01

    Provide plume induced heating (radiation & convection) predictions in support of the LDSD thermal design (pre-flight SFDT-1) Predict plume induced aerodynamics in support of flight dynamics, to achieve targeted freestream conditions to test supersonic deceleration technologies (post-flight SFDT-1, pre-flight SFDT-2)

  9. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... awareness of the continuing technological advancements in supersonic aircraft technology aimed at reducing... Wednesday, April 21, 2010, as part of the joint meeting of the 159th Acoustical Society of America and NOISE... advances in supersonic technology, and for the FAA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA...

  10. On the structure, interaction, and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Schreiner, John A.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Slender wing vortex flows at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds were investigated in a 6 x 6 ft wind tunnel. Test data obtained include off-body and surface flow visualizations, wing upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The results reveal the transition from the low-speed classical vortex regime to the transonic regime, beginning at a freestream Mach number of 0.60, where vortices coexist with shock waves. It is shown that the onset of core breakdown and the progression of core breakdown with the angle of attack were sensitive to the Mach number, and that the shock effects at transonic speeds were reduced by the interaction of the wing and the lead-edge extension (LEX) vortices. The vortex strengths and direct interaction of the wing and LEX cores (cores wrapping around each other) were found to diminish at transonic and supersonic speeds.

  11. IPCS implications for future supersonic transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, L. O.; Kniat, J.; Schmidt, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Integrated Propulsion Control System (IPCS) demonstrates control of an entire supersonic propulsion module - inlet, engine afterburner, and nozzle - with an HDC 601 digital computer. The program encompasses the design, build, qualification, and flight testing of control modes, software, and hardware. The flight test vehicle is an F-111E airplane. The L.H. inlet and engine will be operated under control of a digital computer mounted in the weapons bay. A general description and the current status of the IPCS program are given.

  12. A systematic study of supersonic jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, J. F.; Letty, R. P.; Patel, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The acoustic fields for a rectangular and for an axisymmetric nozzle configuration are studied. Both nozzles are designed for identical flow parameters. It is tried to identify the dominant noise mechanisms. The other objective of the study is to establish scaling laws of supersonic jet noise. A shock tunnel is used in the investigations. Measured sound directivity, propagation direction of Mach waves obtained by shadowgraphs, and the slight dependence of the acoustic efficiency on the level of expansion indicate that Mach waves contribute significantly to the noise produced by a rectangular jet.

  13. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  14. Analysis of the wind data and estimation of the resultant air concentration rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Shze Jer; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1988-09-01

    Statistical analyses and comparisons of the meteorological wind data obtained by the propeller and supersonic anemometers for the year of 1987 in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, were performed. For wind speeds less than 1 m/s, the propeller readings are generally 0.5 m/s less than those of the supersonic readings. The resultant average air concentration and ground level γ exposure rates due to the radioactive releases for the normal operation of a nuclear plant are over-estimated when calculated using the propeller wind data. As supersonic anemometer can give accurate wind speed to as low as 0.01 m/s, it should be used to measure the low wind speed. The difference in the average air concentrations and γ exposure rates calculated using the two different sets of wind data, is due to the influence of low wind speeds at calm. If the number at calm is large, actual low wind speeds and wind directions should be used in the statistical analysis of atmospheric dispersion to give a more accurate and realistic estimation of the air concentrations and γ exposure rates due to the normal operation of a nuclear plant. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  16. An Opportunity for Hydrogen Fueled Supersonic Airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Forbes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a new look at the prospects for developing supersonic civil airliners, considering global demographics, climate change issues, fuel prices and technological advances. Dramatic changes have occurred in the demographics, economics, and market intensity of the Eastern Hemisphere since the 1990s. Carbon reduction imperatives provide a major incentive to invest in developing hydrogen-fueled airliners. The “point-to-point” air route architecture has proved viable with long range mid-size airliners. With a cruise Mach number of 1.4, a large number of destinations become viable for overland supersonic flight. A conceptual design process is used to estimate cost per seat mile for a range of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuel costs. An argument based on the ideal shape for minimal wave drag, estimates the drag penalty from using hydrogen. Viable aircraft geometries are shown to exist, that match the theoretical ideal shape, showing that the drag estimate is achievable. Conservative design arguments and market estimates suggest that hydrogen-fueled airliners can achieve seat-mile costs low enough to open a large worldwide market and justify a viable fleet size.

  17. Vortex Generators in a Streamline-Traced, External-Compression Supersonic Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, Ezgihan; Lu, Frank K.; Slater, John W.; Trefny, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Vortex generators within a streamline-traced, external-compression supersonic inlet for Mach 1.66 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery and reduce total pressure distortion. The vortex generators studied were rectangular vanes arranged in counter-rotating and co-rotating arrays. The vane geometric factors of interest included height, length, spacing, angle-of-incidence, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated numerically through the solution of the steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids using the Wind-US flow solver. The vanes were simulated using a vortex generator model. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery and the radial and circumferential total pressure distortion indices at the engine face. Design of experiments and statistical analysis methods were applied to quantify the effect of the geometric factors of the vanes and search for optimal vane arrays. Co-rotating vane arrays with negative angles-of-incidence positioned on the supersonic diffuser were effective in sweeping low-momentum flow from the top toward the sides of the subsonic diffuser. This distributed the low-momentum flow more evenly about the circumference of the subsonic diffuser and reduced distortion. Co-rotating vane arrays with negative angles-of-incidence or counter-rotating vane arrays positioned downstream of the terminal shock were effective in mixing higher-momentum flow with lower-momentum flow to increase recovery and decrease distortion. A strategy of combining a co-rotating vane array on the supersonic diffuser with a counter-rotating vane array on the subsonic diffuser was effective in increasing recovery and reducing distortion.

  18. Linear stability analysis of supersonic axisymmetric jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilities of supersonic jets are examined with different velocities, momentum thicknesses, and core temperatures. Amplification rates of instability waves at inlet are evaluated by linear stability theory (LST. It is found that increased velocity and core temperature would increase amplification rates substantially and such influence varies for different azimuthal wavenumbers. The most unstable modes in thin momentum thickness cases usually have higher frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers. Mode switching is observed for low azimuthal wavenumbers, but it appears merely in high velocity cases. In addition, the results provided by linear parabolized stability equations show that the mean-flow divergence affects the spatial evolution of instability waves greatly. The most amplified instability waves globally are sometimes found to be different from that given by LST.

  19. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  20. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  1. Numerical study of MHD supersonic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryakhovskiy, A. I.; Schmidt, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Supersonic MHD flow around a blunted body with a constant external magnetic field has been simulated for a number of geometries as well as a range of the flow parameters. Solvers based on Balbas-Tadmor MHD schemes and HLLC-Roe Godunov-type method have been developed within the OpenFOAM framework. The stability of the solution varies depending on the intensity of magnetic interaction The obtained solutions show the potential of MHD flow control and provide insights into for the development of the flow control system. The analysis of the results proves the applicability of numerical schemes, that are being used in the solvers. A number of ways to improve both the mathematical model of the process and the developed solvers are proposed.

  2. ARBITRARY INTERACTION OF PLANE SUPERSONIC FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bulat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study.We consider the Riemann problem for parameters at collision of two plane flows at a certain angle. The problem is solved in the exact statement. Most cases of interference, both stationary and non-stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities, followed by supersonic flows can be reduced to the problem of random interaction of two supersonic flows. Depending on the ratio of the parameters in the flows, outgoing discontinuities turn out to be shock waves, or rarefactionwaves. In some cases, there is no solution at all. It is important to know how to find the domain of existence for the relevant decisions, as the type of shock-wave structures in these domains is known in advance. The Riemann problem is used in numerical methods such as the method of Godunov. As a rule, approximate solution is used, known as the Osher solution, but for a number of problems with a high precision required, solution of this problem needs to be in the exact statement. Main results.Domains of existence for solutions with different types of shock-wave structure have been considered. Boundaries of existence for solutions with two outgoing shock waves are analytically defined, as well as with the outgoing shock wave and rarefaction wave. We identify the area of Mach numbers and angles at which the flows interact and there is no solution. Specific flows with two outgoing rarefaction waves are not considered. Practical significance. The results supplement interference theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities and can be used to develop new methods of numerical calculation with extraction of discontinuities.

  3. THERMAL AND AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCES OF THE SUPERSONIC MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan P Ninković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, Mach number of 4 can be taken as a boundary value for transition from conditions for supersonic, into the area of hypersonic flow, distinguishing two areas: area of supersonic in which the effects of the aerodynamic heating can be neglected and the area of hypersonic, in which the thermal effects become dominant. This paper presents the effects in static and dynamic areas, as well as presentation of G.R.O.M. software for determination of the values of aerodynamic derivatives, which was developed on the basis of linearized theory of supersonic flow. Validation of developed software was carried out through different types of testing, proving its usefulness for engineering practice in the area of supersonic wing aerodynamic loading calculations, even at high Mach numbers, with dominant thermal effects.

  4. Entropy Minimization Design Approach of Supersonic Internal Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.

  5. Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Facility (Research Cell 22)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: RC22 is a continuous-flow, direct-connect supersonic-combustion research facility that is capable of simulating flight conditions from Mach 3.0 to Mach...

  6. Numerical simulation of gap effect in supersonic flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap effect is a key factor in the design of the heat sealing in supersonic vehicles subjected to an aerodynamic heat load. Built on S-A turbulence model and Roe discrete format, the aerodynamic environment around a gap on the surface of a supersonic aircraft was simulated by the finite volume method. As the presented results indicate, the gap effect depends not only on the attack angle, but also on the Mach number.

  7. Growing quasi-modes in dynamics of supersonic collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.; Khudik, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis of globally stable self-similar regimes existence for supersonic Langmuir collapse plays a significant role in the attempts to construct a theory of strong Langmuir turbulence. A possibility for destruction of the stable against infinitely small perturbations self-similar regime of supersonic collapse by growing quasi-modes is demonstrated via the numerical solution of Cauchi problem for Zakharov equations. The quantitative criterion for the destruction of self-similar regimes is formulated. 9 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.

  9. Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Fukuichi, Akira; Kawamoto, Yujiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

  10. Diagnostics of the solar wind transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotova, N.A.; Nagelis, Ya.V.; Rudnitskij, G.M.; Smirnova, T.V.; AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga. Radioastrofizicheskaya Observatoriya; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed of a more complete study of hardly observable regions of the interplanetary medium, in the zone of the solar wind formation, where transition from subsonic to supersonic flow occurs at R sun . It is shown that an investigation of fine structure of the extended transonic region of the solar wind and of the sequence of changes in the parameters of the interplanetary plasma in the region of the solar wind formation with the changing distance from the Sun can be effectuated by using jointly different modifications of the occupation method. Combination of two or more modifications of this method supposes using compact radio sources of different classes and observations in two different wavelength ranges, namely at short centimeter and at meter waves

  11. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa HADIDOOLABI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  12. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  13. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    A new technique for performing high resolution molecular photoelectron spectroscopy is described, beginning with its conceptual development, through the construction of a prototypal apparatus, to the initial applications on a particularly favorable molecular system. The distinguishing features of this technique are: (1) the introduction of the sample in the form of a collimated supersonic molecular beam; and (2) the use of an electrostatic deflection energy analyzer which is carefully optimized in terms of sensitivity and resolution. This combination makes it possible to obtain photoelectron spectra at a new level of detail for many small molecules. Three experiments are described which rely on the capability to perform rotationally-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on the hydrogen molecule and its isotopes. The first is a measurement of the ionic vibrational and rotational spectroscopic constants and the vibrationally-selected photoionization cross sections. The second is a determination of the photoelectron asymmetry parameter, β, for selected rotational transitions. The third is an investigation of the rotational relaxation in a free jet expansion, using photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of the rotational state population distributions. In the closing chapter an assessment is made of the successes and limitations of the technique, and an indication is given of areas for further improvement in future spectrometers

  15. Coherent structures in a supersonic complex nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The jet flow from a complex supersonic nozzle is studied through experimental measurements. The nozzle's geometry is motivated by future engine designs for high-performance civilian and military aircraft. This rectangular jet has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet), and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. The core flow operates at a Mach number of Mj , c = 1 . 6 , and the wall jet is choked (Mj , w = 1 . 0). This high Reynolds number jet flow is comprised of intense turbulence levels, an intricate shock structure, shear and boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. In the present study, stereo PIV measurements are simultaneously sampled with high-speed pressure measurements, which are embedded in the aft deck, and far-field acoustics in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Time-resolved schlieren measurements have indicated the existence of strong flow events at high frequencies, at a Strouhal number of St = 3 . 4 . These appear to result from von Kàrmàn vortex shedding within the nozzle and pervade the entire flow and acoustic domain. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied on the current data to identify coherent structures in the jet and study the influence of this vortex street. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of supersonic molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, J.E.; Trevor, D.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution photoelectron spectrometer which uses molecular beam sampling is described. Photons from a rare-gas resonance lamp or UV laser are crossed with the beam from a differentially pumped supersonic nozzle source. The resulting photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic analyzer of a unique design consisting of a 90 0 spherical sector preanalyzer, a system of lenses, and a 180 0 hemispherical deflector. A multichannel detection system based on dual microchannel plates with a resistive anode position encoder provides an increase in counting efficiency by a factor of 12 over the equivalent single channel detector. The apparatus has demonstrated an instrumental resolution of better than 10 meV FWHM, limited largely by the photon source linewidth. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to characterize the composition of the molecular beam. Extensive differential pumping is provided to protect the critical surfaces of the analyzer and mass spectrometer from contamination. Because of the near elimination of Doppler and rotational broadenings, the practical resolution is the highest yet obtained in molecular PES

  17. Molecular description of steady supersonic free jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, S.

    2017-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the non-local thermal equilibrium (n-LTE) problem in the paraxial zone of silence of supersonic free jets is reported. The study is based on a hybrid approach that combines Navier-Stokes equations with a kinetic equation derived from the generalized Boltzmann (Waldmann-Snider) equation. The resulting system is solved for those flow quantities not easily amenable to experimental measure (translational temperature, flow velocity, and entropy) in terms of the quantities that can be measured accurately (distance, number density, population of rotational states, and their gradients). The reported solutions are essentially exact and are formulated in terms of macroscopic quantities, as well as in terms of elementary collision processes. Emphasis is made on the influence of dissipative effects onto the flow (viscous and diabatic) and of the breakdown of thermal equilibrium onto the evolution of entropy and translational temperature. The influence of inelastic collisions onto these effects is analysed in depth. The reported equations are aimed at optimizing the experimental knowledge of the n-LTE problem and its quantitative interpretation in terms of state-to-state rates for inelastic collisions.

  18. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  19. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  20. Summary of the First High-Altitude, Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test for the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Manning, Rob

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator Project is developing and testing the next generation of supersonic aerodynamic decelerators for planetary entry. A key element of that development is the testing of full-scale articles in conditions relevant to their intended use, primarily the tenuous Mars atmosphere. To achieve this testing, the LDSD project developed a test architecture similar to that used by the Viking Project in the early 1970's for the qualification of their supersonic parachute. A large, helium filled scientific balloon is used to hoist a 4.7 m blunt body test vehicle to an altitude of approximately 32 kilometers. The test vehicle is released from the balloon, spun up for gyroscopic stability, and accelerated to over four times the speed of sound and an altitude of 50 kilometers using a large solid rocket motor. Once at those conditions, the vehicle is despun and the test period begins. The first flight of this architecture occurred on June 28th of 2014. Though primarily a shake out flight of the new test system, the flight was also able to achieve an early test of two of the LDSD technologies, a large 6 m diameter Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD) and a large, 30.5 m nominal diameter supersonic parachute. This paper summarizes this first flight.

  1. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    A dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) instrument has been developed to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in supersonic combustion and generate databases for validation and development of CFD codes. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. Approximately one million dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  2. Flow Visualization in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael Wayne

    This thesis is a collection of novel flow visualizations of two different flat-plate, zero pressure gradient, supersonic, turbulent boundary layers (M = 2.8, Re _theta ~ 82,000, and M = 2.5, Re_ theta ~ 25,000, respectively). The physics of supersonic shear flows has recently drawn increasing attention with the renewed interest in flight at super and hypersonic speeds. This work was driven by the belief that the study of organized, Reynolds -stress producing turbulence structures will lead to improved techniques for the modelling and control of high-speed boundary layers. Although flow-visualization is often thought of as a tool for providing qualitative information about complex flow fields, in this thesis an emphasis is placed on deriving quantitative results from image data whenever possible. Three visualization techniques were applied--'selective cut-off' schlieren, droplet seeding, and Rayleigh scattering. Two experiments employed 'selective cut-off' schlieren. In the first, high-speed movies (40,000 fps) were made of strong density gradient fronts leaning downstream at between 30^circ and 60^ circ and travelling at about 0.9U _infty. In the second experiment, the same fronts were detected with hot-wires and imaged in real time, thus allowing the examination of the density gradient fronts and their associated single-point mass -flux signals. Two experiments employed droplet seeding. In both experiments, the boundary layer was seeded by injecting a stream of acetone through a single point in the wall. The acetone is atomized by the high shear at the wall into a 'fog' of tiny (~3.5mu m) droplets. In the first droplet experiment, the fog was illuminated with copper-vapor laser sheets of various orientations. The copper vapor laser pulses 'froze' the fog motion, revealing a variety of organized turbulence structures, some with characteristic downstream inclinations, others with large-scale roll-up on the scale of delta. In the second droplet experiment, high

  3. Aerodynamic and acoustic environment of a highly supersonic hot jet; Environnement aerodynamique et acoustique d'un jet chaud et fortement supersonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnier, J.; Gely, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. DSNA, 92 - Chatillon (France); Foulon, H. [CEAT, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the context of the spatial launchers, the prediction of noise radiated by highly supersonic hot jets is generally made from empirical methods. More recently, simulation methods based on computational fluid dynamics have been developed. In the two cases, in order to specify the parameters of the computer codes, it is necessary to know the actual aerodynamic and acoustic data of the flow. In the MARTEL facilities of CNES, ONERA has carried out tests with a 1200 m/s hot jet, free or impinging on a large plate. Acoustic near field and aerodynamic configuration of the free jet and of the wall jet have been characterized by measurements. Particularly, the supersonic core length and the location of the sound power peak on the jet axis have been determined. Other measurements, made with anemometers and wind cocks in the vicinity of the jet and of the plate, have allowed to characterize the drive of the ambient air by the jet. (authors)

  4. Flowfield Behavior of Supersonic Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, K. G.; Alvi, F. S.

    1998-11-01

    A detailed study is being conducted which examines the behavior of normally impinging, supersonic jets, issuing from axisymmetric a Mach 1.5 C-D and a sonic nozzle. Our goal is to understand the physics of this flowfield (commonly observed in STOVL aircraft) and its influence on the acoustic and aerodynamic loading on the ground plane and the airframe. The airframe is simulated by a circular disc ('lift' plate) with an annular hole from which the jet is issued. Tests are carried out for a wide range of pressure ratios and the ground plane distance is varied from 1.5 to 60 nozzle diameters. Flowfield measurements include Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and schlieren/shadowgraph visualization. Surface measurements on the ground and lift plates include mean and unsteady surface pressure distributions and the surface streamline visualization. Near-field acoustic measurements using a microphone are also obtained. For certain cases, the PIV measurements -- first of their kind, to our knowledge -- clearly show the presence of large-scale coherent turbulent structures which, upon jet impingement, propagate into the resulting wall jet. These structures are believed to generate very high unsteady pressure loads on the ground plane thus leading to ground erosion. They are also suspected to be the source of acoustic waves which lead to a feedback loop causing violent oscillations of the primary jet and can result in increased acoustic loading and subsequent damage to the aircraft. As a result of this detailed study over a wide parametric space, we hope to gain a much better understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this complex flow.

  5. Wave induced supersonic rotation in mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Abraham

    2010-11-01

    Wave-particle interactions in ExB supersonically rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy [1]. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field [2]. In the rotating frame, this perturbation is seen as a wave near the alpha particle cyclotron harmonic, and can break the azimuthal symmetry and magnetic moment conservation without changing the particle's total energy. The particle may exit if it reduces its kinetic energy and becomes more trapped if it gains kinetic energy, leading to a steady state current that maintains the field. Simulations of single particles in rotating mirrors show that a stationary wave can extract enough energy from alpha particles for a reactor to be self-sustaining. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation [3]. [4pt] [1] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Phys Rev Lett 101, 205003 (2008). [0pt] [2] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042112 (2010). [0pt] [3] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Plasma Sources Sci. Tech. 18, 045003 (2009).

