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Sample records for superovulated dairy cattle

  1. Embryo yield in dairy cattle after superovulation with Folltropin or Pluset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, M; Taponen, J

    2017-01-15

    Two commercial FSH products were compared in a retrospective study on 3990 commercial superovulations and embryo recoveries in dairy heifers and cows. In addition, the 56-day nonreturn rate of 19,400 embryos produced with these two preparations was analyzed. Embryo collections were performed during a 16-year period from donors of Holstein and Ayrshire breeds. Folltropin (Vetoquinol S.A., Lure cedex, France) group (Group F) consisted of 2592 superovulations, of which 80% were performed on heifers and 20% on cows, and Pluset (Laboratorios Calier, S.A., Barcelona, Spain) group (Group P) of 1398 treatments, of which 66% and 34% were on heifers and cows, respectively. Total number of recovered structures, number of transferable embryos, and the proportion of unfertilized ova (UFO) and degenerated embryos were analyzed. Distribution of embryos into quality grades (1-3) and developmental stages (4-9) according to the IETS classification guidelines and means for each collection were evaluated. The proportion of low-responders having fewer than five corpora lutea and yielding fewer than five embryos or ova was investigated for each treatment. Group P yielded 1.1 recovered structures more than Group F (P superovulated with Folltropin or Pluset. It was concluded that equal numbers of transferable embryos and pregnancies can be achieved with Folltropin and Pluset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle – effect of management factors with emphasis on sex-sorted semen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been established in cattle breeding since the 1970s. It is an efficient means to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females. Despite nearly 50 years of development, the average number of transferable embryos recovered in a single embryo collection has remained nearly constant at approximately six embryos per donor. Several animal-related, environmental and management factors contribute to the outcome of superovulation a...

  3. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  5. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  6. The evolution of improved and simplified superovulation protocols in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapletoft, Reuben J; Bó, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    Superovulation protocols have improved greatly since the early days of bovine embryo transfer when purified gonadotrophins were not available, follicular wave dynamics were unknown physiological phenomena and prostaglandins were not available. Although superstimulatory protocols in cattle are normally initiated mid-cycle, elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer. However, the most common treatment for the synchronisation of follicular wave emergence involves the use of oestradiol, which cannot be used in many parts of the world. Therefore, the need for alternative treatments has driven recent research. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave following ovulation induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Alternatively, it has been shown that it may be possible to ignore follicular wave status and, by extending the treatment protocol, induce subordinate follicles to superovulate. Finally, the short half-life of pituitary FSH necessitates twice-daily treatments, which are time-consuming, stressful and subject to error. Recent treatment protocols have permitted superstimulation with a single FSH treatment or two treatments 48h apart, reducing the need for animal handling during gonadotrophin treatments.

  7. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... for the assessment of pain in dairy cattle under production conditions....

  8. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  9. Superovulation with a single administration of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel: a novel superovulation method for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Koji

    2016-10-18

    Superovulation (SOV) is a necessary technique to produce large numbers of embryos for embryo transfer. In the conventional methods, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is administered to donor cattle twice daily for 3 to 4 days. As this method is labor intensive and stresses cattle, improving this method has been desired. We previously developed a novel and simple SOV method, in which the intramuscular injection of a single dose of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-gel) induced the growth of multiple follicles, ovulation and the production of multiple embryos. Here we show that AH-gel can efficiently adsorb FSH and release it effectively in the presence of BSA, a major interstitial protein. When a single intramuscular administration of the FSH and AH-gel mixture was performed to cattle, multiple follicular growth, ovulation and embryo production were induced. However, the treatments caused indurations at the administration sites in the muscle. To reduce the muscle damage, we investigated alternative administration routes and different amounts of aluminum in the gel. By administering the FSH in AH-gel subcutaneously rather than intramuscularly, the amount of aluminum in the gel could be reduced, thus reducing the size of the induration. Moreover, repeated administrations of FSH with AH-gel did not affect the superovulatory response. These results indicate that a single administration of FSH with AH-gel is an effective, novel and practical method for SOV treatment.

  10. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured...

  11. The role of nutritional supplementation on the outcome of superovulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, M A

    2011-06-01

    Since the 1990s nutritional supplements including protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals have been used to try and improve the superovulatory response of embryo donors in cattle. However, the accumulated information indicates that nutritional supplementation with protein, fatty acids, or minerals does not increase the number of viable embryos from superovulated cattle. Most of the evidence has shown that vitamin supplementation may increase the mean production of transferable embryos, but only in cows, as a detrimental effect on embryo viability has been reported in young heifers. Nevertheless, vitamin supplementation seems to be effective only when compared with control cows displaying a poor mean embryo production (i.e. less than four viable embryos), questioning the economical significance of such approach. Detrimental effects on embryo development have been reported in superovulated cattle supplemented with protein or fatty acids as well. New approaches to investigate the role of nutritional supplementation on superovulatory outcome in cattle are suggested in the present review. Overall, the available evidence indicates that nutritional supplementation strategies tested are not an effective approach to enhance the superovulatory outcome of well-fed cattle donors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Historical perspectives and recent research on superovulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-01-01

    Superovulation protocols have evolved greatly over the past 40 to 50 years. The development of commercial pituitary extracts and prostaglandins in the 1970s, and partially purified pituitary extracts and progesterone-releasing devices in the 1980s and 1990s have provided for the development of many of the protocols that we use today. Furthermore, the knowledge of follicular wave dynamics through the use of real-time ultrasonography and the development of the means by which follicular wave emergence can be controlled have provided new practical approaches. Although some embryo transfer practitioners still initiate superstimulatory treatments during mid-cycle in donor cows, the elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has had a great effect on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, especially when large groups of donors need to be superstimulated at the same time. The most common treatment for the synchronization of follicular wave emergence for many years has been estradiol and progestins. In countries where estradiol cannot be used, practitioners have turned to alternative treatments for the synchronization of follicle wave emergence, such as mechanical follicle ablation or the administration of GnRH to induce ovulation. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate FSH treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave after GnRH-induced ovulation of an induced persistent follicle. Alternatively, it has been suggested recently that it might be possible to ignore follicular wave status, and by extending the treatment protocol, induce small antral follicles to grow and superovulate. Recently, the mixing of FSH with sustained release polymers or the development of long-acting recombinant FSH products have permitted superstimulation with a single or alternatively, two gonadotropin treatments 48 hours apart, reducing the need for animal handling during superstimulation. Although the number of transferable embryos per donor

  13. Association of a hypoxia-inducible factor-3α gene polymorphism with superovulation traits in Changbaishan black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Chen, C Z; Li, C H; Yu, W L; Chen, X; Zhang, J B

    2015-11-19

    This study was designed to examine a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HIF-3α gene in three hundred Changbaishan black cattle using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine whether there is an association between this SNP and superovulation. The cloning and sequencing results indicate that the polymorphism is due to a point mutation at the 278-bp position in the HIF-3α gene, resulting in 3 genotypes (AA, AB, and BB). Association analysis indicated that the polymorphism has a significant effect on the number of unfertilized embryos (NUE) (P superovulation improvement, and assisted fertility.

  14. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  15. Embryo production with sex-sorted semen in superovulated dairy heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimio, I; Mikkola, M; Lindeberg, H; Heikkinen, J; Hasler, J F; Taponen, J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex-sorted semen on the number and quality of embryos recovered from superovulated heifers and cows on commercial dairy farm conditions in Finland. The data consist of 1487 commercial embryo collections performed on 633 and 854 animals of Holstein and Finnish Ayrshire breeds, respectively. Superovulation was induced by eight intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone, at 12-hour intervals over 4 days, involving declining doses beginning on 9 to 12 days after the onset of standing estrus. The donors were inseminated at 9 to 15-hour intervals beginning 12 hours after the onset of estrus with 2 + 2 (+1) doses of sex-sorted frozen-thawed semen (N = 218) into the uterine horns or with 1 + 1 (+1) doses of conventional frozen-thawed semen (N = 1269) into the uterine corpus. Most conventional semen (222 bulls) straws contained 15 million sperm (total number 30-45 million per donor). Sex-sorted semen (61 bulls) straws contained 2 million sperm (total number 8-14 million per donor). Mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries from cows bred with sex-sorted semen was 4.9, which is significantly lower than 9.1 transferable embryos recovered when using conventional semen (P ≤ 0.001). In heifers, no significant difference was detected between mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries using sex-sorted semen and conventional semen (6.1 and 7.2, respectively). The number of unfertilized ova was higher when using sex-sorted semen than when using conventional semen in heifers (P cows (P cows (P protocol used seemed to be adequate for heifers. In superovulated cows, an optimal protocol for using sex-sorted semen remains to be found.

  16. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    .003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...

  17. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  18. Superovulation of the Cloned Cattle Derived from Somatic Cells and the Transfer of the Vitrified-Thawed Embryos of the Cloning Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ya-juan; BAI Xue-jin; LI Jian-dong; CHENG Ming

    2004-01-01

    In this experiment, it was designed to carry out superovulation on the two cloned cattles, vitrification and transfer of the embryos recovered from them. First of all, it was carried out vitrification on embryos obtained by IVF. Results showed that there were no significant differences between the blastocysts (obtained by IVF) vitrified in EPS10 and these in EPS20 on the resuscitative rate and the developmental rate. The hatched rate of the blastocysts vitrified in EPS10 (31.3%, 35/112) was significantly higher than that in EPS20 (12.2%, 13/107) (P<0.01), so EPS20 was selected as the vitrification solution to freeze the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle. After superovulation, six (four usable embryos) and ten (nine usable embryos) embryos were respectively recovered from Kangkang and Shuanghuang. Two embryos were selected from the recovered embryos of each cloned cattle to freeze in EPS20, subsequently thawed and transferred into luteal ipsilateral uterine horns of 4 Holstein recipient cows after synchronization of estrus, respectively. At last, one recipient cow (No. 9908) became pregnant and delivered one healthy calf (descendant of the cloned cattle-Shuangshuang). The results of this experiment show that the cloned cattle as well as common cattle had better response to the exotic FSH and better ability to multiovulation, the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle can be vitrificated.

  19. Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;

    2008-01-01

    The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...... breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value...... through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits...

  20. Current status and potential of embryo transfer and reproductive technology in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, J F

    1992-10-01

    Significant use of embryo transfer in dairy cattle commenced with the introduction of nonsurgical embryo recovery in the mid-1970s and developed with the use of nonsurgical transfers in the late 1970s. Numbers of registered Holstein calves from embryo transfer doubled yearly through 1980, after which the rate of increase slowed; the total reached nearly 19,000 calves in 1990. However, the efficacy of superovulation procedures and commercial success rates of transferred fresh embryos have not improved the past 10 to 15 yr. Fertilization rates in superovulated donors remain low. Although embryo-splitting techniques were perfected in the early 1980s, they are not used widely. A practical, commercial embryo-sexing procedure remains unavailable. Recent significant improvement is apparent in the technology of ultrasound-guided oocyte collection and in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo culture. In the future, this technology may be used in conjunction with sperm separated by sex with a flow cytometer. Modest numbers of embryo clones have been produced in several commercial programs via nuclear transfer techniques. However, the efficiency of gene transfer experiments involving ova of cattle and other domestic species has been low. Recently, DNA probe technology has begun to provide genotype information for cattle and will ultimately be applied to embryos.

  1. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  2. Association of growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 gene polymorphism with superovulation traits in Changbaishan black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J B; Deng, Q

    2016-12-19

    The application of assisted reproductive technology in animal production benefits the economy and conservation of biological resources. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) was used as predictive markers for breeding and reproduction. In the present study, we examined the association between a SNP of the grb10 gene and superovulation traits in cattle. Sequencing results indicated a point mutation and statistical analysis showed a significant association of the mutation with superovulation traits. The high number of embryos collected from the heterozygotes suggested that the mutation in the grb10 gene exerted a significant effect on the number of embryos recovered although the quality was not affected. The grb10 gene may serve as a useful biomarker for donor selection.

  3. Dairy cattle production in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Liinamo, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is a major player on world markets for most dairy products and produces the largest single share of the global market. Dairying is one of the most profitable sectors of EU agriculture. Milk yields per cow have increased steadily in every member state between 1985 and 1997. Ov

  4. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In pastoral system dominated milk production in Nigeria, it still supplies considerable ... return of sales of dairy products and constraints encountered by dairy cattle .... to improve herd productivity is to cross local cows to the exotic bulls and/or.

  5. Lameness detection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in

  6. Superovulation with different doses of follicle stimulating hormone in Kamphaeng Saen beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerayut Nilchuen*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH usedin a superovulation program on numbers of corpora lutea, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos in Kamphaeng Saenbeef cattle. Cyclic cows (n=3 and heifers (n=3 of Kamphaeng Saen beef breed were assigned to two levels of FSH (200 and250 mg. NIH-FSH-P1 in Crossover Design by which two changes over treatments were studied over two periods in allanimals. Cows and heifers were estrous synchronized by Cloprostenol (500 μg. Estrus detection was performed by teaserbull (Day 0 = day of the onset of standing estrus. On day 9 after the onset of standing estrus, all animals were treated withFSH twice daily in decreasing doses over 4 days. On day 3 of FSH injection, each animal was treated with Cloprostenol (500μg. At the first standing estrus, all animals were artificially inseminated three times at 12 h intervals. Two straws of frozenthawedsemen of Kamphaeng Saen bull were used per insemination. All animals were treated with gonadotropin releasinghormone (10 μg of Buserelin at first insemination. Numbers of corpora lutea were determined by rectal palpation and embryoswere flushed seven days after the onset of standing estrus and classified according to the development stage and quality.The results showed that numbers of corpora lutea, percentages of total ova/embryos and percentages of transferable embryoswere not significantly different (P>0.05 between treatments (FSH: 200 versus 250 mg in either cows or heifers.

  7. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimi......Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses...... on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  8. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  9. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  10. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  11. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  12. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  13. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Dikmen, S; Null, D J; Cole, J B; Hansen, P J

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these methods remains the variability of animal responses to the procedures. If some variability can be explained genetically, selection can be used to improve animal response. Data collected from a Holstein dairy farm in Florida from 2008 to 2015 included 926 superovulation records (number of structures recovered and number of good embryos), 628 in vitro fertilization records (number of oocytes collected, number of cleaved embryos, number of high- and low-quality embryos, and number of transferrable embryos), and 12,089 embryo transfer records (pregnancy success). Two methods of transformation (logarithmic and Anscombe) were applied to count variables and results were compared. Univariate animal models were fitted for each trait with the exception of pregnancy success after embryo transfer. Due to the binary nature of the latter trait, a threshold liability model was fitted that accounted for the genetic effect of both the recipient and the embryo. Both transformation methods produced similar results. Single-step genomic BLUP analyses were performed and SNP effects estimated for traits with a significant genetic component. Heritability of number of structures recovered and number of good embryos when log-transformed were 0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.15 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates from the in vitro fertilization data ranged from 0.01 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.15, but were not significantly different from zero. Recipient and embryo heritability (standard deviation) of pregnancy success after embryo transfer was 0.03 (0.01) and 0.02 (0.01), respectively. The 10-SNP window explaining the largest proportion of variance (0.37%) for total structures collected was located on

  14. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE.

  15. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  16. Metagenomics of rumen bacteriophage from thirteen lactating dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Elizabeth M; Petrovski, Steve; Moate, Peter J; Hayes, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    ... (the rumen microbiome). We used massively parallel sequencing of virus like particles to investigate the diversity of the rumen virome in thirteen lactating Australian Holstein dairy cattle all housed in the same location...

  17. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  18. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  19. 奶牛超排方法的研究进展%Advance in Superovulation Methods of Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任芳丽; 秦粉菊; 马毅

    2001-01-01

    In order to find an effective and stable method of superovulation, the present methods of super ovulation applied in dairy cow were reviewed and intercompared. The results showed that superovulation treated with FSH solved in PVP was the best, which prolonged the half life of FSH and strengthen the effects of FSH.%超数排卵技术是胚胎工程研究的重要内容。随着胚胎生物技术的延伸以及发育生物学研究的不断深入,牛胚胎需求量日益增大。超数排卵、胚胎移植技术为加快育种步伐,纯种扩群提供有力的技术支持。为了筛选一种有效、稳定的超数排卵程序,解决良种胚胎不足的矛盾,本文对近年来奶牛超排方法进行了综述,并比较了各种方法的优点及存在问题。从而得出将FSH溶解在PVP中进行超排,不但延长了FSH的半衰期,增加FSH的作用效果,而且一次注射避免了母牛的应激反应,是目前较理想的一种方法。

  20. Improving fertility of dairy cattle using translational genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection for higher milk production in United States dairy cattle has been very successful during the past 50 years, however today’s lactating dairy cows exhibit a high incidence of subfertility and infertility with a national pregnancy rate of only 15%. An integrated approach to improve fertility ...

  1. Current status of practical applications: Probiotics in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal microbial population of dairy cattle is dense and diverse, and can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations as well as improve animal productivity and environmental impacts. Because of the nature of the dairy industry, probiotic products have been widely used to e...

  2. 转基因奶牛与普通奶牛超数排卵效果的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Superovulation Responses in Transgenic Dairy Heifers and Ordinary Dairy Heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉林; 薛建华; 吕小青; 李艳华; 孙凤俊; 杨超; 戴蕴平; 王彦平; 赵凤茹; 丁方荣

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the superovulation responses between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers. Of the transgenic dairy heifers, 16 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 6.15±4.43(mean±SEM) and 3.94±2.62, 1.50±2.19, 0.69±0.78, respectively. Of the ordinary dairy heifers, 17 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 8.65±5.70 and 4.18±3.11, 1.47±1.12, 3.00±4.24, respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers in the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova(P>0.05).There was a decrease in the number of degenerated embryos in transgenic dairy heifers(P0.05),转基因奶牛的退化胚胎数显著低于普通奶牛(P<0.05)。本试验结果说明转入改变乳成分的外源基因不影响奶牛的超数排卵效果。

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghebremariam, Michael K; Rutten, V P M G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092848028; Vernooij, J C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; Uqbazghi, K; Tesfaalem, T; Butsuamlak, T; Idris, A M; Nielen, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123535298; Michel, A L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy cattle in the three major milk producing regions of Eritrea was assessed by subjecting 15,354 dairy cattle, 50 % of Eritrea's dairy cattle population, to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Skin test results wer

  4. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  5. Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Amorim Franchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.

  6. Japanese Dairy Cattle Productivity Analysis using Bayesian Network Model (BNM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Dairy Cattle Productivity Analysis is carried out based on Bayesian Network Model (BNM. Through the experiment with 280 Japanese anestrus Holstein dairy cow, it is found that the estimation for finding out the presence of estrous cycle using BNM represents almost 55% accuracy while considering all samples. On the contrary, almost 73% accurate estimation could be achieved while using suspended likelihood in sample datasets. Moreover, while the proposed BNM model have more confidence then the estimation accuracy is lies in between 93 to 100%. In addition, this research also reveals the optimum factors to find out the presence of estrous cycle among the 270 individual dairy cows. The objective estimation methods using BNM definitely lead a unique idea to overcome the error of subjective estimation of having estrous cycle among these Japanese dairy cattle.

  7. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  8. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  9. Metabolomic Prediction of Pregnancy Viability in Superovulated Cattle Embryos and Recipients with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR metabolomics to identify spectral models predictive of pregnancy outcome. Embryos collected on Day 6 from superovulated cows in 2 countries were individually cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid medium with BSA for 24 h before embryo transfer. Spent CM, blank controls, and plasma samples (Day 0 and Day 7 were evaluated using FTIR. The spectra obtained were analyzed. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy, specificity (nonpregnancy, and area under the ROC curve (AUC. Endpoints considered were Day 60 pregnancy and birth. High AUC was obtained for Day 60 pregnancy in CM within individual laboratories (France AUC=0.751±0.039, Spain AUC=0.718±0.024, while cumulative data decreased the AUC (AUC=0.604 ± 0.029. Predictions for CM at birth were lower than Day 60 pregnancy. Predictions with plasma at birth improved cumulative over individual results (Day 0: France AUC=0.690±0.044; Spain AUC<0.55; cumulative AUC=0.747±0.032. Plasma generally predicted pregnancy and birth better than CM. These first results show that FTIR metabolomics could allow the identification of embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability, which may contribute to increasing the efficiency of selection schemes based on ET.

  10. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  11. 多种因素对牛超数排卵效果影响的研究%Study on Effects of Multi-factors on Superovulation in Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 张立; 黄春华; 张东; 王申元; 刘彩云; 刘羿羿; 韩锦龙; 韩利东; 潘静

    2013-01-01

    In order to expand the breeding flock of cattle in China, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding programs were applied to the limited number of imported cattle. This study investigated the effects of superovulation from five different breeds, parity (nulliparous and multiparous), different nutrition levels, the interval time of repeated superovulation, the time of treatment on cattle superovulation. The results showed that four different breeds did not significantly affect the results of superovulation (P>0.05). Nulliparous for superovulation treatment were better multiparous (P0.05);育成牛与经产牛的胚胎可利用率极显著差异(P<0.01);不同营养水平组的胚胎可利用率极显著差异(P<0.01);试验结果显示能使二次超排之间的间隔时间缩短为39天以内;第9~10天起针时间的超排效果最佳。本研究显示成体牛育成与否、营养水平高低、起针时间对供体牛超数排卵效果的影响极显著,而供体牛品种、重复超排次数对供体牛超数排卵效果不显著。

  12. Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

  13. Assessment time of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Engel, B.; Uijl, I.; Schaik, van G.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality® (WQ) protocols are increasingly used for assessing welfare of farm animals. These protocols are time consuming (about one day per farm) and, therefore, costly. Our aim was to assess the scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle. Seven tra

  14. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  15. Genomic selection in dairy cattle: the USDA experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. Since 2000, assays have been developed to genotype large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at relatively low cost. The first commercial SNP genotyping chip was released with a set of 54,001 SNP in December 2007. Over 15,000 ...

  16. The use of clones in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and the selecti

  17. Assuring dairy cattle welfare : towards efficient assessment and improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.

    2013-01-01

      In many countries, there is an increasing interest to assure the welfare of production animals. On-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare, however, is time-consuming and, therefore, expensive. Besides this, effects of housing and management interventions that are aimed at improving welfare

  18. Circulating placental lactogen levels in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, F F; Ulberg, L C; Fellows, R E

    1976-11-01

    Levels of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) have been measured in the serum of dairy and beef cattle and in the milk and amniotic fluid of pregnant animals with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. In both dairy and beef cows, serum bPL levels remain low (less than 50 ng/ml) during the first two trimesters and then rise rapidly between 160 and 200 days of gestation to a plateau. The bPL levels do not decline prior to parturition. During the last trimester, serum levels in dairy cows, 1103+/-342 ng/ml, are significantly higher than those in beef cattle, 650+/-37 ng/ml (P less than 0.01); furthermore, dairy cows having a high milk production also tend to have high bPL levels. Serum levels are almost twice as high in twin pregnancies and are not correlated with fetal sex or birth weight. bPL levels in milk and amniotic fluid from dairy cattle during the last trimester are approximately 86% and 25% of the serum values, respectively, suggesting that bPL enters these fluids by passive diffusion.

  19. Influence of CIDR treatment during superovulation on embryo production and hormonal patterns in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, M; Ponsart, C; Nibart, M; Durand, M; Morel, A; Jeanguyot, N; Badinand, F; De Mari, K; Humblot, P

    2002-10-01

    One of the major sources of success in embryo transfer is timing of AI relative to the LH surge and ovulation. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production following superovulation during a PGF2alpha (control cycle) or a CIDR-B synchronized cycle (CIDR-B cycle). CIDR-B (CIDR-B ND, Virbac, Carros, France) was inserted on Day 11 of a previously synchronized cycle and left for 5 days. A total dose of 350 microg FSH was administered (eight injections i.m. for 4 days; first on Day 13, decreasing doses) and PGFalpha analog (750 microg i.m.: Uniandine ND, Schering-Plough, Levallois-Perret, France) injected at the time of third FSH injection. Artificial inseminations were performed 12 and 24 h after standing estrus (Day 0). Embryos were collected on Day 7. Luteinizing hormone was measured by EIA (Reprokit Sanofi, Libourne, France) from blood samples collected every 3 h for 36 h, starting 24 h after PGF2alpha (control cycle) or 12 h after CIDR-B removal (CIDR-B cycle). The effects of treatment group and interval between the LH peak and AI (two classes, or = 10 h) on embryo production and quality were analyzed by ANOVA. No effect of treatment was observed on embryo production variables. The intervals between the end of treatment and onset of estrus and between end of treatment and LH surge were greater in heifers treated during a control than a CIDR-B cycle, respectively (45.5 +/- 1.4 versus 31.9 +/- 0.7; 42.0 +/- 1.6 versus 31.0 +/- 1.5; P or = 10 h (7.2 +/- 0.9 and 3.5 +/- 0.6) when compared to shorter intervals (4.2 +/- 1.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.7) whereas total number of embryos was unchanged (11.8 +/- 1.4 versus 10.3 +/- 1.8). It is concluded that late occurrence of LH peaks in relation to estrous behavior is associated with a lower embryo quality when first AIs are performed systematically 12 h after standing estrus. Further studies are needed to know if results may be improved when making AI at a later time after standing estrus or if LH assays are useful to

  20. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Jilei; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Lanjing; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Zhenwen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, a zoonosis which occurs worldwide. As there is little reliable data on the organism in China, we investigated C. burnetii infections in dairy cattle herds around the country. Opportunistic whole blood samples were collected from 1140 dairy cattle in 19 herds, and antibodies to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens were detected using commercial ELISA kits. Seropositive cattle (381/1140, 33 %) were detected in 13 of the 15 surveyed provinces and in 16 of the 19 herds (84 %) studied. Our data indicates C. burnetii is widespread in China and that animal and human health workers should be aware of the possibility of Q fever infection in their patients.

  1. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  2. Effects in cattle of genetic variation within the IGF1R gene on the superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Yang, Li-Guo; Riaz, Hasan; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Chen, Long; Li, Shu-Jing

    2013-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating most biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, and has an important effect on ovulation, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy rate. The objectives of this study were to detect IGF1R gene polymorphisms of cattle and analyze the relationship with superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET), as well as the hormone concentrations at the day of ET. One reported SNP of IGF1R G404T and a novel SNP of IGF1R G399A were analyzed in 170 Chinese Holstein donor cows and 118 Luxi recipients cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that the G404T mutation was associated (p=0.019) with increased ovulation rate and females with this mutation had enhanced performance in producing transferable embryos. For the polymorphic locus G399A, recipients with g.399 GG and g.399 GA genotypes had greater pregnancy rates after ET than that of g.399 AA genotype. Furthermore, the same tendency was observed that the genotype groups with greater pregnancy rates had greater progesterone and lesser estrogen concentrations, but these did not reach statistical significance. Results of the present study showed, for the first time, that the polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with superovulation traits, and indicated that the IGFIR gene can be used as a potential marker for donor selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle

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    Giuseppe Pulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.

  4. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered.

  5. Research on Synchronization of Estrus and Superovulation of the Nanyang Cattle%南阳牛同期发情和超数排卵研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雪旺; 宋亚鹏; 牛晖; 肖杰

    2014-01-01

    为探讨南阳牛的同期发情和超数排卵方案,采用1次氯前列烯醇(PG )法、2次PG法、孕激素阴道栓(CIDR)+PG法3种同期发情方法,PG+垂体促卵泡素(FSH)和CIDR+FSH+PG法2种超排方案对南阳牛进行处理,FS H剂量分别采用270、300、330 mg/头,研究不同药物、方法、剂量对南阳牛同期发情率和超排效果的影响。结果显示,CIDR+PG法、2次PG法处理的同期发情率较高,分别显著高于1次PG处理38.26、35.30个百分点;用PG+FS H法和CIDR+FS H+PG法对南阳牛进行超排处理的头均黄体数、头均获胚总数和头均可用胚数均无显著差异;300 mg/头 FSH剂量组的育成牛头均可用胚数显著高于270、330 m g/头剂量组;330 m g/头剂量组的经产牛头均可用胚数显著高于270、330 mg/头剂量组。表明,南阳牛比较适宜的同期发情方案为CIDR+ PG 法和2次PG法,超数排卵方案为PG+FSH和CIDR+FSH+PG法,FSH的适宜剂量为育成牛300 mg/头、经产牛330 m g/头。%To discourse the effect of different medicines and treatments on the synchronization of estrus and superovulation ,three methods of synchronization of estrus (single treatment with PG , double treatment with PG ,CIDR+PG) and two superovulation plans(PG+ FSH ,CIDR+ FSH+PG) were used with 270 ,300 ,330 mg FSH on the Nanyang cattle in this research ,respectively . The results showed that :The synchronization of estrus rate of the double treatment with PG group and the combination CIDR with PG group were higher than the single treatment with PG group by 38.26 and 35.30 percenge points ;There were no significant difference of the corpus lu-teum ,picking embryo and available embryos after Nanyang cattles were superovulated with PG +FSH method and CIDR+FSH+PG method ,respectively .The effect on the delivered female cattle was slightly better than the heifer ,but the difference was not significant ;The available embryos of

  6. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  7. International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle

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    F. Canavesi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

  8. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower.

  9. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

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    João Cruz Reis Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d, fat (fat 305-d, protein (protein 305-d, lactose (lactose 305-d, and total solids (TS 305-d yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM, age at first calving (AFC and calving intervals (CI. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  10. Strategies for reduced antibiotic usage in dairy cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, Erminio; Zecconi, Alfonso; Cogrossi, Simone; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Grossi, Paolo; Amadori, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The need for antibiotic treatments in dairy cattle farms can be reduced by a combined intervention scheme based on: (1) timely clinical inspections, (2) the assessment of animal-based welfare parameters, and (3) the use of predictive laboratory tests. These can provide greater insight into environmental adaptation of dairy cows and define animals at risk of contracting disease. In the long-term, an improved disease control justifies the adoption of such a combined strategy. Many antibiotic treatments for chronic disease cases are often not justified with a cost/benefit analysis, because the repeated drug administration does not give rise to the expected outcome in terms of animal health. In particular, compared with untreated cases, antibiotics may not lead to greater cure rates for some forms of mastitis. Lastly, a substantial reduction of antibiotic usage in dairy farms can be achieved through the proper use of immunomodulators, aimed at increasing immunocompetence and disease resistance of cows.