  6. Tangential inlet supersonic separators: a novel apparatus for gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A novel supersonic separator with a tangential inlet is designed to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. The dynamic parameters of natural gas in the supersonic separation process are numerically calculated using the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Peng-Robinson real gas...... be generated by the tangential inlet, and it increases to the maximum of 200 m/s at the nozzle throat due to decrease of the nozzle area of the converging part. The tangential velocity can maintain the value of about 160 m/s at the nozzle exit, and correspondingly generates the centrifugal acceleration of 3...

  7. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  8. Advanced supersonic technology and its implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, C.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program is presented. The SCR program has identified significant improvements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements tend to overcome most of the problems which led to the cancellation of the National SST program. They offer the promise of an advanced SST family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. The areas of technology addressed by the SCR program have direct application to advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft.

  9. Investigation of supersonic jets shock-wave structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapryagaev, V. I.; Gubanov, D. A.; Kavun, I. N.; Kiselev, N. P.; Kundasev, S. G.; Pivovarov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an experimental studies overview of the free supersonic jet flow structure Ma = 1.0, Npr = 5, exhausting from a convergent profiled nozzle into a ambient space. Also was observed the jets in the presence of artificial streamwise vortices created by chevrons and microjets located on the nozzle exit. The technique of experimental investigation, schlieren-photographs and schemes of supersonic jets, and Pitot pressure distributions, are presented. A significant effect of vortex generators on the shock-wave structure of the flow is shown.

  10. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  11. Measurements of Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on an 8-Inch-Diameter Hemisphere-Cylinder in Free Flight for a Mach Number Range of 2.00 to 3.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Benjamine J.; Chauvin, Leo T.

    1957-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made along the hemisphere and cylinder of a hemisphere-cylinder rocket-propelled model in free flight up to a Mach number of 3.88. The test Reynolds number based on free-stream condition and diameter of model covered a range from 2.69 x l0(exp 6) to 11.70 x 10(exp 6). Laminar, transitional, and turbulent heat-transfer coefficients were obtained. The laminar data along the body agreed with laminar theory for blunt bodies whereas the turbulent data along the cylinder were consistently lower than that predicted by the turbulent theory for a flat plate. Measurements of heat transfer at the stagnation point were, in general, lower than the theory for stagnation-point heat transfer. When the Reynolds number to the junction of the hemisphere-cylinder was greater than 6 x l0(exp 6), the transitional Reynolds number varied from 0.8 x l0(exp 6) to 3.0 x 10(exp 6); however, than 6 x l(exp 6) when the Reynolds number to the junction was less, than the transitional Reynolds number varied from 7.0 x l0(exp 6) to 24.7 x 10(exp 6).

  12. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  13. High-speed and supersonic upward plasma drifts: multi-instrumental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Hairston, M. R.; Huba, J.; Coley, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Since the pioneering observations by Aggson et al. (1992, JGR, doi: 10.1002/92JA00644), there have been several reports of the occurrence of high-speed (Vz>800 m/s) and supersonic plasma flows in the post-sunset (e.g., Hysell et al., 1994, JGR, doi: 10.1029/94JA00476; Hanson et al., 1997, JGR, doi: 10.1029/96JA03376) and the pre-dawn sector (Astafyeva and Zakharenkova, 2015, GRL, doi:10.1002/2015GL066369). However, despite this observational evidence, these events remain rare and are not well understood. The main issue is to determine the background conditions leading to the occurrence of these high-speed plasma drifts. In this work, we perform a multi-instrumental study of high-speed and supersonic upward plasma drift events/structures. For this purpose, we analyze data from several ground-based and space-borne instruments, including data from the DMSP, Swarm and C/NOFS (IVM instrument) satellites. In addition to the space-borne instruments, we use data from ground-based GPS-receivers and ionosondes to further investigate the background ionosphere conditions, as well as the effects produced by the plasma bubbles and ionospheric irregularities. Besides the observations, we add the SAMI3/ESF modeling results on plasma bubble simulations and high-speed drifts inside plasma bubbles. TIE-GCM runs (from the CCMC, https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) are used to define the background atmospheric/ionospheric and electrodynamical conditions leading to the occurrence of the high-speed and supersonic plasma drift events. Our search of events with upward plasma drift exceeding 800 m/s in the data of DMSP for the years 2002-2016 shows that such high-speed events are extremely rare. During this period of time, only 6 events were found, two of them occurred during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, while the other four were detected during geomagnetically quiet conditions. Concerning the generation of such events, our preliminary results show that enhanced electric fields are

  14. Heat-flux gage measurements on a flat plate at a Mach number of 4.6 in the VSD high speed wind tunnel, a feasibility test (LA28). [wind tunnel tests of measuring instruments for boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of employing thin-film heat-flux gages was studied as a method of defining boundary layer characteristics at supersonic speeds in a high speed blowdown wind tunnel. Flow visualization techniques (using oil) were employed. Tabulated data (computer printouts), a test facility description, and photographs of test equipment are given.

  15. ANISOTROPIC WINDS FROM CLOSE-IN EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, James M.; Proga, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic models of thermally driven winds from highly irradiated, close-in extrasolar planets. We adopt a very simple treatment of the radiative heating processes at the base of the wind, and instead focus on the differences between the properties of outflows in multidimensions in comparison to spherically symmetric models computed with the same methods. For hot (T ∼> 2 x 10 4 K) or highly ionized gas, we find that strong (supersonic) polar flows are formed above the planet surface which produce weak shocks and outflow on the night side. In comparison to a spherically symmetric wind with the same parameters, the sonic surface on the day side is much closer to the planet surface in multidimensions, and the total mass-loss rate is reduced by almost a factor of 4. We also compute the steady-state structure of interacting planetary and stellar winds. Both winds end in a termination shock, with a parabolic contact discontinuity which is draped over the planet separating the two shocked winds. The planetary wind termination shock and the sonic surface in the wind are well separated, so that the mass-loss rate from the planet is essentially unaffected. However, the confinement of the planetary wind to the small volume bounded by the contact discontinuity greatly enhances the column density close to the planet, which might be important for the interpretation of observations of absorption lines formed by gas surrounding transiting planets.

  16. Commercial Supersonics Technology Project - Status of Airport Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Supersonic Technology Project has been developing databases, computational tools, and system models to prepare for a level 1 milestone, the Low Noise Propulsion Tech Challenge, to be delivered Sept 2016. Steps taken to prepare for the final validation test are given, including system analysis, code validation, and risk reduction testing.

  17. Highly Supersonic Ion Pulses in a Collisionless Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Schrittwieser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The initial transient response of a collisionless plasma to a high positive voltage step is investigated. Four different pulses are observed. An electron plasma wave pulse is followed by an ion burst. The latter is overtaken and absorbed by a highly supersonic ion pulse. Thereafter, an ion...

  18. Commercial supersonic flight; the past and the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Moorselaar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary world is all about going faster than ever before. Various communication technologies allow us to interact and trade almost instantly with the entire world. Computers are faster than ever before. One thing, however, has slowed down, the speed at which we travel. Supersonic travel is no

  19. Conservation of power of the supersonic acoustic intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The supersonic intensity is a quantity that represents the net acoustic output that a source couples into the medium; it can be regarded as a spatially low-pass filtered version of the active intensity. This spatial filtering can lead to significant error due to spatial truncation. In this paper,...

  20. Supersonic laser spray of aluminium alloy on a ceramic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveiro, A.; Lusquinos, F.; Comesana, R.; Quintero, F.; Pou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Applying a ceramic coating onto a metallic substrate to improve its wear resistance or corrosion resistance has attracted the interest of many researchers during decades. However, only few works explore the possibility to apply a metallic layer onto a ceramic material. This work presents a novel technique to coat ceramic materials with metals: the supersonic laser spraying. In this technique a laser beam is focused on the surface of the precursor metal in such a way that the metal is transformed to the liquid state in the beam-metal interaction zone. A supersonic jet expels the molten material and propels it to the surface of the ceramic substrate. In this study, we present the preliminary results obtained using the supersonic laser spray to coat a commercial cordierite ceramic plate with an Al-Cu alloy using a 3.5 kW CO 2 laser and a supersonic jet of Argon. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and interferometric profilometry

  1. A note on supersonic flow control with nanosecond plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. G.; Cui, Y. D.; Li, J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-04-01

    A concept study on supersonic flow control using nanosecond pulsed plasma actuator is conducted by means of numerical simulation. The nanosecond plasma discharge is characterized by the generation of a micro-shock wave in ambient air and a residual heat in the discharge volume arising from the rapid heating of near-surface gas by the quick discharge. The residual heat has been found to be essential for the flow separation control over aerodynamic bodies like airfoil and backward-facing step. In this study, novel experiment is designed to utilize the other flow feature from discharge, i.e., instant shock wave, to control supersonic flow through shock-shock interaction. Both bow shock in front of a blunt body and attached shock anchored at the tip of supersonic projectile are manipulated via the discharged-induced shock wave in an appropriate manner. It is observed that drag on the blunt body is reduced appreciably. Meanwhile, a lateral force on sharp-edged projectile is produced, which can steer the body and give it an effective angle of attack. This opens a promising possibility for extending the applicability of this flow control technique in supersonic flow regime.

  2. A study of air breathing rockets. 3: Supersonic mode combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, G.; Chinzel, N.; Kudo, K.; Murakami, A.; Komuro, T.; Ishii, S.

    An experimental study was made on supersonic mode combustors of an air breathing rocket engine. Supersonic streams of room-temperature air and hot fuel-rich rocket exhaust were coaxially mixed and burned in a concially diverging duct of 2 deg half-angle. The effect of air inlet Mach number and excess air ratio was investigated. Axial wall pressure distribution was measured to calculate one dimensional change of Mach number and stagnation temperature. Calculated results showed that supersonic combustion occurred in the duct. At the exit of the duct, gas sampling and Pitot pressure measurement was made, from which radial distributions of various properties were deduced. The distribution of mass fraction of elements from rocket exhaust showed poor mixing performance in the supersonic mode combustors compared with the previously investigated cylindrical subsonic mode combustors. Secondary combustion efficiency correlated well with the centerline mixing parameter, but not with Annushkin's non-dimensional combustor length. No major effect of air inlet Mach number or excess air ratio was seen within the range of conditions under which the experiment was conducted.

  3. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  4. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  5. Dual-Pump CARS Development and Application to Supersonic Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, Gaetano

    Successful design of hypersonic air-breathing engines requires new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for turbulence and turbulence-chemistry interaction in supersonic combustion. Unfortunately, not enough data are available to the modelers to develop and validate their codes, due to difficulties in taking measurements in such a harsh environment. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a non-intrusive, non-linear, laser-based technique that provides temporally and spatially resolved measurements of temperature and absolute mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in H2-air flames. A dual-pump CARS instrument has been developed to obtain measurements in supersonic combustion and generate databases for the CFD community. Issues that compromised previous attempts, such as beam steering and high irradiance perturbation effects, have been alleviated or avoided. Improvements in instrument precision and accuracy have been achieved. An axis-symmetric supersonic combusting coaxial jet facility has been developed to provide a simple, yet suitable flow to CFD modelers. The facility provides a central jet of hot "vitiated air" simulating the hot air entering the engine of a hypersonic vehicle flying at Mach numbers between 5 and 7. Three different silicon carbide nozzles, with exit Mach number 1, 1.6 and 2, are used to provide flows with the effects of varying compressibility. H2 co-flow is available in order to generate a supersonic combusting free jet. Dual-pump CARS measurements have been obtained for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Approximately one million Dual-pump CARS single shots have been collected in the supersonic jet for varying values of flight and exit Mach numbers at several locations. Data have been acquired with a H2 co-flow (combustion case) or a N 2 co-flow (mixing case). Results are presented and the effects of the compressibility and of the heat release are discussed.

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Aviv; Gordin, Alexander; Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B

    2008-02-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with supersonic molecular beams (SMBs) (also named Supersonic GC-MS) is based on GC and MS interface with SMBs and on the electron ionization (EI) of vibrationally cold analytes in the SMBs (cold EI) in a fly-through ion source. This ion source is inherently inert and further characterized by fast response and vacuum background filtration capability. The same ion source offers three modes of ionization including cold EI, classical EI and cluster chemical ionization (CI). Cold EI, as a main mode, provides enhanced molecular ions combined with an effective library sample identification, which is supplemented and complemented by a powerful isotope abundance analysis method and software. The range of low-volatility and thermally labile compounds amenable for analysis is significantly increased owing to the use of the contact-free, fly-through ion source and the ability to lower sample elution temperatures through the use of high column carrier gas flow rates. Effective, fast GC-MS is enabled particularly owing to the possible use of high column flow rates and improved system selectivity in view of the enhancement of the molecular ion. This fast GC-MS with SMB can be further improved via the added selectivity of MS-MS, which by itself benefits from the enhancement of the molecular ion, the most suitable parent ion for MS-MS. Supersonic GC-MS is characterized by low limits of detection (LOD), and its sensitivity is superior to that of standard GC-MS, particularly for samples that are hard for analysis. The GC separation of the Supersonic GC-MS can be improved with pulsed flow modulation (PFM) GC x GC-MS. Electron ionization LC-MS with SMB can also be combined with the Supersonic GC-MS, with fast and easy switching between these two modes of operation. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. New methods for analyzing transport phenomena in supersonic ejectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Olivier; Chatelain, Philippe; Bartosiewicz, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of a supersonic ejector with the open source software for CFD OpenFOAM. • Validation of the numerical tool based on flow structures obtained by schlieren. • Application of the momentum and energy tube analysis tools to a supersonic ejector. • Extension of this framework to exergy to construct exergy transport tubes. • Quantification of local transfers and losses of exergy within the ejector. - Abstract: This work aims at providing novel insights into the quantification and the location of the transfers and the irreversibilities within supersonic ejectors, and their connection with the entrainment. In this study, we propose two different and complementary approaches. First of all, recent analysis tools based on momentum and energy tubes (Meyers and Meneveau (2013)) are extended to the present compressible flow context and applied to the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow within the ejector. Furthermore, the transport equation for the mean-flow total exergy is derived and exergy transport tubes are proposed as a tool for the investigation of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. In addition to this topological approach, an analysis based on classical stream tubes is performed in order to quantitatively investigate transfers between the primary and the secondary streams all along the ejector. Finally, the present work identifies the location of exergy losses and their origins. Throughout this analysis, new local and cumulative parameters related to transfers and irreversibilities are introduced. The proposed methodology sheds light on the complex phenomena at play and may serve as a basis for the analysis of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. For the ejector under consideration, although global transfers are more important in on-design conditions, it is shown that the net gain in exergy of the secondary stream is maximum for a value of the back pressure that is close to the critical back pressure, as

  8. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  9. Investigation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Douglas XF4D-1 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel TED No. NACA DE 349

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the Douglas XF4D-1 airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model was flown with leading-edge slats retracted and extended over a lift-coefficient range from 0.5 to the stall. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated and no attempt was made to determine the effect on the stability characteristics of freeing the controls. The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the model were satisfactory for all conditions investigated except near the stall with slats extended, where the model had a slight nosing-up tendency. The lateral stability and control characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated except near the stall with slats retracted, where a change in sign of the static- directional-stability parameter Cn(sub beta) caused the model to be directionally divergent. The addition of an extension to the top of the vertical tail did not increase Cn(sub beta) enough to eliminate the directional divergence of the model, but a large increase in Cn(sub beta) that was obtainable by artificial means appeared to eliminate the divergence and flights near the stall could be made. Artificially increasing the stability derivative-Cn(sub r) (yawing moment due to yawing) and Cn(sub p) (yawing moment due to rolling) had little effect on the divergence for the range of these parameters investigated. Calculations indicate that the damping of the lateral oscillation of the airplane with slats retracted or extended will be satisfactory at sea level but will be only marginally satisfactory at 40,000 feet.

  10. Detailed experimental study of a highly compressible supersonic turbulent plane mixing layer and comparison with most recent DNS results: “Towards an accurate description of compressibility effects in supersonic free shear flows”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, S.; Bonnet, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed a careful experiment on a highly compressible mixing layer. • We validated the most recent DNS with the present results. • We discuss some aspects of the thermodynamics of the turbulent flow. • We performed a comparison between a computed and a measured turbulent kinetic energy budget. - Abstract: A compressible supersonic mixing layer at convective Mach number (Mc) equal to 1 has been studied experimentally in a dual stream supersonic/subsonic wind-tunnel. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (L.D.V.) measurements were performed making possible a full estimation of the mean and turbulent 3D velocity fields in the mixing layer. The Reynolds stress tensor was described. In particular, some anisotropy coefficients were obtained. It appears that the structure of the Reynolds tensor is almost not affected by compressibility at least up to Mc = 1. The turbulent kinetic energy budget was also experimentally estimated. Reynolds analogies assumptions were used to obtain density/velocity correlations in order to build the turbulent kinetic energy budget from LDV measurements. Results have been compared to other experimental and numerical results. Compressibility effects on the turbulent kinetic energy budget have been detected and commented. A study about thermodynamics flow properties was also performed using most recent DNS results experimentally validated by the present data. A non-dimensional number is then introduced in order to quantify the real effect of pressure fluctuations on the thermodynamics quantities fluctuations

  11. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  12. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  13. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Aeroelastic Deformation of Slender Wings at Supersonic Speeds Using a Video Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.

  15. Thrust characteristics of a series of convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles at subsonic and supersonic flight speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradenburgh, Evan A; Gorton, Gerald C; Beke, Andrew

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a series of four convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles was conducted in the Lewis 8-by-6 foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.1, 0.6, 1.6, and 2.0 over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. The thrust characteristics of these nozzles were determined by a pressure-integration technique. From a thrust standpoint, a nozzle designed to give uniform parallel flow at the exit had no advantage over the simple geometric design with conical convergent and divergent sections. The rapid-divergent nozzles might be competitive with the more gradual-divergent nozzles since the relatively short length of these nozzles would be advantageous from a weight standpoint and might result in smaller thrust losses due to friction. The thrusts, with friction losses neglected, were predicted satisfactorily by one-dimensional theory for the nozzles with relatively gradual divergence. The thrusts of the rapid-divergent designs were several percentages below the theoretical values at the design pressure ratio or above, while at low pressure ratios there was a considerable effect of free-stream Mach number, with thrusts considerably above theoretical values at subsonic speeds and somewhat above theoretical values at supersonic speeds. This Mach numb effect appeared to be related to the variation of the model base pressure with free-stream Mach number.

  16. AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF HOT JUPITER–STELLAR WIND HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyα transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, the planetary wind is shut off when the stellar wind penetrates inside where the sonic point would have been. In this regime mass is lost by viscous interaction at the boundary between planetary and stellar wind gases. Absorption by cold hydrogen atoms is large near the planetary surface, and decreases away from the planet as expected. The hot hydrogen absorption is in an annulus and typically dominated by the tail, at large impact parameter, rather than by the thin leading edge of the mixing layer near the substellar point

  17. AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF HOT JUPITER–STELLAR WIND HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyα transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, the planetary wind is shut off when the stellar wind penetrates inside where the sonic point would have been. In this regime mass is lost by viscous interaction at the boundary between planetary and stellar wind gases. Absorption by cold hydrogen atoms is large near the planetary surface, and decreases away from the planet as expected. The hot hydrogen absorption is in an annulus and typically dominated by the tail, at large impact parameter, rather than by the thin leading edge of the mixing layer near the substellar point.

  18. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenou, M. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel); Sa' ar, A. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kotler, Z. [Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel)

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  19. Direct formulation of the supersonic acoustic intensity in space domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclre, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    into the far field. To date, its calculation has been formulated in the wave number domain, filtering out the evanescent waves outside the radiation circle and reconstructing the acoustic field with only the propagating waves. In this study, the supersonic intensity is calculated directly in space domain......This paper proposes and examines a direct formulation in space domain of the so-called supersonic acoustic intensity. This quantity differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the circulating energy in the near-field of the source, providing a map of the acoustic energy that is radiated...... by means of a two-dimensional convolution between the acoustic field and a spatial filter mask that corresponds to the space domain representation of the radiation circle. Therefore, the acoustic field that propagates effectively to the far field is calculated via direct filtering in space domain...

  20. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets

  1. Modeling of Supersonic Combustion Systems for Sustained Hypersonic Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Neill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through Computational Fluid Dynamics and validation, an optimal scramjet combustor has been designed based on twin-strut Hydrogen injection to sustain flight at a desired speed of Mach 8. An investigation undertaken into the efficacy of supersonic combustion through various means of injection saw promising results for Hydrogen-based systems, whereby strut-style injectors were selected over transverse injectors based on their pressure recovery performance and combustive efficiency. The final configuration of twin-strut injectors provided robust combustion and a stable region of net thrust (1873 kN in the nozzle. Using fixed combustor inlet parameters and injection equivalence ratio, the finalized injection method advanced to the early stages of two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D scramjet engine integration. The overall investigation provided a feasible supersonic combustion system, such that Mach 8 sustained cruise could be achieved by the aircraft concept in a computational design domain.

  2. Kr-PLIF for scalar imaging in supersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, V; Burns, R; Clemens, N T

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed to explore the use of two-photon planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of krypton gas for applications of scalar imaging in supersonic flows. Experiments were performed in an underexpanded jet of krypton, which exhibited a wide range of conditions, from subsonic to hypersonic. Excellent signal-to-noise ratios were obtained, showing the technique is suitable for single-shot imaging. The data were used to infer the distribution of gas density and temperature by correcting the fluorescence signal for quenching effects and using isentropic relations. The centerline variation of the density and temperature from the experiments agree very well with those predicted with an empirical correlation and a CFD simulation (FLUENT). Overall, the high signal levels and quantifiable measurements indicate that Kr-PLIF could be an effective scalar marker for use in supersonic and hypersonic flow applications.

  3. Effect of Microjet Injection on Supersonic Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Podboy, G. G.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of microjet (jet) injection on the noise from supersonic jets is investigated. Three convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles and one convergent nozzle, all having the same exit diameters, are used in the study. The jets are injected perpendicular to the primary jet close to the nozzle lip from six equally-spaced ports having a jet-to-primary-jet diameter ratio of 0.0054. Effects in the over-expanded, fully expanded as well as underexpanded flow regimes are explored. Relative to the effect on subsonic jets, larger reductions in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) are achieved in most supersonic conditions. The largest reductions are typically associated with suppression of screech and transonic tones. For a shock-free, fully expanded case, the OASPL reductions achieved are comparable to that in the subsonic case; the same correlation, found for subsonic jet noise reduction at shallow observation angle, applies.

  4. Development and Testing of a New Family of Supersonic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian G.; Adler, Mark; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The state of the art in Entry, Descent, and Landing systems for Mars applications is largely based on technologies developed in the late 1960's and early 1970's for the Viking Lander program. Although the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory has made advances in EDL technology, these are predominantly in the areas of entry (new thermal protection systems and guided hypersonic flight) and landing (the sky crane architecture). Increases in entry mass, landed mass, and landed altitude beyond MSL capabilities will require advances predominantly in the field of supersonic decelerators. With this in mind, a multi-year program has been initiated to advance three new types of supersonic decelerators that would enable future large-robotic and human-precursor class missions to Mars.

  5. Tests of a thermal acoustic shield with a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickup, N.; Mangiarotty, R. A.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1981-10-01

    Fuel economy is a key element in the design of a future supersonic transport (SST). Variable cycle engines are being developed to provide the most economic combination of characteristics for a range of cruise speeds extending from subsonic speeds for overland flights to the supersonic cruise speeds. For one of these engines, the VCE-702, some form of noise suppression is needed for takeoff/sideline thrusts. The considered investigation is primarily concerned with scale model static tests of one particular concept for achieving that reduction, the thermal acoustic shield (TAS), which could also benefit other candidate SST engines. Other noise suppression devices being considered for SST application are the coannular nozzle, an internally ventilated nozzle, and mechanical suppressors. A test description is provided, taking into account the model configurations, the instrumentation, the test jet conditions, and aspects of screech noise control. Attention is given to shield thickness effects, a spectrum analysis, suppression and performance loss, and installed performance.

  6. Temperature in subsonic and supersonic radiation fronts measured at OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Heather; Kline, John; Lanier, Nick; Perry, Ted; Fontes, Chris; Fryer, Chris; Brown, Colin; Morton, John

    2017-10-01

    Propagation of heat fronts relevant to astrophysical plasmas is challenging in the supersonic regime. Plasma Te changes affect opacity and equation of state without hydrodynamic change. In the subsonic phase density perturbations form at material interfaces as the plasma responds to radiation pressure of the front. Recent experiments at OMEGA studied this transition in aerogel foams driven by a hohlraum. In COAX, two orthogonal backlighters drive x-ray radiography and K-shell absorption spectroscopy to diagnose the subsonic shape of the front and supersonic Te profiles. Past experiments used absorption spectroscopy in chlorinated foams to measure the heat front; however, Cl dopant is not suitable for higher material temperatures at NIF. COAX has developed use of Sc and Ti dopants to diagnose Te between 60-100eV and 100-180eV. Analysis with PrismSPECT using OPLIB tabular opacity data will evaluate the platform's ability to advance radiation transport in this regime.

  7. Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene nanofibers prepared by CO2 laser supersonic drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suzuki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE nanofibers were prepared by carbon dioxide (CO2 laser irradiation of asspun ETFE fibers with four different melt flow rates (MFRs in a supersonic jet that was generated by blowing air into a vacuum chamber through the fiber injection orifice. The drawability and superstructure of fibers produced by CO2 laser supersonic drawing depend on the laser power, the chamber pressure, the fiber injection speed, and the MFR. Nanofibers obtained using a laser power of 20 W, a chamber pressure of 20 kPa, and an MFR of 308 g•10 min–1 had an average diameter of 0.303 µm and a degree of crystallinity of 54%.

  8. Flight calibration of compensated and uncompensated pitot-static airspeed probes and application of the probes to supersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L. D.; Washington, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Static pressure position error calibrations for a compensated and an uncompensated XB-70 nose boom pitot static probe were obtained in flight. The methods (Pacer, acceleration-deceleration, and total temperature) used to obtain the position errors over a Mach number range from 0.5 to 3.0 and an altitude range from 25,000 feet to 70,000 feet are discussed. The error calibrations are compared with the position error determined from wind tunnel tests, theoretical analysis, and a standard NACA pitot static probe. Factors which influence position errors, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, probe tip geometry, static orifice location, and probe shape, are discussed. Also included are examples showing how the uncertainties caused by position errors can affect the inlet controls and vertical altitude separation of a supersonic transport.

  9. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  10. Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)

  11. Advanced nuclear turbojet powerplant characteristics summary for supersonic aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, John W.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated powerplant characteristics of an advanced nuclear powerplant intended for use in a nuclear supersonic manned airplane is contained in this report. This nuclear powerplant consists of a 575 MW, high temperature, lithium-cooled, solid fuel element-type reactor coupled to six turbojet engines especially designed for a supersonic nuclear airplane. The lithium coolant passes from the reactor at 2000F directly to the engine radiators without the use of an intermediate heat exchanger. The engines are fitted with burners enabling the thrust produced by the nuclear powerplant to be augmented by the use of chemical fuel for the take-off, transonic acceleration and landing portions of the flight. The powerplant components have been selected for a maximum thrust-to-weight ratio at Mach 3 and 55,000 feet altitude on nuclear heat only operation compromised for net thrust produced with chemical fuel augmentation during the transonic portion of flight. The power plant data presented, therefore, are primarily applicable to an all supersonic mission on nuclear heat alone. The powerplant data presented in this report are an extension of data contained in PWAC-243, 'NJ-14 All-Nuclear Supersonic Bomber Powerplant Characteristics Summary, March 11, 1958', to a higher reactor power. In addition, the engine compressor pressure ratio has been increased to improve transonic thrust characteristics. Weight data are tabulated for the 575 MW powerplant. The engine envelope based on preliminary radiator size estimates is illustrated. A liquid metal system flow schematic and piping data are included. Shield information including reactor shield outline, assumptions, weights, and direct dose pattern at 50 feet is also included. Estimated performance on nuclear heat only operation and nuclear heat plus burning is presented for an envelope of flight conditions.

  12. Supersonic plasma jet interaction with gases and plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nicolai, P.; Stenz, C.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ribeyre, X.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Juha, Libor; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Kálal, M.; Klír, D.; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, P.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 322, 1-4 (2009), 11-17 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : supersonic plasma jet * laser experiment * shock Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2009

  13. Visualization of supersonic diesel fuel jets using a shadowgraph technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, Kulachate; Behnia, Masud; Milton, Brian E.

    2001-04-01

    High-speed liquid jets have been widely used to cut or penetrate material. It has been recently conjectured that the characteristics of high-speed fuel jets may also be of benefit to engines requiring direct fuel injection into the combustion chamber. Important factors are combustion efficiency and emission control enhancement for better atomization. Fundamental studies of very high velocity liquid jets are therefore very important. The characteristics and behavior of supersonic liquid jets have been studied with the aid of a shadowgraph technique. The high-speed liquid jet (in the supersonic range) is generated by the use of a vertical, single stage powder gun. The performance of the launcher and its relation to the jet exit velocity, with a range of nozzle shapes, has been examined. This paper presents the visual evidence of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity around 2000 m/s) investigated by the shadowgraph method. An Argon jet has been used as a light source. With a rise time of 0.07 microseconds, light duration of 0.2 microseconds and the use of high speed Polaroid film, the shadowgraph method can effectively capture the hypersonic diesel fuel jet and its strong leading edge shock waves. This provides a clearer picture of each stage of the generation of hypersonic diesel fuel jets and makes the study of supersonic diesel fuel jet characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. Also, in the experiment, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air or blast wave ahead of the projectile. However, the benefit of using a pressure relief section in the design is not clearly known. To investigate this effect, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile leaving and traveling inside the nozzle at a velocity around 1100 m/s.

  14. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  15. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  16. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  17. THE TURBULENT DYNAMO IN HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE SUPERSONIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Schober, Jennifer [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G., E-mail: christoph.federrath@anu.edu.au [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024{sup 3} cells. We obtain numerical convergence and find that dynamo action occurs for both low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm = ν/η = 0.1-10 (the ratio of viscous to magnetic dissipation), which had so far only been seen for Pm ≥ 1 in supersonic turbulence. We measure the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rm{sub crit}=129{sub −31}{sup +43}, showing that the compressible dynamo is almost as efficient as in incompressible gas. Considering the physical conditions of the present and early universe, we conclude that magnetic fields need to be taken into account during structure formation from the early to the present cosmic ages, because they suppress gas fragmentation and drive powerful jets and outflows, both greatly affecting the initial mass function of stars.

  18. Data Quality Assurance for Supersonic Jet Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Bridges, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The noise created by a supersonic aircraft is a primary concern in the design of future high-speed planes. The jet noise reduction technologies required on these aircraft will be developed using scale-models mounted to experimental jet rigs designed to simulate the exhaust gases from a full-scale jet engine. The jet noise data collected in these experiments must accurately predict the noise levels produced by the full-scale hardware in order to be a useful development tool. A methodology has been adopted at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory to insure the quality of the supersonic jet noise data acquired from the facility s High Flow Jet Exit Rig so that it can be used to develop future nozzle technologies that reduce supersonic jet noise. The methodology relies on mitigating extraneous noise sources, examining the impact of measurement location on the acoustic results, and investigating the facility independence of the measurements. The methodology is documented here as a basis for validating future improvements and its limitations are noted so that they do not affect the data analysis. Maintaining a high quality jet noise laboratory is an ongoing process. By carefully examining the data produced and continually following this methodology, data quality can be maintained and improved over time.

  19. Heat, mass and force flows in supersonic shockwave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John Michael

    There is no cost effective way to deliver a payload to space and, with rising fuel prices, currently the price to travel commercially is also becoming more prohibitive to the public. During supersonic flight, compressive shock waves form around the craft which could be harnessed to deliver an additional lift on the craft. Using a series of hanging plates below a lifting wing design, the total lift generated can be increased above conventional values, while still maintaining a similar lift-to-drag ratio. Here, we study some of the flows involved in supersonic shockwave interaction. This analysis uses ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics package as the modeler. Our findings conclude an increase of up to 30% lift on the modeled craft while maintaining the lift-to-drag profile of the unmodified lifting wing. The increase in lift when utilizing the shockwave interaction could increase transport weight and reduce fuel cost for space and commercial flight, as well as mitigating negative effects associated with supersonic travel.

  20. A model for supersonic and hypersonic impactors for nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouali, Omid; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2005-01-01

    In this study the performance of supersonic and hypersonic impactors for collection efficiency of nanoparticles (in the size range of 2-100 nm) under various operating conditions is analyzed. Axisymmetric forms of the compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved and the airflow and thermal condition in the impactor are evaluated. A Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis procedure is used and the deposition rates of different size particles under various operating conditions are studied. For dilute particle concentrations, the assumption of one-way interaction is used and the effect of particles on gas flow field is ignored. The importance of drag, lift and Brownian forces on particle motions in supersonic impactors is discussed. Sensitivity of the simulation results to the use of different assumptions for the Cunningham correction coefficient is studied. It is shown that accurate evaluation of the gas mean free path and the Cunningham correction factor is important for accurate simulation of nano-particle transport and deposition in supersonic/hypersonic impactors. The computer simulation results are compared favorably with the available experimental data

  1. Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.

  2. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  3. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  4. Effect of swirling device on flow behavior in a supersonic separator for natural gas dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Li, Anqi; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    is designed for an annular supersonic separator. The supersonic swirling separation flow of natural gas is calculated using the Reynolds Stress model. The results show that the viscous heating and strong swirling flow cause the adverse pressure in the annular channel, which may negatively affect......The supersonic separator is a revolutionary device to remove the condensable components from gas mixtures. One of the key issues for this novel technology is the complex supersonic swirling flow that is not well understood. A swirling device composed of an ellipsoid and several helical blades...

  5. Free-Flight Tests of 0.11-Scale North American F-100 Airplane Wings to Investigate the Possibility of Flutter in Transonic Speed Range at Varying Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Burke R.

    1954-01-01

    Free-flight tests in the transonic speed range utilizing rocketpropelled models have been made on three pairs of 0.11-scale North American F-100 airplane wings having an aspect ratio of 3.47, a taper ratio of 0.308, 45 degree sweepback at the quarter-chord line, and thickness ratios of 31 and 5 percent to investigate the possibility of flutte r. Data from tests of two other rocket-propelled models which accidentally fluttered during a drag investigation of the North American F-100 airplane are also presented. The first set of wings (5 percent thick) was tested on a model which was disturbed in pitch by a moving tail and reached a maximum Mach number of 0.85. The wings encountered mild oscillations near the first - bending frequency at high lift coefficients. The second set of wings 9 percent thick was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 0.95 at (2) angles of attack provided by small rocket motors installed in the nose of the model. No oscillations resembling flutter were encountered during the coasting flight between separation from the booster and sustainer firing (Mach numbers from 0.86 to 0.82) or during the sustainer firing at accelerations of about 8g up to the maximum Mach number of the test (0.95). The third set of wings was similar to the first set and was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 1.24. A mild flutter at frequencies near the first-bending frequency of the wings was encountered between a Mach number of 1.15 and a Mach number of 1.06 during both accelerating and coasting flight. The two drag models, which were 0.ll-scale models of the North American F-100 airplane configuration, reached a maximum Mach number of 1.77. The wings of these models had bending and torsional frequencies which were 40 and 89 percent, respectively, of the calculated scaled frequencies of the full-scale 7-percent-thick wing. Both models experienced flutter of the same type as that experienced-by the third set of wings.

  6. Wind accretion: Theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakura, N. I.; Postnov, K. A.; Kochetkova, A. Yu.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.

    2015-07-01

    A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus on different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star (NS): the supersonic (Bondi) accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically towards the NS magnetosphere, and subsonic (settling) accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. These two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg s-1. In the subsonic case, which sets in at lower luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must form around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by the ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In turn, two regimes of subsonic accretion are possible, depending on plasma cooling mechanism (Compton or radiative) near the magnetopshere. The transition from the high-luminosity with Compton cooling to the lowluminosity (Lx ≲ 3 × 1035 erg s-1) with radiative cooling can be responsible for the onset of the off states repeatedly observed in several low-luminosity slowly accreting pulsars, such as Vela X-1, GX 301-2, and 4U 1907+09. The triggering of the transitionmay be due to a switch in the X-ray beam pattern in response to a change in the optical depth in the accretion column with changing luminosity. We also show that in the settling accretion theory, bright X-ray flares (~1038-1040 erg) observed in supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXT) can be produced by sporadic capture of magnetized stellar wind plasma. At sufficiently low accretion rates, magnetic reconnection can enhance the magnetospheric plasma entry rate, resulting in copious production of X-ray photons, strong Compton cooling and ultimately in unstable accretion of the entire shell. A bright flare develops on the free-fall time scale in the shell, and the typical energy released in an SFXT bright flare corresponds to the mass

  7. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  8. Jet arrays in supersonic crossflow — An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Yousuf; Alvi, Farrukh

    2015-12-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic crossflow is a classical fluid dynamics problem with many engineering applications. Several experimental and numerical studies have been taken up to analyze the interaction of a single jet with the incoming crossflow. However, there is a dearth of the literature on the interaction of multiple jets with one another and with the crossflow. Jets in a supersonic crossflow are known to produce a three-dimensional bow-shock structure due to the blockage of the flow. Multiple jets in a streamwise linear array interact with both one another and the incoming supersonic flow. In this paper, a parametric study is carried out to analyze the effect of microjet (sub-mm diameter) injection in a Mach 1.5 supersonic crossflow using flow visualization and velocity field measurements. The variation of the microjet orifice diameter and spacing within an array is used to study the three-dimensional nature of the flow field around the jets. The strength of the microjet-generated shock, scaling of the shock wave angle with the momentum coefficient, averaged streamwise, spanwise, and cross-stream velocity fields, and microjet array trajectories are detailed in the paper. It was found that shock angles of the microjet-generated shocks scale with the momentum coefficient for the three actuator configurations tested. As the microjets issue in the crossflow, a pair of longitudinal counter-rotating vortices (CVPs) are formed. The vortex pairs remain coherent for arrays with larger spanwise spacing between the micro-orifices and exhibit significant three-dimensionality similar to that of a single jet in crossflow. As the spacing between the jets is reduced, the CVPs merge resulting in a more two-dimensional flow field. The bow shock resulting from microjet injection also becomes nearly two-dimensional as the spacing between the micro-orifices is reduced. Trajectory estimations yield that microjets in an array have similar penetration as single jets. A notional

  9. Progress Toward Analytic Predictions of Supersonic Hydrocarbon-Air Combustion: Computation of Ignition Times and Supersonic Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Scott Michael

    Combustion in scramjet engines is faced with the limitation of brief residence time in the combustion chamber, requiring fuel and preheated air streams to mix and ignite in a matter of milliseconds. Accurate predictions of autoignition times are needed to design reliable supersonic combustion chambers. Most efforts in estimating non-premixed autoignition times have been devoted to hydrogen-air mixtures. The present work addresses hydrocarbon-air combustion, which is of interest for future scramjet engines. Computation of ignition in supersonic flows requires adequate characterization of ignition chemistry and description of the flow, both of which are derived in this work. In particular, we have shown that activation energy asymptotics combined with a previously derived reduced chemical kinetic mechanism provides analytic predictions of autoignition times in homogeneous systems. Results are compared with data from shock tube experiments, and previous expressions which employ a fuel depletion criterion. Ignition in scramjet engines has a strong dependence on temperature, which is found by perturbing the chemically frozen mixing layer solution. The frozen solution is obtained here, accounting for effects of viscous dissipation between the fuel and air streams. We investigate variations of thermodynamic and transport properties, and compare these to simplified mixing layers which neglect these variations. Numerically integrating the mixing layer problem reveals a nonmonotonic temperature profile, with a peak occurring inside the shear layer for sufficiently high Mach numbers. These results will be essential in computation of ignition distances in supersonic combustion chambers.