  11. Identification of Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates thatCryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvumsubtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidiumoocysts.

  12. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  13. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  14. Variation on DNA microsatellite of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in Baturaden Dairy Cattle Breeding Center

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    C Sumantri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight microsatellite loci of which the locations were three on chromosome 6 (BTA6 namely CSN 3, BM 143 and BM 415; two on chromosome 9 (BTA9 namely ETH 225 and BM 4208; and three on chromosome 10 (BTA10 namely BP 31, BM 1237 and BM 888 were used to investigate genotypic variation of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cows in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. Research activities were carried out through some steps involving blood collection, DNA isolation, amplification on DNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and separation by electrophoresis with silver staining. Frequency and heterozygosity of genes under consideration were calculated. The results showed that the eight microsatellite loci exhibited a total number of 33 alleles. Locations of those alleles were five in BM 143 and BM 4208 loci; four in BM 415, CSN 3, ETH 225, BM 1237, BM 888 loci; and three in BP 31 locus. A number of 14 out of 33 alleles might be specific alleles for HF dairy cattle in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. The lowest heterozygosity per locus (ĥ was 0.6151 for BM 415 whilst the highest one was 0.7301 for BM 888. Additionally, the average heterozygosity for all loci (Ĥ detected in this study was 0.6768. The genotype BB on locus BM 143 and AC on locus CSN-3 significantly affected (P<0.05 the estimated breeding value of milk yield of HF cows in this location.

  15. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

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    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  16. Niacin for dairy cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Inka-Donata; Hüther, Liane; Lebzien, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Due to the incorporation of niacin into the coenzymes NAD and NADP, niacin is of great importance for the metabolism of man and animals. Apart from niacin in feed and endogenous formation, microbial niacin synthesis in the rumen is an important source for dairy cows. But the amount synthesised seems to differ greatly, which might be influenced by the ration fed. Many studies revealed a positive impact of a niacin supplementation on rumen protozoa, but microbial protein synthesis or volatile fatty acid production in the rumen showed inconsistent reactions to supplemental niacin. The amount of niacin reaching the duodenum is usually higher when niacin is fed. However, not the whole quantity supplemented reaches the duodenum, indicating degradation or absorption before the duodenal cannula. Furthermore, supplementation of niacin did not always lead to a higher niacin concentration in blood. Effects on other blood parameters have been inconsistent, but might be more obvious when cows are in a tense metabolic situation, for example, ketosis or if high amounts are infused post-ruminally, since ruminal degradation appears to be substantial. The same is valid for milk parameters. In the few studies where blood niacin and milk parameters have been investigated, enhanced niacin concentrations in blood did not necessarily affect milk production or composition. These results are discussed in the present review, gaps of knowledge of niacin's mode of action on the metabolism of dairy cows are identified and directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of rout

  18. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book

  19. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organ

  20. An alternative approach to modeling genetic merit of feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic improvement of feed efficiency (FE) in dairy cattle requires greater attention given increasingly important resource constraint issues. A widely accepted yet occasionally contested measure of FE in dairy cattle is residual feed intake (RFI). The use of RFI is limiting for a number of reasons...

  1. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Gron

    Full Text Available New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C. site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

  2. Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz e Silva, Flávio Medeiros; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2012-02-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

  3. Longevity as an Animal Welfare Issue Applied to the Case of Foot Disorders in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    In current dairy farming it is possible to run a profitable farm without having to adapt the system to the needs of dairy cows. In such systems the interests of the farmer and animals often diverge. Consequently, specific animal welfare problems occur. Foot disorders in dairy cattle are an

  4. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  5. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Soo eKim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis, the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%. Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in eleven genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for

  6. Invasive Teat Surgery in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Donald; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Pennock, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to identify the nature and management of teat abnormalities in cows presented to a referral teaching hospital during a three year period. All cattle (n = 60) admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College for teat problems were evaluated by physical examination; in 53 teats, contrast radiography or xeroradiography were obtained. Surgery was performed on 52 teats from 51 cows and a prosthesis was implanted in 27 teats. Short term (under two weeks) complications included intraoperative bleeding (n = 6), milk leakage through the incision (n = 4), and failure to milk by machine in 26 cases. Histopathological diagnosis of sections taken from obstructive lesions included fibrous tissue (n = 8), normal mammary tissue (n = 3), fibropapilloma, mammary polyps, and inflamed mucosa (one each). The lesion could be classified into five types: 1) focal teat cistern obstruction, 2) diffuse teat cistern obstruction, 3) membranous obstruction, 4) diffuse teat and gland cistern obstruction, or 5) leakage of milk through an abnormal route (i.e. teat fistula, webbed teat, or lacerations). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 4. PMID:17422937

  7. 弗莱维赫牛在北京地区超数排卵效果初探%Superovulation of Fleckvieh Cattle in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伯阳; 李卓琳; 田凤; 姬向东; 郭勇; 倪和民

    2017-01-01

    To fully explore the reproductive potential of import dual-purpose cattle Fleckvieh,determine its feasible scheme of superovulation in Beijing and quickly establish a core group of Fleckvieh,two superovulation experiments were conducted in spring (Match) and autumn (September) respectively.The superovulation doses were based on cattles' weight and nutritional status,and the proceedings of the two experiments were the same.The results showed that the average number of available embryos per female (5.33± 1.51) and pregnancy rate (81.82%) in spring had no significant difference compared with those in autumn (6.00 ± 1.83,69.57%) (P>0.05).There were no significant difference on the average number of available embryos per multiparity between spring (6.50±2.21) and autumn (5.33±0.58) (P>0.05).And there were also no significant difference on the average number of available embryos per nulliparity between spring (5.75 ± 1.26) and autumn (4.50 ± 2.38) (P>0.05).The results indicated that this scheme could be used to conduct superovulation of Fleckvieh at different parities both in spring and autumn in Beijing.%为了充分挖掘进口乳肉兼用牛弗莱维赫的繁殖潜力,探寻在北京地区饲养的乳肉兼用牛超数排卵的可行性方案,实现快速建立核心群的目标,在春季(3月份)和秋季(9月份)对同一牛群进行2次超排处理,2次超排程序相同,超排用药量主要依据其体重与营养状况.结果表明:春季的头均可用胚数和妊娠率分别为(5.33±1.51)枚、81.82%,秋季的头均可用胚数和妊娠率分别为(6.00±1.83)枚、69.57%,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).经产牛在春季、秋季的头均可用胚数分别为(6.50±2.21)、(5.33±0.58)枚,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).育成牛在春季、秋季头均可用胚胎数分别为(5.75±1.26)、(4.50±2.38)枚,二者之间差异不显著(P>0.05).该试验方案可用于北京地区不同胎次弗莱维赫牛的超数排卵,超排季节可选春季或秋季.

  8. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  9. GENETIC ASPECTS OF MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors reviewed the genetic aspects of milk coagulation ability focusing on heritability and genetic correlation values and on the breed and milk protein loci effects on rennet coagulation time and curd firmness. The review discussed milk and cheese yield production all over the world concluding that the per capita retail demand for cheese will increase with a mean annual growth rate of 0.8%. Therefore, in the future, cheese production will continue to be one of the major livestock food products around the world. The development of new payment systems for milk considering the intrinsic value for cheese making ability, could be an important opportunity for select best individual within dairy cattle breeds and to preserve, among dairy cattle breeds, those with high milk coagulation properties. Often these genetic resources, beyond their genetic value, also exercise a positive influence on sustainability of milk production in fragile environments, such as mountain areas, preserving an important cultural value (history, traditions, arts, and literature.

  10. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  11. Major advances associated with environmental effects on dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Dahl, G E; VanBaale, M J

    2006-04-01

    It has long been known that season of the year has major impacts on dairy animal performance measures including growth, reproduction, and lactation. Additionally, as average production per cow has doubled, the metabolic heat output per animal has increased substantially rendering animals more susceptible to heat stress. This, in turn, has altered cooling and housing requirements for cattle. Substantial progress has been made in the last quarter-century in delineating the mechanisms by which thermal stress and photoperiod influence performance of dairy animals. Acclimation to thermal stress is now identified as a homeorhetic process under endocrine control. The process of acclimation occurs in 2 phases (acute and chronic) and involves changes in secretion rate of hormones as well as receptor populations in target tissues. The time required to complete both phases is weeks rather than days. The opportunity may exist to modify endocrine status of animals and improve their resistance to heat and cold stress. New estimates of genotype x environment interactions support use of recently available molecular and genomics tools to identify the genetic basis of heat-stress sensitivity and tolerance. Improved understanding of environmental effects on nutrient requirements has resulted in diets for dairy animals during different weather conditions. Demonstration that estrus behavior is adversely affected by heat stress has led to increased use of timed insemination schemes during the warm summer months to improve conception rates by discarding the need to detect estrus. Studies evaluating the effects of heat stress on embryonic survival support use of cooling during the immediate postbreeding period and use of embryo transfer to improve pregnancy rates. Successful cooling strategies for lactating dairy cows are based on maximizing available routes of heat exchange, convection, conduction, radiation, and evaporation. Areas in dairy operations in which cooling systems have been

  12. [Eradication of Prototheca zopfii infection in a dairy cattle herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, U; Hensel, A

    2003-09-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds.

  13. Evaluating an intervention to reduce lameness in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D C J; Leach, K A; Barker, Z E; Sedgwick, A K; Maggs, C M; Bell, N J; Whay, H R

    2012-06-01

    Lameness in dairy cattle remains a significant welfare concern for the UK dairy industry. Farms were recruited into a 3-yr study evaluating novel intervention approaches designed to encourage farmers to implement husbandry changes targeted toward reducing lameness. All farms completing the study were visited at least annually and received either monitoring only (MO, n=72) or monitoring and additional support (MS, n = 117) from the research team. The additional support included traditional technical advice on farm-specific solutions, facilitation techniques to encourage farmer participation, and application of social marketing principles to promote implementation of change. Lameness prevalence was lower in the MO (27.0 ± 1.94 SEM) and MS (21.4 ± 1.28) farms at the final visit compared with the same MO (38.9 ± 2.06) and MS (33.3 ± 1.76) farms on the initial visit. After accounting for initial lameness, intervention group status, and year of visit within a multilevel model, we observed an interaction between year and provision of support, with the reduction in lameness over time being greater in the MS group compared with the MO group. Farms in the MS group made a greater number of changes to their husbandry practices over the duration of the project (8.2 ± 0.39) compared with those farms in the MO group (6.5 ± 0.54). Because the lameness prevalence was lower in the MS group than the MO group at the start of the study, the contribution of the additional support was difficult to define. Lameness can be reduced on UK dairy farms although further work is needed to identify the optimum approaches. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  15. Seroprevalences of vector-transmitted infections of small-holder dairy cattle in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D

    2001-11-02

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to

  16. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  17. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  18. Test-day models for South African dairy cattle for participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test-day models for South African dairy cattle for participation in international ... Multitrait evaluations were done for the production traits (milk, butterfat and protein) ... Genetic correlations between South Africa and other participating countries, ...

  19. Genetic evaluation of reproductive performance in Canadian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Miglior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genetic evaluation system for the reproductive performance of dairy cattle has been developed in Canada. The evaluation system includes all traits related to reproductive performance, namely age at first service as a heifer trait, interval from calving to first service for cows and 7 traits each for both heifers and cows (56-days non return rate, interval from first service to conception, number of services to conception, gestation length, direct and maternal calving ease, direct and maternal calf survival and direct and maternal calf size. The model of analysis is a 16-trait animal model with different fixed effects according to the analyzed trait. Two indices for daughter fertility and calving performance have been developed. The impact of including the two indices in the national selection index was assessed.

  20. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Daniël L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences.

  1. Measuring Thermal Stress of Dairy Cattle Based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI) in Tropical Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiono; Dewi Hardiningtyas; Rudy Soenoko

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort for workers is very important factor to increase their performance, as well as the comfort level of dairy cattle will influence in milk productivity. The purposes of the paper is to measure the level of heat stress and then use the information to design the dairy cattle house for increasing thermal comfort. The research is started with literature review of heat stress and early survey of environment condition e.g. temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. The next step is...

  2. Design of Information System for Milking Dairy Cattle and Detection of Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Chih Chen; Chien-Hsing Chen; Chong-Yu Siang

    2014-01-01

    A novel information system for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle and managing their milking processes in the milking parlor is designed. The system comprises three major subsystems—the mastitis detection device, the information display device, and the cloud database. The mastitis detection device can detect and evaluate the degree of mastitis immediately before the milking operations are carried out. The information display device shows information on the health of the dairy cattle obtained ...

  3. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  4. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  5. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  6. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P

  7. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress affects production and reproduction in dairy cattle. Genetic selection for body temperature might help to decrease the effects of heat stress on those traits. Objectives of the current study were a) to estimate genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows under heat stress cond...

  8. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P r

  9. Changes in the veterinary management of dairy cattle: threats or opportunities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    Developments in dairy practice. During the last 25 years many Western countries have witnessed substantial changes in the role of veterinarians working in dairy cattle practice. Until the 1970s, the emphasis of their work was on the treatment of individual, clinically diseased animals, and it was

  10. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: Causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-12-29

    Dairy cattle commonly sort total mixed rations, a behavior that influences individual nutrient intake and reduces the nutritive value of the ration left in the bunk across the day. Typical patterns of feed sorting in lactating dairy cows, against longer forage particles, result in greater intake of highly-fermentable carbohydrates and lesser intake of effective fiber than intended, and are associated with reduced rumen pH and altered milk composition. To understand the reason for this behavior and reduce it on-farm, numerous studies have explored the influences of ration characteristics, feeding strategies, and management factors on the expression of feed sorting. In mature cows and young calves, feed sorting is influenced by forage inclusion rate, particle size, and dry matter content. Feeding strategies that increase the time available to manipulate feed-including decreased feeding frequency and increased feeding level-may result in increased feed sorting. The extent of feed sorting is also influenced by a variety of herd-level factors, but variability between individuals in the extent of feed sorting suggests that this behavior may be subject to additional factors, including previous experience and internal state. The development of feed sorting in young calves has been explored in several recent studies, suggesting that early opportunities to sort feed, as provided by access to mixed diets, may encourage the early onset of this behavior and help it persist beyond weaning. Evidence also supports the role of feedback mechanisms that influence this behavior at the individual level. In calves and adult cows, selective consumption of higher-energy ration components may be linked to energy demands, as influenced by the availability of supplemental feed or changing metabolic status. Further, considerable evidence suggests that cattle will adjust patterns of feed sorting in favor of physically effective fiber to attenuate low rumen pH, providing evidence for the role

  11. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Corwin D; Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Sacco, Randy E; Powell, Jessi L; Drewnoski, Mary E; O'Neil, Matthew; Beitz, Donald C; Weiss, William P

    2016-12-01

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the typical serum 25(OH)D concentrations of dairy cattle across various dairy operations. The serum 25(OH)D concentration of 702 samples collected from cows across various stages of lactation, housing systems, and locations in the United States was 68±22ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation), with the majority of samples between 40 and 100ng/mL. Most of the 12 herds surveyed supplemented cows with 30,000 to 50,000 IU of vitamin D3/d, and average serum 25(OH)D of cows at 100 to 300 DIM in each of those herds was near or above 70ng/mL regardless of season or housing. In contrast, average serum 25(OH)D of a herd supplementing with 20,000 IU/d was 42±15ng/mL, with 22% below 30ng/mL. Cows in early lactation (0 to 30d in milk) also had lower serum 25(OH)D than did mid- to late-lactation cows (57±17 vs. 71±20ng/mL, respectively). Serum 25(OH)D of yearling heifers receiving 11,000 to 12,000 IU of vitamin D3/d was near that of cows at 76±15ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of calves, on the other hand, was 15±11ng/mL at birth and remained near or below 15ng/mL through 1mo of age if they were fed pasteurized waste milk with little to no summer sun exposure. In contrast, serum 25(OH)D of calves fed milk replacer containing 6,600 and 11,000 IU of vitamin D2/kg of dry matter were 59±8 and 98±33ng/mL, respectively, at 1mo of age. Experimental data from calves similarly indicated that serum 25(OH

  12. Epidemiological profile of reproductive loss in dairy cattle

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    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum

  13. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  14. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  15. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET of Cipelang

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    Cece Sumantri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken from cows that have been superovulated Angus, Brahman, HF, Limousin and Simmental. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR using specific primers for GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 gene. PCR product was cut with restriction enzyme MspI, AluI, HaeIII and HinfI and electrophoresed on agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr. Superovulation is done by injecting a totally of 20 ml FSH for 4 days. Injecting the prostaglandin hormone (PGF2α was performed on the eleventh day of CIDR implantation. Artificial insemination (AI performed two or three days after the injection of PGF2α and Flushing was done on the seventh day after the AI. The results showed that the Angus, Limousin, Brahman and Simental GH loci diversity of GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR|AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI was not associated with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryo rate. In HF dairy cattle, genotype on Pit-1|HinfI AA has higher percentage of superovulation response (P < 0.05 when compared to AB genotype, but did not differ to BB genotype. Dairy cattle HF AA genotype also had higher ovulation rate (P < 0.05 when compared to AB and BB genotypes, but AB and BB have the same ovulation rate.

  16. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  17. Breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Amer, P R

    2012-06-01

    Trait-by-trait and multiple trait bioeconomic modeling were used to derive farm-specific economic weights (EW) for a wide range of traits under different production and economic circumstances to define breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran. Production parameters and economic data were gathered on 10 dairy farms from March 2008 to February 2010. The EW (economic values multiplied by gene expressions, in US dollars per unit of trait per calf born from sires of self-replacing females in planning horizon of 20 yr) were estimated to be $0.15 per kilogram of milk yield; $1.36 per kilogram of fat yield; -$1.02 per kilogram of protein yield; $4.59 per month of longevity; -$1.22 per kilogram of mature cow weight; -$105.67 for combined somatic cell score and clinical mastitis; -$1.35 and -$0.28 for percentage direct and maternal calving difficulties, respectively; -$3.98 for percentage direct stillbirth; -$0.76 per day of age at first calving; -$0.72 per calving interval day; and $0.91 for percentage 56-d nonreturn rate on averages across investigated farms. The coefficient of variation of economic weights across the 10 farms was lowest for direct calving difficulty and highest for calving interval. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of major countries exporting semen to Iran. Average relative emphasis for production, durability, and health and reproduction, across all exporter countries, was 41, 37.5, and 21.5%, respectively, whereas the respective values were 50, 14, and 36% for the Iranian index. Significant differences in selection indices may potentially decrease the utility of importation of semen as a means of achieving sustainable genetic progress in Iran. Results obtained in this study provide important information about economic values of traits that can be used to improve the Iranian national progeny testing program as well as importation rules for semen to Iran.

  18. Transgenic dairy cattle: genetic engineering on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R J; Kerr, D E; Bondioli, K R

    1997-09-01

    Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportunity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene "pharming" industry is to produce pharmaceuticals for treating human diseases. It is argued that mammary glands are an ideal site for producing complex bioactive proteins that can be cost effectively harvested and purified. Consequently, during the past decade, approximately a dozen companies have been created to capture the US market for pharmaceuticals produced from transgenic bioreactors estimated at $3 billion annually. Several products produced in this way are now in human clinical trials. Another research direction, which has been widely discussed but has received less attention in the laboratory, is genetic engineering of the bovine mammary gland to alter the composition of milk destined for human consumption. Proposals include increasing or altering endogenous proteins, decreasing fat, and altering milk composition to resemble that of human milk. Initial studies using transgenic mice to investigate the feasibility of enhancing manufacturing properties of milk have been encouraging. The potential profitability of gene "pharming" seems clear, as do the benefits of transgenic cows producing milk that has been optimized for food products. To take full advantage of enhanced milk, it may be desirable to restructure the method by which dairy producers are compensated. However, the cost of producing functional transgenic cattle will remain a severe limitation to realizing the potential of transgenic cattle until inefficiencies of transgenic technology are overcome. These inefficiencies include low rates of gene integration, poor embryo survival, and unpredictable transgene

  19. Babesiosis and anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in Northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco de A.L. Souza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological situation and the factors involved in the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in the dairy basin of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil. The study was conducted in 22 farms, and collected blood samples from 202 cattle to study serological, molecular and determination of the packed cell volume (PCV. On the farms were applied surveys involving epidemiological aspects. Seroprevalence rates were: Babesia bigemina 52.5%, B. bovis 68.8%, and Anaplasma marginale 89.1%. Of the samples analyzed, 73.3% were reactive for Babesia spp. and A. marginale, showing co-infection. In PCR, B. bigemina and B. bovis were positive in 52.0% and 33.2% respectively, and A. marginale in 76.2%. Of these, 51.5% amplified DNA of Babesia spp. and A. marginale. The semi-intensive management predominated in 68.0% of the farms studied. The clinical history of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, was reported from 73% of the farms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between age groups and for the PCV of positive compared with negative animals. The study indicates that in this region is enzootic instability for babesiosis and enzootic stability for anaplasmosis, reinforcing the fact that in Brazil there are areas of enzootic instability, even in tropical regions of the country. The PCR technique was a valuable tool for the diagnosis of these diseases and may be used to characterize a geographic region.

  20. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R

    2012-01-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and

  1. Frictional forces required for unrestrained locomotion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, P P J; Metz, J H M; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Back, W; Braam, C R; Weijs, W A

    2005-02-01

    Most free-stall housing systems in the Netherlands are equipped with slatted or solid concrete floors with manure scrapers. A slipping incident occurs when the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) exceeds the coefficient of friction (COF) at the claw-floor interface. An experiment was conducted to measure ground reaction forces (GRF) of dairy cows (n = 9) performing various locomotory behaviors on a nonslippery rubber-covered concrete floor. The RCOF was determined as the ratio of the horizontal and vertical components of the GRF. It was shown that during straight walking and walking-a-curve, the RCOF reached values up to the COF, whereas for sudden stop-and-start responses, the RCOF reached values beyond the maximum COF that concrete floors can provide. Our results indicate that concrete floors do not provide enough friction to allow natural locomotory behavior and suggest that tractional properties of floors should be main design criteria in the development of better flooring surfaces for cattle.

  2. ANATOMOPATHOLOGY OF PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY CATTLE FROM RESENDE - RJ

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    Ana Bárbara Freitas Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis. The purpose of this work was to report the anatomopathology of three cases of paratuberculosis in autochthonous dairy cattle from Resende, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Animals presented characteristic clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis and were seroreactive to ELISA. They were euthanized and necropsied. Small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and ileocecal valve samples were collected and processed for histopathology and bacteriology. Tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, processed for paraffin inclusion, and stained by HE (haemathoxilin-eosin and ZN (Ziehl-Neelsen. Macroscopic alterations such as small intestine wall segmental thickness, mucosal hyperaemia, and corrugation were observed. Ileocaecal valve emaciation, evident mesenteric lymphadenomegally, and lymphangiectasy were also present. The main histopathological findings were enteritis, lymphangitis and granulomatous lymphadenitis. Intestinal lesions were mainly restricted to mucosa and submucosa of jejune and ileum, characterized by inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, and scarce giant Langhan’s–type cells. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were observed into macrophages on the top of villi, lamina propria and lymph nodes parenchyma. Anatomopathology was characteristic for the disease and was considered a valuable tool for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

  3. Potency and developmental strategy of dairy cattle bussines in Pangkalan Kerinci, Pelalawan district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septina Elida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available otential dairy development enhanced by availability of food, farmers knowledge, the demand for milk, farmer's income, market infrastructure, the role of credit institutions and government policies. The study aims are to analyze the condition of the resource, technical and economic aspects in the business of dairy cattle as well as alternative strategies for deployment. Research conducted using survey method. The results showed that the relative resource support dairy cattle business, family’s labor and the motivation to develop, fodder and traditional medicines obtained in the environment of the area, population LQ categorized as a regional base. Technical in dairy cattle business well known and economically advantageous RCR value of 2.22; GMP 56%; NPM 52%; TAT 48%; and the ROI of 11%. Based on the SWOT strategy in developing the dairy cattle business in the District of Pangkalan Kerinci is SO strategy (Strength-Opportunity, which is a strategy that supports an aggressive growth (Growth oriented, using enforcement utilization of opportunities and policy based on priorities. The development policies stategy consisting improving capital acces, maximized culture technology, increasing cattle population and production, improving farmer knowledge in diversification of agroindustri product, creating adequate forage, improving product competitiveness, and product promotion.

  4. Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C

    2013-11-23

    National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

  5. Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Petzer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253. There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583 between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456. Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414 and composite (R2 = 0.262 milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008 and udder half samples (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054 and a weak negative correlation

  6. Association of oxidative status and insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cattle: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-04-01

    Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle.

  7. Effects of Dairy Cattle Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Fertility of Soils Grown with Cichorium intybus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore recycling utilization of manure of dairy cattle through returning of manures into fields. [Method] Effects of dairy cattle ma- nure and chemical fertilizer on fertility of soils grown with Cichorium intybus were in- vestigated through a pot experiment. [Result] After manure of dairy cattle was ap- plied, it can be concluded that organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable ni- trogen, available P, activities of urease and invertase in soils increased by 0.14-1.28 times, 43.8%-79.7%, 17.4%-30.8%, 147%-188%, 7 times, 17.2%-38.5%, and 1.36%- 3.34%, respectively. Furthermore, organic matter, total N. urease and invertase activi- ties in group of M7F3 increased most; total P and available P achieved the best in group of M3F7. These indicated that the applied manures of dairy cattle would maintain and improve soil fertility, providing better soils for Cichorium intybus. [Conclusion] The research provides reference for recycling of cattle manures and construction of ecological cyclical pattern of "grass planting-cattle breeding-methane fermentation-returning of manures into fields".

  8. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers for the Qualitative Behaviour Assessment in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Vries, de M.; Antonissen, I.C.M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA) is part of the Welfare Quality® protocol for dairy cattle, although its inter- and intra-observer reliability have not been reported. This study evaluated inter- and intra-observer reliability of the QBA for dairy cattle in experienced and inexperienced observe

  9. Cryptosporidiosis Risk in New Zealand Children Under 5 Years Old is Greatest in Areas with High Dairy Cattle Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.

  10. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  11. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan NAYEBZADEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Neospora caninum parasite causes abortion in cattle in virtually all parts of the world with enormous economic consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Lorestan Province, west of Iran. A total of 347 dairy cows were randomly selected. The serum of each case was analyzed for the possibility of the presence of antibody against N. caninum antigen, using the commercial kit: ELISA. The results of the ELISA test indicated that from 347 dairy cattle examined, the antibodies to N. caninum were found in 34 (9.8%. The percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 13.33%. This study also indicated that there was no significant relationship between seropositivity and such factors as the age, breed, and abortion history of the cattle. Moreover, no significant relationship between seroprevalence of infection among rural and industrial cows was found. The neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in cattle. Further studies are recommended to determine the relationship between this parasite and the occurrence of abortion in cattle in the province of Lorestan.

  12. Design of Information System for Milking Dairy Cattle and Detection of Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel information system for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle and managing their milking processes in the milking parlor is designed. The system comprises three major subsystems—the mastitis detection device, the information display device, and the cloud database. The mastitis detection device can detect and evaluate the degree of mastitis immediately before the milking operations are carried out. The information display device shows information on the health of the dairy cattle obtained from a cloud database to manage the milk production of a dairy farm. Importantly, the proposed system utilizes a wireless sensor network (WSN with low power consumption that connects the information display device with the remote management system. Experimental results reveal that our proposed system can reduce the risk of milking cattle with mastitis and improve efficiency of milk production.

  13. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, João Paulo A; Dohoo, Ian R; VanLeewen, John A

    2005-03-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and beef cattle for Canadian bovine practitioners. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection. Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. caninum from a Canadian perspective, culling decisions based on the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively made in the control of N. caninum-associated disease.

  14. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Renewability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of differents management practices is a way to remain in the dairy business. The reduction of the dairy cattle in São Paulo was 35.47% between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA. In São Paulo State the milk production was reduced by 29.7% IBGE (1995 and 2006. In milk production systems the adoption of the rotational grazing and the use of more inputs, causes a great impact on the environment. The objective of this paper is to assess these impacts in farms with the semi-intensive system of milk production. The emergy methodology was used to calculated the renewability of milk production system. The Renewability or degree of sustainability (%R = (R/Y  100 is the percentage of renewable emergy (R used by the system and Y is the sum of all the resources used by the system. In long periods of time, only production systems with a high percentage of renewable emergy will prevail to the stress of today's market, while those using a high percentage of non-renewable resources will certainly go into decline. The farm studied is located in the municipality of Guzolândia and yields 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. The farm is administered with the objective of profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserve the environment. Management decisions are defined with the support of operational control that collects and stores information necessary to manage pastures and animals. The results showed that the renewability mean of six years (2005 at 2011 is 14.83% (Table 1, indicating a high use of non-renewable resources, which places the environment in risk under these productive conditions. The recommendation is to use of natural resources in a best way, reducing market input costs, thus reducing the value of Y, and improving the Renewability of the milk production.