  10. Measurements of gas parameters in plasma-assisted supersonic combustion processes using diode laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, Mikhail A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V; Mironenko, V R; Leonov, S B; Yarantsev, D A

    2009-01-01

    We report a procedure for temperature and water vapour concentration measurements in an unsteady-state combustion zone using diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The procedure involves measurements of the absorption spectrum of water molecules around 1.39 μm. It has been used to determine hydrogen combustion parameters in M = 2 gas flows in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. The relatively high intensities of the absorption lines used have enabled direct absorption measurements. We describe a differential technique for measurements of transient absorption spectra, the procedure we used for primary data processing and approaches for determining the gas temperature and H 2 O concentration in the probed zone. The measured absorption spectra are fitted with spectra simulated using parameters from spectroscopic databases. The combustion-time-averaged (∼50 ms) gas temperature and water vapour partial pressure in the hot wake region are determined to be 1050 K and 21 Torr, respectively. The large signal-to-noise ratio in our measurements allowed us to assess the temporal behaviour of these parameters. The accuracy in our temperature measurements in the probed zone is ∼40 K. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.

  12. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  13. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  15. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  16. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  17. Test Section Turbulence in the AEDC/VKF Supersonic/Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    8 4.3 Ins t rumen ta t ion ....................................................... 18...Pressure Fluctuation Spectral Content in AEDC Tunnels A and B (Based on FY79 Pitot Probe), Af = 200 Hz...intensity, spatial distribution, and spectral content , has become increasingly important in the analysis of test data. The sector- supported model in the

  18. Computational support of the laminar flow supersonic wind tunnel, CNSFV code development, Maglev, and grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Goetz H.

    1995-01-01

    This final report covers the work done on corporate agreement NCC2-616 over a period of 5 1/2 years. It is broken into three segments of approximately 1 1/2 to 2 years each. The report is a summary report and is not intended to be comprehensive of all the work done under this corporate agreement. A more complete coverage of the work done is obtained from the papers and reports listed in the 'Papers' section. Additional reporting of significant work was done through 'Technical Highlights' and 'Research and Technical Summaries'. A listing of copies are given in the 'Technical Highlights and R and T' section. The work was also reported in a series of seminars, conference meetings, branch reviews, workshops, and project reviews. A list of these talks is given in the 'Presentation' section. Also during this time three students ranging from high school to graduate level were supervised. A list of the students and the type of work accomplished is given in the 'Mentoring' section. The report concludes with the 'Appendices' sections which include the three papers produced during the last 1 1/2 years of this corporate agreement.

  19. Handbook of Supersonic Aerodynamics. Section 20. Wind Tunnel Instrumentation and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    300 N. Sierra Madre Villa, Pasadena, Calif. 2. Electronic Engineering Associates, Ltd., 778 El Camino, San Carlos, Calif. 3. Statham Laboratories... Taller and Cooper, Brooklyn, N.Y.), and 2) the balance system (built by Boller and Chivins, Pasadena, Calif.). The model’s suspension system assembly is

  20. Demonstration of Clean Particle Seeding for Particle Image Velocimetry in a Closed Circuit Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNiel, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether solid carbon dioxide (CO2) particles might provide a satisfactory, and cleaner, alternative to traditional seed material for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...

  1. Stellar winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored

  2. Effect of delta wing on the particle flow in a novel gas supersonic separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The present work presents numerical simulations of the complex particle motion in a supersonic separator with a delta wing located in the supersonic flow. The effect of the delta wing on the strong swirling flow is analysed using the Discrete Particle Method. The results show that the delta wings...

  3. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  4. Unsteady Flow in a Supersonic Turbine with Variable Specific Heats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Huber, Frank; Sondak, Douglas L.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Modern high-work turbines can be compact, transonic, supersonic, counter-rotating, or use a dense drive gas. The vast majority of modern rocket turbine designs fall into these Categories. These turbines usually have large temperature variations across a given stage, and are characterized by large amounts of flow unsteadiness. The flow unsteadiness can have a major impact on the turbine performance and durability. For example, the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) fuel turbine, a high work, transonic design, was found to have an unsteady inter-row shock which reduced efficiency by 2 points and increased dynamic loading by 24 percent. The Revolutionary Reusable Technology Turbopump (RRTT), which uses full flow oxygen for its drive gas, was found to shed vortices with such energy as to raise serious blade durability concerns. In both cases, the sources of the problems were uncovered (before turbopump testing) with the application of validated, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the designs. In the case of the RRTT and the Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) turbines, the unsteady CFD codes have been used not just to identify problems, but to guide designs which mitigate problems due to unsteadiness. Using unsteady flow analyses as a part of the design process has led to turbine designs with higher performance (which affects temperature and mass flow rate) and fewer dynamics problems. One of the many assumptions made during the design and analysis of supersonic turbine stages is that the values of the specific heats are constant. In some analyses the value is based on an average of the expected upstream and downstream temperatures. In stages where the temperature can vary by 300 to 500 K, however, the assumption of constant fluid properties may lead to erroneous performance and durability predictions. In this study the suitability of assuming constant specific heats has been investigated by performing three-dimensional unsteady Navier

  5. Effect of Axisymmetric Aft Wall Angle Cavity in Supersonic Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, S.; Assis, Shan M.; Jayaraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    Cavity plays a significant role in scramjet combustors to enhance mixing and flame holding of supersonic streams. In this study, the characteristics of axisymmetric cavity with varying aft wall angles in a non-reacting supersonic flow field are experimentally investigated. The experiments are conducted in a blow-down type supersonic flow facility. The facility consists of a supersonic nozzle followed by a circular cross sectional duct. The axisymmetric cavity is incorporated inside the duct. Cavity aft wall is inclined with two consecutive angles. The performance of the aft wall cavities are compared with rectangular cavity. Decreasing aft wall angle reduces the cavity drag due to the stable flow field which is vital for flame holding in supersonic combustor. Uniform mixing and gradual decrease in stagnation pressure loss can be achieved by decreasing the cavity aft wall angle.

  6. Fan Noise for a Concept Commercial Supersonic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David

    2017-01-01

    NASA is currently studying a commercial supersonic transport (CST) aircraft that could carry 35+ passengers at Mach 1.6+ with a 4000+nm range. The aircraft should also meet environmental goals for sonic boom, airport noise and emissions at cruise. With respect to airport noise, considerable effort has been put into predicting the noise due to the jet exhaust. This report describes an internal NASA effort to consider the contribution of fan noise to the overall engine noise of this class of aircraft.

  7. CFD investigations on supersonic ejectors for refrigeration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosiewicz, Y.; Aidoun, Z.; Mercadier, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents numerical results of a supersonic ejector for refrigeration applications. One of the interesting features is that the current model is based on the NIST properties for the R142b refrigerant: to the authors knowledge, it is the first paper dealing with a local CFD model which takes into account shock-boundary layer interactions in a real refrigerant. The numerical results put demonstrate the crucial role of the secondary nozzle for the mixing rate performance. In addition, these results point out the need of an extensive validation of the turbulence model, especially in the modeling of the off-design mode. (author)

  8. Toward Active Control of Noise from Hot Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Mechanisms AGARD - CP -131, 1974, pp. 13.1-13.12. [23] Goldstein, M.E., "On identifying the true sources of aerodynamic sound," Journal of Fluid Mechanics Vol...either constant or begins to decay. For the resampled data (1/8 inch microphones resampled at 100 kHz), the change in 7( 73 ) follows the originally...supersonic jet and their acoustic radiation," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 69, No.l, 1975, pp. 73 95. [5] Tain, C. K. W., "Mach wave radiation from high

  9. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  10. Measurement of Off-Body Velocity, Pressure, and Temperature in an Unseeded Supersonic Air Vortex by Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2008-01-01

    A noninvasive optical method is used to make time-averaged (30 sec) off-body measurements in a supersonic airflow. Seeding of tracer particles is not required. One spatial component of velocity, static pressure, and static temperature are measured with stimulated Raman scattering. The three flow parameters are determined simultaneously from a common sample volume (0.3 by 0.3 by 15 mm) using concurrent measurements of the forward and backward scattered line shapes of a N2 vibrational Raman transition. The capability of this technique is illustrated with laboratory and large-scale wind tunnel testing that demonstrate 5-10% measurement uncertainties. Because the spatial resolution of the present work was improved to 1.5 cm (compared to 20 cm in previous work), it was possible to demonstrate a modest one-dimensional profiling of cross-flow velocity, pressure, and translational temperature through the low-density core of a stream-wise vortex (delta-wing model at Mach 2.8 in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel).

  11. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  12. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterberg, F. [University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  13. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable.

  14. Thermonuclear dynamo inside ultracentrifuge with supersonic plasma flow stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity implies the existence of virtual negative masses in the rotational reference frame of an ultracentrifuge with the negative mass density of the same order of magnitude as the positive mass density of a neutron star. In an ultracentrifuge, the repulsive gravitational field of this negative mass can simulate the attractive positive mass of a mini-neutron star, and for this reason can radially confine a dense thermonuclear plasma placed inside the centrifuge, very much as the positive mass of a star confines its plasma by its own attractive gravitational field. If the centrifuge is placed in an externally magnetic field to act as the seed field of a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the configuration resembles a magnetar driven by the release of energy through nuclear fusion, accelerating the plasma to supersonic velocities, with the magnetic field produced by the thermomagnetic Nernst effect insulating the hot plasma from the cold wall of the centrifuge. Because of the supersonic flow and the high plasma density the configuration is stable

  15. Jet Noise Modeling for Supersonic Business Jet Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the development of an improved predictive model for coannular jet noise, including noise suppression modifications applicable to small supersonic-cruise aircraft such as the Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). For such aircraft a wide range of propulsion and integration options are under consideration. Thus there is a need for very versatile design tools, including a noise prediction model. The approach used is similar to that used with great success by the Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research Program and in developing a more recent model for coannular nozzles over a wide range of conditions. If highly suppressed configurations are ultimately required, the 2DME model is expected to provide reasonable prediction for these smaller scales, although this has not been demonstrated. It is considered likely that more modest suppression approaches, such as dual stream nozzles featuring chevron or chute suppressors, perhaps in conjunction with inverted velocity profiles (IVP), will be sufficient for the SBJ.

  16. Supersonic impinging jet noise reduction using a hybrid control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Alex; Kumar, Rajan

    2015-07-01

    Control of the highly resonant flowfield associated with supersonic impinging jet has been experimentally investigated. Measurements were made in the supersonic impinging jet facility at the Florida State University for a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded jet. Measurements included unsteady pressures on a surface plate near the nozzle exit, acoustics in the nearfield and beneath the impingement plane, and velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Both passive control using porous surface and active control with high momentum microjet injection are effective in reducing nearfield noise and flow unsteadiness over a range of geometrical parameters; however, the type of noise reduction achieved by the two techniques is different. The passive control reduces broadband noise whereas microjet injection attenuates high amplitude impinging tones. The hybrid control, a combination of two control methods, reduces both broadband and high amplitude impinging tones and surprisingly its effectiveness is more that the additive effect of the two control techniques. The flow field measurements show that with hybrid control the impinging jet is stabilized and the turbulence quantities such as streamwise turbulence intensity, transverse turbulence intensity and turbulent shear stress are significantly reduced.

  17. Investigation of Cooling Water Injection into Supersonic Rocket Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hansen; Jeansonne, Christopher; Menon, Shyam

    2017-11-01

    Water spray cooling of the exhaust plume from a rocket undergoing static testing is critical in preventing thermal wear of the test stand structure, and suppressing the acoustic noise signature. A scaled test facility has been developed that utilizes non-intrusive diagnostic techniques including Focusing Color Schlieren (FCS) and Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) to examine the interaction of a pressure-fed water jet with a supersonic flow of compressed air. FCS is used to visually assess the interaction of the water jet with the strong density gradients in the supersonic air flow. PDPA is used in conjunction to gain statistical information regarding water droplet size and velocity as the jet is broken up. Measurement results, along with numerical simulations and jet penetration models are used to explain the observed phenomena. Following the cold flow testing campaign a scaled hybrid rocket engine will be constructed to continue tests in a combusting flow environment similar to that generated by the rocket engines tested at NASA facilities. LaSPACE.

  18. Flow Simulation of Supersonic Inlet with Bypass Annular Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoungJin; Kumano, Takayasu; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.; Conners, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    A relaxed isentropic compression supersonic inlet is a new concept that produces smaller cowl drag than a conventional inlet, but incurs lower total pressure recovery and increased flow distortion in the (radially) outer flowpath. A supersonic inlet comprising a bypass annulus to the relaxed isentropic compression inlet dumps out airflow of low quality through the bypass duct. A reliable computational fluid dynamics solution can provide considerable useful information to ascertain quantitatively relative merits of the concept, and further provide a basis for optimizing the design. For a fast and reliable performance evaluation of the inlet performance, an equivalent axisymmetric model whose area changes accounts for geometric and physical (blockage) effects resulting from the original complex three-dimensional configuration is proposed. In addition, full three-dimensional calculations are conducted for studying flow phenomena and verifying the validity of the equivalent model. The inlet-engine coupling is carried out by embedding numerical propulsion system simulation engine data into the flow solver for interactive boundary conditions at the engine fan face and exhaust plane. It was found that the blockage resulting from complex three-dimensional geometries in the bypass duct causes significant degradation of inlet performance by pushing the terminal normal shock upstream.

  19. Garden hose separation of gaseous isotopes. Part II. Supersonic accelerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.G.; Davis, A.G.M.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical process for separating gaseous mixtures according to their respective molecular weights, by a variation of the time-of-flight process, is proposed. The separative apparatus consists of several sets of nozzle-deflector combinations surrounded by a stationary collector housed in an evacuated chamber. From a rotating supersonic nozzle, a contiguous plurality of successive groups of molecules is ejected to form a continuous stream of the mixture. The molecules of each group of molecules are allowed to accelerate for a predetermined period of time following their supersonic expansion, thereby allowing each group of molecules to form a generally spherical configuration, the outer radius of which will be enriched in molecules of lighter mass, relative to lesser radii. A deflector means co-rotating with the nozzle is used to deflect molecules that have been allowed to move for the predetermined period of time in accordance with their expansion velocities, from at least one desired portion of the stream, and a stationary collector means is disposed to receive the deflected molecules. The estimated separative work produced from such a unit is about the same or better than that of a modern giant diffuser of similar dimensions. However, with an essentially empty chamber, the unit capital cost as well as the energy required is competitive with any of the well-known methods, mechanical or otherwise

  20. The electron beam diagnostic of the clustered supersonic nitrogen jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Yakovleva, T. S.; Kalyada, V. V.; Zarvin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    Axial and radial distributions of the rotational temperature and density of N2 molecules in supersonic nitrogen jets formed with conic nozzles (critical diameters dcr of 0.17 and 0.21 mm) were studied using the electron beam fluorescence technique at stagnation pressures P0 of 0.1-0.6 MPa. A rotational temperature Tr , equaling a gas temperature Tg owing to fast RT relaxation, was obtained using the rotational line relative intensity distribution in (0-1) vibrational band of the N2 first negative system. Gas density profiles in the jets were obtained using the integral intensity of the band. It is found, Tr at the nozzle outlet is of the order of a few tens of Kelvin and at further expansion Tr drops up to 15-20K at distance of (100-200) dcr . The gas temperature and density distributions in the studied supersonic nitrogen jets are not similar to the isentropic distributions. It is shown that the lower is the stagnation pressure the faster the gas density and temperature decrease with distance from the nozzle. Increase in P0 leads to elevating Tg in the jets. A reason for this effect may be cluster formation in the jets. Estimations of cluster mean sizes in the jets using Hagena’s parameter show presence of large clusters (M≥200) at P0 = 0.4-0.6 MPa.

  1. Steady supersonic rotation in the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.F.; Messer, S.; Case, A.; DeSilva, A.; Elton, R.; Ghosh, J.; Griem, H.; Gupta, D.; Hassam, A.; Lunsford, R.; McLaren, R.; Rodgers, J.; Teodorescu, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) studies enhanced confinement and stability produced by sheared supersonic rotation about a linear confining magnetic field. MCX has a mirror geometry of 2.5 m length, mirror ratio 2-20, maximum mirror field 1.9T, maximum midplane field 0.33T. Biasing of an inner electrode relative to the outer wall produces a radial electric field which drives azimuthal rotation. MCX has achieved high density (n>10 20 m -3 ) fully ionized plasmas rotating supersonically with velocities of ∼100 km/sec for times exceeding 8 ms under a wide range of conditions. Ion temperatures are 30 eV and confinement times ∼100 microseconds. Sonic Mach numbers are 1-2 and Alfven Mach numbers somewhat less than 0.5 for standard discharges. Plasmas remain grossly stable, or steady, for many milliseconds, much longer than MHD instability timescales for MCX, though significant magnetic fluctuations are clearly seen on magnetic probes. Recently MCX has demonstrated an enhanced mode of operation with sonic Mach numbers greater than 3, confinement times of several hundred microseconds and Alfven Mach numbers near one. (author)

  2. Supersonic liquid jets: Their generation and shock wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, K.; Zakrzewski, S.; Behnia, M.; Milton, B. E.

    The generation of high-speed liquid (water and diesel fuel) jets in the supersonic range using a vertical single-stage powder gun is described. The effect of projectile velocity and mass on the jet velocity is investigated experimentally. Jet exit velocities for a set of nozzle inner profiles (e.g. straight cone with different cone angles, exponential, hyperbolic etc.) are compared. The optimum condition to achieve the maximum jet velocity and hence better atomization and mixing is then determined. The visual images of supersonic diesel fuel jets (velocity about 2000 m/s) were obtained by the shadowgraph method. This provides better understanding of each stage of the generation of the jets and makes the study of their characteristics and the potential for auto-ignition possible. In the experiments, a pressure relief section has been used to minimize the compressed air wave ahead of the projectile. To clarify the processes inside the section, additional experiments have been performed with the use of the shadowgraph method, showing the projectile travelling inside and leaving the pressure relief section at a velocity of about 1100 m/s.

  3. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  4. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  5. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  6. A Level-set based framework for viscous simulation of particle-laden supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pratik; Sen, Oishik; Jacobs, Gustaaf; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Particle-laden supersonic flows are important in natural and industrial processes, such as, volcanic eruptions, explosions, pneumatic conveyance of particle in material processing etc. Numerical study of such high-speed particle laden flows at the mesoscale calls for a numerical framework which allows simulation of supersonic flow around multiple moving solid objects. Only a few efforts have been made toward development of numerical frameworks for viscous simulation of particle-fluid interaction in supersonic flow regime. The current work presents a Cartesian grid based sharp-interface method for viscous simulations of interaction between supersonic flow with moving rigid particles. The no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the solid-fluid interfaces using a modified ghost fluid method (GFM). The current method is validated against the similarity solution of compressible boundary layer over flat-plate and benchmark numerical solution for steady supersonic flow over cylinder. Further validation is carried out against benchmark numerical results for shock induced lift-off of a cylinder in a shock tube. 3D simulation of steady supersonic flow over sphere is performed to compare the numerically obtained drag co-efficient with experimental results. A particle-resolved viscous simulation of shock interaction with a cloud of particles is performed to demonstrate that the current method is suitable for large-scale particle resolved simulations of particle-laden supersonic flows.

  7. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  8. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  9. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  10. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  11. Wind of opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK)

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Radiative forcing from particle emissions by future supersonic aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pitari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on the direct radiative forcing (RF of black carbon (BC and sulphuric acid particles emitted by future supersonic aircraft, as well as on the ozone RF due to changes produced by emissions of both gas species (NOx, H2O and aerosol particles capable of affecting stratospheric ozone chemistry. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surface of sulphuric acid stratospheric particles (SSA-SAD are the main link between ozone chemistry and supersonic aircraft emissions of sulphur precursors (SO2 and particles (H2O–H2SO4. Photochemical O3 changes are compared from four independent 3-D atmosphere-chemistry models (ACMs, using as input the perturbation of SSA-SAD calculated in the University of L'Aquila model, which includes on-line a microphysics code for aerosol formation and growth. The ACMs in this study use aircraft emission scenarios for the year 2050 developed by AIRBUS as a part of the EU project SCENIC, assessing options for fleet size, engine technology (NOx emission index, Mach number, range and cruising altitude. From our baseline modeling simulation, the impact of supersonic aircraft on sulphuric acid aerosol and BC mass burdens is 53 and 1.5 μg/m2, respectively, with a direct RF of −11.4 and 4.6 mW/m2 (net RF=−6.8 mW/m2. This paper discusses the similarities and differences amongst the participating models in terms of changes to O3 precursors due to aircraft emissions (NOx, HOx,Clx,Brx and the stratospheric ozone sensitivity to them. In the baseline case, the calculated global ozone change is −0.4 ±0.3 DU, with a net radiative forcing (IR+UV of −2.5± 2 mW/m2. The fraction of this O3-RF attributable to SSA-SAD changes is, however, highly variable among the models, depending on the NOx removal

  14. Effect of Alfvenic fluctuations on the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, T.H.

    1974-01-01

    The major source of microscale fluctuations in the interplanetary medium due to the outwardly propagating Alfven waves is considered. The effect of the Alfven waves on the supersonic expansion of the solar wind is studied under the assumption that the motion of the interplanetary medium can be resolved physically into a comparatively smooth and slowly varying mesoscale flow and field with very irregular disordered incompressible microscale Alfvenic fluctuations superposed on it. The important features of the solar wind such as heat conduction flux, spiral interplanetary magnetic field, and proton thermal anisotropy are included in the theory. For inviscid, steady state, spherically symmetrical model of the solar wind, the two-fluid formulation of the background mesoscale MHD equations is obtained. The results show that during the expansion process, fluctuation energy is converted into the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Due to the presence of the Alfvenic fluctuations, the velocity of the solar wind is about 5 percent higher than that without considering the fluctuations. (U.S.)

  15. Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlfing, E.A.; Cox, D.M.; Kaldor, A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser vaporization of a substrate within the throat of a pulsed nozzle is used to generate a supersonic beam of carbon clusters. The neutral cluster beam is probed downstream by UV laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis of the resulting photoions. Using graphite as the substrate, carbon clusters C/sub n/ for n = 1--190 have been produced having a distinctly bimodal cluster size distribution: (i) Both even and odd clusters for C/sub n/, 1 + /sub n/ signals are interpreted on the basis of cluster formation and stability arguments. Ionizing laser power dependences taken at several different photon energies are used to roughly bracket the carbon cluster ionization potentials, and, at high laser intensity, to observe the onset of multiphoton fragmentation. By treating the graphite rod with KOH, a greatly altered carbon cluster distribution with mixed carbon/potassium clusters of formula K 2 C/sub 2n/ is produced

  16. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  17. Supersonic Molecular Beam Optical Stark Spectroscopy of MnH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengler, Jamie; Ma, Tongmei; Harrison, Jeremy; Steimle, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The large moment of inertia, large magnetic moment, and possible large permanent electric dipole moment of manganese monohydride, MnH, makes it a prime candidate for ultra-cold molecule production via Stark deceleration and magnetic trapping. Here we report the first molecular beam production of MnH and the analysis of the Stark effect in the (0,0) A^7 π -- X^ 7σ^+ band. The sample was prepared by laser ablation of solid Mn in an H2 supersonic expansion. The low rotational temperature (MnH and the analysis of T.D. Varberg, J.A. Gray, R.W. Field, and A.J. Merer, J. Mol. Spec. 156, 296-318 (1992). I.E. Gordon, D.R.T. Appadoo, A. Shayesteh, K.A. Walker, and P.F. Bernath, J. Mol. Spec., 229, 145-149 (2005).

  18. Supersonic jets of hydrogen and helium for laser wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, K.; Wojda, F.; Senje, L.; Burza, M.; Aurand, B.; Genoud, G.; Persson, A.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Lundh, O.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of laser wakefield accelerated electrons in supersonic gas flows of hydrogen and helium are investigated. At identical backing pressure, we find that electron beams emerging from helium show large variations in their spectral and spatial distributions, whereas electron beams accelerated in hydrogen plasmas show a higher degree of reproducibility. In an experimental investigation of the relation between neutral gas density and backing pressure, it is found that the resulting number density for helium is ∼30% higher than for hydrogen at the same backing pressure. The observed differences in electron beam properties between the two gases can thus be explained by differences in plasma electron density. This interpretation is verified by repeating the laser wakefield acceleration experiment using similar plasma electron densities for the two gases, which then yielded electron beams with similar properties.

  19. Supersonic Love waves in strong piezoelectrics of symmetry mm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.

    2001-01-01

    A study has been made of the Love wave propagation on piezoelectric substrates of symmetry mm2. It has been shown that under certain conditions the velocity of the Love wave exceeds that of shear horizontal (SH) bulk waves in the substrate. This occurs when the slowness curve of SH bulk waves in the substrate either has a concavity or is convex with nearly zero curvature. For such 'supersonic' Love waves to appear, it is also required that the substrate as well as the layer be specially oriented and that their material constants fulfill a number of inequalities. Numerical computations have been carried out for a number of structures. The results of numerical computations have been compared with approximate analytical estimations. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  1. Variable geometry for supersonic mixed-compression inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A.; Smeltzer, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    Study of two-dimensional and axisymmetric supersonic mixed-compression inlet systems has shown that the geometry of both systems can be varied to provide adequate transonic airflow to satisfy the airflow demand of most jet engines. Collapsing geometry systems for both types of inlet systems provide a generous amount of transonic airflow for any design Mach number inlet system. However, the mechanical practicality of collapsing centerbodies for axisymmetric inlet systems is doubtful. Therefore, translating centerbody axisymmetric inlets with auxiliary airflow systems to augment the transonic airflow capability are an attractive alternative. Estimates show that the capture mass-flow ratio at Mach number 1.0 can be increased approximately 0.20 for a very short axisymmetric inlet system designed for Mach number 2.37. With this increase in mass-flow ratio, even variable-cycle engine transonic airflow demand can be matched without oversizing the inlet at the design Mach number.

  2. Prediction of Mass Flow Rate in Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mass flow rate of natural gas through the supersonic separator was numerically calculated by various cubic equations of state. The numerical results show that the compressibility factor and specific heat ratio for ideal gas law diverge remarkably from real gas models at a high inlet pressure. Simultaneously, the deviation of mass flow calculated by the ideal and real gas models reaches over 10 %. The difference increases with the lower of the inlet temperature regardless of the inlet pressure. A higher back pressure results in an earlier location of the shock wave. The pressure ratio of 0.72 is the first threshold to get the separator work normally. The second threshold is 0.95, in which case the whole flow is subsonic and cannot reach the choked state. The shock position moves upstream with the real gas model compared to the ideal gas law in the cyclonic separation section.

  3. Supersonic jets of hydrogen and helium for laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Svensson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of laser wakefield accelerated electrons in supersonic gas flows of hydrogen and helium are investigated. At identical backing pressure, we find that electron beams emerging from helium show large variations in their spectral and spatial distributions, whereas electron beams accelerated in hydrogen plasmas show a higher degree of reproducibility. In an experimental investigation of the relation between neutral gas density and backing pressure, it is found that the resulting number density for helium is ∼30% higher than for hydrogen at the same backing pressure. The observed differences in electron beam properties between the two gases can thus be explained by differences in plasma electron density. This interpretation is verified by repeating the laser wakefield acceleration experiment using similar plasma electron densities for the two gases, which then yielded electron beams with similar properties.

  4. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  5. An efficient unstructured WENO method for supersonic reactive flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Geng; Zheng, Hong-Wei; Liu, Feng-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Tian; Gao, Jun; Hu, Ning; Lv, Meng; Chen, Si-Cong; Zhao, Hong-Da

    2018-03-01

    An efficient high-order numerical method for supersonic reactive flows is proposed in this article. The reactive source term and convection term are solved separately by splitting scheme. In the reaction step, an adaptive time-step method is presented, which can improve the efficiency greatly. In the convection step, a third-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) method is adopted to reconstruct the solution in the unstructured grids. Numerical results show that our new method can capture the correct propagation speed of the detonation wave exactly even in coarse grids, while high order accuracy can be achieved in the smooth region. In addition, the proposed adaptive splitting method can reduce the computational cost greatly compared with the traditional splitting method.

  6. Plasma-enhanced mixing and flameholding in supersonic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Alexander; Savelkin, Konstantin V; Yarantsev, Dmitry A; Leonov, Sergey B

    2015-08-13

    The results of experimental study of plasma-based mixing, ignition and flameholding in a supersonic model combustor are presented in the paper. The model combustor has a length of 600 mm and cross section of 72 mm width and 60 mm height. The fuel is directly injected into supersonic airflow (Mach number M=2, static pressure P(st)=160-250 Torr) through wall orifices. Two series of tests are focused on flameholding and mixing correspondingly. In the first series, the near-surface quasi-DC electrical discharge is generated by flush-mounted electrodes at electrical power deposition of W(pl)=3-24 kW. The scope includes parametric study of ignition and flame front dynamics, and comparison of three schemes of plasma generation: the first and the second layouts examine the location of plasma generators upstream and downstream from the fuel injectors. The third pattern follows a novel approach of combined mixing/ignition technique, where the electrical discharge distributes along the fuel jet. The last pattern demonstrates a significant advantage in terms of flameholding limit. In the second series of tests, a long discharge of submicrosecond duration is generated across the flow and along the fuel jet. A gasdynamic instability of thermal cavity developed after a deposition of high-power density in a thin plasma filament promotes the air-fuel mixing. The technique studied in this work has weighty potential for high-speed combustion applications, including cold start/restart of scramjet engines and support of transition regime in dual-mode scramjet and at off-design operation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Supersonic flows past an obstacle in Yukawa liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, Harish; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2018-04-01

    Shock formation, when a supersonic flow passes a stationary obstacle, is ubiquitous in nature. Considering particles mediating via a Yukawa-type interaction as a prototype for a strongly coupled complex plasma, characterized by coupling strength (Γ, ratio of the average potential to kinetic energy per particle) and screening parameter (κ, ratio of the mean inter-particle distance to the shielding length), we address the fundamental problem of supersonic fluid flow U0, past a stationary obstacle immersed in this strongly coupled system. We here report the results on the bow shocks formed in Yukawa liquids when the liquid flows at speeds larger than the speed of sound in the system. Depending on the values of Mach number MC L=U/0 CL , where CL is the longitudinal speed of sound in the system, the bow shocks are found to be either traveling or localized. We find that for the transonic flows (0.8 ≲ MC L≲ 1.2), the bow shocks travel in the upstream direction opposite to the incoming fluid. The phase velocity of the traveling bow shocks is found to be a non-monotonous function of κ, varying as ∝1 /k1.11 at a fixed value of Γ, and is found to be independent of Γ at a fixed value of κ. It is observed that for the flow values with MC L>1.5 , the shock waves do not travel in the upstream direction but instead form a stationary arc like structure around the obstacle. For the fluid flows with 1 ≲ MC L≲ 2.6 , secondary bow shocks are seen to emerge behind the stationary obstacle which travel in the downstream direction, and the phase velocity of these secondary bow shocks is found to be equal to that of the primary bow shocks.

  8. Potential efficiencies of open- and closed-cycle CO, supersonic, electric-discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Computed open- and closed-cycle system efficiencies (laser power output divided by electrical power input) are presented for a CW carbon monoxide, supersonic, electric-discharge laser. Closed-system results include the compressor power required to overcome stagnation pressure losses due to supersonic heat addition and a supersonic diffuser. The paper shows the effect on the system efficiencies of varying several important parameters. These parameters include: gas mixture, gas temperature, gas total temperature, gas density, total discharge energy loading, discharge efficiency, saturated gain coefficient, optical cavity size and location with respect to the discharge, and supersonic diffuser efficiency. Maximum open-cycle efficiency of 80-90% is predicted; the best closed-cycle result is 60-70%.

  9. Efficient solutions to the Euler equations for supersonic flow with embedded subsonic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Robert W.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    1987-01-01

    A line Gauss-Seidel (LGS) relaxation algorithm in conjunction with a one-parameter family of upwind discretizations of the Euler equations in two dimensions is described. Convergence of the basic algorithm to the steady state is quadratic for fully supersonic flows and is linear for other flows. This is in contrast to the block alternating direction implicit methods (either central or upwind differenced) and the upwind biased relaxation schemes, all of which converge linearly, independent of the flow regime. Moreover, the algorithm presented herein is easily coupled with methods to detect regions of subsonic flow embedded in supersonic flow. This allows marching by lines in the supersonic regions, converging each line quadratically, and iterating in the subsonic regions, and yields a very efficient iteration strategy. Numerical results are presented for two-dimensional supersonic and transonic flows containing oblique and normal shock waves which confirm the efficiency of the iteration strategy.

  10. Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of...

  11. Energy-Deposition to Reduce Skin Friction in Supersonic Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has drawn attention to an impending need to improve energy-efficiency in low supersonic (M<~3) platforms. Aerodynamic efficiency is the foundation of...

  12. An experimental study of the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Bae; Lee, Jun Hee; Woo, Sun Hoon; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2002-01-01

    The impinging supersonic jets have been applied for rocket launching system, thrust control, gas turbine blade cooling, etc. Recently the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets are being extensively used in many diverse fields of industrial processes since they lead to more improved performance, compared with the conventional supersonic jets impinging on an object. In the present study, experimentation is carried out to investigate the supersonic, dual, coaxial jets impinging on an inclined flat plate. A convergent-divergent nozzle with a design Mach number of 2.0 and annular sonic nozzle are used to make the dual, coaxial jet flows. The angle of the impinging flat plate is varied from 30 .deg. to 60 .deg. and the distance between the dual coaxial nozzle and flat plate is also varied. Detailed pressures on the impinging plate are measured to analyze the flow fields, which are also visualized using Schlieren optical method

  13. A Comparison of Prominent LES Combustion Models for Nonpremixed Supersonic Combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capability of accurately simulating supersonic combustion is a vital topic for designing and advancing hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. As a consequence, there...

  14. Pulsed molecular beams: A lower limit on pulse duration for fully developed supersonic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    We derive an expression for Δt/sub min/, the mimimum pulse duration (''valve open time'') required if a pulsed nozzle is to produce a supersonic beam comparably ''cold'' to that obtained from a continuous source

  15. Sub-scale Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Facility (Research Cell 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: RC18 is a continuous-flow, direct-connect, supersonic-combustion research facility that is capable of simulating flight conditions from Mach 3.0 to Mach...

  16. Zeroth-order flutter prediction for cantilevered plates in supersonic flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meijer, M-C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An aeroelastic prediction framework in MATLAB with modularity in the quasi-steady aerodynamic methodology is developed. Local piston theory (LPT) is integrated with quasi-steady methods including shock-expansion theory and the Supersonic Hypersonic...

  17. Supersonic particle in a low damped complex plasma under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, E.; Zhdanov, S.; Schwabe, M.; Mohr, D. P.; Knapek, C. A.; Huber, P.; Semenov, I.; Thomas, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the diagnostics of a complex plasma cloud recorded in experiments performed in the framework of the Ekoplasma project. A supersonic extra particle is used as a probe of the cloud dynamics. A fine-structured Mach cone behind the supersonic particle is observed. We investigate the spatial and temporal development of the Mach cone with a computer based measurement to determine the speed of sound of the particle cloud. Also time and position dependent characteristics of the velocity field are recorded.

  18. The Intensity of the Light Diffraction by Supersonic Longitudinal Waves in Solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available First, we predict existence of transverse electromagnetic field created by supersonic longitudinal waves in solid. This electromagnetic wave with frequency of ultrasonic field is moved by velocity of supersonic field toward of direction propagation of one. The average Poynting vector of superposition field is calculated by presence of the transverse electromagnetic and the optical fields which in turn provides appearance the diffraction of light.

  19. Confinement of plasma along shaped open magnetic fields from the centrifugal force of supersonic plasma rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, C; Young, W C; Swan, G W S; Ellis, R F; Hassam, A B; Romero-Talamas, C A

    2010-08-20

    Interferometric density measurements in plasmas rotating in shaped, open magnetic fields demonstrate strong confinement of plasma parallel to the magnetic field, with density drops of more than a factor of 10. Taken together with spectroscopic measurements of supersonic E × B rotation of sonic Mach 2, these measurements are in agreement with ideal MHD theory which predicts large parallel pressure drops balanced by centrifugal forces in supersonically rotating plasmas.

  20. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  1. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  2. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWmargin-left: -1.3em; margin-right: .5em; vertical-align: -15%; font-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2. A reduced supersonic cruise

  3. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet ─ results from the EU-project SCENIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S.A. Isaksen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level, cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 mWm2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 mWm2. A reduced supersonic cruise altitude or speed (from Mach 2 to Mach 1.6 reduces both, climate impact and ozone destruction, by around 40%. An increase in the range of the supersonic aircraft leads to

  4. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneghem, A.E. von

    1975-07-24

    The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples.

  5. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  6. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  7. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; hide

    2015-01-01

    significant fidelity to the design of the configuration in this phase by performing a low speed wind tunnel test at our LTWT facility in Palmdale, by more complete modelling of propulsion effects in our sonic boom analysis, and by refining our configuration packaging and performance assessments. Working with General Electric, LM performed an assessment of the impact of inlet and nozzle effects on the sonic boom signature of the LM N+2 configurations. Our results indicate that inlet/exhaust streamtube boundary conditions are adequate for conceptual design studies, but realistic propulsion modeling at similar stream-tube conditions does have a small but measurable impact on the sonic boom signature. Previous supersonic transport studies have identified aeroelastic effects as one of the major challenges associated with the long, slender vehicles particularly common with shaped boom aircraft (Ref. 3). Under the Phase 2 effort, we have developed a detailed structural analysis model to evaluate the impact of flexibility and structural considerations on the feasibility of future quiet supersonic transports. We looked in particular at dynamic structural modes and flutter as a failure that must be avoided. We found that for our N+2 design in particular, adequate flutter margin existed. Our flutter margin is large enough to cover uncertainties like large increases in engine weight and the margin is relatively easy to increase with additional stiffening mass. The lack of major aeroelastic problems probably derives somewhat from an early design bias. While shaped boom aircraft require long length, they are not required to be thin. We intentionally developed our structural depths to avoid major flexibility problems. So at the end of Phase 2, we have validated that aeroelastic problems are not necessarily endemic to shaped boom designs. Experimental validation of sonic boom design and analysis techniques was the primary objective of the N+2 Supersonic Validations contract; and in this

  8. Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation

    KAUST Repository

    Mudford, Neil R.; O'Byrne, Sean B.; Neely, Andrew J.; Buttsworth, David R.; Balage, Sudantha

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.

  9. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  10. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  11. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  12. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  13. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC...

  14. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC...