  15. Physiological parameters for thermal stress in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Calderaro Dalcin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate changes in physiological parameters of dairy cows and understand which physiological parameters show greater reliability for verification of heat stress. Blood samples were collected for analysis and included hematocrit (Ht, erythrocyte count (ERY, and hemoglobin count (HEMO. In addition, physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, and panting score (PS were recorded in 38 lactating cows. These varied according to genetic group (1/2, 3/4, and pure bred Holstein (HO. Analysis of variance considering the effects of genetic group, days, and their interaction as well as linear and quadratic effect of the black globe humidity index (BGHI was performed, as well as broken-line regression. These values were higher in pure HO than in 3/4 and 1/2 groups. The average BGHI during the morning was 74, when 70, 43, and 13% of pure HO, 3/4, and 1/2, respectively, presented RR above reference value. The RR was the best indicator of heat stress and its critical value was 116 breaths/min for 1/2, 140 for 3/4, and 168 breaths/min for pure HO cows. In the HO group, physiological variables increased linearly with BGHI, without presenting inflection in the regression. The inflection point occurred at a higher BGHI for the 1/2 group compared with the other groups. Hematocrit and HEMO were different among genetic groups and did not vary with BGHI, showing that stress was not sufficient to alter these hematological parameters. The 1/2 HO group was capable of maintaining normal physiological parameters for at least 3 BGHI units above that of HO and 1 to 3 units higher than 3/4 HO for RR and RT, respectively. Respiratory rate is the physiological parameter that best predicts heat stress in dairy cattle, and the 1/2 Holstein group is the best adapted to heat stress.

  16. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    soil surface and is less demanding on machinery and fuel. Besides that, it represents an economic and environmental costly technique. Among interviewed milk producers, 77.2% adopted no-tillage technique and 75.9% made use of plot rotation. Other practices were less used by milk producers, such as agroecology system (12.6% of sample; 20.2% informed to adopt technique to reduce water consumption, such as the collection of roof water and the construction of cisterns. Finally, 12.6% of producers adopted energy saving practices. We concluded that practices adopted by great number of producers can be more related to economic and quality variables, with an indirect effect on environmental factors. It means that, although practices can help to reduce negative environmental impact, there are still many possibilities to increase environmental sustainable competitiveness in dairy cattle in Paraná.

  17. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernández; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  18. Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

  19. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Characterising the bacterial microbiota across the gastrointestinal tracts of dairy cattle: membership and potential function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Zhang, Mengling; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-11-03

    The bacterial community composition and function in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of dairy cattle is very important, since it can influence milk production and host health. However, our understanding of bacterial communities in the GITs of dairy cattle is still very limited. This study analysed bacterial communities in ten distinct GIT sites (the digesta and mucosa of the rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) in six dairy cattle. The study observed 542 genera belonging to 23 phyla distributed throughout the cattle GITs, with the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominating. In addition, data revealed significant spatial heterogeneity in composition, diversity and species abundance distributions of GIT microbiota. Furthermore, the study inferred significant differences in the predicted metagenomic profiles among GIT regions. In particular, the relative abundances of the genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were overrepresented in the digesta samples of forestomaches, and the genes related to amino acid metabolism were mainly enriched in the mucosal samples. In general, this study provides the first deep insights into the composition of GIT microbiota in dairy cattle, and it may serve as a foundation for future studies in this area.

  1. Measuring Thermal Stress of Dairy Cattle Based on Temperature Humidity Index (THI in Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort for workers is very important factor to increase their performance, as well as the comfort level of dairy cattle will influence in milk productivity. The purposes of the paper is to measure the level of heat stress and then use the information to design the dairy cattle house for increasing thermal comfort. The research is started with literature review of heat stress and early survey of environment condition e.g. temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. The next step is using the information to determine the temperature humidity index (THI level for dairy cattle with maximum THI = 86 and 84 (moderate stress. The 3D CAD model and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD simulation are employed to looking for solution for reducing the discomfort thermal of dairy cattle. A scenario (fan air conditioning to get better condition of thermal comfort have been successfully presented with final THI index = 76 and 78 (mild stress. Finally, the paper shows how to reduce heat stress of cattle house by installation 3 exhaust fans in tropical climate.

  2. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY STRESS ON THE ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mahmoud Faleh Hayajneh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study attempts were made to measure the effect of pregnancy stress on the antioxidative capacity in the blood of dairy cattle. Results of the present study revealed that antioxidative capacity screens the health status of the animals. Animals far away from delivery time have higher levels of (ACW water soluble antioxidants in their blood which reflects healthier bodies while during this level decrease and it will adversely affect the health of cattle.

  3. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, M.; Deka, D. K.; Sarmah, P. C.; Islam, S.; S Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535), heifer (641) and adult (1163) cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Ex...

  4. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  5. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011-2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Elbers, A.R.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Quak, J; Boer-Luijtze, de, E.A.; Spek, van der, R.J.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Maas, H.A.; Spierenburg, M.A.H.; Kluijver, de, M.; Schaik,; Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011-January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seropreval...

  6. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kange'the, Erastus; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Mbae, Cecilia; Mulinge, Erastus; Monda, Joseph; Nyongesa, Concepta; Ambia, Julie; Njehu, Alice

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Faecal samples were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method; 16 % of the samples were also examined using immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. We found that members of dairy households had a dry season cryptosporidiosis prevalence of 4 % and wet season prevalence of 0.3 %, and non-dairy households, a prevalence of 5 and 0 %, respectively. The cattle dry season prevalence was 15 %, and the wet season prevalence, 11 %. The prevalence in people living with HIV was 5 %. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis. We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries.

  7. Willingness to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance: an analysis of dairy farmers in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Ameer; Chander, Mahesh; Bardhan, Dwaipayan

    2013-02-01

    In India, insurance market especially in agricultural sector is usually underdeveloped. The idea of livestock insurance emerged in India before three decades, yet, it has not operated in a significant way till date. It is well noted that livestock insurance scheme is the relevant strategy in managing different risks related to livestock farming but very little attention has been paid to address the livestock insurance needs of the dairy farmers. This study, therefore, addresses the basic question that how many people and to what extent they are willing to pay for livestock insurance and determine the main factors which influence insurance participation of dairy farmers. The data was collected from Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh in India with a sample survey of 120 cattle and buffalo farmers. For eliciting willingness to pay, a contingent valuation scenario was presented to dairy animal owners in the group of five to six. A logit discrete binary regression model was used to know the factors influencing adoption of livestock insurance. The results suggest that most of the farmers were willing to participate in cattle and buffalo insurance. The amount of premium varies across different breeds of dairy animals. The low level of education of many dairy farmers have negatively influenced the decision to purchase livestock insurance. Farmers having more experience in rearing dairy animals are more likely to be willing to pay for cattle and buffalo insurance.

  8. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535, heifer (641 and adult (1163 cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (3 years cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%, followed by monsoon (15%, winter (9.44%, and pre-monsoon (7.49% season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season.

  9. The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Arney, David R; Waran, Natalie K; Handel, Ian G; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-12-01

    Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 outdoor lactating dairy cows; experiment 2 (E2), 120 housed lactating dairy cows; experiment 3 (E3), 18 housed dairy calves; and experiment 4 (E4), 22 housed dairy bulls] from which a subset of individuals were permanently removed (E1, n=7; E2, n=5; E3, n=9; E4, n=18). Associations between individuals were established using near-neighbor scores (based upon identities and distances between animals recorded before removal) in E1, E2, and E3. Behavioral recordings were taken for 3 to 5 d, before and after removal on a sample of cattle in all 4 experiments (E1, n=20; E2, n=20; E3, n=9; E4, n=4). In 2 experiments with relatively large groups of dairy cows, E1 and E2, the responses of cows that did and did not associate with the removed cows were compared. An increase in time that both nonassociates and associates spent eating was observed after conspecific removal in E1. In E2, this increase was restricted to cows that had not associated with the removed cows. A reduction in ruminating in remaining cattle was observed in E3 and eating in E4. Immunoglobulin A concentrations increased after separation in both E3 and E4 cattle, but did not differ significantly between associates and nonassociates in E2. Blood and milk cortisol concentrations were not affected by conspecific removal. These findings suggest that some animals had affected feeding behavior and IgA concentrations after removal of conspecifics.

  10. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  11. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  12. Manual of good practices for welfare: a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Mendonça Pinto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Debate on ethics in animal production started in 1960s. Since that time, discussion on animal welfare (AW has taken large proportions, where laws and specific rules were created in some countries. Also, this issue has been considered a major subject, and discussed in different levels such as academic, business and social spheres. Although there is a lot of information and good practice manuals for livestock production, information is still limited so that animal welfare practices can be adopted on farms effectively. Currently, the development of protocols that can assess the level of AW in properties is a reality. For dairy cattle in intensive systems, the Welfare Quality® protocol evaluates and addresses critical points so that improvement might be implemented. However, little information exists for dairy cattle in extensive systems. Thus, based on covering actions directed by the animal welfare management, behavior, nutrition, health, facilities, transportation, and human resource management, a proposal for dairy cattle on pasture in Brazil aims to provide and to disseminate good AW practices for dairy cattle on pasture. Hence, a welfare manual for good practices was created, which describes the actions and strategies to best promote the AW in this livestock production.

  13. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Coppieters, W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A granddaughter design was used to locate quantitative trait loci determining conformation and functional traits in dairy cattle. In this granddaughter design, consisting of 20 Holstein Friesian grandsires and 833 sons, genotypes were determined for 277 microsatellite markers covering the whole geno

  14. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  15. Genomic selection strategies in a small dairy cattle population evaluated for genetic gain and profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Egger-Danner, C; Willam, A

    2014-01-01

    progeny testing. Strong positive interaction effects between increased reliability of genomic predictions and more intensive use of young bulls exist. From an economic perspective a juvenile scheme is always advantageous. The main future focus area for the smaller dairy cattle breeds is to join forces...

  16. Modelling approach to limit aflatoxin B1 contamination in dairy cattle compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their

  17. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large number of indivi

  18. Immunisation of smallholder dairy cattle against anaplasmosis and babesiosis in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the Southern Region of Malawi to evaluate the possible benefits of immunisation of improved dairy cattle against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Friesian crossbred heifers were immunised when they were being reared on Government farms...

  19. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing phosp...

  20. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  1. Across-Family Marker-Assisted Selection Using Selective Genotyping Strategies in Dairy Cattle Breeding Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Sørensen, A C; Lund, M S

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative...

  2. The importance of haplotype lenght and heritability using genomic selection in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, T M; Janss, L; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated to investi...

  3. Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the quantitative gene

  4. Dairy cattle evaluation using BLUP is just being implemented in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kainga

    Heterogeneity of variance and its implications on dairy cattle breeding. T.K. Muasya. 1,3# ... environments contributed more bull-dams at various selection intensities. Effects of ... The two variables provided a measure of production intensity in each production ... random residual error distributed as N(0, Iσ. YCl eijkl. 2 e).

  5. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    IntroductionNicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In the MOET nucleus bree

  6. Effect of time of artificial insemination on embryo sex ratio in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Bouwman, E.B.; Pedersen, H.G.; Riestra Rasmussen, Z.; Soede, N.M.; Thomsen, P.D.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether different intervals between insemination and ovulation have an influence on the sex of seven-day-old embryos in dairy cattle. Cows were inseminated once with semen of one of two bulls of proven fertility between 36 h before ovulation and 12 h

  7. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  8. Transmission and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in dairy cattle and calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Frankena, K.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out

  9. Neospora caninum serostatus in dairy cattle of the Northern plains of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chaparro G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine Neospora caninum seroprevalence in nonvaccinated dairy cattle from the Northern plains of Antioquia. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of neosporosis in a major dairy area of Colombia. Blood samples were collected from 1003 dairy cattle in 29 herds located in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros, in Antioquia. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA and the results classified as positive or negative. Results. Seropositive cattle were observed in all herds, with a prevalence ranging from 7 to 97% and a mean (±S.E of 37.1% (±4.2. The distribution of seropositive animals by age groups of <1, 1-2, 2-3 and ≥3 years old was 25.5, 30.3, 46.1 and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. There is a high seroprevalence of N. caninum in the main dairy cattle area of Antioquia. The large variation among herds suggests the presence of mayor risk factors whose identification would be essential to establish control programs. Considering that any seropositive cow has a greater risk to abort than uninfected mates, future studies should address the epidemiology of abortions that can be attributed to neosporosis and the type of control strategies that could be implemented.

  10. Derivation of sustainable breeding goals for dairy cattle using selection index theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, H.M.; Christensen, L.G.; Groen, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be adde

  11. Reliabilities of genomic prediction using combined reference data of the Nordic Red dairy cattle production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandén, I

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of increasing the reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) by combining reference opulations. The data were from 3,735 bulls from Danish, Swedish, and Finnish Red dairy cattle populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were fitted as random varia...

  12. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding plans with increased female reproductive rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Introduction

    Nicholas and Smith (1983) proposed Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET) nucleus breeding schemes to increase reponse rates in dairy cattle breeding. Predicted genetic gains were up to twice as high as those of conventional progeny testing schemes. In

  13. Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle cubicle houses via improved management - or design - bases strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, Luciano; Pieters, Jan G.; Snoek, J.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Brusselman, E.; Demeyer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the current scarcity of empirical data on ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy cattle under different management-
    based mitigation techniques, a modeling approach to assess potentialNH3 emission reduction factors is
    needed. This paper introduces a process-based model that estimates NH3 e

  14. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011-2012.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Loeffen, W.L.; Quak, S.; Boer-Luijtze, E. de; Spek, A.N. van der; Bouwstra, R.; Maas, R.; Spierenburg, M.A.; Kluijver, E.P. de; Schaik, G. van; Poel, W.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A t

  15. Increasing the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    GeneSeek designed a new version of the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler HD BeadChip for Dairy Cattle, which had >77,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A set of >140,000 SNPs was selected that included all SNPs on the existing GeneSeek chip, all SNPs used in U.S. national genomic evaluations, SNPs ...

  16. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  17. Protein fractionation byproduct from canola meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heendeniya, R G; Christensen, D A; Maenz, D D; McKinnon, J J; Yu, P

    2012-08-01

    Fiber-protein is a byproduct arising from a process for fractionating high-quality protein from canola meal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fiber-protein fraction by examining the chemical profiles, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestive characteristics and determining the nutritive value of the fiber-protein fraction as dietary components for dairy cattle in comparison with commercial canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy values were estimated based on National Research Council guidelines, whereas total true protein content potentially absorbable in the small intestine (DVE) were predicted using the predicted DVE/degraded protein balance (OEB) model. The results show that fiber-protein was a highly fibrous material [neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 556; acid detergent fiber (ADF): 463; acid detergent lignin: 241 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] compared with canola meal (NDF: 254; ADF: 212; acid detergent lignin: 90 g/kg of DM) due to the presence of a higher level of seed hulls in fiber-protein. Compared with canola meal, fiber-protein contained 90 g/kg of DM less crude protein (CP), 25% of which consisted of undegradable acid detergent-insoluble CP. Most of the ruminally undegradable nutrient components present in canola meal appeared to be concentrated into fiber-protein during the manufacturing process and, as a result, fiber-protein showed a consistently lower effective degradability of DM, organic matter, CP, NDF, and ADF compared with both canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy content in fiber-protein contained two-thirds of that of canola meal. The DVE was one-third that of soybean meal and one-fifth that of canola meal [DVE value: 58 vs. 180 (soybean) and 291 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. The OEB value of fiber protein was positive and about half of that of soybean and canola meal [OEB value: 74 vs. 162 (soybean) and 137 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. Fiber-protein can be considered as a secondary source of protein in ruminant feed.

  18. Genomic prediction for tuberculosis resistance in dairy cattle.

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    Smaragda Tsairidou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the UK and the limitations of the currently available diagnostic and control methods require the development of complementary approaches to assist in the sustainable control of the disease. One potential approach is the identification of animals that are genetically more resistant to bTB, to enable breeding of animals with enhanced resistance. This paper focuses on prediction of resistance to bTB. We explore estimation of direct genomic estimated breeding values (DGVs for bTB resistance in UK dairy cattle, using dense SNP chip data, and test these genomic predictions for situations when disease phenotypes are not available on selection candidates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated DGVs using genomic best linear unbiased prediction methodology, and assessed their predictive accuracies with a cross validation procedure and receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves. Furthermore, these results were compared with theoretical expectations for prediction accuracy and area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC. The dataset comprised 1151 Holstein-Friesian cows (bTB cases or controls. All individuals (592 cases and 559 controls were genotyped for 727,252 loci (Illumina Bead Chip. The estimated observed heritability of bTB resistance was 0.23±0.06 (0.34 on the liability scale and five-fold cross validation, replicated six times, provided a prediction accuracy of 0.33 (95% C.I.: 0.26, 0.40. ROC curves, and the resulting AUC, gave a probability of 0.58, averaged across six replicates, of correctly classifying cows as diseased or as healthy based on SNP chip genotype alone using these data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide a first step in the investigation of the potential feasibility of genomic selection for bTB resistance using SNP data. Specifically, they demonstrate that genomic selection is possible, even in populations with no pedigree data and on animals lacking b

  19. Responses to diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in dairy and non-dairy cattle naturally exposed to Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S H; Broughan, J M; Goodchild, A V; Upton, P A; Durr, P A

    2016-10-01

    Field surveillance of British cattle using the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test shows a higher incidence rate of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy compared to beef herds, but a lower probability of post-mortem examination confirmed (PMC) Mycobacterium bovis infection in dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare animal level differences in bTB detection between dairy and non-dairy cattle in Great Britain. During the period from 2002 to 2005, 200 (41% dairy) reactors in the SICCT test (standard interpretation) were randomly selected, and 200 in-contact cattle (43% dairy) were purposively selected from bTB-infected herds. Interferon (IFN)-γ responses in blood to bovine and avian purified protein derivative (PPD), and early secretory antigen target 6 kDa and culture filtrate protein 10 (ESAT-6/CFP10), were measured. The post-mortem examination included gross pathological examination, mycobacterial culture and histopathology. The proportions of cattle positive to ESAT6/CFP10 were 26% (95% confidence interval, CI, 15-39%) in dairy reactors and 62% (95% CI 51-72%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors and 69% (95% CI 60-78%) in non-dairy reactors (P dairy reactors compared to non-dairy reactors, after controlling for bTB prevalence, herd size and SICCT test response, was 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.53; P dairy reactors than for beef reactors aged >2 years (P <0.001).

  20. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  1. Seroprevalence of Neospora Caninum Infection in Dairy Cattle in Tabriz, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Moghaddam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibody to Neospora can­inum in healthy and aborted dairy cattle in Tabriz, capital of East-Azarbaijan in northwest of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study serum samples were collected from 266 healthy and ab­orted Holestein-Feriesisnc cows from September 2008 to August 2009. The sera were analyzed to de­tect of antibody against N. caninum using the commercially ELISA kit.Results: Seroprevalence of antibody to N. caninum was 10.5% in Tabriz dairy cattle. Also the abortion rate in all cattle sampled was 33.6% but percentage of seropositive aborted cattle was 18.4%.Conclusion: Neosporosis could be one of the possible causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Tabriz and regarding the distribution in dogs as definitive host for the parasite, further studies in dog and cat­tle are recommended.

  2. Detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in young dairy and beef cattle in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.

  3. Comparison between two methods of measurement of milking speed in dairy cattle reared in Trento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milking speed can be considered an important functional trait in dairy cattle, with regard to udder health, and to improve the dairy profits (Mein, 1998, Blake and McDaniel, 1978; Meyer and Burnside, 1987; Luttinen and Juga, 1997; Dodenhoff et al., 2000, Bagnato et al., 2001. National Breeders Association of Italian Brown and Friesian cattle are official recording milking speed using a flowmeter (Lactocorder by Foss Electric and subjective evaluation given by the farmer, respectively. The flowmeter is an instrument easily adaptable on different milking machine (Santus and Bagnato, 1999, but it does not allow a complete recording of all cows in all dairy herds, especially when located in mountain area.......

  4. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Soumya; Chakravarty, A. K.; Singh, Avtar; Upadhyay, Arpan; Singh, Manvendra; Yousuf, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI) is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The objective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ) (October to March) is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September) and critical HSZ (CHSZ) (May and June). Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate. PMID:27057105

  5. Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Dash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress has adverse effects on the reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes. The dairy sector is a more vulnerable to global warming and climate change. The temperature humidity index (THI is the widely used index to measure the magnitude of heat stress in animals. The bjective of this paper was to assess the decline in performances of reproductive traits such as service period, conception rate and pregnancy rate of dairy cattle and buffaloes with respect to increase in THI. The review stated that service period in cattle is affected by season of calving for which cows calved in summer had the longest service period. The conception rate and pregnancy rate in dairy cattle were found decreased above THI 72 while a significant decline in reproductive performances of buffaloes was observed above threshold THI 75. The non-heat stress zone (HSZ (October to March is favorable for optimum reproductive performance, while fertility is depressed in HSZ (April to September and critical HSZ (CHSZ (May and June. Heat stress in animals has been associated with reduced fertility through its deleterious impact on oocyte maturation and early embryo development. The management strategies viz., nutrition modification, environment modification and timed artificial insemination protocol are to be strictly operated to ameliorate the adverse effects of heat stress in cattle and buffaloes during CHSZ to improve their fertility. The identification of genes associated with heat tolerance, its incorporation into breeding program and the inclusion of THI covariate effects in selection index should be targeted for genetic evaluation of dairy animals in the hot climate.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in plasma and milk following subcutaneous administration to lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoliang, P; Yuwan, W; Zhende, P; Lifschitz, A L; Ming, W

    2006-04-01

    Eprinomectin is only available as a topically applied anthelmintic for dairy cattle. To determine whether eprinomectin can be applied as an injectable formulation in dairy cattle, a novel injectable formulation was developed and was subcutaneously delivered to four lactating dairy cattle at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/ kg. Plasma and milk samples were collected. The concentrations of eprinomectin in all samples were determined by HPLC. The peak plasma concentration (C(max))of 44.0+/-24.2 ng/ml occurred 39+/-19.3 h after subcutaneous administration, equivalent to the C(max) (43.76+/-18.23 ng/ml) previously reported for dairy cattle after a pour-on administration of 0.5 mg/kg eprinomectin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) after subcutaneous administration was 7354+/-1861 (ng h)/ml, higher than that obtained after pour-on delivery (5737.68+/-412.80 (ng h)/ml). The mean residence time (MRT) of the drug in plasma was 211+/-55.2 h. Eprinomectin was detected in the milk at the second sampling time. The concentration of drug in milk was parallel to that in plasma, with a milk to plasma ratio of 0.16+/-0.01. The highest detected concentration of eprinomectin in milk was 9.0 ng/ml, below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of eprinomectin in milk established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2000. The amount of eprinomectin recovered in the milk during this trial was 0.39%+/-0.08% of the total administered dose. This study demonstrates that subcutaneous administration of eprinomectin led to higher bioavailability and a lower dose than a pour-on application, and that an injectable formulation of eprinomectin may be applied in dairy cattle with a zero withdrawal period.

  7. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...... the populations representative of high input production systems...

  8. Dynamic monitoring of reproduction records for dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, C.; Østergaard, S.; Ancker, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This application note presents a newly developed surveillance module for monitoring reproduction performances in dairy herds. It is called Critical Control Point and is part of a recently developed management tool, Dairy Management System. This management tool is commercialized as software intended...

  9. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  10. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  11. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. A

  12. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  13. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea R.R.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.

  14. Anti-Neospora caninum antibodies among dairy cattle in a rural settlement, Paraná, Brazil

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    Shiguedy Katto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies against Neospora caninum, obtained two years apart, among dairy cattle in a rural settlement in southern Brazil. Blood samples from 734 dairy cattle on 41 farms were collected at two different times: in 2012, 406 animals on 30 farms were used; and in 2014, 329 animals on 31 farms. Serum samples were obtained and were used to detect antibodies against N. caninum, by means of the indirect fluorescence assay (IFA. Animals with titers ? 100 were considered positive. The total serum prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was 19.7% (145/736 among all the dairy cattle, comprising 23.1% (94/406 in 2012 and 15.5% (51/329 in 2014. Serum from 91 animals was tested in both trials: 11(12.1% showed positivity in 2012 and 10 (11% in 2014. The variables of age, sex and breed did not show any associations with seropositivity. Thus, we showed that the cattle in this settlement presented high levels of antibodies against N. caninum, and that IFA showed good efficacy for epidemiological studies.

  15. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  16. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Creating a model to detect dairy cattle farms with poor welfare using a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality(®) protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (pwelfare indicators could be used to distinguish farms with good welfare from farms with poor welfare, we created a model using the classifier J48 of Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. The model was a decision tree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm.

  19. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina.

  20. Molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus from Moldovan dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pluta, Aneta; Rola-Łuszczak, Marzena; Kubiś, Piotr; Balov, Svetlana; Moskalik, Roman; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized base...

  1. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments.

  2. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2014-02-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a

  3. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E

    2014-05-01

    Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for

  5. Evaluation Of Decision Options For Industry Wide Control Of Salmonella In Dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean

    2009-01-01

    Modeling the transmission of a pathogen between herds provides useful insight into how prevention and surveillance programs can be organised. We aimed to devise a technique for simulating the transfer of Salmonella (S.) Dublin between Danish dairy herds based on trading patterns and infection rates...... dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from...

  6. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (PDairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study.

  7. [Variation of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in dairy cattle and its effect on the viability parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliuk, N V; Satsuk, V F; Volchenko, A E

    2012-08-01

    Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 alleles was performed in dairy cattle of Krasnodar krai and Holstein stud bulls. Loss of heterozygosity, which decreased the reproductive parameters, was observed. It was proposed that stud bulls be selected on the basis of their genotyping at the BoLA-DRB3 gene to prevent further decay of cattle viability.

  8. Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of fecal specimens examined from 47 dairy cattle ranging in age from neonates to multiparous cows, 9, 10, 24, and 17 were positive for Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectively, as determined by PCR. Eight 3- to 5-month-old cattle were co...

  9. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  10. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  11. Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassel CP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

  12. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  13. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X. [Genmark Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pasquino, A.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Mammadova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.

  15. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500 (AROS, Denmark). Blood samples will be collected for genotyping as well as plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  16. 荷兰的奶牛业%Dairy Cattle Industry in Netherlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国荣; Roelofs,AJ

    2001-01-01

    Netherlands is in the west of European continent. It covers 41.526 squire kilometers and there are 16 million people and 1.6 million dairy cattle in Netherlands. The average milk production of a dairy cattle in Netherlands reaches 8,000 kilograms a year. A Netherlander consumes 300 kilograms of milk and a large quantity of milk products, such as milk butter, cheese is exported abroad.%荷兰位于欧洲西部,1600万人口,大约41526平方公里国土面积,160万头泌乳奶牛,每头泌乳牛305d平均产奶量8000kg,每人每年平均消费牛奶300kg,有大量的乳制品出口(奶油、奶酪)。

  17. Estimating the abortion risk difference in Neospora caninum seropositive dairy cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Romero Nicolino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis in cattle herds is associated with large economic losses, with abortion being the only clinical sign perceptible to the producer. Losses are estimated at over one billion dollars worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the abortion risk difference in seropositive animals using specific data for dairy herds in Brazil. Differences in the risk of abortion between seropositive and seronegative animals were calculated through a meta-analysis of previous data from several Brazilian states, and an increase of 10.04% (0.091 to 0.118 in the specific risk was identified. This finding indicates that more than 474,000 abortions caused by neosporosis may be occurring only in dairy cattle herds in Brazil, causing a major economic loss in the milk production chain. The use of this specific measure for Brazilian herds opens the possibility of developing cost-benefit analysis for neosporosis in Brazil using data that are more reliable

  18. 影响西门塔尔牛超数排卵效果的因素研究%Study on the Factors of Effecting Superovulation in Simmental Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永阔; 徐照学; 王二耀; 魏成斌; 辛晓玲; 冯亚杰; 董文听; 李晓霞; 禹学礼

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to analyze the factors of influencing superovulation in Simmental Cattle, with the aim of increasing the availability of donor cows and accelerating industrialization of the embryo transplantation. The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos were taken as the main technical indicators, in agricultural areas of Hubei Province and pasturing areas of Inner Mongolia, the main factors of superovulation were compared, including primiparous and heifers, FSH of CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and FSH of Canada, two different superovulation programs and different seasons. The results showed that: (1) The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos of heifers (9.8, 7.5) were higher than those of primiparous (7.5, 4.2) in agricultural areas (P0.05), and the similar result was acquired in pasturing areas, also no differences between the FSH of CAS (8.8, 5.5) and FSH of Canada (9.5, 6.5; P>0.05). (3) The Superovulation effects of program A (FSH+PG) and program B (CIDR+E2+P4+FSH+PG) were compared. The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos of program B (10.5, 8.0) were higher than that of program A (7.5, 4.8) in pasturing areas (P0.05). In conclusion: (1) Heifers could be the best choice as donors in agricultural and pasturing areas. (2) The FSH of CAS was better choice considering good superovulation result and low price. (3) The superovulation result in application of program B was better than that of program A. (4) For Pasturing areas, superovulation should be performed in summer, and for agricultural areas, superovulation could be performed both in spring and autumn.%  为探讨影响西门塔尔牛超数排卵效果的因素,提高供体母牛利用率、加速胚胎移植技术产业化。以头均回收胚数和头均可用胚数为主要技术指标,在湖北和内蒙古乌拉盖进行超排试验,比较经产牛

  19. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  20. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti; Ana Paula P. Battaglini; Dunga,Karen da S.; Ronaldo Tamanini

    2011-01-01

    Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...

  1. Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, R.; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...

  2. Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Sechi; Paolo Paolotto; Cheryl M.E. McCrindle; Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2013-01-01

    A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts). Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6%) were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claime...

  3. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.

    The investigations described in this thesis were

  4. Identification of gene networks underlying dystocia in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystocia is a trait with a high impact in the dairy industry. Among its risk factors are calf weight, gestation length, breed and conformation. Biological networks have been proposed to capture the genetic architecture of complex traits, where GWAS show limitations. The objective of this study was t...

  5. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their br

  6. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...

  7. Increasing parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1998-04-01

    During the past two decades, parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on lactating dairy cattle has occurred in Israel during August to October annually, affecting up to 65% of cows in certain herds. The nibbled and exposed tissues of teats and sometimes udders become infested by bacteria, especially Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Actinomyces pyogenes, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis. Normally, German wasps are primarily insect predators, but the urbanization around many dairy farms has reduced open space and associated standard food sources, i.e. insects, plants and carcasses. This has resulted in P. germanica nesting more often on dairy farms. In some instances, when high densities of P. germanica correspond with scarcity of prey, a segment of the wasp population preys primarily on the older and heavier cows with weak defensive behaviour. The teat feeding colonies of P. germanica may have an advantage, in that they are less dependent on fluctuations in the number of prey insects.