  15. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  16. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  17. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  18. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  19. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  20. Experimental study on axisymmetric air intake for the supersonic transport; choonsokukiyo jikutaishogata air intake no jikken kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, I. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kojima, T.; Kobayashi, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-05

    Mixed-compression type axisymmetric air intakes for ATREX engine have been tested in the supersonic wind tunnel from Mach 0.5 to 4 since 1993. The throat area of the intake can be variable with a translating center spike to accomplish starting and off-design operation since the ATREX intake must work well over the wide flight Mach number up to 6. Here are presented effects of the intake design Mach number, the air bleed from a center spike and/or a cowl around the throat, an angle of attack and blunt nose of the spike on the intake performance characteristics, that is total pressure recovery and mass capture ratio. It is found that bleeding from the center spike and the cowl influences mainly on total pressure recovery and mass capture ratio respectively. The advantage of rounding properly off the spike nose is confirmed. Small center spike cone angle and/or blunt nose is sensitive to the angle of attack. (author)

  1. Wind bubbles within H ii regions around slowly moving stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Mohamed, Shazrene; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar bubbles around O stars are driven by a combination of the star's wind and ionizing radiation output. The wind contribution is uncertain because the boundary between the wind and interstellar medium is difficult to observe. Mid-infrared observations (e.g., of the H ii region RCW 120) show arcs of dust emission around O stars, contained well within the H ii region bubble. These arcs could indicate the edge of an asymmetric stellar wind bubble, distorted by density gradients and/or stellar motion. We present two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations investigating the evolution of wind bubbles and H ii regions around massive stars moving through a dense (nH = 3000 cm-3), uniform medium with velocities ranging from 4 to 16 km s-1. The H ii region morphology is strongly affected by stellar motion, as expected, but the wind bubble is also very aspherical from birth, even for the lowest space velocity considered. Wind bubbles do not fill their H ii regions (we find filling factors of 10-20 per cent), at least for a main sequence star with mass M⋆ ~ 30 M⊙. Furthermore, even for supersonic velocities the wind bow shock does not significantly trap the ionization front. X-ray emission from the wind bubble is soft, faint, and comes mainly from the turbulent mixing layer between the wind bubble and the H ii region. The wind bubble radiates <1 per cent of its energy in X-rays; it loses most of its energy by turbulent mixing with cooler photoionized gas. Comparison of the simulations with the H ii region RCW 120 shows that its dynamical age is ≲0.4 Myr and that stellar motion ≲4 km s-1 is allowed, implying that the ionizing source is unlikely to be a runaway star but more likely formed in situ. The region's youth, and apparent isolation from other O or B stars, makes it very interesting for studies of massive star formation and of initial mass functions. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Numerical Simulation of Hydrogen Air Supersonic Coaxial Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, Pulinbehari; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the turbulent structure of coaxial supersonic H2-air jet is explored numerically by solving three dimensional RANS equations along with two equation k-ɛ turbulence model. Grid independence of the solution is demonstrated by estimating the error distribution using Grid Convergence Index. Distributions of flow parameters in different planes are analyzed to explain the mixing and combustion characteristics of high speed coaxial jets. The flow field is seen mostly diffusive in nature and hydrogen diffusion is confined to core region of the jet. Both single step laminar finite rate chemistry and turbulent reacting calculation employing EDM combustion model are performed to find the effect of turbulence-chemistry interaction in the flow field. Laminar reaction predicts higher H2 mol fraction compared to turbulent reaction because of lower reaction rate caused by turbulence chemistry interaction. Profiles of major species and temperature match well with experimental data at different axial locations; although, the computed profiles show a narrower shape in the far field region. These results demonstrate that standard two equation class turbulence model with single step kinetics based turbulence chemistry interaction can describe H2-air reaction adequately in high speed flows.

  3. Spectroscopic validation of the supersonic plasma jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, S.E.; Sember, V.; Gravelle, D.V.; Boulos, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy is applied to validate numerical simulations of supersonic plasma flow generated by induction torch with a convergent-divergent nozzle. The plasmas exhausting from the discharge tube with the pressure 0.4-1.4 atm. through two nozzle configurations (the outlet Mach number equals 1.5 and 3) into low-pressure (1.8 kPa) chamber are compared. Both modelling and experiments show that the effect of the nozzle geometry on physical properties of plasma jet is significant. The profiles of electron number density obtained from modeling and spectroscopy agree well and show the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Analysis of intercoupling between different sorts of nonequilibrium processes is performed. The results reveal that the ion recombination is more essential in the nozzle with the higher outlet number than in the nozzle with the lower outlet number. It is demonstrated that in the jets the axial electron temperature is quite low (3000-8000 K). For spectroscopic data interpretation we propose a method based on the definition of two excitation temperatures. We suppose that in mildly under expanded argon jets with frozen ion recombination the electron temperature can be defined by the electronic transitions from level 5p (the energy E=14.5 eV) to level 4p (E=13.116 eV). The obtained results are useful for the optimization of plasma reactors for plasma chemistry and plasma processing applications. (author)

  4. The surface roughness effect on the performance of supersonic ejectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, D. V.; Aronson, K. E.; Mazzelli, F.; Milazzo, A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation results of the surface roughness influence on gas-dynamic processes inside flow parts of a supersonic ejector. These simulations are performed using two commercial CFD solvers (Star- CCM+ and Fluent). The results are compared to each other and verified by a full-scale experiment in terms of global flow parameters (the entrainment ratio: the ratio between secondary to primary mass flow rate - ER hereafter) and local flow parameters distribution (the static pressure distribution along the mixing chamber and diffuser walls). A detailed comparative study of the employed methods and approaches in both CFD packages is carried out in order to estimate the roughness effect on the logarithmic law velocity distribution inside the boundary layer. Influence of the surface roughness is compared with the influence of the backpressure (static pressure at the ejector outlet). It has been found out that increasing either the ejector backpressure or the surface roughness height, the shock position displaces upstream. Moreover, the numerical simulation results of an ejector with rough walls in the both CFD solvers are well quantitatively agreed with each other in terms of the mean ER and well qualitatively agree in terms of the local flow parameters distribution. It is found out that in the case of exceeding the "critical roughness height" for the given boundary conditions and ejector's geometry, the ejector switches to the "off-design" mode and its performance decreases considerably.

  5. Aerodynamics characteristic of axisymmetric surface protuberance in supersonic regime

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Sanghi, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the problem of an axi-symmetric surface protuberance mounted on a spherical nosed body of revolution. The numerical computations are carried out for laminar supersonic viscous flow for trapezoidal shape axi-symmetric protuberances. A free stream Mach number ranging from 3 to 8 in steps of 1 at a fixed free stream Reynolds number of 1.8x10(4) has been used in the present study. The steady solutions are obtained using a time marching approach. A newly developed Particle Velocity Upwinding (PVU) scheme has been used for the computation. The spatial flow pattern exhibits a strong bow shock in front of the hemispherical nose, which engulfs the entire base body. Near the protuberance, the fluid particle decelerates due to the adverse pressure created by the protuberance and thus the flow separates in front of the protuberance. This point of separation is found to be a function of Mach number and the protuberance shape. A low-pressure expansion region dominates the base region of the obstacle. The reattachment point for the base separation is also a function of Mach number. As the Mach number is increased the reattachment point shifts toward the protuberances base. A weak recompression shock is also seen in the base, which affects the separated zone behind the protuberance. The important design parameters such as skin friction, heat transfer, drag, and surface pressure coefficients are reported extensively.

  6. Role of coherent structures in supersonic impinging jetsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajan; Wiley, Alex; Venkatakrishnan, L.; Alvi, Farrukh

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a study examining the flow field and acoustic characteristics of a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded supersonic jet impinging on a flat surface and its control using steady microjets. Emphasis is placed on two conditions of nozzle to plate distances (h/d), of which one corresponds to where the microjet based active flow control is very effective in reducing flow unsteadiness and near-field acoustics and the other has minimal effectiveness. Measurements include unsteady pressures, nearfield acoustics using microphone and particle image velocimetry. The nearfield noise and unsteady pressure spectra at both h/d show discrete high amplitude impinging tones, which in one case (h/d = 4) are significantly reduced with control but in the other case (h/d = 4.5) remain unaffected. The particle image velocimetry measurements, both time-averaged and phase-averaged, were used to better understand the basic characteristics of the impinging jet flow field especially the role of coherent vortical structures in the noise generation and control. The results show that the flow field corresponding to the case of least control effectiveness comprise well defined, coherent, and symmetrical vortical structures and may require higher levels of microjet pressure supply for noise suppression when compared to the flow field more responsive to control (h/d = 4) which shows less organized, competing (symmetrical and helical) instabilities.

  7. Trend of supersonic aircraft engine. Choonsokukiyo engine no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashima, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    The present paper explained the R and D trend of supersonic aircraft engine in Europe, USA and Japan. Taking the high speed flight resistance into consideration, the engine must be characterized by its high exhaust gas speed and high specific thrust (ratio of thrust to the airflow rate) to secure strong thrust by a low airflow rate. Therefore, the turbojet is appropriate. However to reduce the fuel consumption during the cruising flight, the turbofan is normally used with a low by-pass ratio of 0.2 to 0.9. The thrust-to-weight ratio (thrust per unit weight) of low by-pass ratio turbofan engine equipped with afterburner is 7 to 8 in case of stronger thrust than 70kN. Its target value of development is 10. The specific thrust which is a performance parameter of engine exceeds 120s for the fighter engine and is about 30s for the passenger plane engine. The turbine inlet temperature is 2073K at the stage of element research. The overall pressure ratio ranges from 25 to 30. The reheating turbofan engine experimentally built for the research in Japan is 34kN in thrust and 7 in thrust-to-weight ratio. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  8. A new Lagrangian method for real gases at supersonic speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, C. Y.; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1992-01-01

    With the renewed interest in high speed flights, the real gas effect is of theoretical as well as practical importance. In the past decade, upwind splittings or Godunov-type Riemann solutions have received tremendous attention and as a result significant progress has been made both in the ideal and non-ideal gas. In this paper, we propose a new approach that is formulated using the Lagrangian description, for the calculation of supersonic/hypersonic real gas inviscid flows. This new formulation avoids the grid generation step which is automatically obtained as the solution procedure marches in the 'time-like' direction. As a result, no remapping is required and the accuracy is faithfully maintained in the Lagrangian level. In this paper, we give numerical results for a variety of real gas problems consisting of essential elements in high speed flows, such as shock waves, expansion waves, slip surfaces and their interactions. Finally, calculations for flows in a generic inlet and nozzle are presented.

  9. Preliminary Design Optimization For A Supersonic Turbine For Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei; Griffin, Lisa; Huber, Frank; Tran, Ken; McConnaughey, Helen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for optimizing, at the preliminary design level, a supersonic turbine for rocket propulsion system application. Single-, two- and three-stage turbines are considered with the number of design variables increasing from 6 to 11 then to 15, in accordance with the number of stages. Due to its global nature and flexibility in handling different types of information, the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied in the present study. A major goal of the present Optimization effort is to balance the desire of maximizing aerodynamic performance and minimizing weight. To ascertain required predictive capability of the RSM, a two-level domain refinement approach has been adopted. The accuracy of the predicted optimal design points based on this strategy is shown to he satisfactory. Our investigation indicates that the efficiency rises quickly from single stage to 2 stages but that the increase is much less pronounced with 3 stages. A 1-stage turbine performs poorly under the engine balance boundary condition. A portion of fluid kinetic energy is lost at the turbine discharge of the 1-stage design due to high stage pressure ratio and high-energy content, mostly hydrogen, of the working fluid. Regarding the optimization technique, issues related to the design of experiments (DOE) has also been investigated. It is demonstrated that the criteria for selecting the data base exhibit significant impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the construction of the response surface.

  10. Diagnosis for the interaction of supersonic molecular beam with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Feng Beibing; Feng Zhen; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Yan Longwen; Hong Wenyu

    2001-01-01

    Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) is a new fuelling method for Tokamaks and has recently been improved to enhance the flux of the beam and to make a survey of the cluster effect within the beam. There are a series of new phenomena, which implicate the interaction of the beam (including clusters) with the toroidal plasma of HL-1M Tokamak. The H α signals from the edge show a regular variation around the torus. Around the injection port, the edge H α signals are positive rectangular wave, which is consistent with that of the injection beam pulses. The edge electron temperature, measured with movable Langmuir probes, decreases by an order of magnitude and the density increases by an order of magnitude. H α emission at the beam injection port, measured with CCD camera at an angle of 13.4 degrees to the SMBI line, shows many separate peaks within the contour plot. These peaks may show the strong emission produced by the interaction of the hydrogen clusters with the plasma. Hydrogen clusters may be produced in the beam according to the empirical scaling (Hagena) law of clustering onset, Γ* = kd 0.85 P 0 /T 0 2.29 , here d is the nozzle diameter in μm, P 0 the stagnation pressure in mbar, T 0 the source temperature in K, and k is a constant related to the gas species. If Γ* > 100, clusters will be formed. In present experiment Γ* is about 127

  11. On the shock cell structure and noise of supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Jackson, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A linear solution modeling the shock cell structure of an axisymmetric supersonic jet operated at off-design conditions is developed by the method of multiple-scales. The model solution takes into account the gradual spatial change of the mean flow in the downstream direction. Turbulence in the mixing layer of the jet has the tendency of smoothing out the sharp velocity and density gradients induced by the shocks. To simulate this effect, eddy viscosity terms are incorporated in the model. It is known that the interaction between the quasi-periodic shock cells and the downstream propagating large turbulence structures in the mixing layer of the jet is responsible for the generation of broadband shock associated noise. Experimentally, the dominant part of this noise has been found to originate from the part of the jet near the end of the potential core. Calculated shock cell spacing at the end of the jet core according to the present model is used to estimate the peak frequencies of the shock associated noise for a range of observation angles. Very favorable agreement with experimental measurements is found.

  12. Shear layer characteristics of supersonic free and impinging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. B.; Kumar, R.

    2015-09-01

    The initial shear layer characteristics of a jet play an important role in the initiation and development of instabilities and hence radiated noise. Particle image velocimetry has been utilized to study the initial shear layer development of supersonic free and impinging jets. Microjet control employed to reduce flow unsteadiness and jet noise appears to affect the development of the shear layer, particularly near the nozzle exit. Velocity field measurements near the nozzle exit show that the initially thin, uncontrolled shear layer develops at a constant rate while microjet control is characterized by a rapid nonlinear thickening that asymptotes downstream. The shear layer linear growth rate with microjet control, in both the free and the impinging jet, is diminished. In addition, the thickened shear layer with control leads to a reduction in azimuthal vorticity for both free and impinging jets. Linear stability theory is used to compute unstable growth rates and convection velocities of the resultant velocity profiles. The results show that while the convection velocity is largely unaffected, the unstable growth rates are significantly reduced over all frequencies with microjet injection. For the case of the impinging jet, microjet control leads to near elimination of the impingement tones and an appreciable reduction in broadband levels. Similarly, for the free jet, significant reduction in overall sound pressure levels in the peak radiation direction is observed.

  13. Study on the characteristics of the supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Shibayama, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Steam injector is a passive jet pump which operates without power source or rotating machinery and it has high heat transfer performance due to the direct-contact condensation of supersonic steam flow onto subcooled water jet. It has been considered to be applied to the passive safety system for the next-generation nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to clarify operating mechanisms of the steam injector and to determine the operating ranges. In this study, temperature and velocity distribution in the mixing nozzle as well as flow directional pressure distribution were measured. In addition, flow structure in whole of the injector was observed with high-speed video camera. It was confirmed that there were unsteady interfacial behavior in mixing nozzle which enhanced heat transfer between steam flow and water jet with calculation of heat transfer coefficient. Discharge pressure at diffuser was also estimated with a one-dimensional model proposed previously. Furthermore, it was clarified that steam flow did not condense completely in mixing nozzle and it was two-phase flow in throat and diffuser, which seemed to induce shock wave. From those results, several discussions and suggestions to develop a physical model which predicts the steam injectors operating characteristics are described in this paper

  14. The manipulation of an unstarting supersonic flow by plasma actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, S; Cappelli, M A; Do, H

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of an unstarting supersonic flow is demonstrated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Experiments are carried out in a Mach 4.7 model inlet flow. Flow features, such as boundary layers and shockwaves at low freestream static pressure (1 kPa) and temperature (60 K) are visualized with Rayleigh scattering from condensed CO 2 particles. Flow unstart, initiated by mass injection, is studied for three model inlet flow configurations, distinguished by the initial conditions (untripped or tripped, plasma actuated or not) of the boundary layers. Unstart in the presence of thick, tripped boundary layers is characterized by the formation of an oblique unstart shock just upstream of a separating and propagating boundary layer. The presence of plasma actuation of this tripped boundary layer seems to arrest the boundary layer separation and leads to the formation of a quasi-stationary pseudo-shock, delaying unstart. The flow generated with DBD actuation is more characteristic of what is seen when unstart is generated in a model flow in which thin boundary layers grow naturally. Planar laser Rayleigh scattering visualizations suggest that the DBD actuation thins the tripped boundary layer over the exposed electrode region.

  15. Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, M A; Banks, D W; Garzon, G A; Matisheck, J R

    2015-01-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings. (paper)

  16. Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.

  17. Supersonics/Airport Noise Plan: An Evolutionary Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Plan for the Airport Noise Tech Challenge Area of the Supersonics Project. It is given in the context of strategic planning exercises being done in other Projects to show the strategic aspects of the Airport Noise plan rather than detailed task lists. The essence of this strategic view is the decomposition of the research plan by Concept and by Tools. Tools (computational, experimental) is the description of the plan that resources (such as researchers) most readily identify with, while Concepts (here noise reduction technologies or aircraft configurations) is the aspects that project management and outside reviewers most appreciate as deliverables and milestones. By carefully cross-linking these so that Concepts are addressed sequentially (roughly one after another) by researchers developing/applying their Tools simultaneously (in parallel with one another), the researchers can deliver milestones at a reasonable pace while doing the longer-term development that most Tools in the aeroacoustics science require. An example of this simultaneous application of tools was given for the Concept of High Aspect Ratio Nozzles. The presentation concluded with a few ideas on how this strategic view could be applied to the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Quiet Aircraft Tech Challenge Area as it works through its current roadmapping exercise.

  18. Robust optimization of supersonic ORC nozzle guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufi, Elio A.; Cinnella, Paola

    2017-03-01

    An efficient Robust Optimization (RO) strategy is developed for the design of 2D supersonic Organic Rankine Cycle turbine expanders. The dense gas effects are not-negligible for this application and they are taken into account describing the thermodynamics by means of the Peng-Robinson-Stryjek-Vera equation of state. The design methodology combines an Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) loop based on a Bayesian kriging model of the system response to the uncertain parameters, used to approximate statistics (mean and variance) of the uncertain system output, a CFD solver, and a multi-objective non-dominated sorting algorithm (NSGA), also based on a Kriging surrogate of the multi-objective fitness function, along with an adaptive infill strategy for surrogate enrichment at each generation of the NSGA. The objective functions are the average and variance of the isentropic efficiency. The blade shape is parametrized by means of a Free Form Deformation (FFD) approach. The robust optimal blades are compared to the baseline design (based on the Method of Characteristics) and to a blade obtained by means of a deterministic CFD-based optimization.

  19. LPWA using supersonic gas jet with tailored density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, O.; Bohlen, S.; Dale, J.; D'Arcy, R.; Dinter, M.; Erbe, J. H.; Indorf, G.; di Lucchio, L.; Goldberg, L.; Gruse, J. N.; Karstensen, S.; Libov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marutzky, F.; Niroula, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Quast, M.; Schaper, L.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Streeter, M.; Tauscher, G.; Weichert, S.; Palmer, C.; Horbatiuk, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is possible to provide good access for plasma diagnostics while also producing sharp density gradients for density down-ramp injection. OpenFOAM hydrodynamic simulations were used to investigate the possibility of producing tailored density targets in a supersonic gas jet. Particle-in-cell simulations of the resulting density profiles modelled the effect of the tailored density on the properties of the accelerated electron bunch. Here, we present the simulation results together with preliminary experimental measurements of electron and x-ray properties from LPWA experiments using gas jet targets and a 25 TW, 25 fs Ti:Sa laser system at DESY.

  20. Experimental observations of a complex, supersonic nozzle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark; Ruscher, Christopher; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry; Skytop Turbulence Labs, Syracuse University Team; Spectral Energies, LLC. Team; Air Force Research Laboratory Team

    2015-11-01

    A complex nozzle concept, which fuses multiple canonical flows together, has been experimentally investigated via pressure, schlieren and PIV in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Motivated by future engine designs of high-performance aircraft, the rectangular, supersonic jet under investigation has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet) and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. Operating near a Reynolds number of 3 ×106 , the nozzle architecture creates an intricate flow field comprised of high turbulence levels, shocks, shear & boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. Current data suggest that the wall jet, which is an order of magnitude less energetic than the core, has significant control authority over the acoustic power through some non-linear process. As sound is a direct product of turbulence, experimental and analytical efforts further explore this interesting phenomenon associated with the turbulent flow. The authors acknowledge the funding source, a SBIR Phase II project with Spectral Energies, LLC. and AFRL turbine engine branch under the direction of Dr. Barry Kiel.

  1. Historical review and future perspectives for Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel of IAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista P. Falcão Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel of Institute of Aeronautics and Space (PTT Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel is an important result of a tremendous effort to install a high speed wind tunnel complex (TTS acronyms for Transonic and Supersonic Tunnels, in Portuguese at the IAE, to support Brazilian aerospace research. Its history is described below, starting from the moment the TTS project was first conceived, highlighting each successive phase, mentioning the main difficulties encountered, and the solutions chosen, up until the final installation of the Pilot facility. A brief description of the tunnel's shakedown and calibration phases is also given, together with the present campaigns and proposed activities for the near future.

  2. Solar wind/local interstellar medium interaction including charge exchange with neural hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, H. Louis; Zank, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a hydrodynamic model of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium (LISM), self-consistently taking into account the effects of charge exchange between the plasma component and the interstellar neutrals. The simulation is fully time dependent, and is carried out in two or three dimensions, depending on whether the helio-latitudinal dependence of the solar wind speed and number density (both giving rise to three dimensional effects) are included. As a first approximation it is assumed that the neutral component of the flow can be described by a single, isotropic fluid. Clearly, this is not the actual situation, since charge exchange with the supersonic solar wind plasma in the region of the nose results in a 'second' neutral fluid propagating in the opposite direction as that of the LISM neutrals.

  3. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  4. Active Control Strategies to Optimize Supersonic Fuel-Air Mixing for Combustion Associated with Fully Modulated Transverse Jet in Cross Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghenai, C; Philippidis, G. P; Lin, C. X

    2005-01-01

    ... (subsonic- supersonic) combustion studies. A high-speed imaging system was used for the visualization of pure liquid jet, aerated liquid jet and pulsed aerated jet injection into a supersonic cross flow at Mach number 1.5...

  5. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...

  6. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls

  7. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  8. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  9. Large Eddy simulation of turbulent hydrogen-fuelled supersonic combustion in an air cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, A.; Cecere, D.; Giacomazzi, E.

    2013-09-01

    The main aim of this article is to provide a theoretical understanding of the physics of supersonic mixing and combustion. Research in advanced air-breathing propulsion systems able to push vehicles well beyond is of interest around the world. In a scramjet, the air stream flow captured by the inlet is decelerated but still maintains supersonic conditions. As the residence time is very short , the study of an efficient mixing and combustion is a key issue in the ongoing research on compressible flows. Due to experimental difficulties in measuring complex high-speed unsteady flowfields, the most convenient way to understand unsteady features of supersonic mixing and combustion is to use computational fluid dynamics. This work investigates supersonic combustion physics in the Hyshot II combustion chamber within the Large Eddy simulation framework. The resolution of this turbulent compressible reacting flow requires: (1) highly accurate non-dissipative numerical schemes to properly simulate strong gradients near shock waves and turbulent structures away from these discontinuities; (2) proper modelling of the small subgrid scales for supersonic combustion, including effects from compressibility on mixing and combustion; (3) highly detailed kinetic mechanisms (the Warnatz scheme including 9 species and 38 reactions is adopted) accounting for the formation and recombination of radicals to properly predict flame anchoring. Numerical results reveal the complex topology of the flow under investigation. The importance of baroclinic and dilatational effects on mixing and flame anchoring is evidenced. Moreover, their effects on turbulence-scale generation and the scaling law are analysed.

  10. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  11. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  12. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob

    Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign....

  13. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  14. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  15. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  16. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  17. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  18. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  19. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  20. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  1. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu...

  2. Canadian small wind market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhouse, E.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs.

  3. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  4. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  5. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  6. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  7. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  8. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  9. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  10. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  11. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  12. Pose measurement method and experiments for high-speed rolling targets in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Xin; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wenbo; Li, Xiao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Zhengqu; Cui, Xiaochun

    2014-12-12

    High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  13. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  14. Performance of a CW double electric discharge for supersonic CO lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, A. C.; Hanson, R. K.; Mitchner, M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of a CW double discharge in supersonic CO mixtures are reported. Stable discharges in CO/N2 and CO/Ar mixtures, with a maximum energy loading of 0.5 eV/CO molecule, were achieved in a small-scale continuous-flow supersonic channel. Detailed measurements of the discharge characteristics were performed, including electrostatic probe measurements of floating potential and electron number density and spectroscopic measurements of the CO vibrational population distributions. The results of these measurements indicate that the vibrational excitation efficiency of the discharge is approximately 60%, for moderate levels of main discharge current. These experiments, on a small scale, demonstrate that the double-discharge scheme provides adequate vibrational energy loading for efficient CO laser operation under CW supersonic flow conditions.

  15. High Efficiency Low Cost CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J; Aarnio, M; Grosvenor, A; Taylor, D; Bucher, J

    2010-12-31

    Development and testing results from a supersonic compressor are presented. The compressor achieved record pressure ratio for a fully-supersonic stage and successfully demonstrated the technology potential. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A high-pressure ratio compressor was retrofitted to improve rotordynamics behavior and successfully tested. An outside review panel confirmed test results and design approach. A computational fluid dynamics code used to analyze the Ramgen supersonic flowpath was extensively and successfully modified to improve use on high-performance computing platforms. A comprehensive R&D implementation plan was developed and used to lay the groundwork for a future full-scale compressor demonstration. Conceptual design for a CO2 demonstration compressor was developed and reviewed.

  16. Design and Testing of CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shock Wave Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, Aaron [Seattle Technology Center, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Ramgen and subcontractors in pursuit of the design and construction of a 10 MW supersonic CO2 compressor and supporting facility. The compressor will demonstrate application of Ramgen’s supersonic compression technology at an industrial scale using CO2 in a closed-loop. The report includes details of early feasibility studies, CFD validation and comparison to experimental data, static test experimental results, compressor and facility design and analyses, and development of aerodynamic tools. A summary of Ramgen's ISC Engine program activity is also included. This program will demonstrate the adaptation of Ramgen's supersonic compression and advanced vortex combustion technology to result in a highly efficient and cost effective alternative to traditional gas turbine engines. The build out of a 1.5 MW test facility to support the engine and associated subcomponent test program is summarized.

  17. Manufacturing of a micro-tungsten carbide electrode using a supersonic-aided electrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Feng-Tsai; Ho, Chi-Ting

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a novel micromachining technology for fabricating micro parts was described. The original diameter of a tungsten carbide rod was 3 mm, and it was first processed to a rod with a diameter of 50 µm by a precision-grinding process. It could then be machined to the desired diameter by a supersonic-aided electrolysis process. A high-aspect ratio of the micro-tungsten carbide rod was easily obtained by this process. The surface roughness of the sample that was processed by electrolysis with supersonic-aided agitation was compared with that of the sample obtained without agitation. The machined surface of the sample was smooth, and the reason may be that ionized particles in the anode could be removed by supersonic-aided agitation during the electrolysis process. A microelectrode with a tip of approximately 1 µm could be obtained by this process. (technical note)

  18. Features of the laminar-turbulent transition in supersonic axisymmetric microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Aniskin, V. M.; Mironov, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a supersonic core length of microjets is studied in terms of laminar-turbulent transition in the microjet mixing layer. Previously, it was discovered that this transition has a determining influence on the supersonic core length. A possibility of simulation of microjet flows is estimated through the use of Reynolds number computed by the nozzle diameter and the nozzle exit gas parameters. These experimental data were obtained using Pitot tube when the jets escaping from the nozzle of 0.6 mm into the low-pressure space. This experiment made it possible to achieve a large jet pressure ratio when the Reynolds number values were low which specify the microjets' behavior. The supersonic core length, phase of the laminar-turbulent transition and flow characteristics in the space are obtained. Such an approach provides simulation of the characteristics of microjets and macrojets, and also explains preliminary proposition and some data obtained for microjets.

  19. Flutter analysis of hybrid metal-composite low aspect ratio trapezoidal wings in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollahi Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective 3D supersonic Mach box approach in combination with non-classical hybrid metal-composite plate theory has been used to investigate flutter boundaries of trapezoidal low aspect ratio wings. The wing structure is composed of two main components including aluminum material (in-board section and laminated composite material (out-board section. A global Ritz method is used with simple polynomials being employed as the trial functions. The most important objective of the present research is to study the effect of composite to metal proportion of hybrid wing structure on flutter boundaries in low supersonic regime. In addition, the effect of some important geometrical parameters such as sweep angle, taper ratio and aspect ratio on flutter boundaries were studied. The results obtained by present approach for special cases like pure metallic wings and results for high supersonic regime based on piston theory show a good agreement with those obtained by other investigators.

  20. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

  1. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  2. Wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, G

    1975-11-20

    A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos.

  3. Visualization of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.)

  4. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  5. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  6. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  7. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  8. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  9. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: Analysis of the concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R. [Vehicle Projects LLC and Supersonic Tube Vehicle LLC, 621 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    I propose and analyze a concept vehicle that operates in a hydrogen atmosphere contained within a tube, or pipeline, and because of the high speed of sound in hydrogen, it delays the onset of the sound barrier. Mach 1.2 in air corresponds to only Mach 0.32 in hydrogen. The proposed vehicle, a cross between a train and an airplane, is multi-articulated, runs on a guideway, is propelled by propfans, and flies on a hydrogen aerostatic fluid film. Vehicle power is provided by onboard hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Hydrogen fuel is taken from the tube itself, liquid oxygen (LOX) is carried onboard, and the product water is collected and stored until the end of a run. Thus, unlike conventional vehicles, it breathes its fuel, stores its oxidant, and its weight increases during operation. Taking hydrogen fuel from the tube solves the problem of vehicular hydrogen storage, a major challenge of contemporary hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. The foundation of the feasibility analysis is extrapolation of aerodynamic properties of a mid-sized turboprop airliner, the Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 trademark. Based on the aerodynamic analysis, I estimate that the hydrogen tube vehicle would require 2.0 MW of power to run at 1500 km/h, which is supersonic with respect to air. It would require 2.64 h to travel from New York City to Los Angeles, consuming 2330 L of onboard LOX and producing 2990 L of liquid water during the trip. Part of the feasibility analysis shows that it is possible to package the corresponding fuel-cell stacks, LOX systems, and water holding tanks in the tube vehicle. The greatest technical challenge is levitation by aerostatic hydrogen bearings. Risk of fire or detonation within the tube, similar to that of existing large natural-gas pipelines, is expected to be manageable and acceptable. (author)

  10. Numerical simulation of liquid droplet breakup in supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Bing

    2018-04-01

    A five-equation model based on finite-difference frame was utilized to simulate liquid droplet breakup in supersonic flows. To enhance the interface-capturing quality, an anti-diffusion method was introduced as a correction of volume-fraction after each step of calculation to sharpen the interface. The robustness was guaranteed by the hybrid variable reconstruction in which the second-order and high-order method were respectively employed in discontinuous and continuous flow fields. According to the recent classification of droplet breakup regimes, the simulations lay in the shear induced entrainment regime. Comparing to the momentum of the high-speed air flows, surface tension and viscid force were negligible in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations. The inflow conditions were set as Mach 1.2, 1.5 and 1.8 to reach different dynamic pressure with the liquid to gas density ratio being 1000 initially. According to the results of simulations, the breakup process was divided into three stages which were analyzed in details with the consideration of interactions between gas and liquid. The shear between the high-speed gas flow and the liquid droplet was found to be the sources of surface instabilities on windward, while the instabilities on the leeward side were originated by vortices. Movement of the liquid mass center was studied, and the unsteady acceleration was observed. In addition, the characteristic breakup time was around 1.0 based on the criterion of either droplet thickness or liquid volume fraction.

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  12. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost $1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

  13. Wind integration in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, W.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

  14. Identification of novel synthetic organic compounds with supersonic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2004-11-26

    Several novel synthetic organic compounds were successfully analyzed with a unique type of GC-MS titled Supersonic GC-MS following a failure in their analysis with standard GC-MS. Supersonic GC-MS is based on interfacing GC and MS with a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) and on electron ionization of sample compounds as vibrationally cold molecules while in the SMB, or by cluster chemical ionization. The analyses of novel synthetic organic compounds significantly benefited from the extended range of compounds amenable to analyses with the Supersonic GC-MS. The Supersonic GC-MS enabled the analysis of thermally labile compounds that usually degrade in the GC injector, column and/or ion source. Due to the high carrier gas flow rate at the injector liner and column these compounds eluted without degradation at significantly lower elution temperatures and the use of fly-through EI ion source eliminated any sample degradation at the ion source. The cold EI feature of providing trustworthy enhanced molecular ion (M+), complemented by its optional further confirmation with cluster CI was highly valued by the synthetic organic chemists that were served by the Supersonic GC-MS. Furthermore, the provision of extended mass spectral structural, isomer and isotope information combined with short (a few minutes) GC-MS analysis times also proved beneficial for the analysis of unknown synthetic organic compounds. As a result, the synthetic organic chemists were provided with both qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of their synthetic mixture, and could better follow the path of their synthetic chemistry. Ten cases of such analyses are demonstrated in figures and discussed.

  15. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  16. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  17. Estonian wind climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, Ain

    1999-01-01

    Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

  18. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    (Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  19. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  20. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  1. Particle acceleration and reconnection in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Department of Space Science, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Khabarova, O. [Heliophysical Laboratory, IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 290-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Decker, R. B. [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized quasi-2D small-scale magnetic island reconnection processes. An advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution describes particle transport and energization in a region of interacting magnetic islands [1; 2]. The dominant charged particle energization processes are 1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging, and 2) magnetic island contraction. The acceleration of charged particles in a “sea of magnetic islands” in a super-Alfvénic flow, and the energization of particles by combined diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic island reconnection processes are discussed.

  2. An atomic coilgun: using pulsed magnetic fields to slow a supersonic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narevicius, E; Parthey, C G; Libson, A; Narevicius, J; Chavez, I; Even, U; Raizen, M G

    2007-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel method to slow atoms and molecules with permanent magnetic moments using pulsed magnetic fields. In our experiments, we observe the slowing of a supersonic beam of metastable neon from 461.0 ± 7.7 to 403 ± 16 m s -1 in 18 stages, where the slowed peak is clearly separated from the initial distribution. This method has broad applications as it may easily be generalized, using seeding and entrainment into supersonic beams, to all paramagnetic atoms and molecules

  3. Design and Testing of CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shockware Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Williams; Michael Aarnio; Kirk Lupkes; Sabri Deniz

    2010-08-31

    Documentation of work performed by Ramgen and subcontractors in pursuit of design and construction of a 10 MW supersonic CO{sub 2} compressor and supporting facility. The compressor will demonstrate application of Ramgen's supersonic compression technology at an industrial scale using CO{sub 2} in a closed-loop. The report includes details of early feasibility studies, CFD validation and comparison to experimental data, static test experimental results, compressor and facility design and analyses, and development of aero tools.

  4. Flowing of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, S. G.; Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents new experimental results on the simulation of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets by macro-jet in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers of air outflow from the nozzle. A correlation is shown between the variations in the Pitot pressure in the model micro-jet with variations in the length of the supersonic core of real the micro-jets. The results of experiments on the effect of humidity on the pulsation of mass flow rate in a micro-jet are presented.

  5. Supersonic acoustic intensity with statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The concept of supersonic acoustic intensity was introduced some years ago for estimating the fraction of the flow of energy radiated by a source that propagates to the far field. It differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the near-field energy resulting from evanescent waves...... to the information provided by the near-field acoustic holography technique. This study proposes a version of the supersonic acoustic intensity applied to statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). The theory, numerical results and an experimental study are presented. The possibility of using...

  6. Fully unsteady subsonic and supersonic potential aerodynamics for complex aircraft configurations for flutter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1975-01-01

    A general theory for study, oscillatory or fully unsteady potential compressible aerodynamics around complex configurations is presented. Using the finite-element method to discretize the space problem, one obtains a set of differential-delay equations in time relating the potential to its normal derivative which is expressed in terms of the generalized coordinates of the structure. For oscillatory flow, the motion consists of sinusoidal oscillations around a steady, subsonic or supersonic flow. For fully unsteady flow, the motion is assumed to consist of constant subsonic or supersonic speed for time t or = 0 and of small perturbations around the steady state for time t 0.

  7. On the Scaling Law for Broadband Shock Noise Intensity in Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanudula, Max

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for the scaling of broadband shock noise intensity in supersonic jets was formulated on the basis of linear shock-shear wave interaction. An hypothesis has been postulated that the peak angle of incidence (closer to the critical angle) for the shear wave primarily governs the generation of sound in the interaction process rather than the noise generation contribution from off-peak incident angles. The proposed theory satisfactorily explains the well-known scaling law for the broadband shock -associated noise in supersonic jets.

  8. Compilation and Review of Supersonic Business Jet Studies from 1963 through 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides a compilation of all known supersonic business jet studies/activities conducted from 1963 through 1995 by university, industry and the NASA. First, an overview is provided which chronologically displays all known supersonic business jet studies/activities conducted by universities, industry, and the NASA along with the key features of the study vehicles relative to configuration, planform, operation parameters, and the source of study. This is followed by a brief description of each study along with some comments on the study. Mention will be made as to whether the studies addressed cost, market needs, and the environmental issues of airport-community noise, sonic boom, and ozone.

  9. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  10. Observability of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

  11. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  13. In-flight imaging of transverse gas jets injected into transonic and supersonic crossflows: Design and development. M.S. Thesis, Mar. 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1994-01-01

    The design and development of an airborne flight-test experiment to study nonreacting gas jets injected transversely into transonic and supersonic crossflows is presented. Free-stream/crossflow Mach numbers range from 0.8 to 2.0. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of an iodine-seeded nitrogen jet is used to visualize the jet flow. Time-dependent images are obtained with a high-speed intensified video camera synchronized to the laser pulse rate. The entire experimental assembly is configured compactly inside a unique flight-test-fixture (FTF) mounted under the fuselage of the F-104G research aircraft, which serves as a 'flying wind tunnel' at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The aircraft is flown at predetermined speeds and altitudes to permit a perfectly expanded (or slightly underexpanded) gas jet to form just outside the FTF at each free-stream Mach number. Recorded gas jet images are then digitized to allow analysis of jet trajectory, spreading, and mixing characteristics. Comparisons will be made with analytical and numerical predictions. This study shows the viability of applying highly sophisticated groundbased flow diagnostic techniques to flight-test vehicle platforms that can achieve a wide range of thermo/fluid dynamic conditions. Realistic flow environments, high enthalpies, unconstrained flowfields, and moderate operating costs are also realized, in contrast to traditional wind-tunnel testing.

  14. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  15. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  16. Wind energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

  17. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  18. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  19. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  20. Medicine Bow wind project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. L.

    1982-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

  1. Wind farm economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

  2. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  3. Economics of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

  4. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

  5. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  6. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  7. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN) po......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  8. Shock Waves Oscillations in the Interaction of Supersonic Flows with the Head of the Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the shock wave oscillation that occurs when supersonic flows interact with conic, blunt or flat nose of aircraft, taking into account the aerospike attached to it. The main attention was paid to the problem of numerical modeling of such oscillation, flow regime classification, and cases where aerospike attachment can…

  9. Dissymmetry effects on the laser spectroscopy of supersonically expanded rare gas/chiral arene heteroclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Antonello; Giardini, Anna; Marcantoni, Enrico; Paladini, Alessandra; Piccirillo, Susanna; Renzi, Gabriele; Rondino, Flaminia; Roselli, Graziella; Satta, Mauro; Speranza, Maurizio

    2007-04-14

    The R2PI-TOF spectra of supersonically expanded rare gas/chiral arene heteroclusters have been rationalized in terms of the distortion of the pi-electron density reflecting the different dipole and quadrupole momenta induced in the rare gas atoms by interaction with the opposite pi-faces of the chiral arene itself.

  10. Micro Ramps in Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers : An experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The micro vortex generator (MVG) is used extensively in low speed aerodynamic problems and is now extended into the supersonic flow regime to solve undesired flow features that are associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLI) such as flow separation and associated unsteadiness of

  11. High-magnification velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Phil; Fernandez, Erik; Ali, Mohd; Alvi, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    The Resonance-Enhanced Microjet (REM) actuator developed at our laboratory produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet flowing into a cylindrical cavity with a single orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1 mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and 2-component particle image velocimetry. The challenges of these measurements at such small scales and supersonic velocities are discussed. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces supersonic pulsed jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s. This is the first direct measurement of the velocity field and its temporal evolution produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations, velocity field measurements, and simulations using Implicit LES for a similar microactuator. With high, unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of flow control applications.