  8. Implications of Robotic Walkway Cleaning for Hoof Disorders in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Doerfler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious hoof disorders are a serious challenge for dairy production since they cause pain and discomfort in cows and can compromise the competitiveness of dairy farming. Robot scrapers are capable of frequently removing liquid manure from slatted floors and can contribute to improved hygiene of walkways. The aim of this study was to observe the implications of the robotic cleaning of walking areas for infectious hoof disorders in dairy cattle. A large herd ranging from 1,247 to 1,328 Holstein Friesian cows was monitored in two six-month periods in 2012 and in 2013. All animals were housed in a cubicle housing system with slatted floors in which walkways were cleaned using robot scrapers in 2013 but not in 2012. Statistical analysis was carried out with either the Chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test in R. Results indicated that the presence of infectious hoof disorders declined after robot scrapers were used for the cleaning of walkways. While in the first investigation period 648 animals suffered from infectious hoof diseases, in the second period only 340 animals were affected. This study stresses the significance of environmental hygiene to improve hoof health in dairy cattle.

  9. Iodine concentrations in milk of dairy cattle fed various amounts of iodine as ethylenediamine dihydroiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J N; Padgitt, D; McCarthy, B

    1988-12-01

    Due to concerns about high I in milk, the dairy industry has proposed a voluntary standard of 500 micrograms of I/L as the maximum allowable I in milk sold for processing and human consumption. This study was undertaken to determine the amount of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide that could be fed to dairy cattle without exceeding this standard. Various amounts (0 to 45 mg/head per d) of the I compound were fed to a commercial dairy herd for 50 wk. Individual and bulk milk samples were analyzed for total iodine. Milk I in herd bulk milk was directly correlated (r = .92) with the amounts fed. However, the correlation of milk I of individual cows was not as high (r = .66), indicating some individual variation in metabolism and secretion of the I into the mammary gland. Milk production and number of lactations did not correlate with I in milk. Regression analysis indicated that 25 to 30 mg of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide per day can be fed to dairy cattle receiving a diet otherwise low in I without exceeding a 500 micrograms concentration in milk.

  10. Model for estimating enteric methane emissions from United States dairy and feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebreab, E; Johnson, K A; Archibeque, S L; Pape, D; Wirth, T

    2008-10-01

    Methane production from enteric fermentation in cattle is one of the major sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission in the United States and worldwide. National estimates of methane emissions rely on mathematical models such as the one recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC). Models used for prediction of methane emissions from cattle range from empirical to mechanistic with varying input requirements. Two empirical and 2 mechanistic models (COWPOLL and MOLLY) were evaluated for their prediction ability using individual cattle measurements. Model selection was based on mean square prediction error (MSPE), concordance correlation coefficient, and residuals vs. predicted values analyses. In dairy cattle, COWPOLL had the lowest root MSPE and greatest accuracy and precision of predicting methane emissions (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.75). The model simulated differences in diet more accurately than the other models, and the residuals vs. predicted value analysis showed no mean bias (P = 0.71). In feedlot cattle, MOLLY had the lowest root MSPE with almost all errors from random sources (correlation coefficient estimate = 0.69). The IPCC model also had good agreement with observed values, and no significant mean (P = 0.74) or linear bias (P = 0.11) was detected when residuals were plotted against predicted values. A fixed methane conversion factor (Ym) might be an easier alternative to diet-dependent variable Ym. Based on the results, the 2 mechanistic models were used to simulate methane emissions from representative US diets and were compared with the IPCC model. The average Ym in dairy cows was 5.63% of GE (range 3.78 to 7.43%) compared with 6.5% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. In feedlot cattle, the average Ym was 3.88% (range 3.36 to 4.56%) compared with 3% +/- 1% recommended by IPCC. Based on our simulations, using IPCC values can result in an overestimate of about 12.5% and underestimate of emissions by about 9.8% for

  11. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    2015-01-01

    but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single...

  12. Nutrition, immune function and health of dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Moyes, Kasey

    2013-01-01

    The large increase in milk yield and the structural changes in the dairy industry have caused major changes in the housing, feeding and management of the dairy cow. However, while large improvements have occurred in production and efficiency, the disease incidence, based on veterinary records, does...... not seem to be improved. Earlier reviews have covered critical periods such as the transition period in the cow and its influence on health and immune function, the interplay between the endocrine system and the immune system and nutrition and immune function. Knowledge on these topics is crucial for our...... the regulatory mechanisms are insufficient for the animals to function optimally leading to a high risk of a complex of digestive, metabolic and infectious problems. The risk of infectious diseases will be increased if the immune competence is reduced. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in the immune response...

  13. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  14. Milk fat saturation and reproductive performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; van de Burgwal, E J; Van Ranst, B; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2013-10-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells due to a lack of desaturase enzymes. Combined with their limited supply to the small intestines, UFA have been proposed as nutraceuticals to ameliorate dairy cow fertility. However, field studies based on a large number of animals are lacking on this subject. Therefore the aim of the present study was to analyze a large dataset containing individual cow fertility records from dairy herds and link fertility key-performance-indicators like conception rate to first insemination (CRFI), days in milk to first insemination (DIMFI) and days in milk to conception (DIMCONC), to the level of UFA in bulk tank samples, the latter being a proxy for the dietary fatty acid profile on these herds. Within the two year study period, information from 15,055 lactations and 35,433 bulk tank milk samples was collected on 90 herds. The multilevel logistic regression model used, revealed a decreased CRFI on herds with a higher bulk tank UFA level. The decrease in CRFI was larger for higher producing herds. Increased bulk tank UFA was furthermore associated with higher DIMFI which, together with the lower CRFI, subsequently increased DIMCONC. Interestingly, higher variability in UFA, expressed by an increased coefficient of variation, was associated with an increased CRFI and decreased DIMFI and DIMCONC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increasing the UFA content of milk should not be a goal as such when supplementing UFA to dairy cows as higher bulk tank UFA are associated with worsened fertility results.

  15. [Relationship between residual milk and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, F; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis in cattle is an infection of the mammary gland caused by infection, toxins and/or trauma. Currently, it is assumed that there is a correlation between higher amounts of residual milk and the incidence of clinical mastitis. The amount of residual milk can be examined using different methods. Higher amounts of residual milk may result from an insufficient teat condition and individual detachment settings of milking units. To date, scientific literature has already discussed the relationship between high amounts of residual milk, undermilking and the occurrence of clinical mastitis. The present paper reviews the current status of knowledge regarding residual milk and risk of mastitis.

  16. STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radjabov R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we carry out the analysis of the current state of dairy farming in the country and in the Rostov region. The article shows the number of cows and milk production in farms of all categories in the country and the region. At present, Russia is ranked 6th in the world in milk production and is the largest importer of milk and dairy products. The situation is similar in the dairy industry of the Rostov region. Nowadays Rostov region ranks 5th in the Russian Federation and 2nd place in the southern Federal district in milk production. A large portion of milk (83,4% is produced in households. This indicates decentralization of livestock complex in the Rostov region. The demand for milk is met through own production by 83%. Currently, the region has just started a period of stabilization of the gross milk production. For the last 4 years the indicators of milk productivity of cows have been 13.0-14.5% higher than the national average. Much of this was facilitated by the measures of state support. With the support of Federal and regional authorities in this field it has been created a favorable investment climate for the development of dairy farming. In the article the main organizational and economic aspects of profitability of milk production have been shown. It identifies the main issues that hinder the intensification of dairy farming. The dairy sector of the Rostov region has good prospects. Main approaches to the solution of the problems of development of dairy cattle breeding in the Rostov region have been listed

  17. Validation of Nordic dairy cattle disease recording databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ann-Kristina; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases. Completen......The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases....... Completeness figures for farmer-recorded disease events were calculated on two different levels: the first refers to disease events that were observed on the farm regardless of whether a veterinarian had been involved (FARMER); the second refers to farmer records of cases attended by a veterinarian, i......-month periods in 2008 these farmers recorded the disease events they observed on the farm. Data from the four national databases were extracted in May 2009. The two data sources, farmer recordings and national databases, were managed in a comparable way in all four countries, and common diagnostic codes...

  18. Towards an automated detection of oestrus in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Dizier, M; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2012-12-01

    Heat detection is a key factor in the profitability of dairy herds. However, this detection demands a significant part of the breeder's working time and is made difficult by the short duration and the discrete behavioural changes associated with oestrus in modern dairy cows. Progress has been made in monitoring cow with electronics, biosensors and computer. As a result, automated heat detection systems have been developed. Currently available tools are automated detectors of standing heat, activity-metres and automated in-line systems measuring milk progesterone. Camera-software systems and monitoring of body temperature are being developed and may also be used as heat detection tools. The heat detection rate of most systems is above 80% with a specificity of detection generally higher than 90%. The accuracy, however, may vary considerably depending on the tool and model developed. The initial investment of several thousands of euros required for these automated systems becomes a source of profit in large herds, provided the recorded data are properly managed.

  19. Muddy conditions reduce hygiene and lying time in dairy cattle and increase time spent on concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer M; Stull, Carolyn L; Ledgerwood, David N; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2017-03-01

    Dairy cattle spend less time lying and show signs of increased stress when housed in rainy and windy conditions, but no work has separated the effects of exposure to inclement weather from muddy conditions underfoot. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of muddy conditions alone on lying behavior, hygiene, and physiological responses. We housed pairs of pregnant, nonlactating dairy cattle (n = 12; 6 primigravid heifers, 6 multiparous cows) in enclosed pens with dirt floors and a concrete feed apron. Cattle were exposed to 3 levels of soil moisture: 90 (dry), 74 (muddy), or 67% (very muddy) dry matter for 5 d each in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Lying time was measured on all days with data loggers, and lying locations and postures were recorded on the final day of each treatment. Before and after each treatment, blood samples were collected, and the percentage of dirty surface area was measured on the udder, hind leg, and side of each animal. Cattle spent less time lying down in muddier conditions, especially in the first 24 h of exposure, when cows and heifers spent only 3.2 and 5.8 h, respectively, lying down in the muddiest treatment compared with 12.5 and 12.7 h on dry soil. When the soil was dry, cattle never chose to lie down on concrete, but in muddier conditions they spent a greater proportion of their lying time on concrete (mean ± SE: 56 ± 14 and 10 ± 8% in the very muddy and muddy treatments, respectively). The shift in lying location was more marked for heifers, and all 6 spent ≥87% of their lying time on concrete in the muddiest treatment. When cattle chose to lie down on wetter soil, they limited the surface area exposed to their surroundings by tucking their legs beneath their bodies (mean ± SE: 30 ± 11, 15 ± 4, and 5 ± 2% of lying observations in the very muddy, muddy, and dry treatments, respectively). Despite cattle spending less time on wetter soil, all 3 measured body parts became dirtier in muddier conditions (1.4-, 1

  20. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  1. Association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and culling in dairy cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Arrazuría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the causes for culling in dairy herds with different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status and to compare these causes with those observed over the general dairy cattle population. During 2009, causes for culling were registered in two different groups of farms: (1 farms with seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 but where Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has not been isolated from any of the fecal samples collected and (2 farms with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 and where the bacteria has been isolated from at least one fecal sample. Causes for animal loss were compared between both groups and between them and the general dairy cattle population by means of regression analysis. The distribution of culling reasons was different between infected herds (both bacteriologically positive and negative and the general population. The percentage of losses seemed to be higher in infected herds from the first parity on. The most remarkable difference among groups was observed in losses due to "death/urgent slaughter".

  2. Disposition of ampicillin trihydrate in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credille, B C; Giguère, S; Vickroy, T W; Fishman, H J; Jones, A L; Mason, M E; DiPietro, R O; Ensley, D T

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition of ampicillin in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle. Ampicillin trihydrate was administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (n = 6, total of 3 doses) or every 12 h (n = 6, total of 5 doses) for 3 days. Concentrations of ampicillin were measured in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk using HPLC with ultraviolet absorption. Quantifiable ampicillin concentrations were found in plasma, milk, and lochial fluid of all cattle within 30 min, 4 h, and 4 h of administration of ampicillin trihydrate, respectively. There was no significant effect of dosing interval (every 12 vs. every 24 h) and no significant interactions between dosing interval and sampling site on the pharmacokinetic variable measured or calculated. Median peak ampicillin concentration at steady-state was significantly higher in lochial fluid (5.27 μg/mL after q 24 h dosing) than other body fluids or tissues and significantly higher in plasma (3.11 μg/mL) compared to milk (0.49 μg/mL) or endometrial tissue (1.55 μg/mL). Ampicillin trihydrate administered once daily by the i.m. route at the label dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight achieves therapeutic concentrations in the milk, lochial fluid, and endometrial tissue of healthy postpartum dairy cattle.

  3. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  4. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  5. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  6. Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, H. M.; Huxley, J. N.; Wapenaar, W.; Green, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were ‘Gold Standard Monitoring’ (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called ‘Regular Control Advice’. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus <5 per cent chance for a CPD ‘enriched’ partner with a postgraduate cattle qualification; there was <1 per cent chance this assistant would be involved with Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature. PMID:23887976

  7. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  8. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarmideen Haja N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

  9. Molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus from Moldovan dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Aneta; Rola-Łuszczak, Marzena; Kubiś, Piotr; Balov, Svetlana; Moskalik, Roman; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein. Our results demonstrated a low level of genetic variability (0-2.9%) among BLV field strains from Moldova, in contrast to that observed for other retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (20-38%) Mason IL (Trudy vologod moloch Inst 146-164, 1970) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (~40%) Willems L et al (AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16(16):1787-1795, 2000), where the envelope gene exhibits high levels of variation Polat M et al (Retrovirology 13(1):4, 2016). Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that BLV genotype 7 (G7) is predominant in Moldova and that the BLV population in Moldovan cattle is a mixture of at least three new sub-genotypes: G7D, G7E and G4C. Neutrality tests revealed that negative selection was the major force operating upon the 51-kDa BLV envelope surface glycoprotein subunit gp51, although one positively selected site within conformational epitope G was detected in the N-terminal part of gp51. Furthermore, two functional domains, linear epitope B and the zinc-binding domain, were found to have an elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous codon differences. Together, these data suggest that the evolutionary constraints on epitopes G and B and the zinc-binding domains of gp51 differ from those on the other domains, with a tendency towards formation of homogenous genetic groups, which is a common concept of

  10. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  11. [Recurrent clinical mastitis in dairy cattle - importance and causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, A-S; Zoche-Golob, V; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis as a frequently recurrent event can cause substantive economic loss on dairy farms. The reason for recurrent mastitis can be either a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland by a mastitis pathogen or a reinfection of a quarter or udder after bacteriological cure. The virulence properties of a mastitis pathogen and the cure odds of an individual cow determine the development of persistent infections. Clinical episodes may alternate with periods without symptoms in the course of persistent infections. Strategies to reduce cases of recurrent mastitis have to include improved treatment concepts and measures to decrease new infection rates. The present literature review summarises the knowledge of definitions, frequencies, causes and effects of recurrent mastitis.

  12. Short communication: salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; Eriksen, L; Nørgaard, P; Rode, L M

    2008-05-01

    Four multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate whether source of forage influenced salivary secretion during eating in lactating dairy cows. The forages were allocated separately from the pelleted concentrates. Cows were offered 1 of 4 forages each period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salivation (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However, the forage sources differed in eating rate (g of DM/min), which led to differences in ensalivation of forages (g of saliva/g of DM and g of saliva/g of NDF). On the basis of DM, ensalivation (g of saliva/g of DM) was greatest for straw (7.23) and similar for barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay (4.15, 3.40, and 4.34 g/g of DM, respectively). Higher ensalivation of straw could be accounted for by its higher neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content; ensalivation of NDF (g of saliva/g of NDF) was actually greatest for long-stemmed alfalfa hay (12.4) and similar for the other chopped forages (8.9). Cows consumed concentrate about 3 to 12 times faster than the various forages (DM basis), and ensalivation of concentrate was much lower (1.12 g of saliva/g of DM) than for forages. Feed characteristics such as particle size, DM, and NDF content affect salivary output during eating by affecting the eating rate. Slower eating rate and greater time spent eating may help prevent ruminal acidosis by increasing the total daily salivary secretion in dairy cows.

  13. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed genes, co-expressed genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  14. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  16. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1) polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET) of Cipelang

    OpenAIRE

    Cece Sumantri; M. Imron; Sugyono; E. Andreas; M. Restu; A. B. L. Ishak

    2011-01-01

    The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI) and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken...

  17. Recovery of Mollicutes from the reproductive tract of dairy cattle in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of members of the Mollicutesclass in the reproductive system of dairy cattle in Brazil. Five farms containing dairy cattle were visited in January of 2012. In total, 100 cows of different ages, breeds and stages of lactation were examined in the present study. The cows were part of intensive or semi-intensive management systems and were submitted to mechanical milking or hand milking. The samples were collected after washing the vulvar region with water and soap, and then drying it with paper towels and disinfecting the area with alcohol (70°GL. Vaginal mucous was collected using a sterile alginate cotton swab, which was rubbed on the vagina, as well as the lateral and internal walls. Vulvovaginal mucous samples were cultured in both liquid and solid modified Hayflick´s medium, for mycoplasmas, and UB medium, for ureaplasmas. The PCR assays for Mollicutesand Ureaplasmaspp. were performed according to the standard protocols described in the current literature. During isolation, the frequency of Mycoplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 6.0% (6/100. In the PCR assays the frequency of Mollicuteswas of 26.0% (26/100 and for Ureaplasmaspp. was of 13.0% (13/100 in the dairy cattle studied. This is the first report of these agents in reproductive system of bovine of the Pernambuco state. Further studies are necessary to determine the pathogenic potential and species of these field isolates.

  18. Derivation of sustainable breeding goals for dairy cattle using selection index theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H M; Christensen, L G; Groen, A F

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be added to market economic values in the breeding goal to define sustainable breeding goals. The first method was restricted indices. A consequence of adding a nonmarket value to a market economic value for a given functional trait is less selection emphasis on milk yield. In the second method, the loss in selection response in milk resulting from greater emphasis on functional traits was quantified. The 2 methods were demonstrated using a breeding goal for dairy cattle with 4 traits (milk yield, mastitis resistance, conception rate, and stillbirth). Nonmarket values derived separately using restricted indices were 0.4 and 2.6 times the value of market economic values for mastitis resistance and conception rate, respectively. Nonmarket values for mastitis resistance and conception rate were both lower when derived simultaneously than when derived separately. This was due to the positive genetic correlation between mastitis resistance and conception rate, and because both traits are negatively correlated with milk yield. Using the second method and accepting a 5% loss in selection response for milk yield, nonmarket values for mastitis, conception rate, and stillbirth were 0.3, 1.4, and 2.9 times the market economic values. It was concluded that the 2 methods could be used to derive nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle.

  19. Selenium-Dependent Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Immunity in Periparturient Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine M. Sordillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled or impaired immune and inflammatory responses in periparturient dairy cows are associated with increased incidence and severity of infectious diseases. The progressive development of oxidative stress during the transition from late gestation to peak lactation is thought to be a significant underlying factor leading to dysfunctional immune cell responses. Certain trace minerals, such as selenium (Se, can ameliorate oxidative stress and reduce the severity of several economically important diseases in dairy cattle including mastitis and metritis. Many of the health benefits of Se can be attributed to the antioxidant functions of selenoproteins. Changes in selenoprotein activity as a consequence of Se nutritional status can directly alter a number of critical cellular functions involved in the inflammatory response. A better understanding of how Se can optimize immune cell responses may facilitate the design of nutritional regimes that will reduce health disorders during the periparturient period.

  20. Serological survey of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle herds in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Z; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Medina-Espinoza, L; García-Tapia, D; Chavarria-Martinez, B

    2002-06-03

    A serological survey for antibody activity to Neospora caninum was carried out in Aguascalientes, a state in the central part of Mexico. One-hundred and eighty-seven serum samples from 13 dairy herds were tested by the ELISA test. The herd prevalence was 100% and the overall prevalence was 59% (n=110). Seventy-six of 97 seropositive cows had previous records of abortion. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P<0.05). However, the odds ratio was 1.4, suggesting an association between abortion and seropositivity. Neosporosis in dairy cattle appears to be widespread in Mexico, warranting more epidemiological studies to determine the distribution of the causative protozoan.

  1. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Šimková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.

  2. Integrating Sequence-based GWAS and RNA-Seq Provides Novel Insights into the Genetic Basis of Mastitis and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Lingzhao Fang; Goutam Sahana; Guosheng Su; Ying Yu; Shengli Zhang; Mogens Sandø Lund; Peter Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    Connecting genome-wide association study (GWAS) to biological mechanisms underlying complex traits is a major challenge. Mastitis resistance and milk production are complex traits of economic importance in the dairy sector and are associated with intra-mammary infection (IMI). Here, we integrated IMI-relevant RNA-Seq data from Holstein cattle and sequence-based GWAS data from three dairy cattle breeds (i.e., Holstein, Nordic red cattle, and Jersey) to explore the genetic basis of mastitis res...

  3. Fasciola hepatica is associated with failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridge, Jen; Diggle, Peter; McCann, Catherine M.; Mulcahy, Grace; Flynn, Rob; McNair, Jim; Strain, Sam; Welsh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In the UK, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of BTB is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. Here we show in a study involving 3026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of BTB. The magnitude of the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test used to diagnose BTB is reduced in cattle experimentally co-infected with M. bovis and F. hepatica. We estimate an under-ascertainment rate of about one-third (95% Confidence Intervals 27-38%) among our study farms, in the hypothetical situation of no exposure to F. hepatica. This finding may in part explain the continuing spread of BTB and the failure of the current eradication programme in the UK. PMID:22617293

  4. Nitrate toxicosis in beef and dairy cattle herds due to contamination of drinking water and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M

    1997-10-01

    Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.

  5. Evaluation of Pathogenic Serovars of Leptospira Interrogans in Dairy Cattle Herds of Shahrekord by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Shahbazkia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.

  6. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health.

  7. Socio-economic factors affecting the level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors which are effective in helping dairy cattleenterprises to adopt some innovations in Afyonkarahisar. The data acquired from questionnaires of 80 randomly selected enterpriseswere analyzed with chi-square test in May 2006. Enterprises those have 1-10, 11-35 and more than 35 cattle were classified as small,medium and high scale, respectively. It was found that 12% of enterprises adopt innovations at low level, 65% of them at med...

  8. SEROPREVALENCE OF Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonata de Melo Barbieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the prevalence of IgG against Trypanosoma vivax, Anaplasma marginale, and Babesia bovis in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, four hundred cows from 40 dairy farms  were randomly selected and distributed in 14 municipalities. Seroprevalence was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Interviews were conducted to characterize producers and dairy production. Univariate analysis was carried out using chi-square (x2 or Fisher’s exact test. The multiple model was constructed with variables associated with p ≤ 0.25 by x2 test using generalized estimating equations (GEE. True prevalence at herd level was 49.6% (31.7–67.5, 100% (92.1–100, and 100% (86.5–100 for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis, respectively. At individual level, true seroprevalence was 9.9% (6.7–13.1, 96.2% (92.1–99.6, and 93.7% (89.4–97.2, respectively, for T. vivax, A. marginale, and B. bovis. Among the factors adjusted by logistic regression GEE  model, “total farm area” (p= 0.021, OR= 0.308, Ic95%= 0.114–0.836 and “fly season” (p= 0.016, OR= 2.133, Ic95%= 1.153–3.948 remained associated with seropositivity for T. vivax. As the State of Minas Gerais is considered non-endemic for T. vivax, producers and veterinarians should be informed about the risk of occurrence of bovine trypanosomiasis. Keywords: anaplasmosis; babesiosis; dairy cattle; enzootic stability; trypanosomiasis.

  9. The use of activity measures in combination with physiological factors as indicators of disease in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yeiser, Emily Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Animal activity, in combination with physiological factors, can be used for early disease detection in dairy cattle. An initial study determined the impact of flunixin meglumine (FM), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on activity measures, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. A total of 24 primiparous and multiparous lactating dairy cows were challenged with E.coli 727 in one quarter. Of the 24 E.coli challenged animals, 12...

  10. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Kafi, Mojtaba; Pour-Teimouri, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34) and cows (n = 61) in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6%) were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  11. WOLF (CANIS LUPUS PREDATION ON DAIRY CATTLE IN EASTERN ITALIAN ALPS

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    Georgia Faccioni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural wolf recolonization of the Alps brings the challenge to reduce livestock losses and social conflicts. The uncommon impact of a wolf pack on the cattle farming systems of the “Lessinia”, in the eastern Italian Alps was examined in this study. Dairy cattle farming predominates there using summer pastures (June-September and grazing on lowland meadows out of summer. Grazing is organized with aim to minimize labour and costs. Animals are usually left unattended during the day and night in unprotected pastures. Since the return of the wolf in 2012, which formed a pack in 2013, attacks to livestock increased rapidly. Predations peaked during the summer, and they also were extended into the preceding and following months, especially during 2014. Cattle were the predominant species predated (79% of events and 71% of individual losses, with a strong selection towards young age classes. To prevent attacks, livestock should be grouped and kept protected by electric fences or in stables during the night, but this is in contrast with the freegrazing management that farmers have adopted for reducing costs. We suggest that management costs and introduction of protection measures changes should be taken into account for a future economic valorisation of the cattle farming sector.

  12. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle, state of Rio de Janeiro

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    G.R. Albuquerque

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Infection in man and animals varies in different geographical areas influenced by many environmental conditions. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle in Brazil ranges from 1.03 to 71%. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 58 out of 453 farms in the South Fluminense Paraiba Valley, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Over 3-year-old cattle (n=589 from dairy herds were selected for blood collection and detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IFA with initial titration of 1:16; titers > 64 were considered positive. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that cats in contact with cattle, cats in contact with drinking water, and number of cats were associated with T. gondii seroprevalence. Logistic regression revealed a two-fold increased risk for infection of cattle (p=0.0138 through larger number of cats (>3 compared with low numbers of cats (1-2 on the farm. In contrast, the presence of chickens was considered a protective factor (p=0.025.

  13. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis.

  14. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

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    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  15. Physical Characteristics of Pressed Complete Feed for Dairy Cattle

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    M. Munasik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics of the pressed complete feed in the forms of cube, cylinder and ball. The study was conducted to get a complete feed of dairy cows that can be developed commercially. The evaluation was done on a physical test : bulkiness, hardness and hygroscopic properties of pressed complete feeds.  The results of this research showed that the bulkiness of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were between 0.20 up to 0.48 liter/kg; the hardness of pressed complete feed, cylinders and balls were 3 lbs up to 14 lbs; the hygroscopic factor of pressed complete feed in the forms cubes, cylinders and balls were around 1.10% up to 9.69%. The pressed complete feed in the forms of cube and cylinder are better than  the form of ball in physical characteristics.doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.61-65

  16. Some viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle during the summer season

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    Kale M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dairy cattle with respiratory system problems that were brought to a private slaughterhouse in Burdur province were investigated for viral and bacterial infections present in the summer season. The blood samples were collected from 56 animals. The samples were tested for antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3 and bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3 by ELISA. Bacteriological cultivation was carried out from lung samples taken after cutting the same animals. The seropositivity rates which were determined for 5 viruses in cattle (BoHV- 1, BVDV, BRSV, BPIV-3 and BAV-3 were 7.14%, 50%, 94.64%, 94.64% and 82.14% respectively. The presence of antibodies against the viruses was as follows; 5.36% of cattle had antibodies against only one virus, 14.29% against two, 30.36% against three, 44.64% against four and 5.36% against five viruses. A total of 36 bacterial agents were isolated from 30 out of 56 lung samples. From the lung samples, only one bacterium was isolated from 39.3% (22/56 samples, and more than one bacterium from 14.3% (8/56. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were detected as the most often isolated agents. Compared to bacteria, the rates of viral infections associated with Escherichia coli (BRSV+BPIV-3+BAV- 3+Escherichia coli; 8.92% and BRSV+BPIV-3+Escherichia coli; 5.35% were higher. As a consequence, it was thought that primary agents which were the viruses and bacteria may have attended as secondary factors in respiratory tract infections of dairy cattle.

  17. Herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in central and northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Sławomir J; Czopowicz, Michał; Weber, Corinna N; Müller, Elisabeth; Witkowski, Lucjan; Kaba, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    A serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of Poland (Podlaskie, 47 herds and Łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. A simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). A total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with a commercial competitive ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Belgium). To calculate true herd-level seroprevalence test sensitivity and specificity were adjusted from an individual- to a herd-level using FreeCalc method. The true overall herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was 56.7% (95% CI: 47.5%, 65.9%). The true herd-level seroprevalence in Podlaskie was 63.3% (95% CI: 43.0%, 83.6%) and 50.5% (95% CI: 32.8%, 68.2%) in Łodzkie province and these figures did not differ significantly between the two provinces (chi2 test p = 0.238). One hundred forty three of 734 cows (19.5%) were seropositive which gave the true overall individual-level seroprevalence of 20.1% (95% CI: 17.4%, 23.2%). Percentage of seropositive cows in each herd varied from 6% to 80%. This study is the first epidemiological investigation of herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in Polish dairy cattle population. In conclusion, the result of the study confirmed previous data that N. caninum infection is widespread in the Polish cattle population and thus should be considered as a potential cause of spontaneous abortions.

  18. Evidence supporting vertical transmission of Salmonella in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D L; Loneragan, G H; Brown, T R; Nisbet, D J; Hume, M E; Edrington, T S

    2016-04-01

    We set out to investigate whether Salmonella enterica could be recovered from various tissues of viable neonatal calves immediately following parturition. Eleven samples were aseptically collected from each of 20 calves and consisted of both left and right subiliac and prescapular lymph nodes (LN), mesenteric LN, spleen and liver, as well as intestinal tissue (including luminal contents) from the small intestine, caecum, spiral colon and rectum. In addition, a faecal sample was collected from 19 of the dams. Salmonella was recovered from at least one sample from 10 of the 20 neonates. Across all calves, Salmonella was recovered from 12·7% of all samples and from LN in particular, Salmonella was recovered from 10·0%, 5·0%, and 5·0% of subiliac, prescapular, and mesenteric LN, respectively. Within calves, Salmonella was recovered from 0% to 73% of samples and across tissues, estimates of Salmonella prevalence were greatest in the caecum (30%) but was never recovered from the right pre-scapular LN. These data provide evidence of vertical transmission from a dam to her fetus such that viable calves are born already infected and thereby not requiring faecal-oral exposure for transmission. This new knowledge ought to challenge - or at least add to - existing paradigms of Salmonella transmission dynamics within cattle herds.

  19. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

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    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  20. Polymorphisms of the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene and its association with superovulation traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Li, Shu-Jing; Chao, Lu-Ming; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-03-01

    The major limitation to the development of embryo transfer technique in cattle is the highly variable between individuals in ovulatory response to FSH-induced superovulation. The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G51656T, A51703G, A51726G and G51737A were identified at the intron 9 of the LHCGR gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation, and evaluated its associations with superovulatory response. Association analysis showed that these four SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (P superovulation response and can be used to predict the most appropriate dose of FSH for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows.

  1. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; López-Alonso, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows) traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake) and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L) 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms). The organic farms had higher (p<0.05) average number of calves per cow (3.93) and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9%) than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows). Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05) somatic cell counts (SCC) than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively). Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further. (Author)

  2. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

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    Ana Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms. The organic farms had higher (p<0.05 average number of calves per cow (3.93 and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9% than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows. Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05 somatic cell counts (SCC than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively. Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further investigation.

  3. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  4. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  5. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

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    Ewa Bok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates. The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat

  6. Precipitation and temperature effects on mortality and lactation parameters of dairy cattle in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, C L; McV Messam, L L; Collar, C A; Peterson, N G; Castillo, A R; Reed, B A; Andersen, K L; VerBoort, W R

    2008-12-01

    Data from 3 commercial rendering companies located in different regions of California were analyzed from September 2003 through August 2005 to examine the relationship of dairy calf and cow mortality to monthly average daily temperature and total monthly precipitation respectively. Yearly average mortality varied between rendering regions from 2.1 to 8.1% for mature cows. The relationship between cow and calf monthly mortality and monthly average daily temperature was U-shaped. Overall, months with average daily temperatures less than 14 and greater than 24 degrees C showed substantial increases in both calf and cow mortality with calf mortality being more sensitive to changes in these temperature ranges than cow mortality. Temperature changes were reflected in a 2-fold difference between the minimum and maximum mortality in cows and calves. Precipitation showed a weak effect with calf mortality and no effect with cow mortality. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement Association were used from 112 California herds tested over a 24-mo period to examine the relationship of milk production and quality with monthly average daily temperature and monthly precipitation. Somatic cell count and percent milk fat were either weakly or not associated with monthly average daily temperature and total monthly precipitation. However, total monthly precipitation was negatively associated with test day milk per milking cow regardless of the dairy's geographical location. Housing-specific associations for test day milk per milking cow were greater for total monthly precipitation than monthly average daily temperature, with the strongest negative association seen for dairies that do not provide shelter for cows. This suggests that providing suitable housing for lactating dairy cattle may ameliorate the precipitation-associated decrease in test day milk per milking cow.

  7. Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, H M; Huxley, J N; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2013-09-14

    Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate markers for bull fertility in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, F; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2012-07-01

    The decline in the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle has become a challenging problem worldwide. Female fertility is now taken into account in breeding goals while generally less attention is given to male fertility. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study in Holstein bulls to identify genetic variants significantly related to sire conception rate (SCR), a new phenotypic evaluation of bull fertility. The analysis included 1755 sires with SCR data and 38,650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the entire bovine genome. Associations between SNPs and SCR were analyzed using a mixed linear model that included a random polygenic effect and SNP genotype either as a linear covariate or as a categorical variable. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs because of linkage disequilibrium. After genome-wide correction, eight SNPs showed significant association with SCR. Some of these SNPs are located close to or in the middle of genes with functions related to male fertility, such as the sperm acrosome reaction, chromatin remodeling during the spermatogenesis, and the meiotic process during male germ cell maturation. Some SNPs showed marked dominance effects, which provide more evidence for the relevance of non-additive effects in traits closely related to fitness such as fertility. The results could contribute to the identification of genes and pathways associated with male fertility in dairy cattle.

  9. Methodological Aspects in Forecasting Innovation Development of Dairy Cattle Breeding in the Region

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    Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Medvedeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Russia is now a member of the World Trade Organization, long-term forecasting becomes an objectively necessary condition that helps choose an effective science-based long-term strategy for development of dairy cattle breeding that would take into consideration intellectual and innovative characteristics. Current structure of available statistical information does not meet modern challenges of innovation development and does not reflect adequately the trends of ongoing changes. The paper suggests a system of indicators to analyze the status, development and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the region; this system provides timely identification of emerging risks and threats of deviation from the specified parameters. The system included indicators contained in the current statistical reporting and new indicators of innovation development of the industry, the quality of human capital and the level of government support. When designing the system of indicators, we used several methodological aspects of the Oslo Manual, which the Federal State Statistics Service considers to be an official methodological document concerning the collection of information about innovation activities. A structured system of indicators shifts the emphasis in the analysis of the final results to the conditions and prerequisites that help achieve forecast performance indicators in the functioning of Russia’s economy under WTO rules and make substantiated management decisions

  10. Organic marker compounds for surface soil and fugitive dust from open lot dairies and cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust emissions from cattle feedlots and open lot dairies are substantial. In order to determine the contribution of intensive cattle operations on ambient PM levels, more knowledge besides the elemental composition is necessary in order to distinguish between airborne PM from nearby agricultural fields, barren lands, or dirt roads. Here, as part of the San Joaquin Valley Fugitive Dust Characterization Study, surface soil samples collected from feedlots and open lot dairy farms are investigated for potential source specific molecular marker compounds. More than 100 organic compounds were quantified including: n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanols, n-alkanals, n-alkan-2-ones, steroids, triterpenoids, isoprenoids, and tocopherols (vitamin E) and metabolites. Biohydrogenation of plant lipids and sterols in the rumen results in distinctive alteration products. Animal and plant derived steroids are most abundant. Here, it is shown that 5 β-stigmastanol and epi-5 β-stigmastanol, two biohydrogenation products of sitosterol and stigmasterol, are the most distinctive molecular marker compounds. While stearic (C 18) and palmitic (C 16) acids are as individual compounds not source specific, biohydrogenation of the more abundant C 18 unsaturated fatty acids, causes the ratio of C 18/C 16 fatty acids to shift from below 0.5 for vegetation to an average of 3.0±0.7. Consequently, the C 18/C 16 fatty acid ratio is unique and can be used as well in source apportionment studies.

  11. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

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    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  12. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

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    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  13. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi ghaneian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  14. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  15. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  16. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation.

  17. Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage

  18. Immune Responses of Dairy Cattle to Parainfluenza-3 Virus in Intranasal Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis-Parainfluenza-3 Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, A.L.; Morrill, J L; Bostwick, J.L.; Ridley, R K; Fryer, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty dairy heifers were vaccinated at three to six months of age with an intranasal infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-parainfluenza-3 vaccine. Eighteen additional heifers were tested prior to vaccination and again three to four weeks after vaccination. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity was significantly raised to parainfluenza-3 virus in either group of cattle.

  19. The effect of genetic selection for Johne's disease resistance n dairy cattle: Results of a genetic-epidemiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model genetic selection for Johne’s disease resistance and to study the effect of different selection strategies on the prevalence in the dairy cattle population. In the Netherlands, a certification-and-surveillance program is in use to reduce prevalence and presen

  20. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    , the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea...

  1. Effect of dietary energy source on energy balance, production, metabolic disorders and reproduction in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    The pathway for oxidation of energy involves a balanced oxidation of C2 and C3 compounds. During early lactation in dairy cattle this C2/C3 ratio is out of balance, due to a high availability of lipogenic (C2) products and a low availability of glycogenic (C3) products relative of the C2 and C3 prod

  2. Optimizing the design of small-sized nucleus breeding programs for dairy cattle with minimal performance recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, C.M.; Komen, J.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries are constrained by minimal and erratic pedigree and performance recording on cows on commercial farms. Small-sized nucleus breeding programs offer a viable alternative. Deterministic simulations using selection index theory were performed to

  3. Management practices and use of anthelmintics on dairy cattle farms in The Netherlands: results of a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Sol, J.; Uum, van A.; Haan, de N.; Huyben, R.; Sampimon, O.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, a questionnaire about farm management and parasite control measures in calves was sent to 956 randomly chosen dairy cattle farmers in The Netherlands. Another 150 farmers in the vicinity of Deventer who had vaccinated their calves in 1995 against lungworm were approached with the s

  4. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav;

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  5. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  6. Physiological and Behavioral Responses of Dairy Cattle to the Introduction of Robot Scrapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Renate L; Lehermeier, Christina; Kliem, Heike; Möstl, Erich; Bernhardt, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robot scrapers are increasingly used in order to clean the floors on dairy farms. Given the complexity of robot scraper operation, stress may occur in cows due to unpredictability of the situation. Experiencing stress can impair animal welfare and, in the long term, the health and milk production of the cows. Therefore, this study addressed potential stress responses of dairy cattle to the robot scraper after introducing the autonomous mobile machine. Thirty-six cows in total were studied on three different farms to explore possible modifications in cardiac function, behavior, and adrenocortical activity. The research protocol on each farm consisted of four experimental periods including one baseline measurement without robot scraper operation followed by three test measurements, in which cows interacted with the robotic cleaning system. Interbeat intervals were recorded in order to calculate the heart rate variability (HRV) parameter RMSSD; behavior was observed to determine time budgets; and fecal samples were collected for analysis of the cortisol metabolites concentration. A statistical analysis was carried out using linear mixed-effects models. HRV decline immediately after the introduction of the robot scraper and modified behavior in the subsequent experimental periods indicated a stress response. The cortisol metabolites concentration remained constant. It is hypothesized that after the initial phase of decrease, HRV stabilized through the behavioral adjustments of the cows in the second part of the study. Persistent alterations in behavior gave rise to the assumption that the animals' habituation process to the robot scraper was not yet completed. In summary, the present study illustrated that the cows showed minor signs of disturbance toward the robotic cleaning system. Thus, our findings suggest that dairy cattle can largely adjust their behavior to avoid aversive effects on animal welfare. Additional research can provide further

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses of dairy cattle to the introduction of robot scrapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Luise Doerfler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robot scrapers are increasingly used in order to clean the floors on dairy farms. Given the complexity of robot scraper operation, stress may occur in cows due to unpredictability and lack of control of the situation. Experiencing stress can impair animal welfare and in the long-term the health and milk production of the cows. Therefore, this study addressed potential stress responses of dairy cattle to the robot scraper after introducing the autonomous mobile machine. 36 cows in total were studied on three different farms to explore possible modifications in cardiac function, behavior, and adrenocortical activity. The research protocol on each farm consisted of four experimental periods including one baseline measurement without robot scraper operation followed by three test measurements, in which cows interacted with the robotic cleaning system. Interbeat intervals were recorded in order to calculate the heart rate variability parameter RMSSD, behavior was observed to determine time budgets, and fecal samples were collected for analysis of the cortisol metabolites concentration. A statistical analysis was carried out using linear mixed-effects models. Heart rate variability decline immediately after the introduction of the robot scraper and modified behavior in the subsequent experimental periods indicated a stress response. The cortisol metabolites concentration remained constant. It is hypothesized that after the initial phase of decrease, heart rate variability stabilized through the behavioral adjustments of the cows in the second part of the study. Persistent alterations in behavior gave rise to the assumption that the animals’ habituation process to the robot scraper was not yet completed. In summary, the present study illustrated that the cows showed minor signs of disturbance towards the robotic cleaning system. Thus, our findings suggest that dairy cattle can largely adjust their behavior to avoid aversive effects

  8. Macrolide, glycopeptide resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus species isolates from dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-07-01

    The genus Enterococcus is known to possess the capacity to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistant determinants alongside the ability to produce various virulence genes that enables it to establish infections. We assessed the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Enterococcus spp. in faecal samples of dairy cattle. Faecal swab samples were collected from 400 dairy cattle from two commercial cattle farms in two rural communities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Confirmation of enterococci isolates was carried out by PCR targeting of the tuf gene. Species delineation was by species-specific primers targeting the superoxide dismutase (sod A) gene in a multiplex PCR assay. Isolates were screened for the presence of the following virulence genes (ace, gel E, esp, efa A, cyl A and hyl E) and antimicrobial resistance determinants to erythromycin, vancomycin and streptomycin were evaluated molecularly. A total of 340 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Enterococcus . Species distribution among the isolates consisted of Enterococcus faecium (52.94 %) and Enterococcus durans (23.53 %) in preponderance compared to the three other species, namely Enterococcus faecalis (8.8 %), Enterococcus hirae (8.6 %) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (5.9 %). All were resistant to vancomycin, while 99 % showed resistance to aminoglycoside and 94 % to macrolide. Three virulence genes (ace, gel E and esp) were detected in almost all the confirmed isolates. The resistance determinants van B (19.7 %), van C1 (25 %), van C2/3 (26.3 %) erm B (40.29 %) and str A (50.88 %) were detected among the isolates. A high prevalence of multidrug-resistant enterococci isolates was detected in this study and the genetic repertoire to survive in the presence of antimicrobial agents was present in these organisms.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  10. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  11. A cross sectional study on reproductive health disorders in dairy cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.

  12. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  13. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: pre- and postharvest control measures to ensure safety of dairy cattle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein S; Sakuma, Toshie

    2005-01-01

    The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, and death. Over 100 STEC serotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, are known to cause these illnesses and to be shed in cattle feces. Thus, cattle are considered reservoirs of these foodborne pathogens. Because beef and dairy products were responsible for a large number of STEC outbreaks, efforts have been devoted to developing and implementing control measures that assure safety of foods derived from dairy cattle. These efforts should reduce consumers' safety concerns and support a competitive dairy industry at the production and processing levels. The efficacy of control measures both before harvest (i.e., on-farm management practices) and after harvest (i.e., milk processing and meat packing) for decreasing the risk of STEC contamination of dairy products was evaluated. The preharvest measures included sanitation during milking and management practices designed to decrease STEC prevalence in the dairy herd (i.e., animal factors, manure handling, drinking water, and both feeds and feeding). The postharvest measures included the practices or treatments that could be implemented during processing of milk, beef, or their products to eliminate or minimize STEC contamination.

  14. The efficacy of four anthelmintics against Calicophoron daubneyi in naturally infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M S; Sanchís, J; Francisco, I; Francisco, R; Piñeiro, P; Cazapal-Monteiro, C; Cortiñas, F J; Suárez, J L; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

    2013-10-18

    The paramphistomicidal activity of four anthelmintics in dairy cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron (Paramphistomum) daubneyi was evaluated. Seventy Friesian adult cows were treated at drying-off (19 albendazole; 23 netobimin; 13 closantel and 15 oxyclozanide), and 21 remained untreated as controls. The anthelmintic efficacy was determined by estimating the faecal egg count reduction (FECR) values for each of the anthelmintics. The reduction in the number of cows shedding eggs in the faeces was also estimated. The C. daubneyi egg-output was not fully suppressed following the administration of any of the parasiticides. The FECR values ranged from 0% to 26% in the cows receiving albendazole or netobimin, with 11-39% of cattle becoming negative after therapy. Better results were achieved with closantel and oxyclozanide, with FECR values of 97-99% and CPCR (cattle positive by coprology reduction) percentages of 85-93%. The observation of a similar efficacy with closantel and oxyclozanide against C. daubneyi led us to recommend the administration of closantel in those countries where oxyclozanide is not available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  16. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  17. Biogas generation and use at a dairy-cattle plant; Biogaserzeugung und -verwertung auf einer Milchviehanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, K. [Saechsische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Leipzig (Germany); Eichert, H. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany); Ackermann, J. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Zwickau (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    At a dairy-cattle plant of the Lungwitztal agrarian co-operative society in Saxony (approximately 1000 head of cattle), a biogas-fuelled cogeneration plant with an electric power output of 220 kilowatts and a thermal power output of 350 kilowatts went operational in 1995. The article reports the operating experience so far gathered, first data concerning the energy budget (the plant`s own power demand, power fed into the grid, use potential) as well as first results regarding the influence of the mixed substrate used (cattle manure with irregular admixtures of chicken dung, molasses, fatty water) on biogas production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf einer Milchviehanlage der Agrargenossenschaft Lungwitztal e.g. in Sachsen (rund 1000 GVE) wurde 1995 ein Biogas-BHKW mit einer Leistung von 220 kW elektrisch und 350 kW thermisch in Betrieb genommen. Es werden die bisherigen Betriebserfahrungen, erste Ergebnisse zur Energiebilanz (Eigenbedarf, Netzeinspeisung, Nutzungspotential) sowie zum Einfluss des eingesetzten Mischsubstrates (Rinderguelle mit unregelmaessigen Zuschlaegen von Huehnerkot, Melasse, Fettwasser) auf die Biogasproduktion vorgestellt. (orig.)

  18. Gene frequency distribution of the BoLA-DRB3 locus in Saavedreño Creole dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoli, M V; Lirón, J P; De Luca, J C; Rojas, F; Dulout, F N; Giovambattista, G

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the gene frequency distribution of the bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 locus in Saavedreño Creole dairy cattle and to compare it with previously reported patterns in other cattle breeds. One hundred and twenty-five Saavedreño Creole dairy cattle were genotyped for the BoLA-DRB3.2 allele by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Twenty-two out of 53 previously identified BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were detected, with gene frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 16.8%. Seventy percent of the variation corresponded to the seven most frequent alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*7, *8, *11, *16, *27, *36, and *37). The studied population exhibits a high degree of expected heterozygosity (he = 0.919). The FIS index did not show significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However, the neutrality test showed an even gene frequency distribution. This result could be better explained assuming balancing selection instead of neutral or positive selection for one or a few alleles. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that BoLA-DRB3.2 is a highly polymorphic locus in Saavedreño Creole dairy cattle, with significant variation in allele frequency among cattle breeds.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.

  20. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D A; Goodger, W J; Garcia, M; Perera, B M; Wittwer, F

    1999-01-27

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multidisciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favorable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low-producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian, and one southern European countries. Data were also collected on feeding, body condition score (BCS) and weight change, parasitism, and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay, and Venezuela, globulin levels were high in > 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Vietnam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay, 49% of cows had high globulin levels at two to three months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela, high beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation, whereas change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were low in only small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and, hence, did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where

  1. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long....... Farmers allocated more land (Porganic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues......Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping...

  2. Effects of Mycotoxin Sequestering Agents Added Into Feed on Health, Reproduction and Milk Yield of Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hulík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mycotoxin sequestering agents in feed on health, reproduction and milk yield of dairy cattle were studied in a 5-month long experiment on 300 dairy cows divided into two groups and six subgroups. The experiment was conducted in adding a mycotoxin sequestering agent based on 1,3 and 1,6 β-glucans to standard cattle nutrition (TMR, which was regularly tested for content of important mycotoxins, in order to gain knowledge about possible positive effect of this agent on the health of dairy cattle and about possible avoidance of negative effects of mycotoxins on dairy cattle due to their structural elimination caused by the agent. The experiment’s setting and conditions during it were in all aspects common and comparable within the European Union, the experiment’s results should be therefore seen as relevant. Health, pregnancy rate and milk yield were carefully monitored during the experiment. Indicators of state of health (occurrence of mastitis and somatic cell count in milk did not show any significant differences between test and control groups of dairy cows. The average milk yield of dairy cows which were fed the agent enriched feed (30.2 kg a day was slightly lower in comparison to control groups (31 kg a day, both results with P < 0.001, however, fat content of milk of test groups’ cows (4.02% was considerably higher than that of control groups’ cows (3.79%. The average pregnancy rate of cows which were fed the agent enriched feed also manifested considerable increase in percentage and stability (from 42.95% of control groups’ cows to 62.25% of test groups’ cows, the standard deviation decreased from 21.1% to 14.4% which means smaller differences among pregnancy rate of test groups’ cows, hence higher stability, this increase manifested even long after the cows had been fed regular feed again.

  3. Lungworm Infections in German dairy cattle herds--seroprevalence and GIS-supported risk factor analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Schunn

    Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.

  4. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  5. Genetic tests for estimating dairy breed proportion and parentage assignment in East African crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strucken, Eva M; Al-Mamun, Hawlader A; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, Cecilia; Gondro, Cedric; Mwai, Okeyo A; Gibson, John P

    2017-09-12

    Smallholder dairy farming in much of the developing world is based on the use of crossbred cows that combine local adaptation traits of indigenous breeds with high milk yield potential of exotic dairy breeds. Pedigree recording is rare in such systems which means that it is impossible to make informed breeding decisions. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays allow accurate estimation of breed composition and parentage assignment but are too expensive for routine application. Our aim was to determine the level of accuracy achieved with low-density SNP assays. We constructed subsets of 100 to 1500 SNPs from the 735k-SNP Illumina panel by selecting: (a) on high minor allele frequencies (MAF) in a crossbred population; (b) on large differences in allele frequency between ancestral breeds; (c) at random; or (d) with a differential evolution algorithm. These panels were tested on a dataset of 1933 crossbred dairy cattle from Kenya/Uganda and on crossbred populations from Ethiopia (N = 545) and Tanzania (N = 462). Dairy breed proportions were estimated by using the ADMIXTURE program, a regression approach, and SNP-best linear unbiased prediction, and tested against estimates obtained by ADMIXTURE based on the 735k-SNP panel. Performance for parentage assignment was based on opposing homozygotes which were used to calculate the separation value (sv) between true and false assignments. Panels of SNPs based on the largest differences in allele frequency between European dairy breeds and a combined Nelore/N'Dama population gave the best predictions of dairy breed proportion (r(2) = 0.962 to 0.994 for 100 to 1500 SNPs) with an average absolute bias of 0.026. Panels of SNPs based on the highest MAF in the crossbred population (Kenya/Uganda) gave the most accurate parentage assignments (sv = -1 to 15 for 100 to 1500 SNPs). Due to the different required properties of SNPs, panels that did well for breed composition did poorly for parentage

  6. Genomic selection for tolerance to heat stress in Australian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy T T; Bowman, Phil J; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Benjamin J

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and humidity levels above a certain threshold decrease milk production in dairy cattle, and genetic variation is associated with the amount of lost production. To enable selection for improved heat tolerance, the aim of this study was to develop genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for heat tolerance in dairy cattle. Heat tolerance was defined as the rate of decline in production under heat stress. We combined herd test-day recording data from 366,835 Holstein and 76,852 Jersey cows with daily temperature and humidity measurements from weather stations closest to the tested herds for test days between 2003 and 2013. We used daily mean values of temperature-humidity index averaged for the day of test and the 4 previous days as the measure of heat stress. Tolerance to heat stress was estimated for each cow using a random regression model with a common threshold of temperature-humidity index=60 for all cows. The slope solutions for cows from this model were used to define the daughter trait deviations of their sires. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction was used to calculate GEBV for heat tolerance for milk, fat, and protein yield. Two reference populations were used, the first consisted of genotyped sires only (2,300 Holstein and 575 Jersey sires), and the other included genotyped sires and cows (2,189 Holstein and 1,188 Jersey cows). The remainder of the genotyped sires were used as a validation set. All animals had genotypes for 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms. When using only genotyped sires in the reference set and only the first parity data, the accuracy of GEBV for heat tolerance in relation to changes in milk, fat, and protein yield were 0.48, 0.50, and 0.49 in the Holstein validation sires and 0.44, 0.61, and 0.53 in the Jersey validation sires, respectively. Some slight improvement in the accuracy of prediction was achieved when cows were included in the reference population for Holsteins. No clear improvements in the accuracy of

  7. Alterations in hepatic miRNA expression during negative energy balance in postpartum dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Attia; Waters, Sinead; O'Boyle, Padraig; Seoighe, Cathal; Morris, Dermot G

    2014-01-15

    Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the 'samr' statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a hepatic transcription factor (TF) that is involved in IGF-1 expression regulation and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a putative target of miR-31. This study shows that SNEB affects liver miRNA expression and these miRNAs have putative targets in hepatic genes down-regulated under this condition. This study highlights the potential role of miRNAs in transcription regulation of hepatic gene expression during SNEB in

  8. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A

    2011-05-01

    Environmental heat stress, present during warm seasons and warm episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that warm climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in warm climates and decrease the effect of warm periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed warm climate-adapted Holsteins. Warm climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by warm conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in

  9. Invited review: associations between variables of routine herd data and dairy cattle welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; Dijkstra, T; van Schaik, G; de Boer, I J M

    2011-07-01

    As farm animal welfare is high on the political and societal agendas of many countries, considerable pressure exists to establish audit programs in which farm animal welfare is routinely monitored. On-farm assessment of animal welfare, however, is time-consuming and costly. A promising strategy to monitor animal welfare more efficiently is to first estimate the level of animal welfare on a farm based on routine herd data that are available in national databases. It is not currently known which variables of routine herd data (VRHD) are associated with dairy cattle welfare indicators (WI). Our aim was to identify VRHD that are associated with WI in a literature review. The 27 VRHD used in this review included the main types of data that are currently collected in national herd databases of developed countries, and related to identification and registration, management, milk production, and reproduction of dairy herds. The 34 WI used in this review were based on the Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The search yielded associations in 146 studies. Twenty-three VRHD were associated with 16 WI. The VRHD that related to milk yield, culling, and reproduction were associated with the largest number of WI. Few associations were found for WI that referred to behavioral aspects of animal welfare, nonspecific disease symptoms, or resources-based indicators. For 18 WI, associations with VRHD were not significant (n=5 WI) or no studies were found that investigated associations with VRHD (n=13 WI). It was concluded that many VRHD have potential to estimate the level of animal welfare on dairy farms. As strengths of associations were not considered in this review, however, the true value of these VRHD should be further explored. Moreover, associations found at the animal level and in an experimental setting might not appear at the farm level and in common practice and should be investigated. Cross-sectional studies using integrated welfare scores at the farm level are

  10. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  11. Oriënterende emissiemetingen aan de Comfort Slat Mats voor melkvee = Explorative emission measurements on Comfort Slat Mats for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Blanken, K.; Gunnink, H.

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of ammonia and methane from the comfort slat mats (a new floor type for dairy cattle) were measured with a dynamic box method. Emissions were reduced up to 50% for ammonia and for 75% for methane.

  12. A comparative assessment of culture and serology in the diagnosis of brucellosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, D; Byrne, W; Kelleher, P; O'Callaghan, H; Kenny, K; Heneghan, T; Power, S; Egan, J; Ryan, F

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of culture for the confirmation of brucellosis in cattle, a comparison of culture and serology was undertaken on 248 animals in four dairy herds where the disease was active. Paired supramammary (SM), retropharyngeal (RP), and internal iliac (IL) lymph nodes were cultured, and five serological tests were deployed: the microserum agglutination test (MSAT), complement fixation test (CFT), the indirect (iELISA) and competitive ELISA, and the fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA). Brucella abortus was isolated from 86.8% of animals on combined culture of all three lymph nodes. Individually, the highest isolation rate was from the RP (90.5% of culture positives). Of culture positive animals, 13.7% and 6.2% were positive from the RP and SM alone, respectively. Approximately half of the positive cultures yielded diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. While the MSAT and FPA were the most sensitive serological tests, a significant percentage of infected animals were undetectable using these standard serological assays.

  13. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  14. Development of Genetic Evaluation on Dairy Cattle Based on Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Indrijani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to review the development of genetic evaluation on dairy cattle based on milk production, including recording system, mathematical model of the milk curve, genetic parameters, and genetic model for predicting breeding values. Test day is the best system to record milk yield as it can be used to predict lactation curve and genetic parameters. Ali-Schaeffer curve was the best curve to estimate milk yield (r > 0.99. Fixed and random regression models have been widely used to give more advantages in breeding program. The models are able to analyse the records measured at different stage of lactation, and to predict a total breeding value from incomplete and part records. For practically used, fixed regression model (MRT is suggested because it does not have numerical problem and is easier to be used.

  15. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J

    2017-01-01

    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only...... to learn more about the stability of this community over time. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed a high level of bacterial diversity, totalling 1539 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, grouped at 96% sequence similarity) across all samples, and ranging from 653 to 926 OTUs per individual sample. The nutritive....... These results demonstrate a general invariability of the ruminal bacterial community structure in these grazing dairy cattle....

  16. Genetic gain in dairy cattle populations is increased using sexed semen in commercial herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2011-01-01

    with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase......Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...

  17. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  18. Household Livelihood Strategies of Dairy Cattle Farmers in Kepuharjo Village, Indonesia, Pre and Post 2010 Merapi Volcano Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVA ALVIAWATI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in the village of Kepuharjo, Sleman regency, located in the north of the Yogyakarta Special Administrative Region, Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to determine the livelihood strategies, patterns and phases of activity, as well as a determinant factor in the livelihood strategies of dairy cattle farmers before and after the 2010 eruptions of Mount Merapi. This research is based on the application of a single case study method. The single case study consists of several cases of household units in the village of Kepuharjo. The instruments used for data collection are direct observation, in-depth interview and document research. Informants are dairy cattle farmers in the hamlets of Kaliadem, Jambu, and Petung in Kepuharjo Village, Cangkringan sub-district, selected through snowball sampling. The results of this study indicate that there are three household livelihood strategies of dairy cattle farmers in the pre-eruptive stage: accumulation, consolidation, and survival strategies Base dominant strategy is livestock breeding. After the eruption, besides the three existing strategies, there is a new one, which is an option of compensation strategy. Base dominant strategy remains the same, namely dairy farming. Household activity patterns and stages of dairy cattle farmers between pre- and post-eruption have changed among other things in terms of the use of farming land, the use of water for household needs and livestock, forage utilization, return to livestock breeding activities and activities carried out in an effort to meet the needs of the household. Determinant factors in the choice of household livelihood strategies are the socio-economic situation of the household (household income and expenditure, resource utilisation (condition of the assets owned, utilisation of materials from the eruption of Merapi, employed household members of working age, and occupational diversification.

  19. Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E

    2016-10-01

    Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at Angus population was used to estimate genetic parameters for MeP and MeY in Holstein POP1, the genetic variance and, consequently, the heritability slightly increased, meaning that most of the

  20. Is reticular temperature a useful indicator of heat stress in dairy cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, S; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reticular temperature (RT) in dairy cattle is a useful indicator of heat stress considering the effects of milk yield and water intake (WI). In total, 28 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows raised on 3 farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied from March to December 2013. During the study, RT and barn climate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity) were measured continuously and individual milk yield was recorded daily. Both the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) and the daily median RT per cow were calculated. Additionally, the individual WI (amount and frequency) of 10 cows during 100d of the study was recorded on 1 farm. Averaged over all farms, daily THI ranged between 35.4 and 78.9 with a mean (±standard deviation) of 60.2 (±8.7). Dairy cows were on average (±standard deviation) 110.9d in milk (±79.3) with a mean (±standard deviation) milk yield of 35.2kg/d (±9.1). The RT was affected by THI, milk yield, days in milk, and WI. Up to a THI threshold of 65, RT remained constant at 39.2°C. Above this threshold, RT increased to 39.3°C and further to 39.4°C when THI ≥70. The correlation between THI ≥70 and RT was 0.22, whereas the coefficient ranged between r=-0.08 to +0.06 when THI <70. With increasing milk yield, RT decreased slightly from 39.3°C (<30kg/d) to 39.2°C (≥40kg/d). For daily milk yields of ≥40kg, the median RT and daily milk yield were correlated at r=-0.18. The RT was greater when dairy cows yielded ≥30kg/d and THI ≥70 (39.5°C) compared with milk yields <30kg and THI <70 (39.3°C). The WI, which averaged (±standard deviation) 11.5 l (±5.7) per drinking bout, caused a mean decrease in RT of 3.2°C and was affected by the amount of WI (r=0.60). After WI, it took up to 2h until RT reached the initial level before drinking. In conclusion, RT increased when the THI threshold of 65 was exceeded. A further increase was noted when THI ≥70. Nevertheless, the effects of WI and milk yield

  1. TRENDS AND PRIORITIES OF DAIRY CATTLE DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF REALIZATION OF THE IMPORT-SUBSTITUTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemova E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors reveal contemporary issues of dairy cattle breeding. These problems are cross-sectoral in nature and are caused by economic realities, related to the crisis, high production and financial risks, lack of financial resources and insufficient state support system. The article reveals the specifics of the dairy industry, including the uniqueness of the products, the rhythm of production and high dependence of the industry on the scale of production. The authors analyze the dynamics and structure of milk production in federal districts of the Russian Federation; assess the changes in the indices of dairy cattle breeding production on farms of all categories of the Russian Federation and calculate milk production efficiency in the agricultural enterprises of Krasnodar territory. The authors have found that the major milk producers in the Krasnodar region are agricultural organizations, but their share in the gross production of milk was constantly decreasing over the period of 1990-2014. The article proves the feasibility of improving the mechanisms of state support for the dairy industry, including assistance in the creation and development of consumer cooperatives that promote the growth of efficiency and competitiveness of dairy farming

  2. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kirkeby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mechanistic bio-economic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build-up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e. due to other diseases by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently.

  3. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse E.; Toft, Nils; Rattenborg, Erik; Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently. PMID:27777933

  4. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagnani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP and carbamate (CB in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC. In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (20% were contaminated with OP, five (16.7% with CB, and one sample with both pesticides. From 48 analyzed feed samples, 15 (31.25% were contaminated with residues of OP, six (12.50% with CB, and one sample was contaminated with both pesticides. Out of 16 water samples analyzed, six (37.50% were contaminated with OP residues, but non with CB. In four dairy farms the pesticides detected in milk were compatible with the active principles found in water and/or foodstuff, suggesting them to be the source of contamination.

  5. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

  6. Modelling effectiveness of herd level vaccination against Q fever in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courcoul Aurélie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  8. Temperature-humidity index values and their significance on the daily production of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Mijić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the microclimatic conditions in stables in three climactic regions (East, Mediterranean, and Central of Croatia as well as to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI values on the daily production of dairy cattle. With that purpose, 1675686 test-day records collected from January 2005 until April 2010 were extracted from HPA (Croatian Agricultural Agency database. For estimation of the effect of THI on daily production of dairy cows fixed-effect model that took into account the effects of lactation stage, breed, calving season, measuring season, and THI group (T1 - THI≤72; T2 - THI>72 was used. Model was applied to each class of parity (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 and region. During the analysed period, the highest monthly averages of ambient temperature were determined in Mediterranean region, the highest monthly averages of relative humidity were observed in Central region, while the highest monthly mean values of temperature-humidity index (THI were determined in Mediterranean region. Heat stress conditions indicated with mean daily values of THI>72 were determined during spring and summer season in all analysed regions. Absence of heat stress conditions during autumn and winter season also characterised all three regions. Highly significant (P<0.01 decrease of daily milk yield as well as of daily fat and protein content due to enhanced THI was observed in all cows regardless the parity class and in all three climatic regions. Furthermore, the most deteriorate effect of heat stress was observed in East region. During heat stress period, with the aim of minimization of the effects of heat stress, it is necessary to regulate management strategies in the dairy herd.

  9. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  10. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan; Mohamed Abdalla Fadol; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed Salih; Abdel Rahim Mohamed El Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97), placenta (n=15), whole blood (n=19), uterine fluid (n=1), and serum (n=8) were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and p...

  11. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Schulman, Nina F;

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most...... recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920...

  12. Spontaneous reduction of advanced twin embryos: its occurrence and clinical relevance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Hunter, R H F

    2005-01-01

    Twin pregnancies represent a management problem in dairy cattle since the risk of pregnancy loss increases, and the profitability of the herd diminishes drastically as the frequency of twin births increases. The aim of this study was to monitor the development of 211 twin pregnancies in high producing dairy cows in order to determine the best time for an embryo reduction approach. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 36 and 42 days after insemination. Animals were then subjected to weekly ultrasound examination until Day 90 of gestation or until pregnancy loss. Viability was determined by monitoring the embryonic/fetal heartbeat until Day 50 of pregnancy, and then by heartbeat or fetal movement detection. Eighty-six cows (40.8%) bore bilateral and 125 (59.2%) unilateral twin pregnancies. Embryo death was registered in one of the two embryos in 35 cows (16.6%), 33 of them at pregnancy diagnosis. Pregnancy loss occurred in 22 of these cows between 1 and 4 weeks later. Thus, 13 (6.2% of the total animals) cows, carrying one dead of the two embryos, maintained gestation. Total pregnancy loss before Day 90 of pregnancy (mean 69 +/- 14 days) was registered in 51 (24.2%) cows: 7 (8%) of bilateral pregnancies and 44 (35.2%) of unilateral pregnancies, and it was higher (P = 0.0001) for both right (32.4%, 24/74) and left (39.2%, 20/51) unilateral than for bilateral (8.1%, 7/86) twin pregnancies. The single embryo death rate was significantly (P = 0.02) lower for cows with bilateral twins (9.3%, 8/86) than for total cows with unilateral twins (21.6%, 27/125). By way of overall conclusion, embryo reduction can occur in dairy cattle, and the practical perspective remains that most embryonic mortality in twins (one of the two embryos) occurs around Days 35-40 of gestation, the period when pregnancy diagnosis is generally performed and when embryo reduction could be tried.

  13. Economic trade-offs between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, A

    2017-05-01

    Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the principles, literature, and magnitude of these trade-offs. Data from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding show that the estimated breeding value of the trait productive life has increased for 50 yr but the actual time cows spend in the herd has not increased. The average annual herd cull rate remains at approximately 36% and cow longevity is approximately 59 mo. The annual increase in average estimated breeding value of the economic index lifetime net merit of Holstein sires is accelerating from $40/yr when the sire entered AI around 2002 to $171/yr for sires that entered AI around 2012. The expectation is therefore that heifers born in 2015 are approximately $50 more profitable per lactation than heifers born in 2014. Asset replacement theory shows that assets should be replaced sooner when the challenging asset is technically improved. Few studies have investigated the direct effects of genetic improvement on optimal cull rates. A 35-yr-old study found that the economically optimal cull rates were in the range of 25 to 27%, compared with the lowest possible involuntary cull rate of 20%. Only a small effect was observed of using the best surviving dams to generate the replacement heifer calves. Genetic improvement from sires had little effect on the optimal cull rate. Another study that optimized culling decisions for individual cows also showed that the

  14. Short communication: Pharmacokinetics of intramammary hetacillin in dairy cattle milked 3 times per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Danielle A; Baynes, Ronald E; Smith, Geof W

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis remains a critical disease in the dairy industry and the use of intramammary antibiotics plays a critical role in mastitis treatment. Hetacillin is currently approved as an intramammary antibiotic that is used to treat mastitis in dairy cows. It is approved for once a day administration and can be used for a total of 3 d. An increasing number of dairy farms are milking 3 times per day (instead of the traditional 2 times per day) and very little pharmacokinetic data exists on the use of intramammary drugs in a 3×system. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if once a day intramammary infusion of hetacillin is sufficient to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in cattle milked 3 times per day. Eight Holstein cattle milked 3 times per day were used in this study. After collecting a baseline milk sample, each cow received intramammary infusions of hetacillin in the left front and right rear quarters once a day for 3 d. Milk samples from each of the treated quarters were collected at each milking and frozen until analysis. Milk samples were analyzed for ampicillin concentrations using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method. All treated quarters had antibiotic concentrations well above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for gram-positive mastitis pathogens at 8 and 16 h postinfusion. Milk concentrations had fallen well below the MIC by the 24-h period (before the next infusion). All 8 cows in this study consistently had individual quarter milk ampicillin concentrations below the FDA tolerance of 0.01 μg/mL (10 ppb) within 48 h of the last infusion. Based on this study, milk ampicillin concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC90) for at least 65% of the dosing interval, which is sufficient for once-daily dosing with most cases of gram-positive mastitis. Therefore, intramammary hetacillin should be an effective treatment for the vast majority of gram

  15. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-09-06

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  16. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and amended soil: effects of cattle feeding, manure type and dairy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Visser, A.A.; Blok, W.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of cattle diet on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from dairy cattle subjected to 6 different feeding regimes consisting of 3 different roughage types and 2 levels of crude protein concentrates. In addition, the rate of survival of E. coli O157:H7

  17. Effect of flunixin meglumine and carprofen on pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2010-11-01

    , respectively. Neither flunixin meglumine nor carprofen improved conception rates to first service in dairy cattle in the dosage and administration schedule tested.

  18. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management i...

  19. Effect of rubber flooring on dairy cattle stepping behavior and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-04-01

    Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2 × 2 design, cows (n = 16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract

  20. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring

  1. Reducing treatments in cattle superovulation protocols by combining a pituitary extract with a 5% hyaluronan solution: Is it able to diminish activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis compared to the traditional protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancucci, Andrea; Sbaragli, Tatiana; Comin, Antonella; Sylla, Lakamy; Monaci, Maurizio; Peric, Tanja; Stradaioli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-15

    Traditional superovulation protocols that include multiple gonadotropin treatments are time-consuming and labor intensive. These protocols require multiple handling and restraining of embryo donors. This will likely increase the risks of injuries in both animals and humans and induce stress that may lead to a reduced superovulatory response. These are more evident when working with cattle that are rarely handled or raised on extensive grazing. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the efficacy of a split-injection protocol of porcine pituitary-derived porcine FSH (pFSH) preparation (slow release [SR] group) to the traditional 4-day treatment with pFSH administered twice daily (C group) and to determine the concentrations of cortisol in the hair as a marker of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the two superovulatory treatments. Thirty-two heifers were stimulated twice in a 2 × 2 crossover design and compared for ovarian response and numbers and characteristics of recovered ova-embryo among treatments. No differences between SR and C groups were found in terms of percentage of responsive animals (100% vs. 93.8%) and ovulation rate (83.7 ± 1.1 vs. 79.5 ± 1.0%). A positive correlation was found between the number of follicles responsive to pFSH (2-8 mm) at the beginning of treatments and the superovulatory response, and no differences were found in these follicular populations between the two treatment groups. The numbers of CLs, ova-embryos, fertilized ova, transferable and freezable embryos recovered per cow were found to be significantly higher in SR compared with C group (14.0 ± 1.6 vs. 10.6 ± 1.0, 12.1 ± 1.6 vs. 7.6 ± 1.0, 11.1 ± 1.1 vs. 7.3 ± 1.0, 9.6 ± 1.4 vs. 6.6 ± 1.0, and 9.4 ± 1.4 vs. 6.0 ± 1.0 for SR and C group, respectively). The SR group produced also a significantly greater number of excellent- and/or good-quality embryos compared with the C group. The concentrations of cortisol in the hair at

  2. Herd-prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) antibodies in dairy cattle farms based on bulk tank milk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Naser Shahabi-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibody positive randomly selected dairy herds in southeast Iran (Kerman). Methods: Bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly from 44 sufficiently large commercial dairy herds, included near 12 000 dairy cattle, in Kerman (The largest province of Iran), southeast Iran. The samples were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using the commercial CHEKIT® Q fever antibody ELISA Test Kit (Idexx, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland). Results: The prevalence of positive, negative and intermediate herds were 45.4%, 43.2% and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The result supports the hypothesis of high prevalence and endemic pattern of Q fever in Iran. This investigation highlights the importance of further studies on Q fever in Iran.

  3. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-04-05

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.

  4. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridib Debnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

  5. The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control

  6. Investigation of dairy cattle ease of movement on new methyl methacrylate resin aggregate floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Gendron, N; Bergeron, R; Curilla, W; Conte, S; DeVries, T; Vasseur, E

    2016-10-01

    Freestall dairy farms commonly present issues with cattle slips and falls caused by smooth flooring and manure slurry. This study examined the effect of 4 new methyl methacrylate (MMA) resin aggregate flooring types (1-4) compared with rubber (positive) and concrete (negative control) on dairy cow (n=18) ease of movement when walking on straight and right-angled corridors. Our hypothesis was that cow ease of movement when walking on the MMA surfaces would be better than when walking on traction milled concrete, and at least as good as when walking on rubber. Cattle ease of movement was measured using kinematics, accelerometers, and visual observation of gait and associated behaviors. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and hoof height were obtained from kinematic evaluation. Acceleration and asymmetry of variance were measured with accelerometers. Locomotion score and behaviors associated with lameness, such as arch back, head bob, tracking up, step asymmetry, and reluctance to bear weight were visually observed. Stride length, swing time, stance time, and the number of steps taken were the only variables affected by flooring type. Differences between flooring types for these variables were tested using a generalized linear mixed model with cow as a random effect, week as a random block factor, and flooring type as a fixed effect. Multiple comparisons with a Scheffé adjustment were done to analyze differences among flooring types. Stride length was 0.14 m longer (better) on rubber when compared with concrete, and 0.11 and 0.17 m shorter on MMA 1 and 2 compared with rubber. On MMA 3 and 4, stride length did not differ from either rubber or concrete. Swing time was 0.04 s shorter (worse) on MMA 1 than on rubber, but did not differ from any other flooring. Stance time was 0.18 s longer (worse) on MMA 2 when compared with rubber, but it did not differ from any other treatment. The number of steps was higher on MMA 4 compared with rubber (4.57 vs. 3.95 steps), but

  7. Interplay between rumen digestive disorders and diet-induced inflammation in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Metzler-Zebeli, B U

    2012-12-01

    In this review, an overview is provided on the current achievements regarding the interplay between rumen digestive disorders and diet-induced inflammation in dairy cattle. It starts with a review of factors favoring the disturbances in the rumen metabolism, which culminate with development of sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). The latter digestive disorder is often linked to greater metabolic stress of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and lowered fiber digestion, as well as with disruption of the barrier functions of the GI epithelia, which open the route of deleterious molecules to translocate from the GI lumen into the portal system. A model is suggested to illustrate the mechanisms of the involvement of digestive disorders in the disruption of the host's inner homeostasis leading to activation of acute phase response (APR). The latter is part of multifaceted innate immune and metabolic responses of the host. According to this model, endotoxin, its toxicity, and other metabolic compounds of microbial origin are regarded as important immunogenic components of GI tract, which when favored by disruption of host barriers triggers a systemic APR. Although the activation of an APR is viewed as a protective reaction aiming to reestablish the disturbed homeostasis, the presence of inflammatory state over long periods might be associated with negative consequences for the host. The review concludes that prolonged systemic inflammation can: (1) cause significant changes in the energy and lipid metabolism in different body tissues, (2) lead to the development of refractory states associated with immune suppression and increased susceptibility to various diseases, and (3) artificially increase host's requirements in energy and nutrients, lowering the efficiency of energy and feed use by the animal. The paper emphasizes the critical role that formulation of healthy diets plays for curbing down inflammation and enhancing metabolic health of dairy cows.

  8. Occurrence of mycotoxins in maize, grass and wheat silage for dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driehuis, F; Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Te Giffel, M C

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of mycotoxins in 140 maize silages, 120 grass silages and 30 wheat silages produced in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2004 was determined using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) multi-method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 μg kg⁻¹ in 72% of maize and 10% of wheat silages. Average DON concentrations were 854 and 621 μg kg⁻¹, respectively, and maximum concentrations 3142 and 1165 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Zearalenone was detected above the LOQ of 25 μg kg⁻¹ in 49% of maize and 6% of grass silages. Average zearalenone concentrations were 174 and 93 μg kg⁻¹, respectively, and maximum concentrations 943 and 308 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The incidences and average concentrations of DON and zearalenone in maize silage were highest in 2004. The incidence of other mycotoxins was low: fumonisin B1 and 15-acetyl-DON were detected in 1.4 and 5% of maize silages, respectively, and roquefortin C in 0.8% of grass silages. None of the silages contained aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, T2-toxin, HT2-toxin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, ergotamine, penicillinic acid, or mycophenolic acid. This study demonstrates that maize silage is an important source of DON and zearalenone in the diet of dairy cattle. Since the carryover of these mycotoxins into milk is negligible, their occurrence in feed is not considered to be of significant concern with respect to the safety of dairy products for consumers. Potential implications for animal health are discussed.

  9. Transmission and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in dairy cattle and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, J M; Graat, E A M; Frankena, K; VAN Zijderveld, F; DE Jong, M C M

    2009-01-01

    Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out in one of two pastures. From each group, five animals were experimentally inoculated with 109 c.f.u. O157 VTEC and, considered infectious, put back in their group. Each of the susceptible contact calves became positive within 6 days of being reunited. The estimate of the basic reproduction ratio (R0) in the experiment was 7.3 (95% CI 3.92-11.5), indicating that each infectious calf will infect seven other calves on average during an assumed infectious period of 28 days in a fully susceptible population. The R0 among dairy cows appeared to be about 10 times lower (0.70, 95% CI 0.48-1.04). After the transmission experiment, six contact-infected animals that were shedding continuously during the experiment were housed in a tie stall during winter. After 40 days, all six tested negative for O157 VTEC. In June, after a period of 34 weeks in which the heifers remained negative, they were put out in a clean and isolated pasture to observe whether they started shedding again. On each pasture that was infected with O157 VTEC during the transmission experiment the previous summer, newly purchased susceptible calves were placed. None of the heifers or calves started shedding during 14 weeks, indicating that both the heifers and the previously contaminated pasture did not function as reservoir of O157 VTEC.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  11. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, N; Capion, N

    2013-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored M0 to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to M0 was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P=0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1%, respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P=0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P=0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P=0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (Pantibiotic use.

  12. Economic modelling of grazing management against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; de Haan, M H A; Evers, A G; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2017-03-15

    Grazing management (GM) interventions, such as reducing the grazing time or mowing pasture before grazing, have been proposed to limit the exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in grazed livestock. However, the farm-level economic effects of these interventions have not yet been assessed. In this paper, the economic effects of three GM interventions in adult dairy cattle were modelled for a set of Flemish farms: later turnout on pasture (GM1), earlier housing near the end of the grazing season (GM2), and reducing the daily grazing time (GM3). Farm accountancy data were linked to Ostertagia ostertagi bulk tank milk ELISA results and GM data for 137 farms. The economic effects of the GM interventions were investigated through a combination of efficiency analysis and a whole-farm simulation model. Modelling of GM1, GM2 and GM3 resulted in a marginal economic effect of € 8.36, € -9.05 and € -53.37 per cow per year, respectively. The results suggest that the dairy farms can improve their economic performance by postponing the turnout date, but that advancing the housing date or reducing daily grazing time mostly leads to a lower net economic farm performance. Overall, the GM interventions resulted in a higher technical efficiency and milk production but these benefits were offset by increased feed costs as a result of higher maintenance and cultivation costs. Because the results differed highly between farms, GM interventions need to be evaluated at the individual level for appropriate decision support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MLST genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler products, dairy cattle and human campylobacteriosis cases in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Alter, Thomas; Kasnauskyte, Neringa; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-06-15

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is the leading cause of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. We performed a molecular epidemiological study to investigate the genetic relationship among C. jejuni strains isolated from human diarrhoeal patients, broiler products and dairy cattle in Lithuania. The C. jejuni isolates from human clinical cases, dairy cattle and broiler products were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Allele numbers for each housekeeping gene, sequence type (ST), and clonal complex (CC) were assigned by submitting the DNA sequences to the C. jejuni MLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). Based on the obtained sequence data of the housekeeping genes a phylogenetic analysis of the strains was performed and a minimum spanning tree (MST) was calculated. Among the 262 C. jejuni strains (consisting of 43 strains isolated from dairy cattle, 102 strains isolated from broiler products and 117 clinical human C. jejuni strains), 82 different MLST sequence types and 22 clonal complexes were identified. Clonal complexes CC21 and CC353 predominated among the C. jejuni strains. On ST-level, five sequence types (ST-5, ST-21, ST-50, ST-464 and ST-6410) were dominating and these five STs accounted for 35.9% (n = 94) of our isolates. In addition, 51 (19.5%) C. jejuni strains representing 27 (32.9%) STs were reported for the first time in the PubMLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). The highest Czekanowski index or proportional similarity index (PSI) was calculated for C. jejuni strains isolated from human campylobacteriosis cases and broiler products (PSI = 0.32) suggesting a strong link between broiler strains and human cases. The PSI of dairy cattle and human samples was lower (PSI = 0.11), suggesting a weaker link between bovine strains and human cases. The calculated Simpson's index of all C. jejuni isolates showed a high genetic diversity (D = 0.96). Our results suggest that broiler products are the most important source of

  14. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  15. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  16. Field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N

    2016-03-01

    The hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n = 65, 25, and 30, respectively). Collected samples were cultured for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria using serological techniques and PCR. The bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 50%, at different concentrations were evaluated by the determination of total viable and coliform counts of water prior and postwater treatment. In small cattle breeders, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial isolates from surface water (56.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.7%), Salmonella spp. (26.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (23.3%), Shigella flexneri (16.7%), Proteus spp. (16.7%), and Klebsiella pneumonae (10.0 %) at X(2) = 9, P ≤ 0.01. Prior to the use of disinfectants, the averages of total bacterial and coliform counts were the highest in surface water (3.56 × 10(7), 240.0, and 38.0 CFU/100 ml, respectively). It has been found that hydrogen peroxide 50% at a concentration of 35 mg/l had a lethal effect (100 %) on indicator microorganisms compared with NaDCC at concentration of 2 mg/l. In conclusion, the higher bacterial contaminants in drinking water were found in surface water followed by tap water, particularly for small cattle breeders. Therefore, the usage of more hygienic water troughs with their regular treatment by hydrogen peroxide 50% at concentration of 35 mg/l is highly recommended to control waterborne bacteria and consequently improve and maintain the animal health.

  17. Factors affecting dairy farmers' attitudes towards antimicrobial medicine usage in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P J; Marier, E A; Tranter, R B; Wu, G; Watson, E; Teale, C J

    2015-09-01

    There has been growing concern about bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in the farmed livestock sector. Attention has turned to sub-optimal use of antimicrobials as a driver of resistance. Recent reviews have identified a lack of data on the pattern of antimicrobial use as an impediment to the design of measures to tackle this growing problem. This paper reports on a study that explored use of antibiotics by dairy farmers and factors influencing their decision-making around this usage. We found that respondents had either recently reduced their use of antibiotics, or planned to do so. Advice from their veterinarian was instrumental in this. Over 70% thought reducing antibiotic usage would be a good thing to do. The most influential source of information used was their own veterinarian. Some 50% were unaware of the available guidelines on use in cattle production. However, 97% thought it important to keep treatment records. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used to identify dairy farmers' drivers and barriers to reduce use of antibiotics. Intention to reduce usage was weakly correlated with current and past practice of antibiotic use, whilst the strongest driver was respondents' belief that their social and advisory network would approve of them doing this. The higher the proportion of income from milk production and the greater the chance of remaining in milk production, the significantly higher the likelihood of farmers exhibiting positive intention to reduce antibiotic usage. Such farmers may be more commercially minded than others and thus more cost-conscious or, perhaps, more aware of possible future restrictions. Strong correlation was found between farmers' perception of their social referents' beliefs and farmers' intent to reduce antibiotic use. Policy makers should target these social referents, especially veterinarians, with information on the benefits from, and the means to, achieving reductions in antibiotic usage. Information on sub-optimal use

  18. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-09

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of selection signatures in dairy and beef cattle using high-density genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuping; McParland, Sinead; Kearney, Francis; Du, Lixin; Berry, Donagh P

    2015-06-19

    Artificial selection for economically important traits in cattle is expected to have left distinctive selection signatures on the genome. Access to high-density genotypes facilitates the accurate identification of genomic regions that have undergone positive selection. These findings help to better elucidate the mechanisms of selection and to identify candidate genes of interest to breeding programs. Information on 705 243 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3122 dairy and beef male animals from seven cattle breeds (Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein-Friesian, Limousin and Simmental) were used to detect selection signatures by applying two complementary methods, integrated haplotype score (iHS) and global fixation index (FST). To control for false positive results, we used false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment to calculate adjusted iHS within each breed and the genome-wide significance level was about 0.003. Using the iHS method, 83, 92, 91, 101, 85, 101 and 86 significant genomic regions were detected for Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein-Friesian, Limousin and Simmental cattle, respectively. None of these regions was common to all seven breeds. Using the FST approach, 704 individual SNPs were detected across breeds. Annotation of the regions of the genome that showed selection signatures revealed several interesting candidate genes i.e. DGAT1, ABCG2, MSTN, CAPN3, FABP3, CHCHD7, PLAG1, JAZF1, PRKG2, ACTC1, TBC1D1, GHR, BMP2, TSG1, LYN, KIT and MC1R that play a role in milk production, reproduction, body size, muscle formation or coat color. Fifty-seven common candidate genes were found by both the iHS and global FST methods across the seven breeds. Moreover, many novel genomic regions and genes were detected within the regions that showed selection signatures; for some candidate genes, signatures of positive selection exist in the human genome. Multilevel bioinformatic analyses of the detected candidate genes

  20. Effect of supplemental Bacillus culture on rumen fermentation and performance in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two parts were involved in this experiment. In experiment 1, 32 Chinese Holstein cows with relatively similar body condition, lactation number and days in milk were selected. The cows were assigned in a randomized complete block design trial to determine the effect of supplemental Bacillus cultures to diet on production performance in dairy cattle. Four treatments, i.e., Bacillus licheniformis (strain number 1.813) group, Bacillus subtilis (strain number 1.1086) group, Bacillus cereus var. mycoides (strain number 1.260) group and control group. Each treatment had eight replicates, each replicate had one cow, 50 g per head per day. Results showed that Bacillus licheniformis group increased the milk yield (P0.05). In experiment 2, 3 Chinese Holstein cows with permanent fistulas were used. 3×3 Latin squares were assigned to three diets: Bacillus lincheniformis culture, Bacillus subtilis culture and control. Bacillus licheniformis culture increased total rumen microorganism (P0.05), increased the rate of acetic acid to propionic acid (P>0.05). Bacillus licheniformis culture decreased the methane production (P>0.05).

  1. Enhanced methane production from ultrasound pre-treated and hygienized dairy cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luste, Sami; Luostarinen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of hygienization (70 °C, 60 min) and ultrasound (6000 ± 500 kJ/kg total solids (TS)) pre-treatments on hydrolysis and biological methane (CH(4)) potential (BMP) of dairy cattle slurry was studied. The BMP of the untreated slurry (control) was 210 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton volatile solids (VS) added; after ultrasound pre-treatment it was 250 ± 10 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added) and after hygienization 280 ± 20 Nm(3) CH(4)/ton VS(added). The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the inoculum increased from 22 (untreated) to 26 (ultrasound treated) and up to 28 N ml CH(4)/g VS d, after hygienization. However, only hygienization achieved a positive net energy balance. Both pre-treatments increased the VS-based hydrolysis of slurry (10-96%), soluble nitrogen (N(sol)) content in digestates (20 ± 5%) and biodegradability of the slurry (8 ± 3%) as estimated via elevated VS removal.

  2. Use of flavored drinking water in calves and lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L C; Wright, T C; Formusiak, A; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2007-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the use of added flavor in drinking water of Holstein calves and lactating dairy cattle to determine effects on dry feed intake. Nine calves were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design, and water offered was unflavored or flavored with orange or vanilla. All calves were offered commercial starter. Feed intake of the dry starter was increased in calves offered the orange flavor treatment compared with the control or the vanilla treatment. The increased dry feed intake agreed with the significant increase in weight gain measured in calves on the orange treatment. Further experiments were performed with 4 second-lactation cows using the addition of another orange flavor to the water compared with unflavored water under conditions of free access or time-restricted water access. No significant changes were found for dry matter intake, water consumption, or milk yield. These findings demonstrate an important finding that flavoring agents need not be added only to the starter feed for calves, but flavor can stimulate dry feed intake and BW gain when used in drinking water.

  3. Listeriosis outbreak in dairy cattle caused by an unusual Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrant, Brittany N; Hutchins, Tony; den Bakker, Henk C; Fortes, Esther; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak, in dairy cattle, with a high case mortality and acute death after onset of symptoms was investigated using gross pathology and bacteriologic approaches, including molecular characterization of a clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolate. In a herd of 315 animals, 9 animals showed clinical symptoms consistent with listeriosis, including 3 animals that died within 2-4 days after acute onset of clinical signs, 4 animals that were euthanized, and 2 that survived. Initial EcoRI ribotyping and serotyping indicated that this outbreak was caused by an unusual L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain, which was classified into lineage III. Further characterization of this isolate by DNA sequencing-based subtyping methods indicated that the strain responsible for this outbreak represented a unique genotype as supported by its classification into a new sigB allelic type, which has not been identified previously among >290 isolates, and by compelling phylogenetic evidence. While lineage III isolates are generally rare, they seem to be more common among L. monocytogenes isolates from animals with clinical signs of listeriosis. This is the first report of a particularly severe clinical course of disease associated with infection by a lineage III strain. The high prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in the farm environments may favor emergence and evolution of novel, and possibly more virulent, L. monocytogenes strains. Continued monitoring of animal listeriosis cases and outbreaks may not only improve animal health but also aid in the early discovery of newly emerging L. monocytogenes strains.

  4. Association of length of pregnancy with other reproductive traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Piwczyński, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    The experiment involved observations of 2,514 Holstein-Friesian cows to determine the effects of environmental factors (cow's age, calving season, weight and sex of calves, housing system) and genetic factors on gestation length in dairy cattle and the correlation between gestation length and other reproductive traits (calving ease, stillbirth rates and placental expulsion). Genetic parameters were estimated based on the sires of calved cows (indirect effect) and the sires of live-born calves (direct effect). The following factors were found to contribute to prolonged gestation: increasing cow's age, male fetuses and growing fetus weight. Optimal gestation length was determined in the range of 275-277 days based on calving ease and stillbirth rates. The heritability of gestation length was estimated at 0.201-0.210 by the direct effect and 0.055-0.073 by the indirect effect. The resulting genetic correlations suggest that the efforts to optimize (prolong) gestation length could exert an adverse influence on the breeding value of bulls by increasing perinatal mortality and calving difficulty. The standard errors of the investigated parameters were relatively high, suggesting that any attempts to modify gestation length for the purpose of improving calving ease and reducing stillbirth rates should be introduced with great caution.

  5. A simple strategy for managing many recessive disorders in a dairy cattle breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John B

    2015-11-30

    High-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes have recently been used to identify a number of novel recessive mutations that adversely affect fertility in dairy cattle, as well as to track other conditions such as red coat color and polled. Most current methods for mate allocation fail to consider this information, and it will become increasingly difficult to manage matings as the number of recessive mutations to be accounted for increases. A modified version of a mating strategy that constrains inbreeding based on genomics (the Pryce method) was developed that also accounts for the economic effects of Mendelian disorders on overall economic merit (modified Pryce method) and compared with random mating, truncation selection, and the Pryce scheme. Several scenarios were considered, including scenarios with six hypothetical recessive alleles and 12 recessive alleles that are currently segregating in the US Holstein population. The Pryce method and the modified Pryce method showed similar ability to reduce frequencies of recessive alleles, particularly for loci with frequencies greater than 0.30. The modified Pryce method outperformed the Pryce method for low-frequency alleles with small economic value. Cumulative genetic gain for the selection objective was slightly greater when using the Pryce method, but rates of inbreeding were similar across methods. The proposed method reduces allele frequencies faster than other methods, and also can be used to maintain or increase the frequency of desirable recessives. It can be easily implemented in software for mate allocation, and the code used in this study is freely available as a reference implementation.

  6. Effects of copper on the abundance and diversity of ammonia oxidizers during dairy cattle manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Song, Wen; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Kaiyu; Qian, Xun; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Yang; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of adding Cu(II) at two exposure levels (50 and 500mgkg(-1), i.e., Cu50 and Cu500 treatments, respectively) on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms during dairy cattle manure composting. The results showed that the pH, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and potential ammonia oxidation values were inhibited significantly by the addition of Cu(II). Furthermore, the abundances of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) amoA gene and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene were determined by quantitative PCR, and their compositions were evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). AOA was the dominant ammonia oxidizing microorganism, of which the abundance was much higher than AOB during composting. Cu50 and Cu500 had significant inhibitory effects on the abundance of the amoA gene. The DGGE profile and statistical analysis showed that Cu(II) changed the AOA and AOB community structure and diversity, where Nitrosomonas and Crenarchaeota dominated throughout the composting process.

  7. Use of different kind of silage dairy cattle manure in lamb nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Mendoza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding cattle manure (CM for ruminants may reduce feed costs for smallholders and provide a partial solution to environment problems for large dairy herds. Feeding value of ensiling CM with molasses (MO, bakery by-products (BBP and tallow (TW was evaluated. Five Suffolk male lambs were fed with different kind of CM as follow: 1 control: CM and MO; 2 LBBP: CM and low level of BBP; 3 HBBP: CM and high level of BBP; 4 LTW: CM, BBP and low level of TW; and 5 HTW: CM, BBP and high level of TW. Ensiling CM with BBP had the lowest silage losses. Silages were part of diets, which were fed to lambs fitted with ruminal cannulas. Nutrient intake and N balance did not differ in lambs across all experimental diets, but the NDF digestion of diets with BBP and TW was lower than with MO or BBP. Ensiling CM with BBP offered less silage losses as compared to MO.

  8. The effects of periparturient administration of flunixin meglumine on the health and production of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, N C; Leslie, K E; Dingwell, H D Putnam; Kelton, D F; Weary, D M; Neuder, L; Millman, S T; Duffield, T F

    2017-01-01

    Research on the assessment and management of pain in cows following difficult or assisted calving is still limited, especially on the effects of analgesics intended to mitigate this pain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flunixin meglumine on the health and production of Holstein cows after calving. In total, 34 flunixin-treated and 38 placebo-treated animals were enrolled in a precalving treatment trial. A total of 633 animals given flunixin and 632 animals administered a placebo were enrolled in a postcalving treatment trial. In both cases, animals were randomly assigned to treatment, and researchers were blind to treatment condition until after analysis. A total of 1,265 animal records were analyzed for milk production for the first 14d in milk and health outcomes for the first 30d in milk. Animals treated with flunixin meglumine before calving had a significantly increased risk of stillbirth. Animals treated immediately after calving had increased odds of having a retained placenta and, in turn, increased risk of a high temperature, decreased milk production, and an increased risk of developing metritis. The administration of flunixin meglumine within 24h of parturition is not recommended in dairy cattle.

  9. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  10. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens of dairy cattle and comparative relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Middleton, John R; McDougall, Scott; Katholm, Jorgen; Schukken, Ynte H

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, can be caused by a wide range of organisms, including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, mycoplasmas and algae. Many microbial species that are common causes of bovine mastitis, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus also occur as commensals or pathogens of humans whereas other causative species, such as Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae or Staphylococcus chromogenes, are almost exclusively found in animals. A wide range of molecular typing methods have been used in the past two decades to investigate the epidemiology of bovine mastitis at the subspecies level. These include comparative typing methods that are based on electrophoretic banding patterns, library typing methods that are based on the sequence of selected genes, virulence gene arrays and whole genome sequencing projects. The strain distribution of mastitis pathogens has been investigated within individual animals and across animals, herds, countries and host species, with consideration of the mammary gland, other animal or human body sites, and environmental sources. Molecular epidemiological studies have contributed considerably to our understanding of sources, transmission routes, and prognosis for many bovine mastitis pathogens and to our understanding of mechanisms of host-adaptation and disease causation. In this review, we summarize knowledge gleaned from two decades of molecular epidemiological studies of mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle and discuss aspects of comparative relevance to human medicine.

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum.

  13. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  14. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  15. Spatial analysis of Neospora caninum distribution in dairy cattle from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Frössling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.

  16. Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  17. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  18. Occurrence of Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in Dairy Cattle from N ova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This  study  aimed  to  evaluate  the  occurrence  and  the  risk  factors  associated  to  the summer mastitis in  27  dairy cattle from  Nova Santa Helena, Mato Grosso.  From the 408 dairy  cows  evaluated,  62  animals  (15.19%  were  positive  to  mastitis  with  13.32%  of prevalence above all farms. After the evaluation of the risk factor, was noticed more influence on mastitis occurrence  due to the use  of  the  milking machine  OR:  20.64  (p: 0.048 and a dirt floor in the barn milking OR: 11.14 (p: 0.041.Key words: summer mastitis; risk factors; dairy cattle

  19. Trivers-Willard hypothesis revisited:Does heat stress peri-insemination alter secondary sex ratio in crossbred dairy cattle?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA Khan; SSD Sacchan; MP Singh; RA Patoo; Shiv Prasad; HP Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that heat stress peri-insemination skews towards female the secondary sex ratio in dairy cattle. In addition, the effect of heat stress peri-insemination on birth weight of resultant calves was investigated. Methods: Data on the date of insemination and sex and birth weight of the resultant calf were collected for a total of 934 single births on a crossbred dairy farm and grouped into thermoneutral and heat stress peri-insemination groups on the basis of temperature humidity indices on the day of insemination. Results: Logistic regression revealed no difference in the secondary sex ratios between thermoneutral (53.4:46.6) and heat stress (52.5:47.5) peri-insemination groups. These sex ratios were not different from the expected 50:50 ratio on Chi-square goodness of fit test. Differences in birth weight of calves between thermoneutral and heat stress peri-insemination groups did not approach statistical significance.Conclusions: These results indicate that heat stress peri-insemination does not affect secondary sex ratio and calf birth weight in crossbred dairy cattle.

  20. Molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of the proteins and energy in triticale grains and dried distillers grains with solubles for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; McKinnon, John J; Thacker, Philip; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-10-10

    To our knowledge, there is no research on the molecular structure of triticale grain in comparison with other types of cereal grains and metabolic characteristics of the protein and energy in this grain and its coproducts, called dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), for dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to identify differences in molecular structures of proteins among grains and their DDGS using a molecular spectroscopy technique, namely, DRIFT, and to determine the nutrient profile and supply to dairy cattle. The protein molecular structure studies showed a difference (P triticale grain and DDGS. There were differences in the protein and carbohydrate subfractions (P triticale grain and DDGS. Triticale grain and DDGS had similar intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded CP. However, triticale DDGS had higher (P triticale, indicating that triticale DDGS is a superior protein source for dairy cattle as compared with triticale grain. Bioethanol processing induced changes in the protein molecular structure.

  1. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  2. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  3. Effect of rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk on the time budgets of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonesi, Jose A; Tucker, Cassandra B; Weary, Daniel M; Flower, Frances C; Vittie, Tyler

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk on the immediate behavioral response of dairy cattle. Four groups of 12 dairy cattle were alternately housed in sections of a free-stall barn with either 1.85 m of rubber flooring or grooved concrete in the area in front of the feed bunk. Rubber flooring did not affect time spent eating. However, animals showed a slight, but detectable, increase in time standing without eating on the rubber surface (5.5%) compared with concrete (4.8%). For reasons that are unclear, this increase in time spent standing was not limited to the area in front of the feed bunk; animals spent 11.0% of the available time standing elsewhere in the pen (outside of the free stall but not in front of the feed bunk) when they had access to the rubber flooring, compared with 9.0% when housed with access to only concrete floors. In addition, animals spent slightly less time lying in the free stall when they had access to rubber in front of the feed bunk (52.5 vs. 54.3%). Time spent engaged in behaviors such as standing elsewhere in the pen and eating were variable over time. For example, time spent eating declined from 23.1 to 17.4% over the 6-wk trial. In conclusion, dairy cattle with access to rubber flooring in front of the feeder showed small differences in where and how much time they spent standing, although the biological implications of these small changes are unclear.

  4. Association of herd BRSV and BHV-1 seroprevalence with respiratory disease and reproductive performance in adult dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaperi Kerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.

  5. Bovine tuberculosis and its risk factors among dairy cattle herds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, being cross breed .... objective of this dairy system is to sale milk as a means of additional cash income. ... and herd characteristics (such as dairy herd management system, herd size, keeping of ...

  6. Study on performance analysis of Holstein Fresien cattle under intensive management at government dairy farm, Pishin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf H. Barozai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze the productive and reproductive performance ofHolstein Friesian cattle under intensive management at Government Dairy Farm, Pishin (Balochistanexploring the ten years performance records from 1997-2007. Parameters were productive traits(birth weight, lactation length, lactation milk yield, reproductive traits (age at first conception, age atfirst calving, service period, dry period, calving interval and effect of calving season on (milk yield,calving interval, birth weight, dry period on the Holstein Fresein cattle. Analysis of data revealedsignificant difference in all the productive traits (P0.05 in higher birth weight of calves, dry period,calving interval and milk yield of cows, respectively.

  7. Assessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whay, H R; Main, D C J; Green, L E; Webster, A J F

    2003-08-16

    A protocol was developed by consultation with experts on the welfare of cattle to use direct observations of cattle and an examination of farm records to assess welfare. Fifty-three dairy farms in England were visited and assessed during the winter of 2000/01. The findings were compiled and the results of the welfare measurements were examined by 50 experts who indicated at what level they considered that improvement was required. More than 75 per cent of them considered that 32 of the 53 farms needed to take action to reduce the incidence of mastitis, and that at least 42 of the farms needed to take action to reduce the prevalence of lameness, overgrown claws, swollen and ulcerated hocks, and injuries from the environment.

  8. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Schulman, Nina F

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most...... recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920...... progeny tested bulls were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. After quality control, 38473 SNPs were analyzed using a mixed linear model (software package DMU). Associations (5% Bonferroni threshold) were detected in 9 peaks on 5 chromosomes. A set of 238 of the bulls were re...

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein × Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs.

  10. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  11. 奶牛酵母菌性乳腺炎的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Yeast Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹思军; 刘有旺; 朱瑞良

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the yeast mastiffs in dairy cattle cases which have been ineffectively treated by multiple antibiotics through traditional Chinese medicine prescription. [Method] The isolated pathogenic fungi from milk were used for drug sensitivity testing and the ones proved were clinically treated by self-made traditional Chinese medicine prescription "Ruxiaotang". [Result] 19 cases of 20 selected dairy cattle cases were diagnosed as yeast mastitis and cured with the except of a Candida tropicalis case. [Conclusion] The results provide a new reference for curing yeast mastitis.

  12. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  13. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  14. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Poxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2 pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior.

  15. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    OpenAIRE

    Odo Primavesi; Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas; Ana Cândida Primavesi; Haydée Torres de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P

  16. Accuracy of genome enabled prediction in a dairy cattle population using different cross-validation layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles ePérez-Cabal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of extent of genetic relatedness on accuracy of genome-enabled predictions was assessed using a dairy cattle population and alternative cross-validation (CV strategies were compared. The CV layouts consisted of training and testing sets obtained from either random allocation of individuals (RAN or from a kernel-based clustering of individuals using the additive relationship matrix, to obtain two subsets that were as unrelated as possible (UNREL, as well as a layout based on stratification by generation (GEN. The UNREL layout decreased the average genetic relationships between training and testing animals but produced similar accuracies to the RAN design, which were about 15% higher than in the GEN setting. Results indicate that the CV structure can have an important effect on the accuracy of whole-genome predictions. However, the connection between average genetic relationships across training and testing sets and the estimated predictive ability is not straightforward, and may depend also on the kind of relatedness that exists between the two subsets and on the heritability of the trait. For high heritability traits, close relatives such as parents and full sibs make the greatest contributions to accuracy, which can be compensated by half-sibs or grandsires in the case of lack of close relatives. However, for the low heritability traits the inclusion of close relatives is crucial and including more relatives of various types in the training set tends to lead to greater accuracy. In practice, cross-validation designs should resemble the intended use of the predictive models, e.g. within or between family predictions, or within or across generation predictions, such that estimation of predictive ability is consistent with the actual application to be considered.

  17. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  18. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination.

  19. Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov., isolated from pig and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteduck-Léveillée, Kerri; Whiteduck-Léveillée, Jenni; Cloutier, Michel; Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Topp, Edward; Arts, Michael T; Chao, Jerry; Adam, Zaky; André Lévesque, C; Lapen, David R; Villemur, Richard; Talbot, Guylaine; Khan, Izhar U H

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of species of the genus Arcobacter in pig and dairy cattle manure, which led to the identification of strains AF1440T, AF1430 and AF1581. Initially identified as Arcobacter butzleri based on colony morphology and initial PCR-confirmation tests, analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains confirmed that they belonged to the genus Arcobacter and were different from all known species of the genus. The isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Arcobacter based on their 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, cpn60, gyrA and atpA gene sequences and fatty acid profiles. Their unique species status was further supported by physiological properties and DNA-DNA hybridization that allowed phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the strains from other species of the genus Arcobacter. The isolates were found to be oxidase, catalase and esterase positive and urease negative; they grew well at 30 °C under microaerophilic conditions and produced nitrite and acetoin. Based on their common origin and various physiological properties, it is proposed that the isolates are classified as members of a novel species with the name Arcobacter lanthieri sp. nov. The type strain is AF1440T ( = LMG 28516T = CCUG 66485T); strains AF1430 ( = LMG 28515 = CCUG 66486) and AF1581 ( = LMG 28517 = CCUG 66487) are reference strains.

  20. Accounting for genomic pre-selection in national BLUP evaluations in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patry Clotilde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In future Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP evaluations of dairy cattle, genomic selection of young sires will cause evaluation biases and loss of accuracy once the selected ones get progeny. Methods To avoid such bias in the estimation of breeding values, we propose to include information on all genotyped bulls, including the culled ones, in BLUP evaluations. Estimated breeding values based on genomic information were converted into genomic pseudo-performances and then analyzed simultaneously with actual performances. Using simulations based on actual data from the French Holstein population, bias and accuracy of BLUP evaluations were computed for young sires undergoing progeny testing or genomic pre-selection. For bulls pre-selected based on their genomic profile, three different types of information can be included in the BLUP evaluations: (1 data from pre-selected genotyped candidate bulls with actual performances on their daughters, (2 data from bulls with both actual and genomic pseudo-performances, or (3 data from all the genotyped candidates with genomic pseudo-performances. The effects of different levels of heritability, genomic pre-selection intensity and accuracy of genomic evaluation were considered. Results Including information from all the genotyped candidates, i.e. genomic pseudo-performances for both selected and culled candidates, removed bias from genetic evaluation and increased accuracy. This approach was effective regardless of the magnitude of the initial bias and as long as the accuracy of the genomic evaluations was sufficiently high. Conclusions The proposed method can be easily and quickly implemented in BLUP evaluations at the national level, although some improvement is necessary to more accurately propagate genomic information from genotyped to non-genotyped animals. In addition, it is a convenient method to combine direct genomic, phenotypic and pedigree-based information in a multiple

  1. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS; however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm, Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm, and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm. Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10 were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05. Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.

  3. Endometrial response of beef heifers on day 7 following insemination to supraphysiological concentrations of progesterone associated with superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, N; Carter, F; di Francesco, S; Mehta, J P; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gad, A; Tesfaye, D; Hoelker, M; Schellander, K; Lonergan, P

    2012-11-15

    Ovarian stimulation is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in naturally single-ovulating species including cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes induced in the endometrial transcriptome associated with superovulation in cattle and place these observations in the context of our previous data on changes in the endometrial transcriptome associated with elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations within the physiological range and those changes induced in the embryo due to superovulation. Mean serum P4 concentrations were significantly higher from day 4 to day 7 in superovulated compared with unstimulated control heifers (P superovulated heifers (n = 5). This was reflected in the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between the two groups with 795 up- and 440 downregulated in superovulated endometria. Ten times more genes were altered by superovulation (n = 1,234) compared with the number altered due to elevated P4 within physiological ranges by insertion of a P4-releasing intravaginal device (n = 124) with only 22 DEGs common to both models of P4 manipulation. Fewer genes were affected by superovulation in the embryo compared with the endometrium, (443 vs. 1,234 DEGs, respectively), and the manner in which genes were altered was different with 64.5% of genes up- and 35.5% of genes downregulated in the endometrium, compared with the 98.9% of DEGs upregulated in the embryo. In conclusion, superovulation induces significant changes in the transcriptome of the endometrium which are distinct from those in the embryo.

  4. Effect of transfer of one or two in vitro-produced embryos and post-transfer administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone on pregnancy rates of heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M; Block, J; Jousan, F D; de Castro e Paula, L A; Brad, A M; Franco, J M; Grisel, F; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Hansen, P J

    2006-07-15

    Pregnancy rates following transfer of an in vitro-produced (IVP) embryo are often lower than those obtained following transfer of an embryo produced by superovulation. The purpose of the current pair of experiments was to examine two strategies for increasing pregnancy rates in heat stressed, dairy recipients receiving an IVP embryo. One method was to transfer two embryos into the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL, whereas the other method involved injection of GnRH at Day 11 after the anticipated day of ovulation. In Experiment 1, 32 virgin crossbred heifers and 26 lactating crossbred cows were prepared for timed embryo transfer by being subjected to a timed ovulation protocol. Those having a palpable CL were randomly selected to receive one (n = 31 recipients) or two (n = 27 recipients) embryos on Day 7 after anticipated ovulation. At Day 64 of gestation, the pregnancy rate tended to be higher (P = 0.07) for cows than for heifers. Heifers that received one embryo tended to have a higher pregnancy rate than those that received two embryos (41% versus 20%, respectively) while there was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received one or two embryos (57% versus 50%, respectively). Pregnancy loss between Day 64 and 127 only occurred for cows that received two embryos (pregnancy rate at Day 127=17%). Between Day 127 and term, one animal (a cow with a single embryo) lost its pregnancy. There was no difference in pregnancy rates at Day 127 or calving rates between cows and heifers, but females that received two embryos had lower Day-127 pregnancy rates and calving rates than females that received one embryo (P cows were synchronized for timed embryo transfer as in Experiment 1. Cows received a single embryo in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the ovary containing the CL and received either 100 microg GnRH or vehicle at Day 11 after anticipated ovulation (i.e. 4 days after embryo transfer). There was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received the Gn

  5. Effects of ghrelin injection on plasma concentrations of glucose, pancreatic hormones and cortisol in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Fumiaki; Komatsu, Tokushi; Kushibiki, Shiro; Hodate, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Ghrelin affects not only growth hormone secretion but also nutrient utilization and metabolic hormone secretion in humans and experimental animals. The effects of ghrelin on plasma metabolic hormone and metabolite levels in domestic herbivores remain unclear despite the fact that the physiological characteristics of nutrient digestion and absorption imply specific responses to ghrelin. Therefore, the effects of ghrelin on plasma glucose, pancreatic hormones and cortisol concentrations were investigated in Holstein dairy cattle in various physiological states. Ghrelin (0.3 nmol/kg) or placebo (2% bovine serum albumin in saline) was intravenously injected in pre-ruminant calves (pre-rumen function), adult non-lactating (functional rumen) and lactating cows (functional rumen and lactation), and plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon and cortisol concentrations were then determined. Ghrelin injection increased plasma glucose concentrations in adult cows, especially in lactating cows. No hyperglycemic response was observed in pre-ruminant calves. A transient rise of insulin and glucagon levels was distinctively found in lactating cows in response to the ghrelin administration. Ghrelin injection decreased the insulin level in pre-ruminant calves. Ghrelin increased cortisol secretion independently of the physiological state. The results of the present study suggest that the effects of ghrelin on plasma glucose and pancreatic hormone levels may reflect differences in the physiological states of dairy cattle.

  6. Infection by Neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of Brazil

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    Ricardo Vilas Boas

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of Rondônia, northern Brazil. For this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. The overall herd prevalence of N. caninum antibodies among the farms (38/63; 60.31% showed that N. caninum are widespread among the dairy herds in this region, despite only infecting a small proportion of animals (66/621, 10.62%. Occurrences of abortion and birth of weak calves were the only variables that showed as risk factors for the presence of N. caninum. The result from the spatial lag model strongly indicated that birth of weak calves and presence of N. caninum are occurring on farms that are located close to each other, indicating aggregation of disease occurrence.

  7. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply.

  8. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

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    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.

  9. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  10. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program.

  11. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  12. Comparison of energy evaluation systems and a mechanistic model for milk production by dairy cattle offered fresh grass-based diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.; Crompton, L.A.; Lopez, S.; Abrahamse, P.A.; Chilibroste, P.; Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.

    2008-01-01

    Grass-based diets are of increasing social-economic importance in dairy cattle farming, but their low supply of glucogenic nutrients may limit the production of milk. Current evaluation systems that assess the energy supply and requirements are based on metabolisable energy (ME) or net energy (NE).

  13. Relationships between milk fatty acid profiles and enteric methane production in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Warner, D.; Hatew, Bayissa; Klop, G.; Podesta, S.C.; Lingen, van H.J.; Hettinga, K.A.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified relationships between methane production and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cattle fed grass- or grass silage-based diets, and determined whether recent prediction equations for methane, based on a wide variety of diets, are applicable to grass- and grass silage-based diets. Dat

  14. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  15. Evaluation of a new antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus infection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Tarabla, H.D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (designated M108 for milk and S108 for serum samples) for detecting bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle. Milk, serum, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-blood samples were collecte

  16. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle : morphological, functional, and gene expression changes of the rumen papillae and changes of the rumen microbiota during the transition period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ ne

  17. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  18. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross from all districts (n=11 of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195 were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62, 24.61% (n=48, 14.35% (n=28, and 11.25% (n=22, respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%, prolapse (1.53%, endometritis (4.61%, and pyometra (6.66% were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.

  19. Reference gene selection for gene expression analysis of oocytes collected from dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer.

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    Carolina Habermann Macabelli

    Full Text Available Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis.

  20. Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  1. Survey of the knowledge, attitudes and practice of Italian beef and dairy cattle veterinarians concerning the use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busani, L; Graziani, C; Franco, A; Di Egidio, A; Binkin, N; Battisti, A

    2004-12-04

    Between June and September 2002 a telephone survey of Italian beef and dairy cattle veterinarians was made to obtain information about their use of antibiotics and their perception of the problem of antimicrobial resistance. A total of 106 veterinarians, selected at random from the membership lists of two professional societies, were interviewed by telephone, using a structured questionnaire concerning their background, training and continuing education activities, and current type of practice; their diagnostic, treatment, and prophylactic practices for mastitis, calf scours and respiratory disease; and their perception of the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance. The median age of the interviewees was 42.5 (range 28 to 75) years; 62 per cent treated only dairy cattle, 10 per cent treated only beef cattle and 28 per cent treated both. Laboratory support was requested 'frequently' or 'always' by 67 per cent of the veterinarians when treating mastitis, by 37 per cent when treating calf scours and by 17 per cent when treating respiratory diseases. Twenty per cent reported using prophylactic antibiotics 'often' or 'sometimes' for calf scours, 28 per cent for respiratory diseases, and 62 per cent reported their use 'always' or 'often' for mastitis. Fluoroquinolones, phenicols or third/fourth-generation cephalosporins were prescribed as first-choice drugs by 54 per cent for calf scours, by 12 per cent for bacterial respiratory diseases and by 6 per cent for mastitis. Therapeutic failure was reported 'often' (21 per cent) or 'sometimes' (64 per cent) and was the main predictor in a multivariate model of the use of newer antibiotics. The level of awareness of the problem of antibiotic resistance was high, although more than half of the interviewees were confident that new antimicrobial drugs were already available to replace those of lower effectiveness.

  2. Botulismo em bovinos leiteiros no Sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil Botulism in dairy cattle in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Geraldo Márcio da Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se um surto de botulismo decorrente da ingestão de milho contaminado em um sistema de produção de leite, em regime de confinamento, na região Sul de Minas Gerais. O rebanho era composto por 148 vacas holandesas lactantes de alta produção, confinadas em tempo integral e alimentadas com dieta completa, composta de silagem de milho e concentrado. Foram afetados 38 bovinos, verificando-se letalidade de 100%. Amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e fígado de sete animais necropsiados e amostras de água dos bebedouros e do milho utilizado na alimentação foram submetidas ao bioensaio e à soroneutralização para a detecção de toxina botulínica. Toxinas dos tipos C e D foram detectadas nas amostras de conteúdo intestinal, ruminal e milho. O surto descrito mostra que o milho estocado em condições inadequadas pode ser um fator de risco para a ocorrência da doença.An outbreak of bovine botulism in a dairy herd caused by ingestion of contaminated maize, in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. The herd was composed by 148 lactating cows of high milk production fed with diet based on maize ensilage and concentrate in a free stall system. Thirty eight cows were affected, with 100% of fatality rate. Samples from intestine, rumen and liver of necropsied cattle and drinking water and maize were submitted to the mouse bioassay and soroneutralization tests for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxins. Types C and D toxins were detected in samples from intestinal and rumen contents and maize. The reporter of an outbreak of botulism in cattle associated with an unusual source of toxin, shows that stocked maize in inadequate conditions is a factor of risk for the occurrence of the botulism in dairy cattle.

  3. Prevalence of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC in a survey of dairy cattle in Najaf, Iraq

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    A Al-Muhana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dairy cattle have been implicated as principal reservoir of Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli (VTEC, with undercooked ground beef and raw milk being the major vehicles of food borne outbreaks. VTEC has been implicated as an etiological agent of individual cases and outbreaks in developed countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VETEC in diarrheic dairy calves up to 20 days of age in Najaf, Iraq."nMaterials and Methods: 326 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were collected for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 VTEC isolates. Non-sorbitol fermentation, enterohemolysin phenotype, and slide agglutination with antisera were used for screening and detection of these serotypes."nResults: Nineteen (5.8% non-sorbitol fermenting and 3 (0.9% enterohemolysin-producing E. coli were obtained. Only 9 were agglutinated with available antisera and none of them belonged to the O157:H7 serotype. Three were found to be verotoxin positive on Vero cell monolayers. These included serotype O111 (2 isolates and serotype O128 (1 isolate. All three VTEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin. Two exhibited adherence phenotype on HEp-2 cells."nConclusion: E. coli O157:H7 serotype is not prevalent in diarrheic dairy calves, and VTEC is not a frequent cause of diarrhea in calves in Najaf/ Iraq.

  4. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Partial Cumulative Milk Yields of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle

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    R. Misrianti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene (GH gene plays an important role in regulating body growth and in developing mammary gland, similar with its interaction to specific receptors. The GH gene has been considered as one of candidate gene associated with selection on lactation trait and milk production. This study was aimed to determine genetic polymorphism of the GH-AluI gene and to associate its genotype variants on various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields in Holstein Friesian (HF dairy cows. A number of 370 blood samples were collected from six HF populations, respectively from small dairy farmer under the supervision of the North Bandung Milk Cooperation (NBMC in Cilumber (98 and Pasir Kemis village (96, Dairy Cattle Breeding and Improvement Station (Cikole DCBIS Cikole (88, Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (Lembang AIC (17, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center (Singosari AIC (32, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (Cipelang LEC (40. A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to identify variant genotypes of the GH gene using AluI restriction enzyme. Genotyping results produced only two genotypes, i.e. LL and LV genotypes, without VV genotype. Frequency of the former was dominant, whilst that was low for the latter (89% vs. 11%; leading to the frequency of L allele was very high (94% compared to that of V allele (6%. No significant association between variant genotypes (LL and LV and various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields.

  5. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  6. In vivo determination of subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Ruda, L; Wenning, P; von Stemm, C-I; Pfarrer, C; Huber, K; Meyer, U; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonography was used as a noninvasive method for quantitative estimation of the subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots in dairy cattle. The prediction model was created and validated with a total of 29 German Holstein cows; 6 were in early lactation (≤100 d in milk [DIM]) and 16 were in advanced lactation (101 to 292 DIM). Seven cows were nonpregnant and nonlactating and had been off milk for 350 to 450 d. Transcutaneous assessment of the thickness of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was done at 16 sites on the body surface of all cows. After completion of the ultrasonographic measurements, the cows were slaughtered and the adipose depots were separately weighed. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of the ultrasonographic variables was performed to estimate the slaughter weights of the different fat depots. Slaughter weights of the fat depots ranged from 5.0 to 43.0 kg for subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), from 13.7 to 98.8 kg for abdominal adipose tissue (AAT), from 3.4 to 30.3 kg for retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), from 5.2 to 39.6 kg for omental adipose tissue (OMAT), and from 4.0 to 35.8 kg for mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). The relationship between calculated amount of fat and slaughter weight of fat had coefficients of determination () and root mean square errors (kg) of 0.88 and 3.4, respectively, for SCAT; 0.94 and 6.1, respectively, for AAT; 0.94 and 1.7, respectively, for RPAT; 0.83 and 3.2, respectively, for OMAT; and 0.95 and 1.6, respectively, for MAT. The accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the different fat depots appears sufficient for the quantitative assessment of internal and subcutaneous fat stores in cows. This method is noninvasive and therefore allows safe and repeated monitoring of the amount of stored fat in different adipose tissue depots of German Holsteins cows.

  7. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  8. Correlation between electrical conductivity and somatic cell score for mastitis evaluation in dairy Gir cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Borges Valdevite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeasts. During the processes of inflammation, chloride (Cl and sodium (Na ions, immunoglobulins and other serum proteins present in blood, flow through capillaries direct to the alveoli lumen of the gland, thus increasing its concentration. This is due to the increase of vascular permeability, the destruction of tight junctions and the active ion-pumping system, while the concentration of casein, lactose, triglycerides and potassium (K decreases. This work aimed to study a method to evaluate mastitis in Gir dairy cattle, where the milk electric conductivity (EC was correlated to milk somatic cell count (SCC. This method will provide an early diagnosis, which can be used daily with conductivity meter in mechanical milking machine or weekly in properties with manual milking. The measurement of EC in milk was accomplished through the appliance of AK83 BENCHTOP PORTATIL. The experiment was conducted in two farms: Calciolândia, Arcos/MG and Bom Jardim da Serra, Mococa/SP, totaling 123 Gir cows. In Calciolândia farm, milking was manual and in Bom Jardim da Serra milking was manual and mechanical but both with the presence of the calf . The milk collection took place in 10 ml bottles at ambience temperature, and the samples were in duplicate, one to measure the EC and the other for SCC and components. The correlations were calculated using SAS software, through data collected from farms. The correlations found between EC and SCC were 40.9% and 42.7%, respectively to Bom Jardim da Serra and Calciolândia farms. Environmental factors that influences SCC and EC where not considered in the analysis, order of birth, lactation stage, age of cow, number of milk per day and jet of milk collected sample of complete collection of first milking or jets of milk. For now we can conclude that there is strong evidence of an analogy between electrical current (EC and the milk

  9. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S

    2014-11-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Roelcke, Marco [Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  12. Assessing the potential value for an automated dairy cattle body condition scoring system through stochastic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.M.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm sy

  13. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  14. Internationale verkenning van ervaringen met vrijloopstallen = International experiences with alternative loose housing systems for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Galama, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a research project on feasibility of loose housing systems in The Netherlands, financed by the Dutch Dairy Board (PZ) and Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), an international inventory on experiences with this kind of housing system for dairy cows took place. Data and

  15. Assessing the potential value for an automated dairy cattle body condition scoring system through stochastic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.M.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm

  16. Feed Formula for Dairy Cattle Based on IOT Techniques%基于物联网技术的奶牛配料方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 王磊; 江志斌

    2014-01-01

    The application of Internet of Things (IOF) in dairy farming was introduced, and a refined feeding schema for dairy cattle based on individual conditions was proposed. Through technologies, such as RFID and so on, the body conditions of individual dairy cattle were collected. Then, the daily nutrient requirement according to the body conditions of individual dairy cattle can be determined. In the end, using a multi-objective stochastic programming model to design the formula of daily feed based on the body conditions of the target dairy cattle, and the formula cost the least and maximum met the nutrient needs. Therefore, the research is very useful in advancing production efficiency and management level of dairy industry.%介绍了物联网在奶牛养殖业中的应用,提出了一个基于奶牛个体体况的精细化饲喂方案。通过RFID等技术采集奶牛体况信息,根据奶牛个体体况确定日营养需求,采用多目标随机规划模型对特定体况奶牛进行日粮配方设计,得出日粮成本最小化、同时特定营养需求满足概率最大化的日粮配方,提升了奶牛产业生产效率和管理水平。

  17. References Analysis on Dairy Cattle Mastitis Resistance%奶牛乳房炎抗性研究文献综合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 王泽昭; 张志超; 王雅晶; 王雅春; 俞英

    2016-01-01

    Dairy cattle is one of the important livestock that provides milk with rich nutrients and dairy products. However, about 25%~68% of dairy cattle around the world are facing the udder health problems. Dairy cattle researchers have conducted various kinds of studies to overcome these problems. Based on the web of science network retrieval platform, we used “dairy cattle” and “mastitis resistance” as key words and acquired 5843 international SCI literatures from 1954 to 2015. Keeping in view the literatures as materials, we analyzed the main research ifelds, the institutions and the frontier which provide the comprehensive information about the improvement of udder health and mastitis resistance of dairy cattle.%奶牛是提供乳汁及各类乳制品的重要畜种,然而全世界25%~68%的奶牛受到不同程度乳房问题的困扰。针对奶牛群乳房健康改良,各国奶牛科学家进行了大量研究。本文首先利用WebofScience网络检索平台,以奶牛(dairycattle)、乳房炎抗性(mastitisresistance)等为关键词,获得逾60年(1954~2015年)关于奶牛乳房炎抗性的科技文献5843篇;基于这些文献,进一步利用CitespaceⅡ软件,系统分析了奶牛乳房炎抗性研究的主要领域、热点及前沿,为提高奶牛群乳房健康及乳房炎抗性提供综合全面的信息。

  18. The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge...... about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities...... with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before...

  19. Genetic diversity of bovine papillomavirus types, including two putative new types, in teat warts from dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-06-01

    Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis.

  20. 基于DHI的奶牛隐性乳房炎分析%Subclinical Mastitis Analysis of Dairy Cattle Based on the Dairy Herd Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳兰; 茹彩霞; 王建华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle so as to provide scientific basis for the control of subclinical mastitis. [ Method] According to the number of somatic cells in the DHI report of three dairy farms in 2009, the incidence of subclinical mastitis in three dairy farms, at different lactation periods and parities was studied. [ Result] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was different on different dairy farms, the lactating cattle on farm 1 had low incidence of subclinical mastitis than on other two farms (P 0.05). [Conclusion] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was influenced by the lactation periods and parity as well as the breeding and management of the cattle farms. Each farm should take measures to control the incidence of subclinical mastitis according to their own conditions and DHI results.%[目的]分析奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生情况,为隐性乳房炎的控制提供科学依据.[方法]以3个牛场2009年DHI报告的体细胞数大小来分析隐性乳房炎在不同牛场、泌乳阶段和胎次的发生情况.[结果]不同牛场隐性乳房炎发生率存在差异,牛场1泌乳牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著低于另外2个场(P<0.05).随着泌乳时间的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加的趋势,牛场3在第6、7、8和第12泌乳月隐性乳房炎的发生率显著高于其他泌乳月.随着胎次的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加趋势,牛场1在4胎以后奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著增加且与其他2个场差异不显著(P>0.05).[结论]奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率与泌乳阶段和胎次有关,与牛场自身的饲养管理有关.各个牛场应根据自身条件及DHI结果采取相应的措施控制奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生.

  1. Heat-induced protein structure and subfractions in relation to protein degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, K; Yu, P; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio; 2) protein subfractions profiles; 3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; 4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120 degrees C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120 degrees C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value

  2. Heat-induced Protein Structure and Subfractions in Relation to Protein Degradation Kinetics and Intestinal Availability in Dairy Cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, K.; Yu, P; McKinnon, J; Christensen, D

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein structures of feed tissues affected by heat processing at a cellular level, using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a novel approach, and quantify protein structure in relation to protein digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included (1) protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio; (2) protein subfractions profiles; (3) protein degradation kinetics and effective degradability; (4) predicted nutrient supply using the intestinally absorbed protein supply (DVE)/degraded protein balance (OEB) system for dairy cattle. In this study, Vimy flaxseed protein was used as a model feed protein and was autoclave-heated at 120C for 20, 40, and 60 min in treatments T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The results showed that using the synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed and identified the heat-induced protein structure changes. Heating at 120C for 40 and 60 min increased the protein structure a-helix to e-sheet ratio. There were linear effects of heating time on the ratio. The heating also changed chemical profiles, which showed soluble CP decreased upon heating with concomitant increases in nonprotein nitrogen, neutral, and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. The protein subfractions with the greatest changes were PB1, which showed a dramatic reduction, and PB2, which showed a dramatic increase, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability. In situ results showed a reduction in rumen-degradable protein and in rumen-degradable dry matter without differences between the treatments. Intestinal digestibility, determined using a 3-step in vitro procedure, showed no changes to rumen undegradable protein. Modeling results showed that heating increased total intestinally absorbable protein (feed DVE value) and decreased degraded protein balance (feed OEB value), but there were no differences

  3. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2012-03-01

    Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is 1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8) in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets

  4. Comparison of postvaccinal milk drop in dairy cattle vaccinated with one of two different commercial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, R; Elsener, J

    2008-01-01

    Several veterinarians and dairy producers elect to vaccinate dairy herds with killed combination products in the fall or spring. Postvaccinal milk drop has been reported following the use of some killed vaccines, making it important to identify vaccines that can cause milk drop and evaluate the magnitude of postvaccinal milk drop. This study compared the pre- and postvaccinal milk production levels of dairy cows vaccinated with two commercial vaccines or injected with a saline placebo. Dairy cows receiving vaccine C (Cattlemaster Gold FP5; Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Canada) experienced a statistically significant difference in mean postvaccinal milk drop (-1.83 kg/cow/day) compared with cows receiving vaccine T (Triangle 4+Type 2 BVD, Wyeth Animal Health, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; -0.63 kg/cow/day) or saline (-0.02 kg/cow/day).

  5. Fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claridge, Jen; Diggle, Peter; McCann, Catherine M; Mulcahy, Grace; Flynn, Rob; McNair, Jim; Strain, Sam; Welsh, Michael; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana J L

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola...

  6. Mixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Just

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested.

  7. Prevalence of leptospirosis in dairy cattle from small rural production units in Toluca Valley, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, L L; Garcia, R C; Diaz, C O; Valdez, R B; Carmona, G C A; Velazquez, B L G

    2008-12-01

    In order to know the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in stabled dairy cattle, a study was conducted from 2004 to 2006 in which 416 sera were tested using a microscopic agglutination test conducted on microplates. A collection of culture reference antigens, each representing a serogroup, was used for these tests. Results showed that 10.33% (43) of the animals had antibody titers ranging from 1:100 to 1:1600. The main serovars detected in these tests were L. interrogans serovar hardjo and L. interrogans serovar canicola. It is important to note that these serovars represent a high risk for transmission to other susceptible animal species, between individuals, and to human health. This serological survey provides useful information establishing the presence or absence of these serovars in this type of herd. The range of antigens used in this study included serovars representative of all common serogroups.

  8. The use of multilevel models to evaluate sources of variation in reproductive performance in dairy cattle in Reunion Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohoo, I.R.; Tillard, E.; Stryhn, H.;

    2001-01-01

    Sources of variation in measures of reproductive performance in dairy cattle were evaluated using data collected from 3207 lactations in 1570 cows in 50 herds from five geographic regions of Reunion Island (located off the cast coast of Madagascar). Three continuously distributed reproductive...... parameters (intervals from calving-to-conception, calving-to-first-service and first-service-to-conception) were considered, along with one Binomial outcome (first-service-conception risk). Multilevel models which take into account the hierarchical nature of the data were used to fit all models......-Cox-transformed data suggested that minor departures from the assumption of normality did not have a substantial effect on the variance estimates. For the Binomial dependent variable, five different estimation procedures (penalised quasi-likelihood, Markov-Chain Monte Carlo, parametric and non-parametric bootstrap...

  9. How the surveillance system may bias the results of analytical epidemiological studies on BSE: prevalence among dairy versus beef suckler cattle breeds in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Morignat, Eric; Baron, Thierry; Calavas, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, epidemiological studies on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) were based on Mandatory Reporting Systems (MRS) of clinically suspect bovines only, but rapid diagnostic tests were validated in 1999 and are used for targeted surveillance in Switzerland, France and other countries, as a complementary and secondary tool. Data on 30491 cattle issued from a French pilot program targeted at cattle having died on the farm, subjected to euthanasia or sent for emergency slaughter, did not show any significant difference in BSE risk between dairy and beef suckler breeds. The data also revealed that part of the clinical cases of BSE escaped the MRS, which permitted to detect more dairy than beef suckler affected cattle compared to the targeted surveillance in the same period (from August to December 2000) and region (Bretagne, Pays de la Loire and Basse Normandie regions). Analyzing together the data of the targeted surveillance and mandatory reporting system programs with a non-conditional logistic regression, we found that the odds of a dead cow being a BSE case among all dead cattle was 3.2 times higher for dairy breeds compared to beef suckler breeds. This confirmed British findings but points out to the fact that considering either MRS or targeted surveillance data alone may possibly create biases in epidemiological studies on BSE.

  10. Identification of suitable housing system for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, with respect to microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T.; Suraj, P. T.; Yasotha, A.; Phukon, Jayashree

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To identify the suitable roofing pattern for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, based on micro climatic conditions. Materials and Methods: Initially, survey was conducted to identify and categorize the major housing patterns existing in the region for further detailed investigation. In total, 30 farmers/farms consisting of five housing types with six replicates were selected. Temperature and temperature humidity index (THI) were recorded using the maximum-minimum thermometer and digital thermo-hygrometers. The study was conducted for 1 year covering four seasons namely South West monsoon (June-August), North East monsoon (September-November), cold season (December-February), and summer season (April-May). The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package SPSS 17. Results: Animal shelters with cement sheets recorded the highest temperature (26.71±1.13°C) and THI (77.23±1.76) at 8.00 am, whereas the lowest temperature (24.83±1.17°C) and THI (74.54±1.72) were recorded in the thatched shed. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in temperature and THI at 8.00 am during South West monsoon and North East monsoon seasons between the housing types. During cold and summer seasons, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the environmental variables among various shelter systems. Conclusion: Thatched housing is found to be the suitable one with respect to the climatic variables, followed by tile roof and metal roof. The cement sheet roofed housing is found to be the most unsuitable one in the region for dairy cattle.

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle herds in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Cedeño Q.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in non-vaccinated dairy cattle against infectious agents of reproductive syndrome in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods. Farms over 2527 meters over sea level were selected, a total of 238 serum samples of Holstein cows were collected and analyzed using the indirect ELISA test to determine N. caninum seropositivity. An epidemiological survey was realized in each herd which included variables related to health and management measures of cattle. A multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression was used with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05 using SPSS19® program. Results. The estimated prevalence of N. caninum was 76.9%. The risk factors associated to neosporosis infection in the analyzed farms are as follows: residues of abortions generally left outdoors and not buried (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.5 - 9.6; dogs fed with leftovers (OR 15.44 IC 95% 1.94-123.22 and bulls allowed to mate with cows (OR 19.68, 95% CI 2.34 - 165.52. Conclusions. The high prevalence of N. caninum and the low abortion rate in dairy herds of the municipality of Pasto corroborated no existence of the disease in all animals serologically positive, but it did suggest that at some point in their lives they were exposed to N. caninum. From the identified risk factors in this study, recommendations can be provided for an effective control of reproductive diseases like Neosporosis present in this region.

  12. Whole-genome resequencing of two elite sires for the detection of haplotypes under selection in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Denis M; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Hetrick, Lorie A; Boucek, Lisa; Bachman, Sharon L; Band, Mark R; Akraiko, Tatsiana V; Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Macleod, Iona M; Harkins, Timothy T; McCague, Jennifer E; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J; Lewin, Harris A

    2012-05-15

    Using a combination of whole-genome resequencing and high-density genotyping arrays, genome-wide haplotypes were reconstructed for two of the most important bulls in the history of the dairy cattle industry, Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief ("Chief") and his son Walkway Chief Mark ("Mark"), each accounting for ∼7% of all current genomes. We aligned 20.5 Gbp (∼7.3× coverage) and 37.9 Gbp (∼13.5× coverage) of the Chief and Mark genomic sequences, respectively. More than 1.3 million high-quality SNPs were detected in Chief and Mark sequences. The genome-wide haplotypes inherited by Mark from Chief were reconstructed using ∼1 million informative SNPs. Comparison of a set of 15,826 SNPs that overlapped in the sequence-based and BovineSNP50 SNPs showed the accuracy of the sequence-based haplotype reconstruction to be as high as 97%. By using the BovineSNP50 genotypes, the frequencies of Chief alleles on his two haplotypes then were determined in 1,149 of his descendants, and the distribution was compared with the frequencies that would be expected assuming no selection. We identified 49 chromosomal segments in which Chief alleles showed strong evidence of selection. Candidate polymorphisms for traits that have been under selection in the dairy cattle population then were identified by referencing Chief's DNA sequence within these selected chromosome blocks. Eleven candidate genes were identified with functions related to milk-production, fertility, and disease-resistance traits. These data demonstrate that haplotype reconstruction of an ancestral proband by whole-genome resequencing in combination with high-density SNP genotyping of descendants can be used for rapid, genome-wide identification of the ancestor's alleles that have been subjected to artificial selection.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Altier, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform public policy regarding appropriate antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Salmonella isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to various antimicrobial agents over time. Data were collected retrospectively for all bovine Salmonella isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella were investigated for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 2745 bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0% (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) to 72.0% (sulfadimethoxine). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to most agents: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AUG), ampicillin (AMP), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftiofur (TIO), ceftriaxone (AXO), chloramphenicol (CHL), chlortetracycline (CTET), florfenicol (FFN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), oxytetracycline (OXY), spectinomycin (SPE), streptomycin (STR), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfisoxazole (FIS), and tetracycline (TET). Among the 265 isolates that were tested using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel, the most common resistance patterns were pansusceptible (54.0%), AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-KAN-STR-FIS-TET (18.1%), and AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-STR-FIS-TET (12.1%). Increasing prevalence of S. enterica serovar Cerro over the course of the study period presumably had an impact on the observed resistance trends. Nevertheless, these results do not support the notion that the current level of antimicrobial

  14. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adawiah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets. Milk dry matter of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk fat of cows fed A, B and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05 than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05 than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria.

  15. Incorporation of lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes in genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cruz Reis Filho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Test-day records of milk yields from the first three lactations were used to verify consequences of incorporation of lactation with non-conventional drying-off causes in genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle. The first file (File1 was composed of test-day records of lactations with conventional drying-off causes. In the second file (File2, the test-day records of lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes were included, such as drying-off by death or separation of the calf, disease, death or sale of cow, and removal of cow from milking control. Data were analyzed by mixed models, using an autoregressive process to adjust the random effects of long-term and short-term environment. The inclusion of test-day records from lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes increased the number of controls by 12% and the number of cows by 18%, and it generated an increase in the estimates of variance components. These results impacted estimates of heritability, calculated at 0.32, 0.28 and 0.26 for the first, second and third lactations in File1, respectively, while in File2 they were 0.34, 0.30 and 0.28 to the same lactation order. The estimated accuracy of predicted breeding values in File2 were higher in relation to File1, but the Pearson and Spearman correlations between predicted breeding values of animals in the two files were high. Lactations with non-conventional drying-off causes can be incorporated to the routines of genetic evaluation of Gyr dairy cattle, because they provide higher estimates of heritability and accuracy of breeding values, which could raise expectations of genetic gains with selection.

  16. Economic assessment of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using Paracalc(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanke, Jane; Charlier, Johannes; Steppin, Torsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Vercruysse, Jozef; Demeler, Janina

    2017-06-15

    The aim of the current study was to estimate economic costs of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using the online calculation programme Paracalc(®). Following a questionnaire, survey data were available from 464 farms in 14 federal states. On those farms bulk tank milk (BTM) samples and additionally up to six serum samples collected from first season grazing calves were analysed, using a commercially available ELISA (Boehringer Ingelheim SVANOVA Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden), an in-house ELISA (F. hepatica) and an in-house serum pepsinogen test. In total, samples obtained from 344 farms were included in the analysis since those were the only farms with complete questionnaires. Median costs per farm and year were estimated for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections (€721.38) and F. hepatica infection (€565.61). Decreases in milk yield in multiparous cows were the major reason for annual production losses due to GI nematodes (€13.33 per cow) and F. hepatica infections (€7.95 per cow), which was followed by annual costs for anthelmintic treatment against GI nematode infections in adult cows (€10.00 per cow) and F. hepatica infection associated annual costs due to repeated artificial insemination (€10.13 per cow) and prolonged calving intervals (€9.40 per cow). The study demonstrated that if all required information is provided, the Paracalc(®) tool can assist to identify productions losses in dairy cattle herds due to helminth infections and to optimise farm economics in Germany. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  18. Pregnancy Loss in Dairy Cattle: Relationship of Ultrasound, Blood Pregnancy-Specific Protein B, Progesterone and Production Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Abonyi-Tóth, Z; Gábor, P; Endrődi, T; Balogh, O G

    2016-08-01

    Objectives were to determine associations between percentage pregnancy loss (PPL) in dairy cattle and: (i) pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography; (ii) pregnancy diagnosis by serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations, with or without serum progesterone concentrations; and (iii) production and environmental factors. This study included 149 822 pregnancy diagnoses conducted over 13 years in Holstein-Friesian cows in Hungarian dairy herds. The following were determined: PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by transrectal ultrasonography 29-42 days after artificial insemination (AI; n = 11 457); PPL in cows diagnosed pregnant by serum PSPB 29-35 days after AI (n = 138 365); and PPL and its association with serum progesterone concentrations, PSPB and production/environmental variables. The definition of PPL was percentage of cows initially diagnosed pregnant based on ultrasonography or PSPB, but not pregnant when examined by transrectal palpation 60 -70 days after AI. The PPL was lower (p 1.1 ng/ml) was lowest (15.0%), whereas cows with low concentrations of both PSPB and progesterone (0.6-1.1 and advanced parity and with high milk production, when ambient temperatures were high, although body condition score (BCS) had no effect on PPL. Finally, there were no significant associations between serum PSPB and environmental temperatures or number of post-partum uterine treatments.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  20. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunity-related genes and their association with mastitis in Chilean dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Lepori, A

    2013-07-30

    Mastitis remains a major cattle disease with great global economic implications. Various approaches are currently employed in attempts to improve understanding of mastitis resistance and develop phenotypic markers for use in breeding programs (e.g., somatic cell score), including QTL discovery, wide-genome association studies, and identification of candidate genes related to immune function. This study evaluated three single nucleotide polymorphisms contained in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and lactoferrin (LF) genes associated with mastitis traits: TLR4 P-226, TLR4 2021, and LF P-28. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting quantitative PCR from genomic DNA of four dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado) previously classified as healthy, with clinical or with subclinical mastitis. The high-resolution melting quantitative PCR allowed genotyping of each locus and resulted in allele frequencies indicating that all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The TT genotype of TLR4 2021 was significantly associated with the healthy condition, but no associations with somatic cell score were evident. Further studies are therefore necessary in order to confirm the results of this investigation.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROXIMATE MULTIVARIATE TWO-STEP APPROACH FOR THE JOINT GENETIC EVALUATION OF AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pfeiffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate genetic evaluation in modern dairy cattle breeding programs became important in the last decades. The simultaneous estimation of all production and functional traits is still demanding. Different meta-models are used to overcome several constraints. The aim of this study was to conduct an approximate multivariate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and yield deviations of five fertility traits of Austrian Pinzgau cattle and to compare results with routinely estimated breeding values. The approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values performed better than the procedure applied to yield deviations. Spearman rank correlations for all animals, sires and cows were between 0.996 and 0.999 for the procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values and between 0.866 and 0.995 for the procedure applied to yield deviations. The results are encouraging to move from the currently used selection index in routine genetic evaluation towards an approximate two-step procedure applied to de-regressed breeding values.

  3. Evaluation of two multi-locus sequence typing schemes for commensal Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Besser, Thomas E; Call, Douglas R; Weissman, Scott J; Jones, Lisa P; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a useful system for phylogenetic and epidemiological studies of multidrug-resistant Escherichiacoli. Most studies utilize a seven-locus MLST, but an alternate two-locus typing method (fumC and fimH; CH typing) has been proposed that may offer a similar degree of discrimination at lower cost. Herein, we compare CH typing to the standard seven-locus method for typing commensal E. coli isolates from dairy cattle. In addition, we evaluated alternative combinations of eight loci to identify combinations that maximize discrimination and congruence with standard seven-locus MLST among commensal E. coli while minimizing the cost. We also compared both methods when used for typing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). CH typing was less discriminatory for commensal E. coli than the standard seven-locus method (Simpson's Index of Diversity=0.933 [0.902-0.964] and 0.97 [0.96-0.979], respectively). Combining fimH with housekeeping gene loci improved discriminatory power for commensal E. coli from cattle but resulted in poor congruence with MLST. We found that a four-locus typing method including the housekeeping genes adk, purA, gyrB and recA could be used to minimize cost without sacrificing discriminatory power or congruence with Achtman seven-locus MLST when typing commensal E. coli.

  4. Quantitative measurement of blaCMY-2 in a longitudinal observational study of dairy cattle treated with ceftiofur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Tim C; Singer, Randall S

    2012-11-01

    There is concern that a relationship exists between antibiotic use in livestock production and the emergence, spread, and persistence of antibiotic resistance. It is important to understand the impact that therapeutic doses of antibiotics for treatment of disease have on resistance because disease treatment typically involves higher doses of antibiotic over short time spans. Absolute quantities of the antibiotic resistance gene bla(CMY-2) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the bacterial community DNA of fecal samples from dairy cattle that were given a 5-day course of ceftiofur and untreated cattle during a longitudinal, observational study. A hierarchical linear model that accounts for left-censored data and repeated measures was used to estimate group means of bla(CMY-2) from the qPCR data. Ceftiofur-treated animals had significantly higher mean quantities of bla(CMY-2) than untreated animals during treatment. On the first day post-treatment, mean quantities of bla(CMY-2) returned to pre-treatment levels and remained low in both groups for the remainder of the study. The use of qPCR to measure bla(CMY-2) quantities provided evidence that the burden of resistance in treated animals may have increased temporarily, a result that was not evident when using only cultivation-based methods of testing for resistance.

  5. The effect of clinical outbreaks of salmonellosis on the prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding among dairy cattle in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Gröhn, Yrjo T; McDonough, Patrick L; Siler, Julie D

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding is higher in dairy herds with clinical outbreaks of disease, as compared to herds with subclinical infections only. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. After enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. We characterized isolates by serovar and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period; 27 (61%) of the positive herds had Salmonella isolated from environmental samples only, and 17 (39%) had one or more laboratory-confirmed clinical cases. The within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding ranged from 0 to 53%. Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serovar, accounting for 56% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and 14 (32%) of the positive farms generated multidrug-resistant isolates. Herds with laboratory-confirmed clinical cases had a higher prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding than herds that only generated positive environmental samples, as estimated by a Poisson regression model (prevalence ratio, 2.7; p = 0.01). An association between dairy herd outbreaks of salmonellosis and a higher prevalence of asymptomatic shedding should help guide strategies for reducing the public health threat of Salmonella, as the ability to recognize high-risk herds by clinical laboratory submissions presents an obvious opportunity to maximize food safety at the preharvest level. This is in contrast with other foodborne zoonotic pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which

  6. Isolation and characterization of a virulent bacteriophage SPW specific for Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis of lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longping; Zhang, Zhiying

    2014-09-01

    Mastitis in dairy cattle conti