  12. CFD application to supersonic/hypersonic inlet airframe integration. [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Supersonic external compression inlets are introduced, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and tests needed to study flow associated with these inlets are outlined. Normal shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction is discussed. Boundary layer control is considered. Glancing sidewall shock interaction is treated. The CFD validation of hypersonic inlet configurations is explained. Scramjet inlet modules are shown.

  13. Description of a laser vaporization source and a supersonic cluster beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doverstaal, M.; Lindgren, B.; Sassenberg, U.; Yu, H.

    1993-11-01

    Laser vaporization of an appropriate target and recent developments in molecular beam technology have now made it possible to produce supersonic cluster beams of virtually any element in the periodic table. This paper describes the design and principles of a cluster source combined with a time of flight mass spectrometer built for reaction experiments and spectroscopic investigations at Stockholm University

  14. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  15. CFD modeling of particle behavior in supersonic flows with strong swirls for gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    flow from the dry gas outlet. The separation efficiency reached over 80%, when the droplet diameter was more than 1.5 μm. The optimum length of the cyclonic separation section was approximate 16–20 times of the nozzle throat diameter to obtain higher collection efficiency for the supersonic separator...

  16. Characteristics of pulsed plasma synthetic jet and its control effect on supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma synthetic jet is a novel flow control approach which is currently being studied. In this paper its characteristic and control effect on supersonic flow is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the formation of plasma synthetic jet and its propagation velocity in quiescent air are recorded and calculated with time resolved schlieren method. The jet velocity is up to 100 m/s and no remarkable difference has been found after changing discharge parameters. When applied in Mach 2 supersonic flow, an obvious shockwave can be observed. In the modeling of electrical heating, the arc domain is not defined as an initial condition with fixed temperature or pressure, but a source term with time-varying input power density, which is expected to better describe the influence of heating process. Velocity variation with different heating efficiencies is presented and discussed and a peak velocity of 850 m/s is achieved in still air with heating power density of 5.0 × 1012 W/m3. For more details on the interaction between plasma synthetic jet and supersonic flow, the plasma synthetic jet induced shockwave and the disturbances in the boundary layer are numerically researched. All the results have demonstrated the control authority of plasma synthetic jet onto supersonic flow.

  17. Application of Stereo PIV on a Supersonic Parachute Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Locke, Randy J.; Wroblewski, Adam; Sengupta, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is the next step in NASA's Mars Exploration Program, currently scheduled for 2011. The spacecraft's descent into the Martian atmosphere will be slowed from Mach 2 to subsonic speeds via a large parachute system with final landing under propulsive control. A Disk-Band-Gap (DBG) parachute will be used on MSL similar to the designs that have been used on previous missions, however; the DBG parachute used by MSL will be larger (21.5 m) than in any of the previous missions due to the weight of the payload and landing site requirements. The MSL parachute will also deploy at higher Mach number (M 2) than previous parachutes, which can lead to instabilities in canopy performance. Both the increased size of the DBG above previous demonstrated configurations and deployment at higher Mach numbers add uncertainty to the deployment, structural integrity and performance of the parachute. In order to verify the performance of the DBG on MSL, experimental testing, including acquisition of Stereo Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were required for validating CFD predictions of the parachute performance. A rigid model of the DBG parachute was tested in the 10x10 foot wind tunnel at GRC. Prior to the MSL tests, a PIV system had never been used in the 10x10 wind tunnel. In this paper we discuss some of the technical challenges overcome in implementing a Stereo PIV system with a 750x400 mm field-of-view in the 10x10 wind tunnel facility and results from the MSL hardshell canopy tests.

  18. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  20. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  1. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  3. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  4. Winds of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, C.; Short, L.

    1998-01-01

    The British countryside is oversubscribed with multiple and often irreconcilable demands. The siting of wind turbines is but one facet of this situation. While the problems of these demands are widely recognised, there is little understanding or agreement on how to resolve them. The 1996 Future Landscape: New Partnerships was an attempt to address this challenge. The use of wind energy as a case study initiated a partnership between contemporary artists and the wind energy industry. It became clear that artists have an important role to play in creating new ways of seeing that will establish wind turbines as new icons for a sustainable future. (Author)

  5. Wind farm radar study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

  6. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  7. Wind on the moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

  8. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  9. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  10. Wind energy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.; Tammelin, B.; Hyvoenen, R.

    1997-01-01

    The recording, analyzing and publishing of statistics of wind energy production has been reorganized in cooperation of VTT Energy, Finnish Meteorological (FMI Energy) and Finnish Wind Energy Association (STY) and supported by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). VTT Energy has developed a database that contains both monthly data and information on the wind turbines, sites and operators involved. The monthly production figures together with component failure statistics are collected from the operators by VTT Energy, who produces the final wind energy statistics to be published in Tuulensilmae and reported to energy statistics in Finland and abroad (Statistics Finland, Eurostat, IEA). To be able to verify the annual and monthly wind energy potential with average wind energy climate a production index in adopted. The index gives the expected wind energy production at various areas in Finland calculated using real wind speed observations, air density and a power curve for a typical 500 kW-wind turbine. FMI Energy has produced the average figures for four weather stations using the data from 1985-1996, and produces the monthly figures. (orig.)

  11. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  12. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  13. Development and Application of PIV in Supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Z.; Liu, H.; Chen, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents PIV measurements obtained in Mach 4.0 flowfields performed in the SJTU Hypersonic wind tunnel (HWT). In order to certificate this technique, PIV experiments were conducted to the empty test section to provide uniform flow data for comparison with analysis data. Dynamical properties of particle tracers were investigated to measure the particle response across an oblique shock wave. The flow over a sharp cone at Ma = 4.0 were tested in comparasion with the CFD and schlieren visualization. It is shown that shock wave angles measured with PIV are in good agreement with theory and schlieren visualization, in addition the overall flow is consistent with the CFD results.

  14. Práticas aventureiras e situações de risco no voo livre: uma análise a partir do conceito de redoma sensorial Adventurous practices and risk situations in the free flight: an analysis starting from the concept of sensorial dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antônio da Paixão

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa situações de risco na prática de voo livre por intermédio do conceito de redoma sensorial. A amostra foi constituída de 19 (dezenove praticantes da modalidade de parapente, com média de idade de 31 (trinta e um anos, considerou-se o desvio padrão com significância > This study analyzes the risk situations in the practice of free flight through the concept of sensorial dome. The sample consisted of 19 (nineteen practitioners of the paragliding, with the age middle was 31 (thirty one years old and the arithmetic absolute media considered by researches was > < 0.05%. From the method of descriptive exploratory study was concluded that that the field of technology and use appropriate equipment, though not essential guarantee the success of these actors. In the major of time, the risky situations experienced in the adventure sport, join at a first moment a true outline of extraordinary sensorial elements. However, the daily experiences observed in a given kind can take to the banalization of those elements by the apprentice, becoming ordinary sensorial elements. Such change can present implications in and for the practice of the adventure sport kinds in natural environment like, for instance, the apprentice's physical and emotional integrity.

  15. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  16. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  17. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L x rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  18. Statement on Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-15

    Wind power will grow in importance in future electricity supply. In the next few decades it will to some degree replace fossil power but it will, at the same time also depend on fossil-b beyond, when wind power is expected to have a substantial share of the electricity market, CO{sub 2} emission-free electricity plants that are well suited for balancing the wind intermittency will be required. Predictions of the future penetration of wind power into the electricity market are critically dependent on a number of policy measures and will be especially influenced by climate driven energy policies. Very large investments will also be necessary as is shown by the lEA's Blue Map Scenario which includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity by 2050 at a cost of USD 700 billion. This implies an average 8% increase of wind electricity per year energy system, i.e. an energy system so large that it affects the entire world. The Energy Committee's scenario for electricity production in the year 2050 includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity out of a total of 45,000 TWh. Wind electricity thus has a within presently reached penetration of wind energy in a single country and within the calculated future projections of its penetration. Future large continental and intercontinental power grids may enable higher penetrations of wind energy since contributions of wind power from a larger area will tend to reduce its intermittency. Also, large-scale storage systems (thermal storage as is intermittent power systems. These alternatives have been discussed from a technical point of view [3] but for the required large-scale systems, further studies on the social, environmental and economical implications are needed

  19. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  20. High-frequency counter-flow plasma synthetic jet actuator and its application in suppression of supersonic flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Li, Jun; Jin, Di; Tang, Mengxiao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Lianghua

    2018-01-01

    We come up with a control strategy for suppression of supersonic flow separation based on high-frequency Counter-flow Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator (CPSJA). The main purpose of this investigation is to verify if its control authority can be enhanced by the jet/shock interaction. We use a blunt nose to generate a bow shock, a step on a flat plate to introduce a massive separation in a Mach 2 wind tunnel, and the CPSJA to generate Plasma Synthetic Jet (PSJ). In this study, pulsed capacitive discharge is provided for an array of CPSJAs, which makes the actuation (discharge) frequency f1 = 1 kHz, f2 = 2 kHz and f3 = 3 kHz. We use the high-speed schlieren imaging and fast response pressure transducers as well as a numerical simulation to investigate the quiescent PSJ properties, the interaction between the jet and bow shock, and its disturbance effect on the downstream separated region. The schlieren images show that PSJ is characterized by a succession of vortex rings; the jet strength weakens with the increase of frequency. A 4.5 mN jet thrust is found for all the frequencies. The simulation results show that jet/shock interaction produces vorticity in the vortex ring of the jet, enhancing turbulent mixing in PSJ so that a great deal of momentum is produced into the flow. We found the downstream flow is significantly disturbed by the enhanced actuation. Actuation with frequency of f2, f3 which is close to the natural frequency fn of the separation bubble suppresses the separation with the upstream laminar boundary layer being periodically attenuated, which has a better control effect than f1. The control effect is sensitive to the position where PSJ interacts with the shear layer, but the amount of energy deposited in one pulse is not crucial in a separation reduction in the experiment.

  1. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  2. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  3. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  4. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  5. Status of Wind Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    With the development of wind turbine technology, wind power will become more controllable and grid‐friendly. It is desirable to make wind farms operate as conventional power plants. Wind turbine generators (WTGs) were mainly used in rural and remote areas for wind power generation. WTG‐based wind...... energy conversion systems (WECS) can be divided into the four main types (type 1‐4). Due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of the wind, the integration of wind power into the grid has brought challenges in several different areas, including power quality, system reliability, stability......, and planning. The impact of each is largely dependent on the level of wind power penetration in the grid. In many countries, relatively high levels of wind power penetration have been achieved. This chapter shows the estimated wind power penetration in leading wind markets....

  6. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  7. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  8. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...

  9. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  10. The difficult wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed

  11. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  12. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  13. Fixture for winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  14. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  15. The wind farm business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, T.

    1995-01-01

    This article highlights the tasks to be undertaken by the wind farm business starting with the initial site selection, through the planning stage and the consideration of technical matters, to the implementation and financial aspects. The current situation in the UK with regard to installed wind turbines, public attitude, and future prospects are discussed. (UK)

  16. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m...

  17. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  18. Time-dependent theoretical model of the polar wind: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.I.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled time dependent continuity, momentum and energy equations of a two ion (O + and H + ) quasineutral plasma were solved in order to extend our understanding of polar wind behavior. This numerical code allows studies of the time dependent behavior of polar wind-type flows into and out of the ionosphere. Initial studies indicate that the typical time constants for electron and ion temperature changes are of the order of minutes and tens of minutes, respectively. The response time of the minor high altitude ion O + is less than an hour, whereas that of the major ion, H + , is many hours. The initial test runs also demonstrate the fact that temporary supersonic flows of both O + and H + are possible, especially in the presence of significant ion heating

  19. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  20. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  1. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrainwith the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites...... by means of the geostrophic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30o sectors are obtainedthrough ranking of the largest values of the ¤friction velocity pressure¤ 1/2 ¤#rho#¤¤u¤"2_x taken both once every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind...

  2. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  3. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  4. Wind power forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Rui [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. Systems and Development System Operator; Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Delgado Domingos, Jose [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Seccao de Ambiente e Energia

    2012-07-01

    Accurate wind power forecast are needed to reduce integration costs in the electric grid caused by wind inherent variability. Currently, Portugal has a significant wind power penetration level and consequently the need to have reliable wind power forecasts at different temporal scales, including localized events such as ramps. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies used by REN to forecast wind power at national level, based on statistical and probabilistic combinations of NWP and measured data with the aim of improving accuracy of pure NWP. Results show that significant improvement can be achieved with statistical combination with persistence in the short-term and with probabilistic combination in the medium-term. NWP are also able to detect ramp events with 3 day notice to the operational planning. (orig.)

  5. Tenth ASME wind energy symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.E.; Veers, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourteenth Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition. Included are the following papers: Wind Power Farm Site Selection, Turbulence characterization for wind energy development, Effects of insect configuration on wind turbine airfoils, Power fluctuations from horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines, Power regulation by active yaw control for a teetered wind rotor, and economic aspects of wind energy

  6. Control of supersonic axisymmetric base flows using passive splitter plates and pulsed plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Todd Mitchell

    An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was

  7. Offshore wind energy prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, Gaetano

    1999-01-01

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  8. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  9. Strongly at the wind; Hart am Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Niels Hendrik

    2013-11-01

    The company Easywind from North Friesland distributes a certified and stromproof small wind turbine. More than 300 systems have been sold. In Germany especially farmers and small businesses meet their needs so. [German] Die Firma Easywind aus Nordfriesland vertreibt eine zertifizierte und sturmfeste Kleinwindanlage. Mehr als 300 Anlagen sind bereits verkauft. In Deutschland decken vor allem Landwirte und kleine Betriebe so ihren Bedarf.

  10. Wind power: Italian wind power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, G.; Casale, C.

    2008-01-01

    Trends in the world point a growing wind power sector in the future taking into account the safety of energy supply and environmental issues. Will determine the future scenario of price and availability of conventional energy sources. The current level reached by the price of oil create a win-win situation [it

  11. Effect of a Finite Trailing Edge Thickness on the Drag of Rectangular and Delta Wings at Supersonic Speeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klunker, E

    1952-01-01

    The effect of a finite trailing-edge thickness on the pressure drag of rectangular and delta wings with truncated diamond-shaped airfoil sections with a given thickness ratio is studied for supersonic...

  12. Investigation of the Impact of an External Magnetic Field on a Supersonic Plasma Flow Through and MGD Channel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bobashev, S. V; Mende, N. P; Sakharov, V. A; Van Wie, D. M

    2003-01-01

    .... Generally, the separation leads to harmful consequences such as an increase of the body drag, a decrease of the wing lift, unsteady loads, and at high supersonic velocities causes emergence of narrow...

  13. Cockpit Displays to Support Hazard Awareness in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Carbonari, Ron; Merwin, Dave; Morphew, Ephimia; OBrien, Janelle V.

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments are described which each examine different aspects of the formatting and integration of cockpit displays of traffic information to support pilots in traffic avoidance planning. The first two experiments compared two-dimensional (coplanar) with three-dimensional (perspective) versions of a cockpit display of traffic information. In Experiment 1, 30 certified flight instructors flew a series of traffic conflict detection and avoidance maneuvers around an intruder aircraft, sometimes in the presence of a second intruder. The results revealed an advantage for the coplanar display, particularly when there was vertical intruder behavior. In Experiment 2, 17 instructors flew with the coplanar and perspective formats when weather information was either overlaid or displayed separately. Again performance was best with the coplanar display, particularly when the weather data were overlaid. The results of both experiments are also discussed in ten-ns of the traffic maneuver stereotypes exhibited by the pilots. Experiment 3 examined the benefits of the two different predictor elements used in the coplanar displays of Experiments 1 and 2. The study was carried out in a multitask context. These elements were both found to improve safety (reduce actual and predicted conflicts) and to reduce workload, although the different elements affected workload in different ways. Neither predictor element imposed a cost to concurrent task performance.

  14. The aerodynamics and control of free flight manoeuvres in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.

    2016-01-01

    A firm understanding of how fruit flies hover has emerged over the past two decades, and recent work has focused on the aerodynamic, biomechanical and neurobiological mechanisms that enable them to manoeuvre and resist perturbations. In this review, we describe how flies manipulate wing movement to control their body motion during active manoeuvres, and how these actions are regulated by sensory feedback. We also discuss how the application of control theory is providing new insight into the logic and structure of the circuitry that underlies flight stability. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528778

  15. MODELING THE SOLAR WIND AT THE ULYSSES , VOYAGER , AND NEW HORIZONS SPACECRAFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The outer heliosphere is a dynamic region shaped largely by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. While interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations by the Voyager spacecraft have significantly improved our understanding of this vast region, modeling the outer heliosphere still remains a challenge. We simulate the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind flow from 1 to 80 astronomical units (au), where the solar wind is assumed to be supersonic, using a two-fluid model in which protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms are treated as separate fluids. We use 1 day averages of the solar wind parameters from the OMNI data set as inner boundary conditions to reproduce time-dependent effects in a simplified manner which involves interpolation in both space and time. Our model generally agrees with Ulysses data in the inner heliosphere and Voyager data in the outer heliosphere. Ultimately, we present the model solar wind parameters extracted along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft. We compare our results with in situ plasma data taken between 11 and 33 au and at the closest approach to Pluto on 2015 July 14.

  16. Modeling the Solar Wind at the Ulysses, Voyager, and New Horizons Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    The outer heliosphere is a dynamic region shaped largely by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. While interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations by the Voyager spacecraft have significantly improved our understanding of this vast region, modeling the outer heliosphere still remains a challenge. We simulate the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind flow from 1 to 80 astronomical units (au), where the solar wind is assumed to be supersonic, using a two-fluid model in which protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms are treated as separate fluids. We use 1 day averages of the solar wind parameters from the OMNI data set as inner boundary conditions to reproduce time-dependent effects in a simplified manner which involves interpolation in both space and time. Our model generally agrees with Ulysses data in the inner heliosphere and Voyager data in the outer heliosphere. Ultimately, we present the model solar wind parameters extracted along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft. We compare our results with in situ plasma data taken between 11 and 33 au and at the closest approach to Pluto on 2015 July 14.

  17. MODELING THE SOLAR WIND AT THE ULYSSES , VOYAGER , AND NEW HORIZONS SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    The outer heliosphere is a dynamic region shaped largely by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. While interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations by the Voyager spacecraft have significantly improved our understanding of this vast region, modeling the outer heliosphere still remains a challenge. We simulate the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind flow from 1 to 80 astronomical units (au), where the solar wind is assumed to be supersonic, using a two-fluid model in which protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms are treated as separate fluids. We use 1 day averages of the solar wind parameters from the OMNI data set as inner boundary conditions to reproduce time-dependent effects in a simplified manner which involves interpolation in both space and time. Our model generally agrees with Ulysses data in the inner heliosphere and Voyager data in the outer heliosphere. Ultimately, we present the model solar wind parameters extracted along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft. We compare our results with in situ plasma data taken between 11 and 33 au and at the closest approach to Pluto on 2015 July 14.

  18. Wind tipping point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author looks at how in five years wind energy has rapidly evolved into a mainstream industry. The United States has begun to look at wind differently - from a macroeconomic perspective.'This country is going to become increasingly committed to renewable energy, and it's not about altruism', said Alan Waxman, managing director of Goldman Sachs and Co., a financial giant that has invested $1 billion in the resource. Wind is seen not just as an environmentally benign alternative, but also as a means to solve some large problems plaguing the energy business and ultimately the United States as a whole. The last year brought record-breaking electricity rate increases, in some cases doubling consumer costs, and escalating the flight of large enterprises out of high-cost energy regions - or out of business altogether. The rate hikes were caused by hurricanes that hit the southern states and disrupted natural gas and oil operations. Adding wind power to the grid is increasingly seen as a way to limit the price shock caused by such events. Wind power reduces reliance on gas and oil-fired generation and, in particular, creates a hedge against spikes in natural gas, a fuel that increasingly sets the marginal price. Large energy users, too, are becoming aware of wind's hedging benefits. The author looks at the cost issues and how the future of wind energy in the country can be sustained as a reliable alternative fuel

  19. Wind farms and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

  20. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects