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Sample records for superovulated beef cows

  1. New approaches to superovulation in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; Guerrero, Daniel Carballo; Tríbulo, Andrés; Tríbulo, Humberto; Tríbulo, Ricardo; Rogan, Dragan; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing need to simplify bovine superovulation protocols without compromising embryo production. The control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has facilitated donor management, but the most commonly used treatment, oestradiol, cannot be used in many parts of the world and mechanical removal of the dominant follicle is difficult to apply in the field. Other alternatives include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or LH, but efficacy in groups of randomly cycling animals is variable. Another alternative is to increase the response to GnRH by inducing a persistent follicle and initiating FSH treatments following GnRH-induced ovulation. The number of transferable embryos following superovulation during the first follicular wave did not differ from that achieved 4 days after oestradiol benzoate and progesterone. To further simplify superovulation, FSH has been administered as a single intramuscular injection. Superovulation of beef donors with a single intramuscular injection of Folltropin-V (Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada) diluted in a slow-release formulation resulted in embryo production comparable to that obtained using the traditional twice-daily protocol. The single intramuscular injection has the potential to reduce labour and handling and may be useful when handling stress is an impediment to success. These alternatives provide ways of facilitating widespread application of embryo transfer technologies.

  2. Repeatability and heritability of response to superovulation in Holstein cows.

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    Tonhati, H; Lôbo, R B; Oliveira, H N

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative effects of genetic and phenotypic factors on the efficacy and efficiency of superovulation for Holstein-Friesian cows reared in Brazil. A database, established by the Associacao Brasileira de Criadores de Bovinos da Raca Holandesa, consisting of a total of 5387 superovulations of 2941 cows distributed over 473 herds and sired by 690 bulls was used for the analysis. The records were analyzed by MTDFREML (Multiple Trait Derivative-Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood), using a repeatability animal model. The fixed effects included in the model were contemporaneous group (veterinarian, herd, year and season of the superovulation); number of semen doses; cow age; and superovulation order. The estimated repeatability of the number of the transferable embryos was low (0.13), and the estimated heritability was 0.03. These results indicate that environmental factors play a critical role in the response of a cow to a superovulation treatment. There is little evidence that future responses to superovulation by individual females can be predicted by previous treatment(s) or that superovulation response is an heritable trait.

  3. Superovulation in the cow with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin: effects of dose and antipregnant mare serum gonadotrophin serum.

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    Gonzalez, A; Wang, H; Carruthers, T D; Murphy, B D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) dose and PMSG antiserum on superovulation in crossbred beef cows were studied. In experiment I, three groups were treated with 1200, 2400 or 3600 IU of PMSG and 48 h later with prostaglandin (PGF). The mean numbers of corpora lutea (CL), unovulated follicles, and total ova/embryos collected increased as the PMSG dose increased. The percent of fertilized ova and transferable embryos was lowest in the highest dose group (p superovulation of beef cows with PMSG and treatment with PMSG antiserum will induce a higher superovulatory response and will result in higher CL numbers and fewer unovulated follicles. Further, the variability in the superovulatory response to PMSG treatment was still evident when PMSG antiserum was administered. PMID:8055430

  4. Association analysis between variants in bovine progesterone receptor gene and superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Yang, W C; Tang, K Q; Li, S J; Yang, L G

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G59752C and T81637C (rs41614030) located in introns 3 and 4 of the bovine progesterone receptor (PGR) gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation and evaluate its associations with superovulation traits. In polymorphic locus 81637, all cows without superovulation response were g.81637TC and g.81637TT genotypes. Association analysis showed that these two SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (psuperovulation traits and indicated that PGR gene can be used as a predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Superovulation with different doses of follicle stimulating hormone in Kamphaeng Saen beef cattle

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    Peerayut Nilchuen*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH usedin a superovulation program on numbers of corpora lutea, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos in Kamphaeng Saenbeef cattle. Cyclic cows (n=3 and heifers (n=3 of Kamphaeng Saen beef breed were assigned to two levels of FSH (200 and250 mg. NIH-FSH-P1 in Crossover Design by which two changes over treatments were studied over two periods in allanimals. Cows and heifers were estrous synchronized by Cloprostenol (500 μg. Estrus detection was performed by teaserbull (Day 0 = day of the onset of standing estrus. On day 9 after the onset of standing estrus, all animals were treated withFSH twice daily in decreasing doses over 4 days. On day 3 of FSH injection, each animal was treated with Cloprostenol (500μg. At the first standing estrus, all animals were artificially inseminated three times at 12 h intervals. Two straws of frozenthawedsemen of Kamphaeng Saen bull were used per insemination. All animals were treated with gonadotropin releasinghormone (10 μg of Buserelin at first insemination. Numbers of corpora lutea were determined by rectal palpation and embryoswere flushed seven days after the onset of standing estrus and classified according to the development stage and quality.The results showed that numbers of corpora lutea, percentages of total ova/embryos and percentages of transferable embryoswere not significantly different (P>0.05 between treatments (FSH: 200 versus 250 mg in either cows or heifers.

  6. An MspI polymorphism in the inhibin alpha gene and its associations with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Tang, Ke-Qiong; Li, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wu-Cai; Yu, Jun-Na; Han, Li; Li, Xiang; Yang, Li-Guo

    2011-01-01

    To identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism, the PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect an A>G transition determining an MspI polymorphism at position 192 in the exon I of the bovine inhibin alpha (INHA) gene and evaluate its associations with superovulatory response in 118 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation. Association analysis showed that cows with the GG genotype resulted in a significant increase in the number of ova (TNO) than AG and AA genotypes in the first (P=0.023), second (P=0.004) and third (P=0.002) superovulation treatments and produced more transferable embryos (NTE) than that of AG and AA genotypes in the third (P=0.045) superovulation treatment. Moreover, individuals with GG genotype produced more transferable embryos than AA (Psuperovulation treatment and all cows without superovulation response were mutations with genotypes of AA and AG. These results indicate that INHA gene can be used as a predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows, and imply that cows with AA genotype should be excluded for superovulation practices.

  7. Morphological and hormonal changes after superovulation in cows treated with Neutra-PMSG

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    Boryczko, Z.; Gajewski, Z.; Witkowski, M. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland); Bostedt, H.; Hoffmann, B. [Dept. of Animal Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Justus Liebig University (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Morphological changes in ovaries and hormonal changes as well as changes in Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P blood plasma levels were observed after superovulation induced by the administration of PMSG and the neutralization of this hormone with monoclonal antibodies Neutra-PMSG administered either 72 or 108 h later. The introduction of Neutra-PMSG 108 h after PMSG injection clearly decreases the number of surviving non-ovulated follicles with a diameter >10 mm (1.7{+-}0.8 vesicle in an individual cow on the average) in comparison to the group without Neutra-PMSG (19.4{+-}9.5). The efficiency of ovulation in the group treated with Neutra-PMSG in the 108th of the experiment (8.2{+-}4.6 corpora lutea per cow on the average), did not differ statistically from the group treated with PMSG only (12.4{+-}10.6). Early administration of Neutra-PMSG (72 h), totally inhibits superovulation. Observations showed, that injection of Neutra-PMSG in the 108th h, caused a considerable decrease in the estradiol level, beginning with the 120th h of the experiment. Determination of the progesterone blood plasma level reflects the number of corpora lutea and can be helpful in evaluating the effects of superovulation. Superovulation did not effect the level of Na, K, Mg, and P in the blood plasma. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured...

  9. Embryo production with sex-sorted semen in superovulated dairy heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimio, I; Mikkola, M; Lindeberg, H; Heikkinen, J; Hasler, J F; Taponen, J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex-sorted semen on the number and quality of embryos recovered from superovulated heifers and cows on commercial dairy farm conditions in Finland. The data consist of 1487 commercial embryo collections performed on 633 and 854 animals of Holstein and Finnish Ayrshire breeds, respectively. Superovulation was induced by eight intramuscular injections of follicle-stimulating hormone, at 12-hour intervals over 4 days, involving declining doses beginning on 9 to 12 days after the onset of standing estrus. The donors were inseminated at 9 to 15-hour intervals beginning 12 hours after the onset of estrus with 2 + 2 (+1) doses of sex-sorted frozen-thawed semen (N = 218) into the uterine horns or with 1 + 1 (+1) doses of conventional frozen-thawed semen (N = 1269) into the uterine corpus. Most conventional semen (222 bulls) straws contained 15 million sperm (total number 30-45 million per donor). Sex-sorted semen (61 bulls) straws contained 2 million sperm (total number 8-14 million per donor). Mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries from cows bred with sex-sorted semen was 4.9, which is significantly lower than 9.1 transferable embryos recovered when using conventional semen (P ≤ 0.001). In heifers, no significant difference was detected between mean number of transferable embryos in recoveries using sex-sorted semen and conventional semen (6.1 and 7.2, respectively). The number of unfertilized ova was higher when using sex-sorted semen than when using conventional semen in heifers (P cows (P cows (P protocol used seemed to be adequate for heifers. In superovulated cows, an optimal protocol for using sex-sorted semen remains to be found.

  10. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

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    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  11. Polymorphisms in the 5' upstream region of the FSH receptor gene, and their association with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Yang, Wu-Cai; Li, Shu-Jing; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Yu, Jun-Na; Han, Li; Yang, Li-Guo

    2010-06-01

    To identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of G-278A located in the 5' upstream region of bovine FSHR gene was found in 118 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation. Two SNPs of G-278A (GU253337) and A-320T (rs43676359) were analyzed. In polymorphic locus -278, all cows without superovulation response were mutations with genotypes of CD and DD. Cows with CC genotype had a significant increase in the total number of ova (TNO) (Psuperovulation response and can be used as a predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

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    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  13. Plasma progesterone, metabolic hormones and beta-hydroxybutyrate in Holstein-Friesian cows after superovulation.

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    Bényei, Balázs; Komlósi, István; Pécsi, Anna; Kulcsár, Margit; Huzsvai, László; Barros, C W C; Huszenicza, Gyula

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic hormones [insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)], progesterone (P4) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) serum concentrations were evaluated and their effect on the superovulation results of donor cows was investigated in a semi-arid environment. Body weight, body condition score (BCS) and lactation stage were also included in the analysis. Twenty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were superovulated with 600 IU FSHp following the routine procedure and flushed on day 7 in a Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer Centre in the semi-arid area of Brazil. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and blood samples were collected for assays. All of the hormones investigated and BHB serum concentrations were within the physiological ranges. There was a positive correlation between hormones, except between BHB and all the others. The leptin level was influenced by feeding status, as indicated by the BCS. Insulin, T4, T3 and BHB levels were affected by milking status. Dry cows had higher levels of all hormones except BHB. An optimum level of leptin resulted in the highest number of CL, while the linear increase of P4, T4 and IGF significantly increased the number of CL.

  14. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

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    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  15. Polymorphisms of the bovine growth differentiation factor 9 gene associated with superovulation performance in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Tang, K Q; Yang, W C; Li, S J; Yang, L-G

    2013-02-08

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily and plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate. We examined the bovine GDF9 gene polymorphism and analyzed its association with superovulation performance. Based on the sequence of the bovine GDF9 gene, six pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of two exons and intron 1 of GDF9 using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism. Only the products amplified by primer 3-1 displayed polymorphisms. Sequencing revealed two mutations of A485T and A625T in intron 1 of the GDF9 gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation. Association analysis showed that these two single nucleotide polymorphisms of A485T and A625T had significant effects on the number of transferable embryos (P superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

  16. Effects of prepartum lipid supplementation on FSH superstimulation and transferable embryo recovery in multiparous beef cows.

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    Bader, J F; Kojima, F N; Wehrman, M E; Lindsey, B R; Kerley, M S; Patterson, D J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of prepartum lipid supplementation on the number and quality of embryos recovered following ovarian super-ovulation in postpartum suckled beef cows. Mature cows (n = 40) were assigned to one of two treatments (lipid versus. no lipid) and supplemented for approximately 40 days prior to calving. Supplements provided to cows were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The treatment group was fed 1.6 kg hd(-1) per day of whole soybeans (WSB; 19.8% ether extract, and 41.8% crude protein) and the control group received a supplement consisting of 1.8 kg hd(-1) day of a soybean meal and soy-hull combination (SBS; 2.15% EE and 36.81% CP). Cows were synchronized using a GnRH [Cystorelin((R)) 100 microg im]-GnRH-PGF(2alpha) [Lutalyse 25 mg im] protocol. Cows were administered two injections of GnRH seven days apart and PG seven days after the second GnRH injection. Twenty-eight cows (WSB, n = 15; SBS, n = 13) responded to estrus synchronization and were superstimulated. Super-ovulation was initiated on day 8-10 of the synchronized cycle by twice-daily injections of pFSH (Pluset) over four days in decreasing doses using a total of 608.4 IU per cow. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) was administered 96 and 108 h after super-stimulation was initiated with FSH. Days postpartum (WSB = 59 days; SBS = 57 days) at initiation of FSH treatments were similar (P > 0.10) for both treatments. Cows were monitored for estrus activity by the HeatWatch Estrus Detection System. Twenty-seven cows (WSB, n = 15; SBS, n = 12) exhibited estrus after FSH and inseminated at 0, 12, and 24 h after the onset of estrus with 1, 2, and 1 units of semen, respectively. Embryos were recovered and evaluated 7-8 days later. Only cows that responded to FSH and that were inseminated were used for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Models Procedure of SAS. Body condition scores did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments when cows were

  17. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

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    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows (n = 1407) from 8 locations were assigned scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p beef cows with an excitable temperament had significantly lower reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

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    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  19. Polymorphism of the inhibin βA gene and its relationship with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Yang, W C; Li, S J; Chen, L; Yang, L G

    2014-01-17

    Inhibin is a major regulator of secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone, which is involved in follicular development and regulation of steroidogenesis in females. The objectives of this study were to detect polymorphisms of the bovine inhibin beta-A subunit (INHβA) gene and to evaluate its associations with superovulatory responses in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation. Polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism revealed a C>T transition determining the StyI polymorphism at position 7639 in intron I of the bovine INHβA gene, and three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were detected. The frequencies of the three genotypes showed a tendency for CT > TT > CC, and this polymorphism was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences of least square means for superovulation traits among the three genotypes (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the detected loci of the INHβA gene have no significant effects on superovulation performance in Chinese Holstein cows.

  20. Dietas com nitrogênio não-proteico para fêmeas bovinas superovuladas sem prévia adaptação durante curto tempo e em diferentes fases do ciclo estral Effect of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding for superovulated beef cows without previous adaptation and at different periods of the oestrus cycle

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    Flávio Rocha Alves

    2010-09-01

    effects of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding at different periods of the oestrus cycle in superovulated cows, without previous adaptation, on yield, quality and development degree of recovered embryos. A total of sixty-eight Nelore cows were distributed in three groups: the control group (C and two groups with urea supply before (UB; urea supply from day -5 to day 0 and after (UA; supply from day 0 to day 5 artificial insemination. Animals were kept grazing and received 3.0 kg/animal/day of concentrate during 16 days. Two concentrates were formulated and the total diets (concentrate and estimate forage intake showed 12.0% (control diet and 14.6% (non-protein diet of crude protein. Animals were synchronized, superovulated and inseminated. The embryos were collected and analysed seven days (day 7 after insemination (day 0. Blood samples were collected on days -5, 0 and 5 to determine concentration of plasmatic urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and progesterone. The time of urea supply affected average plasmatic urea nitrogen concentration on days -5, 0 5 but it did not affect concetrations of glucose, insulin and progesterone. The moment of urea inclusion had effect on compact morula percentage in relation to the total number of structures (UB = 51.4 vs. UA = 15.3%, to the total number of fertilized oocytes (UB = 62.5 vs. UA = 30.6% and to the total number of viable embryos (UB = 68.8 vs. UA = 38.6%. In the after insemination group of urea supply there was 70.2% of reduction on compact morula proportion over the total structures in relation to the group that received urea before insemination. Non-protein nitrogen feeding immediately after insemination promotes faster rates of embryo development.

  1. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

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    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  2. Effect of superovulation on uterine and serum biochemical parameters and its potential association with transferable embryos in Holstein dairy cows.

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    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, Hasina Santatriniaina; Chorfi, Younès; Dupras, Raynald; Mills, Louis; Lefebvre, Réjean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of superovulation (SOV) on serum and uterine biochemical parameters, uterine bacteriology and cytology and number of transferable embryos (TE). Dairy cows were placed on a Presynch/CIDR Synch protocol. The SOV group was superovulated, induced in estrus, and inseminated, whereas the control group was induced in estrus and inseminated without SOV. Uterine bacteriology and cytology and uterine and serum biochemical parameters were measured at day 7 of the estrous cycle to start the SOV protocol, as well as on the day of embryo recovery (DER). The SOV group produced 7.5 ± 6.7 oocytes/embryos, of which 3.4 ± 4.7 were TE. Serum urea and E2 and uterine Glu, CK, LDH, TP, P4 and PGFM in the control group and serum P4 and PGFM and uterine LDH and PGFM in the SOV group were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at DER than day 7. At DER, uterine urea, LDH, PGFM and TP and serum urea, LDH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations were higher (p < 0.01) in the SOV group than the control. There was no significant variation in uterine bacteriology or cytology. Overall, these results infer that SOV affects both serum profile and uterine secretions, and that these changes may influence the number of TE.

  3. Bovine somatotropin increases embryonic development in superovulated cows and improves post-transfer pregnancy rates when given to lactating recipient cows.

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    Moreira, F; Badinga, L; Burnley, C; Thatcher, W W

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies indicated that the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in concurrence with a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol increased pregnancy rates. However, the mechanisms for such a bST effect on fertility were not clear. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of bST on fertilization and early embryonic development after cows received a superovulation treatment, test whether embryos recovered from bST-treated cows were more likely to survive after transfer to recipients, and evaluate whether treatment of recipient cows with bST affects pregnancy rates. Lactating (n = 8) and nonlactating (n = 4) Holstein donor cows were superovulated, inseminated at detected estrus and assigned to a nontreated control group or to a treatment group receiving a single injection of bST (500 mg, sc) at insemination. Embryos were nonsurgically flushed 7 days after AI and frozen in ethylene glycol for direct transfer. Embryos derived from bST-treated (bST-embryos) or control (control-embryos) donors were transferred to lactating Holstein recipient cows that received either bST treatment 1 day after estrus (500 mg, sc; bST-recipients) or were untreated controls (control-recipients). Thus, there were four treatment groups: control-embryos/control-recipients (n = 43), bST-embryos/control-recipients (n = 41), control-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 37), and bST-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 60). Pregnancy was determined by palpation per rectum 33-43 days after embryo transfer. Unfertilized ova per flush was less for bST than for control (1.0 +/- 0.9 56.4%; P 0.4 +/- 0.7; P cows with bST increased pregnancy rates as compared to control-recipients that received a control-embryo. However, there was no additive effect when bST-recipients received a bST-embryo. Administration of bST at AI decreased the number of unfertilized ova, increased the percentage of transferable embryos, and stimulated embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, bST affected both

  4. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  5. Superovulation of beef cattle with a split-single intramuscular administration of Folltropin-V in two concentrations of hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tríbulo, Andrés; Rogan, Dragan; Tríbulo, Humberto; Tríbulo, Ricardo; Mapletoft, Reuben J; Bó, Gabriel A

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments were designed to evaluate the superovulatory response of beef cows following two intramuscular (IM) administrations 48 h apart of Folltropin-V diluted in reduced concentrations of hyaluronan (Split-single IM administrations; Experiment 1-300 mg Folltropin-V on the first day and 100 mg 48 h later; Experiment 2-200 mg Folltropin-V on the first day and 100 mg 48 h later). In Experiments 1 and 2, superovulatory response and ova embryo/embryo production did not differ between donors receiving twice daily IM of Folltropin-V over 4 days and those given a Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in 10 mg/mL hyaluronan solution. Experiment 3 compared Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in two hyaluronan concentrations (5 or 10 mg/mL) with Folltropin-V diluted in saline and administered twice-daily over 4 days. Beef cows (17 Angus and 12 Simmental) were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups to be superstimulated three times in a cross-over design, so that all cows received all treatments. A total dose of 300 mg Folltropin-V was divided into twice-daily IM over 4 days, or in two IM treatment 48 h apart (200 mg on first day and 100 mg 48 h later) in the hyaluronan groups. Mean (± SEM) numbers of transferable embryos did not differ among treatment groups (Control: 4.0 ± 0.8; 10 mg/mL hylauronan: 5.0 ± 0.9; 5 mg/mL hyaluronan: 6.1 ± 1.3). We concluded that the Split-single IM administration of Folltropin-V diluted in either concentration of hyaluronan resulted in a comparable superovulatory response to the traditional twice-daily protocol.

  6. 奶牛超排方法的研究进展%Advance in Superovulation Methods of Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任芳丽; 秦粉菊; 马毅

    2001-01-01

    In order to find an effective and stable method of superovulation, the present methods of super ovulation applied in dairy cow were reviewed and intercompared. The results showed that superovulation treated with FSH solved in PVP was the best, which prolonged the half life of FSH and strengthen the effects of FSH.%超数排卵技术是胚胎工程研究的重要内容。随着胚胎生物技术的延伸以及发育生物学研究的不断深入,牛胚胎需求量日益增大。超数排卵、胚胎移植技术为加快育种步伐,纯种扩群提供有力的技术支持。为了筛选一种有效、稳定的超数排卵程序,解决良种胚胎不足的矛盾,本文对近年来奶牛超排方法进行了综述,并比较了各种方法的优点及存在问题。从而得出将FSH溶解在PVP中进行超排,不但延长了FSH的半衰期,增加FSH的作用效果,而且一次注射避免了母牛的应激反应,是目前较理想的一种方法。

  7. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  8. The effect of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow on size of ovarian structures, periovulatory circulating steroid concentrations, and embryo quality following superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feu, M A; Patton, J; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2008-10-15

    When managed under grass-based systems of production, the New Zealand (NZ) strain of Holstein-Friesian cow has superior reproductive performance compared to the North American (NA) strain despite having similar solids-corrected milk (SCM) yields. This study compared the ontogeny of early pregnancy events in NZ and NA cows. Ten NZ and 10 NA cows were submitted to a superovulation protocol on three occasions. Blood samples were collected daily from every cow from days -3 to +7 relative to a synchronized oestrus during each superovulation protocol. Pre-ovulatory oestradiol concentrations, follicle diameter, post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations, corpus luteum (CL) diameter, and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations did not differ between the two strains. Uteri were non-surgically flushed 7 days post-AI, embryos were isolated and graded. The proportion of transferable embryos recovered was higher (Pcows compared with the NA cows. A greater (P=0.01) proportion of the recovered structures were at the blastocyst stage in the NZ cows. Peak SCM yield and body condition score (BCS) at the time of peak SCM yield were not different between strains. However, during the experimental period the NA cows maintained significantly higher daily SCM yields, whereas the NZ cows replenished significantly greater levels of BCS. The results indicate that differences in periovulatory steroid concentrations and size of ovarian structures do not explain the differences in embryo quality between the two strains. However, strain differences in nutrient partitioning from the time of peak SCM yield through late lactation may provide the key signals responsible for superior embryo quality in NZ cows.

  9. Endometrial response of beef heifers on day 7 following insemination to supraphysiological concentrations of progesterone associated with superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, N; Carter, F; di Francesco, S; Mehta, J P; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gad, A; Tesfaye, D; Hoelker, M; Schellander, K; Lonergan, P

    2012-11-15

    Ovarian stimulation is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in naturally single-ovulating species including cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes induced in the endometrial transcriptome associated with superovulation in cattle and place these observations in the context of our previous data on changes in the endometrial transcriptome associated with elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations within the physiological range and those changes induced in the embryo due to superovulation. Mean serum P4 concentrations were significantly higher from day 4 to day 7 in superovulated compared with unstimulated control heifers (P superovulated heifers (n = 5). This was reflected in the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between the two groups with 795 up- and 440 downregulated in superovulated endometria. Ten times more genes were altered by superovulation (n = 1,234) compared with the number altered due to elevated P4 within physiological ranges by insertion of a P4-releasing intravaginal device (n = 124) with only 22 DEGs common to both models of P4 manipulation. Fewer genes were affected by superovulation in the embryo compared with the endometrium, (443 vs. 1,234 DEGs, respectively), and the manner in which genes were altered was different with 64.5% of genes up- and 35.5% of genes downregulated in the endometrium, compared with the 98.9% of DEGs upregulated in the embryo. In conclusion, superovulation induces significant changes in the transcriptome of the endometrium which are distinct from those in the embryo.

  10. Relationship between embryo collection results after superovulation treatment of Japanese Black cows and their plasma β-carotene and vitamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Fumio; Sawai, Ken; Tanaka, Minoru; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the plasma concentrations of vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (BC) during embryo collection in Japanese Black cows that had undergone superovulation treatment and the embryo collection results. Following superovulation treatment in 116 Japanese Black cows, we collected 1317 embryos by nonsurgical means seven days after artificial insemination. The collected embryos were classified into transferable embryos, unfertilized oocytes and degenerated embryos. After embryo collection, we collected blood samples from the cows and measured the plasma concentrations of VA, VE and BC. The cows were then divided into 2 groups depending on the plasma concentration of VA (L and H: < 80 IU/dl and ≥ 80 IU/dl), VE (L and H: < 150 µg/dl and ≥ 150 µg/dl) and BC (L and H: < 150 µg/dl and ≥ 150 µg/dl). As a result, the number of collected embryos in the H group of VE was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that in L groups. Furthermore, the number of transferable embryos was higher (P<0.05) in all VA, VE and BC H groups than in the L groups. The H group for BC showed a high ratio of transferable embryos compared with the L group (P<0.05). Consequently, the present study suggests that the plasma VE and BC concentrations are positively correlated with the embryo collection results.

  11. Effects of supplementary selenium source on the blood parameters in beef cows and their nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2 years, 32 beef cows nursing calves were randomly selected from a herd of 120 that were managed in 6 groups and were assigned to six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures. Treatments were assigned to pastures (2 pastures/treatment) and cows had ad libitum access to 1 of 3...

  12. Relationship between the peripheral concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and preovulatory characteristics of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) during superovulation treatment in Japanese Black cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Go; Kamimura, Shunichi; Hamana, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between the peripheral concentrations of estradiol-17β (E(2)) and the preovulatory characteristics of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) during superovulation treatment was investigated in Japanese Black cows. A superovulation regimen with FSH treatment in a descending manner was commenced on day 7 (n=3) or day 10 (n=2) of the estrous cycle (day 0=estrus). Peripheral blood was collected to measure E(2) concentrations twice a day throughout the treatment. Ovariectomies were performed at 100 h after the initial FSH treatment in five cows. Every follicle more than 8 mm in diameter was isolated from the ovaries, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were gently aspirated. The COCs were then separated into three groups based on the characteristics of the cumulus (compact, expanded and denuded) and subgrouped based on the stage of the nucleus in the oocytes (GV, GVBD). Plasma E(2) concentrations tended to increase gradually and reached the peak level at around 84 h (E(2)-84: n=3) or 96 h (E(2)-96: n=2) after the initial FSH treatment. The ratio of COCs with expanded cumulus was significantly higher in E(2)-84 than in E(2)-96 (Psuperovulation treatment in Japanese Black cows.

  13. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  14. Development of a programmable piggyback syringe pump and four-times-a-day injection regimen for superovulation in non-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Abdul Razaq; Sasaki, Taihei; Kubo, Tomoaki; Odashima, Naoyuki; Katano, Keiji; Osawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toru; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop a programmable piggyback syringe pump for bovine superovulation and to evaluate the effects of a four-times-a-day injection regimen using the pump. Non-lactating Holstein cows were treated with a total of 30 armour units of porcine FSH by injection four times a day with the pump (study, n = 9) or injection twice a day manually (control, n = 9) for four consecutive days from D10 of the estrous cycle. The pump-driven program successfully induced superovulation in all cows tested. The numbers of small (3- < 5 mm in diameter) and large (≥ 10 mm in diameter) follicles were greater in the study group on D11-13 and D14, respectively. There were fewer unovulated follicles detected on D21 (7 days after estrus) in the study group than in the control group (1.2 ± 0.4 and 3.2 ± 0.6, respectively).

  15. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  16. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  17. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  18. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  19. Hormonal induction of estrous cycles in anestrous Bos taurus beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M L

    2004-07-01

    A significant proportion of postpartum beef cows are anestrus at the onset of the breeding season. Much progress has been made in understanding anestrus and the changes that lead to spontaneous resumption of reproductive function. Likewise, knowledge regarding the impact of hormonal interventions on the endocrine and ovarian changes normally associated with spontaneous resumption of estrous cycles continue to accumulate. A wide range of hormonal treatment programs designed to induce estrous cycles in anestrous cows to coincide with the start of the breeding season have been developed. Programs structured to provide for increased progesterone, estradiol and LH concentrations at the appropriate times during the period leading to the first ovulation, and an induced preovulatory gonadotropin surge when the dominant ovarian follicle is of appropriate maturity have been demonstrated to induce estrous cycles of normal duration and acceptable fertility in a majority of anestrous, Bos taurus beef cows.

  20. Factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows. Production data from 20,541 cows in 2210 herds slaughtered over a three-year period (1st of January 2010 to 23rd of January 2013) were extracted from the national beef cattle registry. This study's inclusion criteria were met for 16,917 cows (from 1858 herds) which gave birth to 50,578 calves. The median number of calves born per cow was 2 (min 1, max 18). Two multilevel Poisson regression models with herd random effects showed that early maturing breeds (Hereford and Aberdeen Angus) gave birth to more calves than late maturing breeds (Charolais and Limousin) in four out of five areas of Norway. The significant breed-region interaction indicated that the coastal South East region of Norway, which has a relatively long growing season and gentle topography, yielded the highest number of calves born for all but one breed (Simmental). Cows that needed assistance or experienced dystocia at their first calving produced fewer calves than those that did not: incidence rate ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.91) for assistance and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75) for dystocia, respectively. Cows in larger herds (>30 cows) produced 11% more calves in their lifetime compared to cows in smaller herds (≤30 cows) (Pborn. The large inter-herd variation indicate systematic differences in herd level factors influencing the number of calves born to each cow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis. Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53 and 9.4% (5/53 of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49 at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8% at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

  2. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  3. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.; Bozzi, R.; Boettcher, P.; Filippini, F.; Bijma, P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in

  4. Effects of Fleckvieh on the Performance of Dual-Purpose Cattle Improved by Hybridization with Local Beef Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Lian Hongxia; Yan Ping; Liu Xian; Liu Yan; Wang Wenhui; Zhu Ruiguang; Li Ming; Yang Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper aimed to study the improved effect of local beef cattle with Fleckvieh cattle and provide theoretical basic data for local cattle industry in central plain agricultural area in China. [Method] With 500 local beef cattle as female parents and Fleckvieh cattle as male parents,hybridization improvement was conducted via artificial insemination. The growth performance,slaughter performance,milk performance and milk components of F1 and F2 hybrids were measured. [Result] The birth body weights of F2 were significantly higher than those of local beef cow,but there was no remarkable difference between F1 and local beef cow or F1 and F2. The growth rates of F1 and F2 at different stages were higher than those of local beef cattle. The slaughter performance,such as carcass weight( P < 0. 05),dressing percentage,net meat rate( P < 0. 05),marbling score of F1 and F2 were higher than those of local beef cow. Milk production performance,such as actual milk yield,305 d corrected milk yield and 4% standard milk yield of F2 were signally higher than those of F1 and local beef cattle( P< 0. 05),and F1 was markedly higher than local beef cattle( P < 0. 05). For milk composition,although milk fat percentage,milk protein rate,lactose rate and total solids( TS) of F1 and F2 were slightly lowered compared with local beef cattle at varying degrees,they were still at high levels compared with Holstein cows.[Conclusion]Fleckvieh cattle,as a male parent,can significantly improved growth performance,slaughter performance and milk performance of offsprings. It would also increases the economic efficiency of local beef cattle by higher quality and price,as well as changing production model from beef to dual purpose of beef and milk.

  5. Reuse of norgestomet implants in an eCG-based superovulation protocol administered to Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows

    OpenAIRE

    Sudano, Mateus Jose [UNESP; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz [UNESP; Sartori, Roberto; Machado, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the reuse of norgestomet implants in Nelore cows that were superstimulated with eCG. In a crossover design trial, eight cows were randomly divided into two experimental groups and twice superstimulated: Group 1 - half of the cows received a new norgestomet implant and 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) on Day 0; Group 2 - remaining cows received two once-used norgestomet implants and 2 mg EB also on Day 0. on Day 4 all cows received a single dose of 2000 IU eCG, and on Day 6 cow...

  6. Influence of ingestion of aluminum, citric acid and soil on mineral metabolism of lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V G; Horn, F P; Fontenot, J P

    1986-05-01

    Lactating beef cows (16 Hereford and 34 Angus, 430 kg average body weight, aged 8 to 10 yr) were fed a basal diet containing 200 micrograms/g Al alone or supplemented with Al-citrate, citric acid, soil or soil plus citric acid for 56 d. Diets containing Al-citrate, soil and soil plus citric acid contained 1,730, 1,870 and 1,935 micrograms/g Al, dry-basis, respectively. Adding soil to the diet also increased Mg and Fe content of the diet. Aluminum values in ruminal contents of beef cows fed the basal alone or supplemented with citric acid, Al-citrate, soil or soil plus citric acid were 800, 990, 2,930, 3,410 and 2,910 micrograms/g, air-dry basis, respectively. Serum Mg and inorganic P declined (P less than .01) and urinary Ca concentration increased (P less than .01) for cows fed Al-citrate. By d 56, serum Mg was 1.5 and 2.2 mg/dl, and serum P was 3.8 and 6.8 mg/dl, for cows fed Al-citrate and basal diets, respectively. Calcium concentrations in urine were 281 and 11 micrograms/g for cows fed Al-citrate and basal diets, respectively. Citric acid, soil and soil plus citric acid had no detrimental effects on serum Mg and inorganic P, or urinary Ca concentration. By d 56, serum Ca was higher (P less than .06) in cows fed Al-citrate, compared with cows on the other four diets. Bone Ca, P, Zn and percent ash were not significantly affected by treatment but bone Mg tended to be slightly lower (P less than .07) for cows fed Al-citrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, Pbeef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic structures or embryo death. Uterine score improved with parity and stage of lactation, while cows that experienced dystocia in the previous calving had an inferior uterine score. Heterosis was the only factor associated with increased likelihood of early ovulation. The fertility traits identified, and the associated

  8. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P Flunixin meglumine treatment suppressed serum PGFM concentrations in control and ACTH-treated cows.

  9. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  10. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Stacey A; Whitworth, Whitney A; Montgomery, T Gregory; Beck, Paul A

    2012-07-24

    In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow) that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.)/bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture): 1) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG), 2) wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR), or 3) wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L.) and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW). All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients). The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27) among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17) among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06) to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02) for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  11. Grass tetany in a herd of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odette, O

    2005-08-01

    Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  12. Effects of crossbreeding on endocrine patterns determined in pregnant beef/dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Almería, S; Martínez-Bello, D; Tchimbou, A F; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; López-Gatius, F

    2015-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an intracellular coccidian parasite causing abortion worldwide in dairy cattle. Studies have shown that N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns and that beef cows or cows with a crossbreed pregnancy, especially for a greater maternal-paternal genetic distance, show a reduced risk of abortion when naturally infected compared with pure-breed Holstein Friesian (HF) pregnancies. This study examined the effects of crossbreeding on plasma progesterone (P4), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG)-1 and -2, and prolactin patterns produced during gestation in N caninum-infected beef/dairy cows. We analyzed 74 pregnancies in nonaborting cows carrying a single fetus established in 26 lactating HF cows bred with Holstein bulls (H-H), 13 HF cows bred with Limousin bulls (H-L), 12 HF cows used as recipients of transferred in vivo-produced frozen-thawed Rubia Gallega (beef breed; RG) embryos (H-RG-ET), and 23 RG suckling cows bred with RG bulls (RG-RG). Of the cows, 29 (39%) were seropositive for N caninum. Blood samples for hormone and placental protein determinations were collected on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 of gestation. Procedures of repeated measures analysis of variance throughout gestation revealed higher PAG-1 levels in the H-L and H-RG-ET groups compared with H-H and RG-RG. Higher prolactin levels were detected in RG-RG than in the remaining groups. N caninum seropositivity and fetal genotype had a significant effect on PAG-2 concentrations, such that highest levels of PAG-2 occurred in RG-RG seropositive cows and lowest in H-H seropositive cows, whereas Neospora-seropositive cows showed lower P4 concentrations than their seronegative partners. In conclusion, chronic N caninum infection modifies endocrine patterns of PAG-2 and P4 during pregnancy, whereas PAG-1 and prolactin concentrations are affected by breed and fetal genotype, irrespective of Neospora infection status.

  13. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  14. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  15. 奶牛超数排卵及胚胎移植的试验研究%Experiment on the Superovulation and Embryo Transfer In Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜存

    2011-01-01

    Superovulation was conducted on 22 Holstein cows as donors by FSH+PG methods. There were 140 Nan Yang cattle as recipients and donors, they had been synchronized estrus by PG for two times. The results showed as follows. (1)20 Holstein cows and 104 Nan Yang cattle had estrous in 96h after the second time in PG. The percentage of synchronized estrus about Holstein cows and Nan Yang cattle were 90.90% and 74.29% respectively;(2)The total embryos collected and usable embryos obtained, the average embryos collected number and the average usable embryos obtained per donor, the usable embryo rate of 20 Holstein cows were 176,104, 8.8, 7.0 and 79.55% respectively;(3)One usable embryo obtained was transferred to one of 104 Nan Yang cartle, the pregnancy number was 51 and the rate of pregnancy was 49.04%.%本试验采用FSH+PG的方法对22头供体荷斯坦牛分两批进行了超数排卵处理,140头受体南阳黄牛和供体牛采用2次PG法分批进行了同期发情处理.结果如下:(1)共有20头供体牛、104头受体牛在第二次注射PG后96h内发情,同期发情率分别为90.90%和74.29%;(2)20头供体牛回收胚胎176枚,可用胚胎140枚/头,平均回收胚胎8.8枚/头,平均可用胚胎7.0枚/头,可用胚胎比率79.55%;(3)104头南阳黄牛受体均移植单胚,51头妊娠,妊娠率为49.04%.

  16. Fecal Progestin Extraction and Analysis for Non-invasive Monitoring of Ovarian Cycle in Beef Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yimer§, Y. Rosnina*, H. Wahid, M.M. Bukar, A. Malik, K.C. Yap, M. Fahmi, P. Ganesamurthi and A.A. Saharee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine presence of immunoreactive progestins in feces, correlate fecal progestins with plasma progesterone (P4 concentrations and subsequently assess the role of fecal progestins in monitoring estrous cycle in Kedah Kelantan (KK beef cows. A total of 12 cycling cows were subjected to blood and matched fecal sampling twice a week for 9 weeks. The concentrations of plasma P4 and fecal progestins extracted using a modified technique, were determined by a P4 radioimmunoassay (RIA kit. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of fecal progestins and plasma P4 (r = 0.6, P<0.01, as tested for the whole group except one animal. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of fecal extracts and subsequent radioimmunoassay revealed presence of four immunoreactive progestins against the P4 antibodies. These results imply that the non-invasive measure of fecal progestins using a DSL-3900 RIA kit can be used to monitor the ovarian activity in beef cows.

  17. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Poxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2 pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior.

  18. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  19. Evaluation of Response to Super-Ovulation, Estrous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigate the possible cause of low number of embryo per donor cows and ... synchronization of estrus, ovulation, or both provides a more labor-efficient way to .... treatment, as super-ovulation treatment in present study was initiated without.

  20. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  1. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Cathriona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P P SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune response which undergoes a temporal functional change toward tissue proliferation and regeneration during endometrial involution in healthy postpartum cows. These molecular changes mirror the activation and resolution of endometrial inflammation during involution previously classified by the degree of neutrophil infiltration. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes may become potential markers for resolution of endometrial inflammation in

  2. Estádios de desenvolvimento embrionário de vacas zebuínas superovuladas Superovulated zebu cows embryonic developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o estádio de desenvolvimento de embriões coletados a partir de processos superovulatórios em zebuínos. Foram utilizadas 26 vacas, 16 da raça Nelore Padrão, três da Nelore Mocho, quatro da Gir, duas da Brahman e uma da raça Guzerá. Para o processo de superovulação utilizaram-se 350 UI de FSH em oito doses decrescentes a cada 12 horas, a partir do 10ºdia do ciclo estral (estro = dia 0. Ao sétimo dia após o estro os embriões foram coletados pelo método não cirúrgico e avaliados ao microscópio estereoscópio quanto à qualidade e estádio de desenvolvimento embrionário. Foram coletados 135 embriões viáveis, sendo 68,2% (92/135 Nelore Padrão, 12,6% (17/135 Nelore Mocho, 11,1% (15/135 Gir, 5,2% (7/135 Brahman e 3,0% (4/135 Guzerá. Os embriões foram classificados segundo a qualidade em grau I, 51,1% (69/135, grau II, 43,7% (59/135, grau III, 4,4% (6/135, e grau IV, 0,7% (1/135, e segundo o estádio de desenvolvimento em mórula, 3,7% (5/135, blastocisto inicial, 16,3% (22/135, blastocisto, 37,0% (50/135, blastocisto expandido, 42,2% (57/135, e blastocisto eclodido, 0,7% (1/135. Observou-se predominância de estádios embrionários avançados (blastocisto, blastocisto expandido e blastocisto eclodido que representaram 80% do total de embriões.This study was carried out with the objective of reporting the developing stages of embryos collected from superovulated zebu cows. Twenty-six zebu cows of Nelore (16, Polled Nelore (3, Gir (4, Brahman (2 and Guzerá (1 breeds were superovulated with 350IU of FSH, divided into eight decreasing doses administered each 12 hours, starting on day 10 of the estrous cycle (estrous = day 0. Seven-day embryos were collected non-surgically and evaluated at microscopy to determine the grade and stage of development. A total of 135 viable embryos were collected, being 68.2% (92/135 Nelore, 12.6% (17/135 Pooled Nelore, 11.1% (15/135 Gir, 5.2% (7/135 Brahman and 3

  3. Relationships of barometric pressure and environmental temperature with incidence of parturition in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Gadberry, M S

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between barometric pressure (BARO) and maximum (MAX_T) and minimum (MIN_T) environmental temperatures with the incidence of parturition in beef cows was examined through exploratory data analysis. Spring- and fall-calving records from a 5-yr period (2005 through 2009) collected at the University of Arkansas, Livestock and Forestry Research Station (Batesville) and the Department of Animal Science Savoy Research Unit (Savoy, AR) were used. All cows were multiparous, predominantly Angus, and naturally bred. During this period, 2,210 calves were born over a cumulative 1,547 d. Local weather station BARO and MAX_T and MIN_T data were obtained from the Southern Regional Climate Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. The combined calving record and climate variables were used to determine differences in BARO, MAX_T, and MIN_T on d 0 (d of calving) and -1, -2, or -3 d, respectively, before calving occurred (CALFD) or did not occur (NOCALFD). Location and season also were included in the model. For fall-calving cows, BARO on d 0 and -1, -2, or -3 was not different between CALFD and NOCALFD (P > 0.10). For spring-calving cows, BARO on d 0, -1, -2, and -3 was greater (P 0.10). In the spring, a decreased MAX_T was associated with CALFD. Maximum environmental temperatures on d 0 (14.7 vs. 16.0°C), -1 (14.4 vs. 16.0°C), and -3 (14.0 vs. 15.7°C) were less for CALFD compared with NOCALFD (P 0.10). For fall, MIN_T was greater on d -1 (12.8 vs. 11.3°C), -2 (13.0 vs. 11.4°C), and -3 (13.1 vs. 11.7°C) for CALFD compared with NOCALFD (P < 0.05). In spring, MIN_T for d 0 (2.6 vs. 3.9°C), -1 (2.5 vs. 3.7°C), -2 (2.1 vs. 3.7°C), and -3 (1.8 vs. 3.8°C) were lesser (P < 0.05) for CALFD vs. NOCALFD. These data indicate that for spring-calving cows, a greater BARO and decreased MAX_T and MIN_T were associated with CALFD, whereas for fall-calving cows, an increase in MAX_T and MIN_T was associated with CALFD. Therefore, monitoring weather conditions may

  4. Investigation of bovine venereal campyloacteriosis in beef cow herds in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; West, D M; Parkinson, T J

    2005-02-01

    To determine regional prevalences of beef cow herds in New Zealand positive for Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis antibodies in samples of vaginal mucus tested using an immunoglobulin (Ig) A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and to examine the suitability of the IgA ELISA for detecting infection with C. fetus subsp venerealis under field conditions in New Zealand. Vaginal mucus samples (n=1,230) collected from beef cow herds (n=125) throughout New Zealand (approximately 10 samples/herd) were tested for antibodies to C. fetus subsp venerealis using an IgA ELISA. Test results were compared between herds classified as having low, medium and high fertility based on pregnancy test results interpreted in relation to the duration of the mating period used. In addition, a small number of samples were collected from dairy cows that were mated using artificial insemination (AI) and had no contact with breeding bulls. The influence of putative risk factors for the spread of venereal disease and the effect of sample quality on the status of herds according to test results was assessed using multivariate logistical regression. Preputial washings from 54 bulls from nine herds classified as low fertility in which mucus samples from > or =3 cows were IgA antibody-positive were cultured for the presence of Campylobacter spp, and isolates of C. fetus subspecies were characterised using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. One or more mucus samples was positive to the IgA ELISA in 70% of all herds tested. The prevalence of IgA antibody- positive individuals was >20% in most regions of New Zealand and did not differ significantly for cows from herds classified as high, medium or low fertility (28%, 26% and 23%, respectively; p=0.39). No relationship was found between mucus antibody status and age of breeding group, herd size, herd fertility, number of herds that female replacements or breeding bulls were sourced from, whether a serving ability test (SAT) was used to

  5. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Enhancer Region of the Bovine Prolactin Gene and Association with Fertility in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to investigate the polymorphic nature of the enhancer region of the bovine prolactin (PRL) gene and determine the association of these polymorphisms with fertility in beef cows. Primers were designed to amplify a 500 base pair fragment 892 to 1392 bases upstream of the bovine PRL gen...

  6. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during mid-gestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; ...

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  8. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  9. SUPEROVULATION: STRATEGIES, ASSOCIATED FACTORS, AND PREDICTION OF THE SUPEROVULATORY REPONSE IN COWS SUPEROVULACIÓN: ESTRATEGIAS, FACTORES ASOCIADOS Y PREDICCIÓN DE LA RESPUESTA SUPEROVULATORIA EN BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez Escobar Claudia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryo transfer in cattle started to be explored in the 50´s but only in the 70´s was considered as a commercial alternative. Even though the technology has been around for more than 30 years, the superovulatory response and the pregnancy rate after transfer of the embryos have not improved substantially. The number of ovulations varies between 0 y 40 and additionally about 40% of the superovulated cows do not respond to treatment or produce very few embryos or bad quality embryos. Research in this area has been done to reduce this variability without much success. On the other hand, the studies have helped in the understanding of the bovine estrous cycle, allowing the improvement and implementation of better and shorter protocols to obtain embryos as well as to program fixed time embryo recoveries. The purpose of this review is to discuss the factors that can affect the superovulatory response of embryo donor cows and the different strategies available to improve this response.La transferencia de embriones tiene su origen en los años cincuenta, pero solo hasta los setenta se consideró como una alternativa comercial. A pesar de llevar más de 30 años, las tasas de superovulación y de preñez no se han mejorado sustancialmente. El número de ovulaciones varía entre 0 y 40 y, además, un 30% de las vacas superovuladas no responden al tratamiento o producen muy pocos embriones de mala calidad. Los investigadores del área han tratado de disminuir esta variabilidad sin mucho éxito. Por otra parte, se ha mejorado mucho en el conocimiento del ciclo estral, lo cual ha permitido que los esquemas se lleven a cabo en menos tiempo y se logren manejar los protocolos en tiempo fijo. El propósito de esta revisión es discutir los factores que afectan las tasas de superovulación en las vacas donadoras de embriones, y las posibles estrategias para mejorarlas.

  10. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  11. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  12. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  13. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P < 0.01) for CS-fed cows than for cows fed the OPT and MON2 supplements, although it was not significantly different for cows fed the Combo supplement. These studies indicate that the influence of monensin on cow BW and BCS change is inconsistent. The potential for monensin supplementation to positively impact calf performance during

  14. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  15. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne's disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bikash; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Osterstock, Jason B; Park, Seong C; Roussel, Allen J

    2014-01-23

    Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne's Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians' opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial culture of feces (3%), PCR (14%), ELISA (35%) and a combination of these tests (47%). Seventy-nine percent of veterinarians recommended a 12-month interval between testing. Seedstock producers who had had JD risk assessments performed on their farms were more supportive of JD control programs and had a correspondingly lower prevalence. It is important to increase educational activities to provide relevant

  16. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P feeding events, but these were of longer (P feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P feed for similar levels of productivity, spent less time engaged in feeding-behavior-related activities, and differed in ruminal fermentation parameters. Feeding events are a significant (17%) contributory factor to variation in RFI in pregnant beef cows offered grass silage.

  17. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield.

  18. Influence of the length of progestagen treatment and the time of oestradiol benzoate application on the ovulatory follicle size and ovulation time in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, J; Aller, J F; Callejas, S S; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R H

    2012-06-01

    Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that the pre-ovulatory follicle size, maturity and subsequent susceptibility to gonadotropin are influenced by the length of progestagen treatment in artificial insemination programme in beef cows. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 35 anoestrous beef cows received an intravaginal sponge containing 200 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate. The treatment lasted for 7 (n = 12), 8 (n = 11) or 9 (n = 12) days. Half of the animals in each group were injected with 0.7 mg of oestradiol benzoate (EB) at device removal (0 h) and the other half 24 h later. In experiment 2, 38 cycling beef cows were treated with the same protocols as in experiment 1. Ultrasound examinations were performed to determine the follicular diameter at device removal (dominant follicle), interval to ovulation and ovulatory follicle diameter. The dominant follicle of anoestrous cows with progestagen for 7 days (8.4 ± 1.6 mm) resulted smaller (p time after device removal was longer (p withdrawal than at 0 h in anoestrous cows (EB0 = 52.7 ± 4.0 h; EB24 = 70.8 ± 6.2 h) and in cyclic cows (EB0 = 50.0 ± 21.0 h; EB24 = 73.0 ± 20.0 h). In anoestrous cows, the treatment with progestagen for 9 days and EB at 24 h increased the diameter of the ovarian follicle (p = 0.033) but did not affect the diameter of the ovulatory follicle in cyclic cows. In conclusion, increasing the length of progestagen treatment for 8 or 9 days compared to 7 days increased the diameter of the dominant follicle, in anoestrous and cyclic beef cows. Oestradiol benzoate administered at device removal resulted in a shorter interval from device removal to ovulation compared with EB injection 24 h after the end of a progestagen treatment.

  19. Delayed insemination of nonestrous cows improves pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in timed artificial insemination of suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Lock, S L; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-04-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.

  20. Body condition score of Nellore beef cows: a heritable measure to improve the selection of reproductive and maternal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A F A; Neves, H H R; Carvalheiro, R; Oliveira, J A; Queiroz, S A

    2015-08-01

    Despite the economic importance of beef cattle production in Brazil, female reproductive performance, which is strongly associated with production efficiency, is not included in the selection index of most breeding programmes due to low heritability and difficulty in measure. The body condition score (BCS) could be used as an indicator of these traits. However, so far little is known about the feasibility of using BCS as a selection tool for reproductive performance in beef cattle. In this study, we investigated the sources of variation in the BCS of Nellore beef cows, quantified its association with reproductive and maternal traits and estimated its heritability. BCS was analysed using a logistic model that included the following effects: contemporary group at weaning, cow weight and hip height, calving order, reconception together with the weight and scores of conformation and early finishing assigned to calves at weaning. In the genetic analysis, variance components of BCS were estimated through Bayesian inference by fitting an animal model that also included the aforementioned effects. The results showed that BCS was significantly associated with all of the reproductive and maternal variables analysed. The estimated posterior mean of heritability of BCS was 0.24 (highest posterior density interval at 95%: 0.093 to 0.385), indicating an involvement of additive gene action in its determination. The present findings show that BCS can be used as a selection criterion for Nellore females.

  1. Supplementation of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: I. Altered intake behavior, body condition, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, V C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation to cows fed corn stover and silage during late gestation, 27 multiparous beef cows (674 ± 17 kg; BCS, 5.6 ± 0.1) were divided randomly into 2 pens equipped with electronic feeders. For 10 wk, both groups were fed the basal diet for ad libitum intake while 1 group was supplemented (SUP; = 12) with DDGS at 0.3% of BW (DM basis). Following parturition, all cows received the same diet for an additional 8 wk. During gestation, SUP cows gained BW ( time spent consuming forage ( meals than SUP cows ( = 0.06) from d 201 to 218 of gestation. Supplemented cows tended ( = 0.09) to consume larger meals than CON cows and spent more ( time eating than CON cows around d 240 of gestation. Calves born to SUP cows tended ( = 0.06) to be heavier than calves born to CON cows. During lactation, both groups gained ( time but was not influenced ( = 0.44) by treatment. Supplemented cows spent more time ( meals increased with advancing lactation ( meals daily than SUP cows ( = 0.01). Conversely, meal size decreased as lactation advanced ( meals than CON cows ( = 0.05). Supplementation with DDGS during gestation influenced intake behavior during gestation and lactation as well as the maintenance of maternal BW and BCS and calf birth BW.

  2. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  3. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne’s disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne’s Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Results Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians’ opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial culture of feces (3%), PCR (14%), ELISA (35%) and a combination of these tests (47%). Seventy-nine percent of veterinarians recommended a 12-month interval between testing. Conclusions Seedstock producers who had had JD risk assessments performed on their farms were more supportive of JD control programs and had a correspondingly lower prevalence. It is important to increase educational

  4. Effect of exogenous LH pulses on the fate of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P; Crowe, M A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is due to failure of early dominant follicles to ovulate. It is hypothesized that this failure to ovulate is due to inadequate LH pulse frequency. The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of hourly LH pulses would cause the first dominant follicle to ovulate. In Expt 1, 16 cows received either saline (n = 8) or porcine LH (pLH; 50 micrograms h-1; n = 8) as hourly pulses for 3-5 days from the second day of dominance of the first dominant follicle (day 0). In Expt 2, 21 cows received either saline (n = 7), or 50 micrograms pLH (n = 7) or 100 micrograms pLH (n = 7) as hourly pulses for 3 days. Appropriate ovarian scanning and assays of blood samples were carried out. In Expt 1, the number of dominant follicles that underwent atresia was not affected by increasing the number of LH pulses, but the duration of dominance (days) of the first and second dominant follicles and maximum size (mm) of the second dominant follicle were increased (P pLH pulses (3.1 +/- 1.2 pg ml-1) compared with controls (1.2 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1). Four of eight treated cows had an anovulatory LH surge. The number of follicle waves to first ovulation was not different (P pLH treated cows (3.9 +/- 0.5). In Expt 2, four of seven cows given pulses of 100 micrograms pLH h-1 ovulated the first dominant follicle, and the interval from calving to first ovulation was decreased (P pLH h-1 or control treatments. In conclusion, hourly pulses of pLH from day 1 after dominance of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows can either prolong dominance or induce it to ovulate. This finding supports the hypothesis that LH pulse frequency is a key determinant of the fate of the dominant follicle in the early postpartum period.

  5. Polymorphisms of the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene and its association with superovulation traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Li, Shu-Jing; Chao, Lu-Ming; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-03-01

    The major limitation to the development of embryo transfer technique in cattle is the highly variable between individuals in ovulatory response to FSH-induced superovulation. The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G51656T, A51703G, A51726G and G51737A were identified at the intron 9 of the LHCGR gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation, and evaluated its associations with superovulatory response. Association analysis showed that these four SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (P superovulation response and can be used to predict the most appropriate dose of FSH for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows.

  6. Genomic analyses of tropical beef cattle fertility based on genotyping pools of Brahman cows with unknown pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Fortes, M R S; McCulloch, R; Lyons, R E; Moore, S; Nicol, D; Henshall, J; Lehnert, S A

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to lowering the overall cost of obtaining genomic EBV (GEBV) and encourage their use in commercial extensive herds of Brahman beef cattle. In our approach, the DNA genotyping of cow herds from 2 independent properties was performed using a high-density bovine SNP chip on DNA from pooled blood samples, grouped according to the result of a pregnancy test following their first and second joining opportunities. For the DNA pooling strategy, 15 to 28 blood samples from the same phenotype and contemporary group were allocated to pools. Across the 2 properties, a total of 183 pools were created representing 4,164 cows. In addition, blood samples from 309 bulls from the same properties were also taken. After genotyping and quality control, 74,584 remaining SNP were used for analyses. Pools and individual DNA samples were related by means of a "hybrid" genomic relationship matrix. The pooled genotyping analysis of 2 large and independent commercial populations of tropical beef cattle was able to recover significant and plausible associations between SNP and pregnancy test outcome. We discuss 24 SNP with significant association ( Brahman herds managed under extensive pastoral conditions.

  7. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  8. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but the magnitude of the increase was greater for LBC cows. The LBC cows consumed more pine

  9. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  10. Effects of flunixin meglumine and transportation on establishment of pregnancy in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M L; Ansotegui, R P; Burns, P D; MacNeil, M D; Geary, T W

    2007-06-01

    Objectives of these studies were to determine the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) administration on early embryonic mortality and circulating PG and cortisol concentrations in transported and non-transported cows. Cows (n = 483) from 3 locations were used to evaluate the effects of transportation and FM approximately 14 d after AI on the establishment of pregnancy and serum concentrations of progesterone, PGF metabolite (PGFM), and cortisol. Treatments were transport (n = 129), transport + FM (n = 128), no transport (n = 130), and no transport + FM (n = 96). Multiparous cows (n = 224) were used at 2 locations, and nulliparous cows (n = 259) were used at 1 location. The no transport + FM treatment was used at only 2 locations. Flunixin meglumine (approximately 1.1 mg/kg of BW; i.m.) was administered before the cows were separated into transportation groups. Transportation included 4 to 6 h of transportation, without calves, via semitractor trailer. Nontransported cows remained penned, with their calves in adjacent pens, during the same period as the transported cows. Blood samples were collected from all cows before and after treatment and, at 2 locations, approximately 3 h after the onset of treatment. Location affected AI pregnancy rate (P < 0.01). Treatment effects, although not significant (P = 0.16), were of a magnitude to be considered practically important. Cows that received transportation + FM tended (P = 0.07) to have greater AI pregnancy rates (74%) than those that did not receive FM (66%), irrespective of transportation. Cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for transported cows than for nontransported cows. Cows receiving FM had greater (P < 0.05) AI pregnancy rates than non-FM cows (71 vs. 61%, respectively). Cows receiving transportation had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than nontransported cows (45.4 vs. 54.6 pg/mL, respectively), and cows receiving FM had lower (P < 0.01) mean PGFM concentrations than non-FM cows (39.4 vs. 60

  11. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  12. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET of Cipelang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cece Sumantri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken from cows that have been superovulated Angus, Brahman, HF, Limousin and Simmental. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR using specific primers for GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 gene. PCR product was cut with restriction enzyme MspI, AluI, HaeIII and HinfI and electrophoresed on agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr. Superovulation is done by injecting a totally of 20 ml FSH for 4 days. Injecting the prostaglandin hormone (PGF2α was performed on the eleventh day of CIDR implantation. Artificial insemination (AI performed two or three days after the injection of PGF2α and Flushing was done on the seventh day after the AI. The results showed that the Angus, Limousin, Brahman and Simental GH loci diversity of GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR|AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI was not associated with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryo rate. In HF dairy cattle, genotype on Pit-1|HinfI AA has higher percentage of superovulation response (P < 0.05 when compared to AB genotype, but did not differ to BB genotype. Dairy cattle HF AA genotype also had higher ovulation rate (P < 0.05 when compared to AB and BB genotypes, but AB and BB have the same ovulation rate.

  13. Effect of Se on selenoprotein activity and thyroid hormone metabolism in beef and dairy cows and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, J E; Hill, G M; Hawkins, D R; Link, J E; Rincker, M J; Bednar, G W; Kreft, R A

    2004-10-01

    Although Se is essential for antioxidant and thyroid hormone function, factors influencing its requirement are not well understood. A survey and two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of cattle breed and age on selenoprotein activity and the effect of maternal Se supplementation on cow and calf selenoprotein activity and neonatal thyroid hormone production. In our survey, four cowherds of different ages representing three breeds were bled to determine the influence of breed and age on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (RBC GPX-1). All females were nonlactating, pregnant, and consumed total mixed diets (Holstein) or grazed pasture (Angus and Hereford). In our survey of beef breeds, yearlings had greater average RBC GPX-1 activity than mature cows. In Exp. 1, neonatal Holstein heifers (n = 8) were bled daily from 0 to 6 d of age to determine thyroid hormone profile. An injection of Se and vitamin E (BO-SE) was given after the initial bleeding. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were greatest on d 0 and decreased (P < 0.05) continuously until d 5 postpartum (156.13 to 65.88 and 6.69 to 1.95 nmol/L, d 0 to 5 for T4 and T3, respectively). Reverse T3 concentrations were 3.1 nmol/L on d 0 and decreased (P < 0.05) to 0.52 nmol/ L by d 5. In Exp. 2, multiparous Hereford cows were drenched weekly with either a placebo containing 10 mL of double-deionized H2O (n = 14) or 20 mg of Se as sodium selenite (n = 13). After 2 mo of treatment, Se-drenched cows had greater (P < 0.01) plasma concentrations than control cows (84.92 vs. 67.08 ng/mL), and at parturition, they had plasma Se concentrations twofold greater than (P < 0.05) control cows (95.51 vs. 47.14 ng Se/mL). After 4 mo, cows receiving Se had greater (P < 0.05) RBC GPX-1 activity than controls; this trend continued until parturition. Colostrum Se concentration was twofold greater (P < 0.05) in Se-drenched cows than control cows (169.97 vs. 87.00 ng/mL). Calves born to cows

  14. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P meat and in plasma and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2) D(3)] in plasma were increased when 25-OH D(3) was administered (P meat or in plasma. Calpastatin activity was affected by treatments only in the gracilus and vastus intermedius muscles (P

  15. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  16. Evaluation of calving seasons and marketing strategies in Northern Great Plains beef enterprises: I. Cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer Leesburg, V L; Tess, M W; Griffith, D

    2007-09-01

    A bioeconomic computer model was used to evaluate alternate calving seasons in a cow-calf enterprise under range conditions representative of the Northern Great Plains. The simulated ranch utilized a rotational breeding system based on Hereford and Angus and had a fixed forage base (4,500 animal unit months of native range, 520 t of grass hay, and 183 t of alfalfa hay). Calving seasons studied were spring (SP, beginning March 15), summer (SU, beginning May 15), and fall (FA, beginning August 15). Weaning dates were October 31, December 15, and February 1, for SP, SU, and FA. The SP system was also simulated with a 5% increase in calf mortality (SP-IM), and SU with early weaning on October 31 (SU-EW). Herd size for the fixed resource was 509, 523, 519, 560, and 609 cows exposed per year for SP, SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, respectively. Corresponding values for weight weaned per cow exposed were 206, 186, 193, 153, and 145 kg. Steer calves, nonreplacement heifer calves, and cull cows were sold at the time of weaning. Quarterly cattle and feed prices used were representative of the peak, descending, valley, and ascending phases of the 1990s cattle cycle adjusted for inflation. Estimates of ranch gross margin (gross returns minus variable costs) were greatest for SP, followed by SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, and the ranks were consistent across phases of the cattle cycle. Differences between ranch gross margin for SP-IM and SU were small. In beef enterprises representative of the Northern Great Plains, with a restricted grazing season, limited access to low-cost, high-quality grazeable forage, and with calves sold at weaning, switching from early spring to a summer or fall calving date is not expected to improve profitability. If delaying calving improves calf survival, then calving in early summer may be a competitive choice.

  17. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; Residual gain was highly correlated with ADG ( = 0.75; Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  18. Effect of the ovulatory follicle diameter and progesterone concentration on the pregnancy rate of fixed-time inseminated lactating beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the ovulatory follicle diameter on the reproductive performance of lactating beef cows subjected to low progesterone fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols. Ninety-three lactating beef cows (60-80 days postpartum at random stages of estrous cycle were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α (500 μg cloprostenol; PGF twice, 11 d apart. Ten days after the second PGF treatment, cows were given 1.5 mg of estradiol benzoate im and a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (Cue-Mate with a single pod containing 0.78 g progesterone (Day 0. Cows received another luteolytic dose of PGF on Day 0. On Day 8, the Cue-Mate was removed. Fifty-four to 56 hours later, cows received 12.5 mg of porcine LH (pLH i.m. and were concurrently artificially inseminated. Ultrasound examinations of the ovaries were performed on Days 10 and 17 to evaluate the diameter of ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum, respectively. Cows which presented ovulatory follicle > 19 mm resulted in larger corpus luteum than cows that had ovulatory follicle <15 mm in diameter. However, cows with ovulatory follicle between 13-15 mm had higher pregnancy rate than other categories of ovulatory follicle. Although larger ovulatory follicles result in larger corpus luteum and consequently higher progesterone production, the optimal size of ovulatory follicles (13-15 mm may result in positive benefits on pregnancy rate for cows subjected to FTAI with low progesterone concentration protocols.

  19. Cow-calf reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management to improve the sustainability of whole beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Brady, M; Capper, J L; McNamara, J P; Johnson, K A

    2015-06-01

    Optimizing efficiency in the cow-calf sector is an important step toward improving beef sustainability. The objective of the study was to use a model to identify the relative roles of reproductive, genetic, and nutritional management in minimizing beef production systems' environmental impact in an economically viable, socially acceptable manner. An economic and environmental diet optimizer was used to identify ideal nutritional management of beef production systems varying in genetic and reproductive technology use. Eight management scenarios were compared to a least cost baseline: average U.S. production practices (CON), CON with variable nutritional management (NUT), twinning cattle (TWN), early weaning (EW), sire selection by EPD using either on-farm bulls (EPD-B) or AI (EPD-AI), decreasing the calving window (CW), or selecting bulls by EPD and reducing the calving window (EPD-CW). Diets to minimize land use, water use, and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were optimized under each scenario. Increases in diet cost attributable to reducing environmental impact were constrained to less than stakeholder willingness to pay for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Baseline land use, water use, and GHG emissions were 188 m, 712 L, and 21.9 kg/kg HCW beef. The NUT scenario, which assessed opportunities to improve sustainability by altering nutritional management alone, resulted in a simultaneous 1.5% reduction in land use, water use, and GHG emissions. The CW scenario improved calf uniformity and simultaneously decreased land use, water use, and GHG emissions by 3.2%. Twinning resulted in a 9.2% reduction in the 3 environmental impact metrics. The EW scenario allowed for an 8.5% reduction in the 3 metrics. The EPD-AI scenario resulted in an 11.1% reduction, which was comparable to the 11.3% reduction achieved by EPD-B in the 3 metrics. Improving genetic selection by using AI or by purchasing on-farm bulls based on their superior EPD demonstrated

  20. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( < 0.01) in WLF vs. CON cows. Within cows from group B, expression of hippocampal mRNA and expression of c m

  1. Effects of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Prezotto, L D; Bauer, M L; Freetly, H C; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to examine the effect of maternal nutrient restriction followed by realimentation during midgestation on uterine blood flow (BF). On Day 30 of pregnancy, lactating, multiparous Simmental beef cows were assigned randomly to treatments: control (CON; 100% National Research Council; n = 6) and nutrient restriction (RES; 60% of CON; n = 4) from Day 30 to 140 (period 1), and thereafter, realimented to CON until Day 198 of gestation (period 2). Uterine BF, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) were obtained from both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine arteries via Doppler ultrasonography. Generalized least square analysis was performed. Ipsilateral uterine BF in both groups increased quadratically (P interaction or treatment effect (P ≥ 0.24) for total BF during either period. Nutrient restriction does not alter total uterine BF, but it may increase vascular resistance. However, up on realimentation, local conceptus-derived vasoactive factors appear to influence ipsilateral uterine BF.

  2. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  3. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  4. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    Eighty-four multiparous, nonlactating, pregnant Angus × Hereford cows were ranked by pregnancy type (56 AI and 28 natural service), BW, and BCS and allocated to 21 drylot pens at the end of their second trimester of gestation (d 0). Pens were assigned to receive forage-based diets containing 1) sulfate sources of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (INR); 2) an organic complexed source of Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn (AAC; Availa 4; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN); or 3) no supplemental Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn (CON). Diets were offered from d 0 until calving and formulated to meet requirements for energy, protein, macrominerals, Se, I, and vitamins. The INR and AAC diets provided the same daily amount of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn. Cow BW and BCS were recorded and liver samples were collected on d -10 and 2 wk (d 75) before the calving season. Within 3 h after calving, calf BW was recorded, liver samples were collected, and the expelled placenta was retrieved ( = 47 placentas). Calves were weaned on d 283 of the experiment, preconditioned for 45 d (d 283 to 328), transferred to a growing lot on d 328, and moved to a finishing lot on d 440 where they remained until slaughter. Liver Co, Cu, and Zn concentrations on d 75 were greater ( ≤ 0.05) for INR and AAC cows compared with CON cows, whereas INR cows had reduced ( = 0.04) liver Co but greater ( = 0.03) liver Cu compared with AAC cows. In placental cotyledons, Co concentrations were greater ( ≤ 0.05) in AAC and INR cows compared with CON cows, whereas Cu concentrations were increased ( = 0.05) only in AAC cows compared with CON cows. Calves from INR and AAC cows had greater ( productivity in beef production systems.

  5. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  6. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; Pinseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols.

  7. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  8. Genetic parameters for large-scale behavior traits and type traits in Charolais beef cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallée, A.; Breider, I.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, beef cattle breeding mainly focused on improving production and reproduction traits. Nowadays, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. There is an interest in behavior as it is associated with human safety and workability and in

  9. Fertility in Angus cross beef cows following 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, William D; Currin, John F; Schramm, Holly; Holland, Sarah; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2013-12-01

    The present study determined whether a 5-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol with two doses of PGF2α would improve timed artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rate compared with 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol in beef cows. Angus cross beef cows (N = 1817) at 12 locations were randomly assigned to 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR or 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR groups. All cows received 100 μg of GnRH and a CIDR insert on Day 0. Cows (n = 911) in the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received two doses of 25 mg PGF, the first dose given on Day 5 at CIDR removal and the second dose 6 hours later, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 8 and were inseminated concurrently, 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cows (n = 906) in 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR group received 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 7, and 100 μg GnRH on Day 10 and were inseminated concurrently, 66 to 72 hours after CIDR removal. All cows were fitted with a heat detector aid at CIDR removal and were observed twice daily until insemination for estrus and heat detector aid status. Accounting for estrus expression at or before AI (P 6 - 55.8%]. The mean AI pregnancy rate difference between treatment groups and projected economic outcome varied among locations. In conclusion, cows synchronized with the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had greater AI pregnancy rate than those that received the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.

  10. Efeito de diferentes protocolos de superovulação sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona e de metabólitos lipídicos de vacas Nelore Effect of different superovulation protocols on plasma progesterone concentration and lypidic metabolites in Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Ramos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicérides, colesterol, aspartato transaminase (AST e progesterona (P4 em vacas Nelore não lactantes com elevado escore corporal, superovuladas com diferentes protocolos. Foram utilizados três grupos de animais, G1 (n=11, G2 (n=8 e G3 (n=5, superovulados com 500UI de FSH, 200mg e 180mg de FSH (hormônio folículo estimulante, respectivamente, em doses decrescentes, duas vezes ao dia, durante quatro dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da superovulação (A, no terceiro dia da superovulação (B, no momento da inseminação artificial (C e na coleta dos embriões (D. As concentrações de triglicérides, AST e colesterol foram verificados por espectrofotometria, e a de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio. Não houve alteração (P>0,05 na concentração de triglicérides, AST e colesterol entre as amostras. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 do protocolo de superovulação sobre a concentração de triglicérides, AST e P4 nas diferentes amostras. O G2 apresentou menor concentração de colesterol (PThe purpose of this research was to evaluate the concentration of tryglicerides, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST and progesterone (P4 in embryo donor Nelore cows superovulated with different protocols. Twenty four donors were randomly distributed in three groups: group 1 (n=11, donors superovulated with 500UI of FSH and group 2 (n=8 and group 3 (n=5 respectively with 200mg and 180mg of FSH, in decreasing doses, twice a day, during four consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before superovulation (A, in the third day of superovulation (B, at the artificial insemination time (C and at the embryo collection time (D. The concentrations of tryglicerides, aspartate transaminase (AST and cholesterol were measured by spectrophotometry and progesterone (P4 by radioimmunoassay. There was no alteration (P0.05 of the superovulation protocol on the concentration of tryglicerides, AST and

  11. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; Pincrease BCS through muscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment; which was associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I.

  12. Factors influencing feed efficiency for beef cows of varying proportion of Brahman influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed constitutes the greatest proportion of costs in cow-calf production. Therefore, genetic merit for feed efficiency has received interest from producers, but has generally been assessed in growing animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the main factors that contribute to variance...

  13. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  14. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... the breeding period and had calved earlier than cows which did not recon· ceive (P 0;; 0 ...... Gain or loss prior to breeding was of little consequence provided .... factors on the weaning weight and postweaning growth of range.

  15. Altered progesterone concentrations by hormonal manipulations before a fixed-time artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program in suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S L; Perry, G A; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Jaeger, J R; Olson, K C; Stevenson, J S

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that pregnancy outcomes may be improved by inducing luteal regression, ovulation, or both (i.e., altering progesterone status) before initiating a timed-artificial insemination (TAI) program in suckled beef cows. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments in which cows were treated with either PGF2α (PG) or PG + GnRH before initiating a TAI program to increase the proportion of cows starting the program in a theoretical marginal (<1 ng/mL; experiment 1) or elevated (≥1 ng/mL; experiment 2) progesterone environment, respectively. The control was a standard CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) program employed in suckled beef cows (100 μg GnRH intramuscularly [IM] [GnRH-1] and insertion of a progesterone-impregnated intravaginal CIDR insert on study Day -10, 25 mg PG and CIDR insert removal on study Day -3, and 100 μg GnRH IM [GnRH-2] and TAI on study Day 0). In both experiments, blood was collected before each injection for later progesterone analyses. In experiment 1, cows at nine locations (n = 1537) were assigned to either: (1) control or (2) PrePG (same as control with a PG injection on study Day -13). The PrePG cows had larger (P < 0.05) follicles on study Day -10 and more (P < 0.05) ovulated after GnRH-1 compared with control cows (60.6% vs. 36.5%), but pregnancy per TAI was not altered (55.5% vs. 52.2%, respectively). In experiment 2, cows (n = 803) at four locations were assigned to: (1) control or (2) PrePGG (same as control with PG injection on study Day -20 and GnRH injection on study Day -17). Although pregnancy per TAI did not differ between control and PrePGG cows (44.0% vs. 44.4%, respectively), cows with body condition score greater than 5.0 or 77 or more days postpartum at TAI were more (P < 0.05) likely to become pregnant than thinner cows or those with fewer days postpartum. Presynchronized cows in both experiments were more (P < 0.05) likely than controls to have luteolysis after initial

  16. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination.

  17. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo vaccination of pregnant beef cows and subsequent growth rate of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, R G

    1980-10-01

    Five experiments with Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo vaccine were carried out over a 6-year period in pregnant Brahman-cross and Sahiwal-cross cows in the dry tropics on northern Queensland. The numbers ranged from 127 breeders aged 2 to 5 years in 1972 to 344 breeders aged 2 to 9 years in 1977. Half of the cows were vaccinated twice in mid-pregnancy except for 1977, when they were vaccinated once. In 1975-1977 inclusive, half of the heifers were given an additional dose of vaccine at commencement of mating. Vaccination caused a significant (P less than 0.01) reduction of prenatal loss but not of perinatal or postnatal losses. Growth rates of calves from vaccinated and unvaccinated dams were similar.

  18. Effects of progestagen treatment on concentrations of prostaglandins and oxytocin in plasma from the posterior vena cava of post-partum beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D A; Carver, D A; Villeneuve, P; Silvia, W J; Inskeep, E K

    1991-03-01

    The role of PGF-2 alpha in determining the lifespan of corpora lutea in the post-partum beef cow was investigated. In control cows (N = 5) induced to ovulate at Day 28 to 36 post partum by injection of 1000 i.u. hCG, corpora lutea had an average lifespan of only 8 days. In cows pretreated with 6 mg implants of a progestagen (norgestomet, N = 4) for 9 days, with implant removal 2 days before injection of hCG, luteal lifespan averaged 17.5 days. Concentrations of PGF-2 alpha in 9 hourly samples of plasma collected from the posterior vena cava via indwelling catheters were higher on Days 4 through 9 after injection of hCG (P less than 0.05) in the cows with short-lived corpora lutea. Greater release of PGF-2 alpha could therefore be a major factor in premature luteal regression. Concentrations of PGFM and oxytocin did not differ between cows with corpora lutea of short or normal lifespan. In a second experiment, concentrations of PGF-2 alpha in plasma from the posterior vena cava were examined during treatment with norgestomet (N = 8) or in contemporary controls (N = 7). In progestagen-treated cows, PGF-2 alpha was higher than in control cows (P less than 0.05), beginning on Day 3 of treatment and peaking on Day 5. It is concluded that the post-partum uterus increases secretion of PGF-2 alpha very early after first exposure to endogenous or exogenous progestagen.

  19. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0 were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4 and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7, cows received no treatment (control; n=16, a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n=16, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n=15, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n=15. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM. Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater (P≤0.05 in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined (P≤0.05 from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (P≤0.05. Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

  20. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  1. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  2. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  3. Production performance of beef cows raised on three different nutritionally controlled heifer development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine primiparous heifer performance following three different heifer development strategies that were the result of timed nutrient limitation. Two hundred eighty-two spring-born MARC III heifers were weaned at 203+/-1 d of age and 205+/-1 kg BW. The experiment was conducted on two calf crops with 120 heifers born in 1996 and 162 heifers born in 1997. Treatments consisted of different quantities of the same diet being offered for a 205-d period. Heifers in the HIGH treatment were offered 263 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the MEDIUM treatment were offered 238 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the LOW-HIGH treatment were offered 157 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily the first 83 d and 277 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily for the remainder of the 205 d. Treatments differed in total ME intake (P calved expressed as a fraction of the cows exposed did not differ among treatments (89.7%; P = 0.83). The age of heifer at parturition (P = 0.74) and the time from first bull exposure to calving (P = 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Birth weight of calves (P = 0.80) and the calves' weaning weight (P = 0.60) did not differ among the treatments. Calf survival rate on the LOW-HIGH treatment (73%) was lower than that on the moderate treatment (89%; P = 0.007) but did not differ from that on the HIGH treatment (81%; P = 0.26). The second-calf pregnancy rate (92.8%) for cows with a nursing calf at the start of breeding did not differ between treatments (P = 0.83). These findings suggest that as long as heifers are growing and meet a minimal BW before mating, patterns of growth may be altered in the post-weaning period without a decrease in the ability of the heifer to conceive or a decrease in calf growth potential. However, limit-feeding heifers may decrease first-calf survival. These alterations in postweaning gain through monitoring the amount of feed offered can be used to optimize feed resources.

  4. Effects of excess metabolizable protein on ovarian function and circulating amino acids of beef cows: 2. Excessive supply in varying concentrations from corn gluten meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, T C; Meyer, A M; Perry, G A; Gunn, P J

    2017-04-01

    In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, amount of excess CP effects on reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of excess metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation from a moderately abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP) source (corn gluten meal: 62% RUP) on ovarian function and circulating amino acid (AA) concentrations in beef cows consuming low quality forage. Non-pregnant, non-lactating beef cows (n=16) were allocated by age, BW and body condition score (BCS) to 1 of 2 isocaloric supplements designed to maintain BW for 60 days. Cows had ad libitum access to corn stalks and were individually offered a corn gluten meal-based supplement daily at 125% (MP125) or 150% (MP150) of National Research Council (NRC) MP requirements. After a 20-day supplement adaptation period, cows were synchronized for ovulation. After 10 days of synchronization, follicular growth was reset with gonadotropin releasing hormone. Daily thereafter, transrectal ultrasonography was performed to diagram ovarian follicular waves, and blood samples were collected for hormone, metabolite and AA analyses. After 7 days of observation of estrus, corpus luteum (CL) size was determined via ultrasound. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures of SAS. No differences (P⩾0.21) in BW and BCS existed throughout the study; however, plasma urea N at ovulation was greater (P=0.04) in MP150. Preovulatory ovarian follicle size at dominance, duration of dominance, size at spontaneous luteolysis, length of proestrus and wavelength were not different (P⩾0.11) between treatments. However, ovulatory follicles were larger (P=0.04) and average antral follicle count was greater (P=0.01) in MP150 than MP125. Estradiol concentration and ratio of estradiol to ovulatory follicle volume were not different due to treatment (P⩾0.25). While CL volume 7 days post

  5. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P 0.05) were observed in calf birth weights among treatments. The alternate-day feeding strategy reduced hay and total intake, altered concentrations of serum urea and NEFA, and altered feeding behavior compared with other supplementation methods.

  6. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew J; Cullen, Brendan R; Eckard, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  7. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  8. Efficacy of intramuscular treatment of beef cows with oxytetracycline to reduce mastitis and to increase calf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Wettemann, R P; Paape, M J; Vizcarra, J A; Looper, M L; Buchanan, D S; Lusby, K S

    2002-06-01

    Spring-calving multiparous Angus x Hereford cows were used to determine the efficacy of intramuscular treatment with oxytetracycline to reduce the incidence of mastitis-causing bacteria, decrease milk somatic cell counts (SCC), and increase calf growth. During 2 yr, milk samples were collected from each quarter from a total of 319 cows at 8 to 14 d after calving and at weaning, to determine the presence of bacteria and SCC. A California mastitis test (CMT) was performed on milk from each quarter of each cow at the initial sample collection. Cows with a CMT score of 1, 2, or 3 in at least one quarter, were randomly assigned to receive either an intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline (n = 63) or the control vehicle (n = 60), and cows with a CMT score of 0 or trace in all four quarters were not treated (n = 196). Calf weights were determined at birth, early lactation, and weaning. The number of somatic cells in milk and the percentage of quarters that were infected increased as CMT score increased (P mastitis-causing bacteria at calving increased (P mastitis-causing bacteria at weaning was associated with increased SCC for quarters and average SCC for cows (P 0.10) the percentage of cows or quarters infected with mastitis-causing bacteria or SCC of cows or quarters at weaning. Average SCC per cow was negatively correlated (P 0.10) calf weights at early lactation or at weaning. Cows with one or more dry quarters after calving had calves that weighed less at early lactation and weaning than cows with four functional quarters (P CMT scores of 1 or greater after calving did not reduce intramammary infection rates or increase calf weights at weaning.

  9. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat Breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1-3 mm) antral ...

  10. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  11. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  12. Desempenho reprodutivo pós-parto de vacas de corte submetidas a indução/sincronização de cio Postpartum reproductive performance of beef cows in moderate body condition submitted to estrus induction/synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Cassal Brauner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas à indução/sincronização de cio, foram utilizadas 42 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus com condição corporal 3 (escala de 1-5 sob manejo extensivo. A produção de leite foi estimada pelo método pesagem-mamada-pesagem. Nos exames ginecológicos, utilizou-se aparelho de ultra-sonografia e palpação trans-retal. Foram considerados fatores fixos nível de produção de leite (acima e abaixo da média de produção das vacas, gestação, condição reprodutiva pré-acasalamento (CRPA, anestro superficial (tônus uterino, folículos > 10 mm e ausência de CL e anestro profundo (ausência de tônus uterino, folículos To assess the reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to estrus induction/synchronization, 42 Aberdeen Angus cows with body condition 3 (1-5 scale under extensive management were used. The milk production was estimated through the weight-suckling-weight method. For gynecological examinations, ultrasound equipment and trans-rectal palpation were used. The milk production level (above and below the average production of cows, pregnancy, prebreeding reproductive condition (CRPA, surface anoestrus (uterine tone, follicles > 10 mm and absence of CL and deep anoestrus (no uterine tone, follicles <10 mm and absence of CL and the estrus induction/synchronization response (RISC were considered as constant factors. The variables analyzed were the pre-delivery, delivery weight, mating and conception weights, weaning weight, the average daily weight gain from birth to weaning and total milk production. The prebreeding reproductive condition influenced the pre-birth and birth weights, showing that the better pre-birth and birth performance favors the restoration of reproductive activity in cows with moderate body condition (CC in the post-partum period. The classification of the pre-breeding reproductive condition in beef cows can be a resource to determine the

  13. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  14. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis we...

  15. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( Calf birth BW was greater ( = 0.04) for those born to cows fed COP with no difference ( = 0.43) in percentage of unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( feed were not different ( ≥ 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.19) across treatments. Feedlot calf health was monitored with no differences ( ≥ 0.68) in morbidity and mortality observed. No differences ( ≥ 0.27) were detected for HCW, LM area, backfat, marbling score, yield grade, or KPH. Increased dietary RUP and fat

  16. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  17. Superovulatory response to a single subcutaneous injection of Folltropin-V in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, G A; Hockley, D K; Nasser, L F; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-11-01

    A series of 4 experiments were designed to evaluate the feasibility of superstimulation in beef cattle with a single sc injection of the porcine pituitary extract, Folltropin-V. In the preliminary study (Experiment 1), superovulatory response of cows (n=7) treated with a single sc injection of 400 mg NIH-FSH-P1 Folltropin-V was not different than that of cows (n=8) superstimulated with twice daily im injections over 4 d, or a single sc injection plus an injection of eCG (n=12). Experiments 2 and 3 were designed to determine the optimal site of a single sc injection. In Experiment 2, cows (n=25) with body condition scores (BCS) of 1 to 2 were used. The mean number of CL counted and ova/embryos collected was lower (Pcows treated with the single sc injection in the neck region than in cows treated with a single sc injection behind the shoulder, or with the twice daily im injection treatment. In Experiment 3, cows (n=49) with BCS of 3 to 5 were used. There were no differences in the number of CL, total ova/embrvos collected, fertilized ova and transferable embryos whether treatments were given in the neck region or behind the shoulder, or whether the cows were implanted or not implanted with Syncro-Mate-B. Experiment 4 was designed to determine the optimal superstimulatory dosage of Folltropin-V administered by a single sc injection. Superovulatory response of cows treated with the higher doses (400 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg NIH-FSH-P1) was higher (Por=10 mm) follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection was higher (Pcows treated with 800 mg than with 400 or 200 mg. It was concluded that a single, bolus sc injection of 400 mg NIH-FSH-P1 of Folltropin-V is as efficacious as the 4-d, twice daily im treatment protocol for inducing superovulation in beef cows. The amount of subcutaneous fat and site of injection appeared to affect the efficacy of a single sc injection; a single bolus sc injection of Folltropin-V behind the shoulder resulted in the most predictable

  18. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  19. Supplementation of grazing beef cows during gestation as a strategy to improve skeletal muscle development of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, D C; Paulino, M F; Rennó, L N; Villadiego, F C; Ortega, R M; Moreno, D S; Martins, L S; de Almeida, D M; Gionbelli, M P; Manso, M R; Melo, L P; Moura, F H; Duarte, M S

    2017-06-02

    The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the matrices was the following: ground corn (26.25%), wheat bran (26.25%) and soya bean meal (47.5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 30% CP. Supplemented matrices received 150 kg of supplement (1 and 1.5 kg/day for cows in the MID and LATE groups, respectively). After birth, a biopsy was performed to obtain samples of skeletal muscle tissue from calves to determine number and size of muscle fibres and for messenger RNA (mRNA) expression analysis. The percentage composition of the supplement provided for the progeny was the following: ground corn grain (30%), wheat bran (30%), soya bean meal (35%) and molasses (5%). The supplement was formulated to contain 25% CP and offered in an amount of 6 g/kg BW. Performance of the progeny was monitored throughout the suckling period. Means were submitted to ANOVA and regression, and UNS, MID and LATE periods of supplementation were compared. Differences were considered at P0.10). Similarly, no differences were observed between calves for nutrient intake (P>0.10). However, greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P=0.006) was observed in the calves of LATE group. The ribeye area (P=0.077) was greater in calves born from supplemented compared with UNS cows. The supplementation of pregnant cows did not affect the muscle fibre size of their progeny (P=0.208). On the other hand

  20. Perceptions of veterinarians in bovine practice and producers with beef cow-calf operations enrolled in the US Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program concerning economic losses associated with Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bikash; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Osterstock, Jason B; Fossler, Charles P; Park, Seong C; Roussel, Allen J

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the perceptions of producers and veterinarians on the economic impacts of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in cow-calf herds. Questionnaires were mailed to beef producers through the Designated Johne's Coordinators and to veterinarians belonging to a nationwide professional organization. Important components of losses associated with MAP infected cows were used to estimate total loss per infected cow-year using an iterative approach based on collected survey data. Veterinarians were more likely to perceive a lower calving percentage in MAP infected cows compared to producers (P=0.02). Income lost due to the presence of Johne's disease (JD) in an infected cattle herd was perceived to be higher by veterinarians (Pveterinarians without JD certification, seedstock producers were more likely to perceive genetic losses due to culling cows positive for MAP (Pveterinarians was $250 ($82-$486). Mean annual loss due to JD in a 100 cow herd with a 7% true prevalence was $1644 ($625-$3250) based on information provided by producers. Similarly, mean annual loss based on information collected from veterinarians was $1747 ($575-$3375). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Embryo yield in dairy cattle after superovulation with Folltropin or Pluset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, M; Taponen, J

    2017-01-15

    Two commercial FSH products were compared in a retrospective study on 3990 commercial superovulations and embryo recoveries in dairy heifers and cows. In addition, the 56-day nonreturn rate of 19,400 embryos produced with these two preparations was analyzed. Embryo collections were performed during a 16-year period from donors of Holstein and Ayrshire breeds. Folltropin (Vetoquinol S.A., Lure cedex, France) group (Group F) consisted of 2592 superovulations, of which 80% were performed on heifers and 20% on cows, and Pluset (Laboratorios Calier, S.A., Barcelona, Spain) group (Group P) of 1398 treatments, of which 66% and 34% were on heifers and cows, respectively. Total number of recovered structures, number of transferable embryos, and the proportion of unfertilized ova (UFO) and degenerated embryos were analyzed. Distribution of embryos into quality grades (1-3) and developmental stages (4-9) according to the IETS classification guidelines and means for each collection were evaluated. The proportion of low-responders having fewer than five corpora lutea and yielding fewer than five embryos or ova was investigated for each treatment. Group P yielded 1.1 recovered structures more than Group F (P superovulated with Folltropin or Pluset. It was concluded that equal numbers of transferable embryos and pregnancies can be achieved with Folltropin and Pluset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  3. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C.L.; Ribble, C.S.; Janzen, E.D.; Campbell, J.R. [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, AB (Canada). Dept. of Herd Medicine and Theriogenology

    2000-07-01

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H{sub 2}S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality.

  4. Administration of a GnRH analog on day 9 of a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert with timed artificial insemination in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, R L; Ahola, J K; Whittier, J C; French, J T; Repenning, P E; Kruse, S G; Seidel, G E; Peel, R K

    2013-04-01

    Many estrus synchronization protocols aim to induce a new follicular wave to improve response and enhance pregnancy rate. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of GnRH analog administered d 0 and 9 during an extended controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol to produce 2 follicular waves, induce cyclicity in anestrus cows, and evaluate the efficacy of a single 50-mg dose of PGF2α to initiate luteal regression on CIDR removal. Lactating beef cows (n = 779) at 3 locations (n = 247, location 1; n = 395, location 2; n = 137, location 3) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Cows in the 14-d 50 PG treatment received a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) with 100 μg GnRH analog intramuscularly (i.m.) on d 0, 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, and CIDR removal concurrent with 50 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14. Cows in the 14-d 6-h PG treatment were assigned the same protocol as the 14-d 50 PG treatment except that 25 mg PGF2α i.m. was given on d 14 plus 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h later. Cows in the control treatment, 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR (5-d CO-Synch), received a CIDR concurrent with 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, CIDR removal concurrent with 25 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14, and 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h after first F2α injection. Cows in all treatments received 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. and timed AI (TAI) 72 ± 3 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy status to TAI was determined by ultrasonography 37 to 40 d after TAI. Averaged over all locations, pregnancy rates to TAI for 14-d 50 PG, 14-d 6-h PG, and 5-d CO-Synch treatments were 58.2%, 46.8%, and 41.9%, respectively. Pregnancy rates to TAI were greater (P 1 ng/mL at either (or both) bleeding date were considered cyclic. Averaged over the 2 locations, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for a greater number of cyclic animals to become pregnant to TAI in the 14-d 50 PG treatment (64.4%) than 5-d CO-Synch treatment (50.2%). The 14-d CIDR with GnRH analog on d 0 and 9 and a single 50-mg dose of PG i.m. at CIDR removal was a

  5. LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA PRONOSTICAR EL POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO EN HEMBRAS BOVINAS DE CARNE BODY CONDITION SCORE AS TOOL TO PREDICT THE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Correa-Orozco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto de la condición corporal (CC sobre el desempeño reproductivo y la función endocrina en vacas de carne. Los intervalos parto al primer estro y ovulación, intervalos desde el parto a la actividad luteal normal y a la concepción son más cortos en vacas con CC moderada cuando son comparados con vacas delgadas. El tamaño del folículo dominante al primer estro es más grande y la tasa de preñez es mayor para vacas con condición moderada en comparación con vacas delgadas. Además, han sido estudiados los efectos de la CC sobre la secreción de hormona luteinizante, estradiol, leptina, insulina y factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina I (IGF-I. El programa para inducción de la ovulación puede aumentar la tasa de preñez en vacas de carne con CC pobre. Sin embargo, la eficacia del protocolo para inducir el estro y la ovulación es dependiente de la CC. En conclusión, la CC es un indicador útil del estado de energía y potencial reproductivo, por sus efectos sobre la dinámica folicular, actividad ovárica, función endocrina y tasa de preñez en vacas de carne.The objective of this review is to describe the effect of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance and endocrine function of beef cows. Interval to first estrus and ovulation, interval from parturition to normal luteal activity and to conception are shorter for moderate body condition cows than thin cows. Size of the dominant follicle at the first estrus is larger and pregnancy rate is greater for moderate condition cows as compared with thin cows. In addition has been studied to effects of BCS on secretion of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, leptin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. The program for induction of ovulation can increase the pregnancy rate in beef cows in poor body condition. However, the effectiveness of the protocol for inducing estrus and ovulation is dependent on body condition

  6. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiachen; Cao, Yang; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Four Japanese black beef cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the fermentation quality, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and preference of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with differing proportions of apple pomace (AP). Experimental treatments were the control (no AP added, CAP), 5% (low, LAP), 10% (medium, MAP) and 20% (high, HAP) of TMR dry matter (DM) as AP. All TMR silages were well preserved. Ethanol was produced in silages containing AP and the amount increased with the proportion of AP (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility with LAP, MAP and HAP treatment was lower than that with CAP treatment (P < 0.05). The ruminal molar proportion of acetic acid increased (P < 0.05), but the ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased (P < 0.05) as the proportion of AP increased. The preference of the animals was highest for HAP, followed by MAP, CAP and LAP. This study demonstrates that decrease in nutrient digestibility might be related to the ethanol produced naturally from AP. Therefore, the proportion of AP in TMR silages should be less than 5% of dietary DM.

  7. The use of insulin to improve fertility of timed-inseminated postpartum suckled beef cows Uso de insulina para aumento da fertilidade de vacas de corte pós-parto lactantes inseminadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of insulin alone or in association with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the fertility of postpartum beef cows subjected to synchronization. A total of 340 cows was subjected to fixed time artificial insemination. In the trial 1, the cows were subjected to temporary weaning (TW, while in the trial 2 the same protocol was tested without TW. The addition of an insulin injection to a progesterone/eCG-based protocol without TW increased the pregnancy rate of beef cows with body condition score (BCS equal to or lower than 2.5. Insulin had no effect on cows submitted to TW or with BCS equal to or higher than 3.0.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar apenas o efeito da insulina ou dela em associação com gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na fertilidade de vacas em pós-parto submetidas à sincronização. Um total de 340 vacas foi submetido à inseminação artificial em tempo fixo. No experimento 1, as vacas foram submetidas ao desmame temporário (DT, enquanto no experimento 2, o mesmo protocolo foi testado sem DT. A adição de uma injeção de insulina a um protocolo baseado em progesterona/eCG sem DT aumentou a taxa de prenhez de vacas de corte com escore de condição corporal (ECC igual ou menor que 2,5. A insulina não teve efeito em vacas submetidas a DT ou com ECC igual ou maior que 3,0.

  8. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  9. Modulation of imprinted gene expression following superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Amanda L; McGraw, Serge; Lopes, Flavia L; Niles, Kirsten M; Landry, Mylène; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2014-05-05

    Although assisted reproductive technologies increase the risk of low birth weight and genomic imprinting disorders, the precise underlying causes remain unclear. Using a mouse model, we previously showed that superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the placenta at 9.5days (E9.5) of gestation. Here, we investigate whether effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting persisted at later stages of development and assess the surviving fetuses for growth and morphological abnormalities. Superovulation, followed by embryo transfer at E3.5, as compared to spontaneous ovulation (controls), resulted in embryos of normal size and weight at 14.5 and 18.5days of gestation. The normal monoallelic expression of the imprinted genes H19, Snrpn and Kcnq1ot1 was unaffected in either the placentae or the embryos from the superovulated females at E14.5 or E18.5. However, for the paternally expressed imprinted gene Igf2, superovulation generated placentae with reduced production of the mature protein at E9.5 and significantly more variable mRNA levels at E14.5. We propose that superovulation results in the ovulation of abnormal oocytes with altered expression of imprinted genes, but that the coregulated genes of the imprinted gene network result in modulated expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. The 9-d CIDR-PG protocol II: Characterization of endocrine parameters, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy rates to fixed-time AI following use of long-term CIDR-based estrus synchronization among mature beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Locke, J W C; Bishop, B E; Abel, J M; Ellersieck, M R; Poock, S E; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-11-01

    An experiment was designed to evaluate endocrine parameters, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol in comparison to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol. While both are long-term protocols using CIDR treatment for presynchronization, the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol differs from the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol in that prostaglandin F2α (PG) is administered at CIDR insertion and removal to facilitate a decreased length of progestin treatment and potentially enhance response to the presynchronization treatment. Estrus was synchronized for 393 mature beef cows across five locations. Treatments were represented in each location, and cows within each location were randomly assigned to one of the two protocols based on age, days postpartum (DPP), and body condition score (BCS). Cows assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG treatment received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0 with removal of CIDR on Day 14, and 25 mg PG 16 d after CIDR removal on Day 30. Cows assigned the 9-d CIDR-PG treatment received 25 mg PG and a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 5; 25 mg PG and removal of CIDR on Day 14; and 25 mg PG 16 d after CIDR removal on Day 30. In both treatments, cows received FTAI on Day 33, 72 h after PG. All cows were administered 100 μg gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) concurrent with insemination. For a subset of animals in each treatment, ovarian ultrasound was performed and blood samples were collected for determination of serum estradiol concentrations at CIDR removal, PG administration, and FTAI. Protocols were compared on the basis of estrous response and pregnancy rate resulting from FTAI. Serum estradiol concentrations, follicle size, and estrous response did not differ based on treatment. However, cows assigned to the 9-d CIDR-PG protocol tended to achieve greater FTAI pregnancy rates than cows assigned to the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (62% versus 52%; P = 0.07). Across treatments

  11. Final follicular maturation in the cow and its effects on the developmental potential of the oocyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, Elizabeth Erica van de

    2001-01-01

    The use of assisted reproduction techniques can generate up to 27 (superovulation, SO) or 50 (in vitro embryo production, IVP) calves per cow per year instead of only one calf per cow per year after normal mating. That is due to the possibility to use more than one oocyte per estrous cycle; namely o

  12. Final follicular maturation in the cow and its effects on the developmental potential of the oocyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, Elizabeth Erica van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of assisted reproduction techniques can generate up to 27 (superovulation, SO) or 50 (in vitro embryo production, IVP) calves per cow per year instead of only one calf per cow per year after normal mating. That is due to the possibility to use more than one oocyte per estrous cycle; namely

  13. Consequences of superovulation and ART procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinerman, Rachel; Grifo, Jamie

    2012-04-01

    Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have provided the means for significant improvement in infertility care. Although generally safe, these procedures are associated with complications that, albeit rare, can have significant morbidity. Complications from superovulation include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, thromboembolism, and adnexal torsion. Complications from oocyte retrieval include infection, bleeding, bowel injury, and anesthetic complications. Early pregnancy complications from in vitro fertilization include multiple gestations, ectopic pregnancy, and heterotopic pregnancy. Stimulation, retrieval, and transfer techniques can be modified to minimize these risks and prevent complications. Further research in the field is needed to continue to improve the safety of superovulation and ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Historical perspectives and recent research on superovulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-01-01

    Superovulation protocols have evolved greatly over the past 40 to 50 years. The development of commercial pituitary extracts and prostaglandins in the 1970s, and partially purified pituitary extracts and progesterone-releasing devices in the 1980s and 1990s have provided for the development of many of the protocols that we use today. Furthermore, the knowledge of follicular wave dynamics through the use of real-time ultrasonography and the development of the means by which follicular wave emergence can be controlled have provided new practical approaches. Although some embryo transfer practitioners still initiate superstimulatory treatments during mid-cycle in donor cows, the elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has had a great effect on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, especially when large groups of donors need to be superstimulated at the same time. The most common treatment for the synchronization of follicular wave emergence for many years has been estradiol and progestins. In countries where estradiol cannot be used, practitioners have turned to alternative treatments for the synchronization of follicle wave emergence, such as mechanical follicle ablation or the administration of GnRH to induce ovulation. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate FSH treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave after GnRH-induced ovulation of an induced persistent follicle. Alternatively, it has been suggested recently that it might be possible to ignore follicular wave status, and by extending the treatment protocol, induce small antral follicles to grow and superovulate. Recently, the mixing of FSH with sustained release polymers or the development of long-acting recombinant FSH products have permitted superstimulation with a single or alternatively, two gonadotropin treatments 48 hours apart, reducing the need for animal handling during superstimulation. Although the number of transferable embryos per donor

  15. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( feed were not different ( ≥ 0.35); no difference ( = 0.77) in feedlot ADG was detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.52) across treatments. No

  16. The role of nutritional supplementation on the outcome of superovulation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, M A

    2011-06-01

    Since the 1990s nutritional supplements including protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals have been used to try and improve the superovulatory response of embryo donors in cattle. However, the accumulated information indicates that nutritional supplementation with protein, fatty acids, or minerals does not increase the number of viable embryos from superovulated cattle. Most of the evidence has shown that vitamin supplementation may increase the mean production of transferable embryos, but only in cows, as a detrimental effect on embryo viability has been reported in young heifers. Nevertheless, vitamin supplementation seems to be effective only when compared with control cows displaying a poor mean embryo production (i.e. less than four viable embryos), questioning the economical significance of such approach. Detrimental effects on embryo development have been reported in superovulated cattle supplemented with protein or fatty acids as well. New approaches to investigate the role of nutritional supplementation on superovulatory outcome in cattle are suggested in the present review. Overall, the available evidence indicates that nutritional supplementation strategies tested are not an effective approach to enhance the superovulatory outcome of well-fed cattle donors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone receptor in postpartum lactating beef cows Fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento no pós-parto de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, and the mRNA hepatic expression of IGF-I and of the growth hormone receptors GHR and GHR 1A, in postpartum beef cows. Four Angus and four crossbred (Angus x Nelore postpartum suckled beef cows were used. Liver and blood samples were collected every 10 days, from calving to 40 days postpartum, for gene expression and for β-hydroxybutyrate and IGF-I assays, respectively. Samples for progesterone assay were collected every other day, from day 10 to 40 postpartum. Three cows ovulated before 40 days postpartum. IGF-I concentration was higher in Angus x Nelore than in Angus cows. There was no difference in the expression of GHR, GHR 1A and IGF-I according to breed or ovulatory status. IGF-I concentrations were higher in crossbred cows, but have not changed according to postpartum ovulatory status. Moreover, changes in postpartum IGF-I concentrations are not associated with changes in liver GHR, GHR 1A and IGF-I mRNA expression in either breed.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as concentrações plasmáticas do fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo I (IGF-I e a expressão hepática de mRNA de IGF-I e dos receptores do hormônio de crescimento GHR e GHR 1A, no pós-parto de vacas de corte. Quatro vacas Angus e quatro mestiças (Angus x Nelore lactantes foram usadas durante o período de pós-parto. As coletas de tecido hepático e de sangue foram realizadas a cada dez dias, do parto até 40 dias pós-parto, para a avaliação da expressão gênica, e análise de β-hidroxibutirato e IGF-I, respectivamente. As amostras para análise de progesterona foram coletadas a cada dois dias, dos dez aos 40 dias pós-parto. Três vacas ovularam antes dos 40 dias pós-parto. A concentração de IGF-I foi maior em vacas Angus x Nelore do que em vacas Angus. Não houve diferença na expressão hepática de GHR, GHR 1A e IGF-I de acordo com a ra

  18. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  19. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  20. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy production ... decomposition of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part ... Keywords: Cow-calf production, methane, pasture production, production levels, total ...

  1. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  2. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  3. A simulation model to quantify the value of implementing whole-herd Bovine viral diarrhea virus testing strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Renter, David G; Sanderson, Mike W

    2011-03-01

    Although numerous diagnostic tests are available to identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds, data are sparse when evaluating the economic viability of individual tests or diagnostic strategies. Multiple factors influence BVDV testing in determining if testing should be performed and which strategy to use. A stochastic model was constructed to estimate the value of implementing various whole-herd BVDV cow-calf testing protocols. Three common BVDV tests (immunohistochemistry, antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction) performed on skin tissue were evaluated as single- or two-test strategies. The estimated testing value was calculated for each strategy at 3 herd sizes that reflect typical farm sizes in the United States (50, 100, and 500 cows) and 3 probabilities of BVDV-positive herd status (0.077, 0.19, 0.47) based upon the literature. The economic value of testing was the difference in estimated gross revenue between simulated cow-calf herds that either did or did not apply the specific testing strategy. Beneficial economic outcomes were more frequently observed when the probability of a herd being BVDV positive was 0.47. Although the relative value ranking of many testing strategies varied by each scenario, the two-test strategy composed of immunohistochemistry had the highest estimated value in all but one herd size-herd prevalence permutation. These data indicate that the estimated value of applying BVDV whole-herd testing strategies is influenced by the selected strategy, herd size, and the probability of herd BVDV-positive status; therefore, these factors should be considered when designing optimum testing strategies for cow-calf herds.

  4. Efecto de la nutrición sobre la duración del anestro postparto en vacas de cría Effect of nutrition on the length of postpartum anestrus in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Donzelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Unos de los aspectos fundamentales para el éxito económico y productivo en los rodeos de cría es la eficiencia reproductiva. El estado nutricional es uno de los principales factores que regulan la respuesta reproductiva y se ha señalado que el mismo puede ser evaluado a través de la condición corporal. Un inadecuado consumo de nutrientes pre y postparto puede afectar la duración del anestro postparto. Es posible que las hormonas IGF-I, tiroideas y prolactina interactúen en el restablecimiento del normal funcionamiento del eje hipotálamo - hipófisis - ovario luego del parto y de esta manera se alargue el período de anestro postparto. La evaluación del estado nutricional a través del monitoreo de la condición corporal es una herramienta de manejo importante para la toma de decisiones las cuales son necesarias tanto para el óptimo resultado reproductivo como en rentabilidad. La incorporación de modelos matemáticos facilita la comprensión de los procesos involucrados para la investigación y la docencia.The reproductive efficiency is one of the key issues for achieving productive and economical success in cow-calf beef systems. The nutritional condition of the cow, represented by the body condition score, is one of the main drivers of the productive response. A nutritional deficit pre or postpartum may extend the postpartum anestrus. Thyroid, IGF-I and prolactin hormones may contribute to the onset of postpartum normal link between hypothalamus- hipophisis - ovary. Body condition score is a relevant monitoring variable as a management tool for adequate decision making to achieve optimum outcomes both in reproduction and in profitability. The use of mathematical models helps to understand the involved processes for research and teaching.

  5. Relationship between clinical and postmortem evaluation in repeat breeder beef cows Relação entre características clínicas e post-mortem em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the causes of the repeat breeder syndrome comparing clinical signs and postmortem findings in beef cows. The identification of factors affecting the reproductive tract can support decisions as to whether treatment of repeat breeder cows is justifiable than culling. Since all animals were submitted to clinical examination before being slaughtered, this study has a differential approach when compared with others, where genital tracts from abattoir were examined. In this study, 130 crossbred cows and heifers that have failed to conceive after three or more services were identified, submitted to a clinical examination and blood collection for karyotyping and sent to an abattoir. postmortem examinations included macroscopic evaluation of the genital tracts, bacteriology and histopathology of the uterus. Uterine alterations were predominant followed by oviduct and ovarian pathologies. Histopathological examination was more sensitive as a diagnostic tool than clinical examination. Repeat breeder cows had a predominance of uterine abnormalities (95%, such as inflammatory (42.9% and degenerative (59.7% conditions. Oviduct abnormalities were found in 29.8 % of animals. Furthermore, 1 out 10 karyotyped cows showed aneuploidy. Thus, this study stressed the importance of laboratory exams in the diagnosis of the causes of infertility of repeat breeder cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as causas de infertilidade em vacas de corte repetidoras de serviço, relacionando sinais clínicos com características laboratoriais post-mortem. A identificação dos fatores que afetam o desempenho reprodutivo pode fornecer uma fundamentação científica para auxiliar na decisão quanto ao destino de vacas repetidoras de serviço; tratamento ou descarte. Este estudo tem abordagem diferencial dos trabalhos que contemplam somente a ocorrência de alterações post-mortem do trato genital. A correlação das altera

  6. Modeling the superovulation stage in in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila M; Bhalerao, Vibha

    2013-11-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common technique in assisted reproductive technology and in most cases the last resort for infertility treatment. It has four basic stages: superovulation, egg retrieval, insemination/fertilization, and embryo transfer. Superovulation is a drug-induced method to enable multiple ovulation per menstrual cycle. The success of IVF majorly depends upon successful superovulation, defined by the number and similar quality of eggs retrieved in a cycle. Modeling the superovulation stage can help in predicting the outcomes of IVF before the cycle is complete. In this paper, we developed a model for superovulation stage. The model is adapted from the theory of batch crystallization. The aim of crystallization is to get maximum crystals of similar size and purity, while superovulation aims at eggs of similar quality and size. The rate of crystallization and superovulation are both dependent on the process conditions and varies with time. The kinetics of follicle growth is modeled as a function of injected hormones and the follicle properties are represented in terms of the moments. The results from the model prediction were verified with the known data from Jijamata Hospital, Nanded, India. The predictions were found to be in agreement with the actual observations.

  7. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  8. ESTROUS SYNCHRONIZATION TO FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION ASSOCIATED TO TEMPORARY OR DEFINITIVE EARLY WEANNING IN BEEF COWS SINCRONIZAÇÃO DE ESTROS PARA IATF ASSOCIADA AO DESMAME TEMPORÁRIO OU ANTECIPADO EM VACAS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Leopoldino Souza Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the reproductive performance of suckled beef cows in programs of artificial insemination (AI submitted to definitive early or temporary weaning (EW or TW and estrous synchronization protocol to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. Two-hundred and five Angus x Nelore cows body with condition score 2.6±0.4 and post-partum period between 54 and 122 days were used in the trial. After EW, one-hundred, fifty three cows were separated three groups according to the AI or FTAI protocol. A group of cows was artificial inseminated according estrous detection after 10 days of definitive weaning during a period of 30 days (EW-AI, n= 53. Estrous synchronization programs to FTAI were carried out in two groups in different moments after EW. In the group EW-FTAI (n= 50, cows were treated at the moment calves were removed while in EW-FTAI 10 (n= 50 the hormonal treatment began 10 days later.  The hormonal treatment consisted of an intravaginal implant containing 1,9g of Progesterone, for 8 days, and an injection of  Estradiol benzoate (EB, 2mg, im. When the dispositives were removed, 75mcg of Cloprostenol were injected, im, and after 24 hours, 1mg of EB, im. Cows were fixed-time artificial inseminated 52 to 56 hours after implants removal. In TW-FTAI group (n= 52, cows were treated with the same hormonal therapy, but a temporary weaning of 60 hours was done after the implant removal and the FTAI moment. The breeding season was 60 days in EW-FTAI and TW-FTAI groups, 50 days in EW-FTAI10 group and 30 days in EW-AI group. In a sample of 20% of cows ovaries were scanned by ultrasound and it was determined that 55% of the cows were in anestrous. Follicular diameters were determined at beginning of hormonal treatment and at FTAI moment in cows submitted to estrous synchronization (EW-FTAI= 10, EW-FTAI10= 10 and TW-FTAI= 10 by ultrasound. The means of follicular diameters were not different (P>0.05 between groups

  9. Fat supplementation ("Flushing" on the postpartum beef cows submitted to early weaning: performance Suplementação com gordura ("Flushing" para vacas de corte no pós-parto submetidas ao desmame precoce: desempenho animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Moletta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of short-time fat supplementation flushing on animal performance (final body weight and average daily gain of postpartum beef cows, submitted to the early weaning were evaluatrd. Two hundred and fifty eight beef cows from the following genetic groups were used: Aberdeen Angus (n = 21, Aberdeen Angus x Canchim (n = 20, Canchim x Aberdeen Angus (n = 52, Charoles x Caracu (n = 29, Charolês (n = 18, Cachim (n = 34, Caracu (n = 35, Caracu x Charoles (n = 26 and Purunã (n = 23, with 418.1±14.0 kg of body weight and pregnant. These animals were split into two treatments: flushing (30% soybean grain + 70% corn ground grain and without supplementation. There was no flushing effect on final body weight (436.6 kg and average daily gain (0.83 kg. November period, cows had higher final body weight (441.6 kg and average daily gain (1.01 kg. There was no effect of flushing on variables.O objetivou-se, neste experimento, avaliar o efeito da suplementação de gordura por um curto período de tempo (flushing sobre o desempenho animal (peso vivo final e ganho médio diário de fêmeas de corte no pós-parto, submetidas ao desmame precoce. Foram utilizadas 258 vacas, dos grupos genéticos: Aberdeen Angus (n = 21, Aberdeen Angus x Canchim (n = 20, Canchim x Aberdeen Angus (n = 52, Charolês x Caracu (n = 29, Charolês (n = 18, Cachim (n = 34, Caracu (n = 35, Caracu x Charolês (n = 26 e Purunã (n = 23, com peso vivo médio de 418,1±14,0 kg e diagnóstico de prenhez positivo. Os animais foram distribuídos nos tratamentos flushing (30% de grão de soja + 70% de milho grão moído e não suplementados. Foram avaliados três períodos de acordo com a ordem de parição: setembro, outubro e novembro. Não houve efeito do flushing sobre o peso vivo final (436,6 kg e ganho médio diário (0,83 kg. O período de novembro apresentou maior peso vivo final (441,6 kg e ganho médio diário (1,01 kg. O fornecimento de gordura (flushing para fêmeas de corte no

  10. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  12. Superovulation and multiple birth: in search of kryptonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of superovulation and ovulation induction to the multiple pregnancy epidemic in the U.S. is substantial. Further understanding of the contributing factors and, most importantly, preventive strategies are needed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  14. OVULATION INDUCTION IN BEEF COWS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGES ALLOWANCES DURING POST PARTUM INDUÇÃO DA OVULAÇÃO EM VACAS DE CORTE COM DIFERENTES OFERTAS FORRAGEIRAS DURANTE O PERÍODO PÓS-PARTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Herter Terra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment compared the efficiency of combined hormonal treatment and 96-hour calf removal with weaning in cows fed different forages allowances and with different weight gains. A total of 310 cows (190 Aberdeen Angus and 120 Charolais, 50 to 70 days postpartum, were sorted into 6 groups. Groups A2, A5, B2 and B5 were composed of 53, 49, 53 and 55 cows, respectively; the first two groups had higher forage availability, while the others had lower forage availability, in the postpartum period; groups A2 and B2 received 2mg estradiol benzoate (day zero and the groups A5 and B5 5mg estradiol benzoate as well as an intra-vaginal device (CIDR with progesterone. Six days later they received 1000UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG. At day 7 the CIDR device was removed and the 96-hour calf removal period began. Groups AD and BD, with 52 and 48 cows and high and low forage availability respectively, in the postpartum period, were weaned on day 7. All cows that showed estrous were inseminated between day 7 and 17, and then were bred, up to day 67. Between days 60 and 127, ultrasounds diagnosis of pregnancy were performed. Data analysis was carried out using to the PROC CATMOD in the SAS statistical program. There were no significant differences in pregnancy (p>0.05 rates among groups submitted to different forage offers. Data was then analyzed according to whether the cow gamed or lost weight in the post partum period. These results indicate that weaning was more efficient than the hormonal treatment used and cows that lost weight in the have gained weight in the same period. KEY WORDS: Beef cows, forages availability, ovulation induction

  15. Undernutrition affects embryo quality of superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Sánchez-Prieto, L; Sosa, C; Fernández-Foren, A; Meikle, A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of undernutrition on embryo production and quality in superovulated sheep, 45 ewes were allocated into two groups to be fed diets that provided 1.5 (control, C; n = 20) or 0.5 (low nutrition, L; n = 25) times daily requirements for maintenance, from oestrous synchronization with intravaginal sponges to embryo collection. Embryos were collected 7 days after the onset of oestrus (day 0). Low nutrition resulted in lower live weight and body condition at embryo collection (P < 0.05). Diet (P < 0.01) and day of sampling (P < 0.001) significantly affected plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin concentrations. Plasma leptin concentrations decreased on day 7 only in L ewes. A significant effect of dietary treatment (P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.0001) was observed on plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations. The number of recovered oocytes and embryos did not differ between the groups (L: 15.4 ± 0.4; C: 12.4 ± 0.4). Recovery rate was lower (P < 0.05) in the L (60%) than in the C group (73%). The total number of embryos and number of viable-transferable embryos (5.0 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.3 embryos, respectively) of the L group were lower (P < 0.1) when compared with controls (8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.2 ± 0.4 embryos, respectively). Undernutrition during the period of superovulation and early embryonic development reduced total and viable number of embryos. These effects might be mediated by disruption of endocrine homeostasis, oviduct environment and/or oocyte quality.

  16. Perdas reprodutivas e reconcepção em bovinos de corte segundo a idade ao acasalamento Reproductive disorders and reconception of beef cows according to of mating age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gottschall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas de corte acasaladas aos 14 meses (14M, aos 24 meses (24 M e de vacas multíparas (V, totalizando 4.012 animais. As perdas reprodutivas (PR foram de 19,3%, 11,6% e 7,6% para 14M, 24M e V, respectivamente, sendo que 14M diferiu de V (PReproductive performances of beef heifers mated at 14 months of age (14M, at 24 months of age (24M and pluriparous cows (C, based on data from 4.012 animals were evaluated. The reproductive disorders were 19.3%, 11.6% and 7.6%, respectively, at 14M, 24M and for C; 14M was different from C (P<0.01. The occurrence of dystocia was 20.7%, 5.1% and 0.8% for the 14M, 24M and C, respectively. The 14M group was different from C (P<0.01. The mortality caused by dystocia was higher for 14M group 7.4% than for the C group 0.4% (P<0.01, respectively. The reconception rate was higher for the 14M (85.3% and V (81.1% than for the 24M group (70.7% (P<0.01. The category which concentrated the parturition in the first period (until 09/19 (52.3% was the 24M. Animals mated earlier tended to show high reproductive disorders and incidence of dystocia.

  17. Calving sub-season and reproductive efficiency of beef cows Subépoca de parição e eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Reinher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work the effect of calving sub-season on the pregnancy rate of 7,726 multiparous Hereford beef cows grazing on natural pastures in southern Brazil, from 1994 to 2007. Calving sub-season periods were divided in 20-day intervals from August 12th to 31st; from September 1st to 20th; from September 21st to October 10th; from October 11th to 31st; from November 1st to 20th. Calving in each sub-season and pregnancy rate (PR were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Overall means of each sub-season were 92.7% (from August 12th to 31st, 90.6% (from September 1st to 20th, 82.1% (from September 21st to October 10th, 77.7% (from October 11th to 31st, and 70.6% (from November 1st to 20th. Calving sub-season significantly influenced pregnancy rate. Cows which calved in the initial sub-season showed higher pregnancy rates than cows which calved from the fourth calving sub-season. However this difference did not occur in 1999 and in 2007 since calving rates did not statistically differ among the five sub-seasons. In 1998 and 2004, calving rates were lower and the effects of calving sub-season on pregnancy rates were higher, possibly due to climate variations. In general, pregnancy rate decreases as calving occurs later in the year, particularly in years when the weather adversely affects pasture growth.Avaliou-se o efeito da subépoca de parição sobre a taxa de prenhez de 7.726 vacas de corte multíparas Hereford mantidas em campo natural no Sul do Brasil, entre os anos de 1994 e 2007. As subépocas foram divididas em intervalos de 20 dias: de 12 a 31 de agosto; de 1 a 20 de setembro; 21 de setembro a 10 de outubro; 11 a 31 de outubro; e 1 a 20 de novembro. Foram analisados os partos ocorridos na subépoca de parição e a taxa de prenhez (PR pelo qui-quadrado. As médias gerais de cada subépoca foram 92.7% (12 a 31 de agosto, 90.6% (1 a 20 de setembro, 82.1% (21 de setembro a 10 de outubro, 77.7% (11 a 31 de outubro e 70.6% (1 a 20 de

  18. A superovulation protocol for the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Rachael; Gardner, David K; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a superovulation protocol for the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). The spiny mouse is a desert-adapted rodent species, with a long oestrus cycle (11 days) compared with rat and mouse, and gives birth to few (mean litter size is 3) precocial offspring after a relatively long gestation (39 days). We successfully optimised a superovulation protocol that elicited a 5-fold increase in the normal ovulation rate of this species. To induce superovulation in the spiny mouse 2 injections of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG, 10 IU each), 9h apart, were required, followed by 20 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). This protocol was successful in 100% of females trialed and at 33 h post-hCG an average of 14.7 ± 1.5, 1-2 cell embryos were recovered. Histological analysis of ovaries following superovulation revealed large corpus lutea and post-ovulatory follicles occupying a large part of the ovary. Ovulation commenced 6-12 h after the hCG injection and continued until 24-33 h post-hCG as indicated by both histological analysis of ovaries and the presence of oocytes/embryos in the oviduct. This superovulation protocol will facilitate the development of an in vitro culture system for spiny mouse embryos.

  19. The Use of Aromatase Inhibitors for Ovulation Induction and Superovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anovulation is likely responsible for 20% of female infertility. Although clomiphene citrate remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in anovulatory patients who are not estrogen-deficient and to treat unexplained infertility, there remains a discrepancy between ovulation and conception rates with its use, attributed to its antiestrogenic effects on cervical mucus and the endometrium. Alternative agents, including aromatase inhibitors, have been used that have not been associated with these side effects. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted to specifically explore the use of aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction and superovulation. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have found that aromatase inhibitors may be safe and useful agents for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome as well a treatment option for superovulation in patients with either unexplained infertility or endometriosis. Conclusions: Aromatase inhibitors may be an effective alternative treatment to clomiphene citrate for both ovulation induction and superovulation. PMID:23585659

  20. Use of steroid hormone treatments prior to superovulation in Nelore donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J C O; Oliveira, M A L; Lima, P F; Santos Filho, A S; Pina, V M R

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of synchronization of follicular wave emergence using steroid hormone treatments in Nelore cows. Donors were placed into three groups. Those that were between days 9 and 12 of their cycle (estrus=day 0) formed the TI group (n=60), whilst those that were in any other stages of their estrus cycle constituted groups TII (n=60) and TIII (n=60). TI donors were submitted to a standard protocol of superovulation, however, TII and TIII donors were treated with the Syncro-Mate-B (SMB) or Controlled Internal Drug Releasing Device (CIDR-B) programs, respectively. Superovulation was induced with p-FSH, divided into eight decreasing doses at intervals of 12h. The donors received cloprostenol 48h after the beginning of the treatment and progestagens were removed 12h later. Artificial inseminations (AI) were done at 12 and 22h after the initiation of estrus and the embryo collections were done 7 days after AI. In the donors which displayed behavioral estrus, mean (+/-S.E.M.) total ova and viable (transferable) embryos were 15.8+/-1.4 and 8.3+/-1.0 (TI, n=56); 15.6+/-1.3 and 8.9+/-1.0 (TII, n=56); 17.3+/-1.0 and 9.9+/-0.9 (TIII, n=57), respectively, with no significant difference (P > or =0.05) among groups. In those animals that did not displayed behavioral estrus, the mean values of total ova and viable embryos were 3.5+/-1.6 and 0.7+/-0.5 (TI, n=4); 11.5+/-3.9 and 9.0+/-4.4 (TII, n=4); 8.7+/-5.0 and 5.0+/-2.9 (TIII, n=3), respectively, with no significant differences (P > or =0.05) among groups. Pregnancy rates of 62.2% (TI, n=235); 66.4% (TII, n=284) and 65.1% (TIII, n=244) were obtained with embryos transferred from these collections and did not differ significantly (P > or =0.05) among groups. It was concluded that the synchronization of the emergence of follicular waves in Nelore donors is usable and does not harm the efficiency of embryo transfer programs. In addition, in contrast to the standard superovulation

  1. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  2. Impact of superovulation for women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Shahryar K

    2013-03-01

    Superovulation (SO)/Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has been used as a treatment approach for endometriosis-associated infertility. The existing medical literature regarding SO in endometriosis patients is composed of heterogeneous studies that differ in terms of study design, SO protocols, the addition of IUI, and comparison groups. There is a need for more well-designed studies to further investigate the efficacy of SO in women with endometriosis-associated infertility. Although in vitro fertilization (IVF) is most effective and is significantly superior to other treatments in endometriosis patients, most of the existing studies suggest some benefit of SO/IUI in infertility patients with early-stage disease. Therefore, SO/IUI is a reasonable early fertility treatment option for women with endometriosis who desire a short trial of potentially more cost-effective treatment options prior to pursuing an IVF cycle and those for whom IVF is not a feasible or desirable option. It appears that gonadotropins are most effective for SO in this patient population even though more head-to-head comparisons are needed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Immunization against inhibin enhances both embryo quantity and quality in Holstein heifers after superovulation and insemination with sex-sorted semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhu, Y L; Xue, J H; Zhang, S L; Ma, Z; Shi, Z D

    2009-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the feasibility of improving embryo yield in superovulated cows following insemination with sex-sorted semen by prior immunization against inhibin. Twenty-eight heifers were allocated into three groups: High (n=10), Low (n=10), and Control (n=8). The High group received one primary (1mg) and two booster (0.5mg) vaccinations (28-d intervals) with a recombinant inhibin alpha-subunit in 1 mL of white oil adjuvant, whereas the Low group received half that dose, and the Control group received only adjuvant. After the last immunization, all heifers underwent a standard superovulation treatment (decreasing doses of pFSH for 4d), followed by two AI with 2 x 10(6) sex-sorted semen after the onset of estrus. Inhibin-immunized heifers had higher (P0.05) in the Low group (13.0+/-2.3, 4.4+/-0.7, and 1.2+/-0.3). There were no significant differences among groups in number of unfertilized ova and degenerated embryos. The High group also had higher (P>0.05) plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of embryo collection. In conclusion, immunization against inhibin improved both embryo quantity and quality following superovulation and insemination with sex-sorted semen.

  4. Glomerular filtration rate in cows estimated by a prediction formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Isao; Miyano, Anna; Sato, Tsubasa; Iwama, Ryosuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijyo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    To testify the relevance of Jacobsson's equation for estimating bovine glomerular filtration rate (GFR), we prepared an integrated formula based on its equation using clinically healthy dairy (n=99) and beef (n=63) cows, and cows with reduced renal function (n=15). The isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol was utilized as a test tracer. The GFR values estimated from the integrated formula were well consistent with those from the standard multisample method in each cow strain, and the Holstein equation prepared by a single blood sample in Holstein dairy cows. The basal reference GFR value in healthy dairy cows was significantly higher than that in healthy beef cows, presumably due to a breed difference or physiological state difference. It is concluded that the validity for the application of Jacobsson's equation to estimate bovine GFR is proven and it can be used in bovine practices.

  5. Avaliação biológica e econômica do uso de flunixin meglumine em vacas e novilhas de corte inseminadas em tempo fixo Biological and economic evaluation of flunixin meglumine in postpartum beef cows and heifers inseminated at fixed time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a redução de perdas embrionárias por meio do bloqueio da secreção de prostaglandina com a utilização de flunixin meglumine (FM e avaliar o retorno econômico desta técnica. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se vacas de corte no pós-parto e, no experimento 2, somente novilhas. Todas as fêmeas foram sincronizadas e inseminadas em tempo fixo (IATF e, após 14 dias da IATF, foram distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo flunixin meglumine (GFM, composto de 59 vacas no experimento 1 e 23 novilhas no experimento 2; e grupo controle (GC, de 56 vacas no experimento 2 e 20 novilhas no experimento 1, que receberam ou não flunixin no dia 14, respectivamente. O tratamento com flunixin não influenciou a taxa de prenhez, que, no experimento 1, foi de 42,4% no grupo flunixin e 42,8% no grupo controle e, no experimento 2, de 39,1% no grupo flunixin e 25,0% no grupo controle. Verificou-se rentabilidade de 21,62; 9,24; 14,36 e 12,06% para os protocolos dos grupos controle e flunixin dos experimentos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez não foi influenciada pelo uso de flunixin meglumine no dia 14 após inseminação artificial em vacas no pós-parto e novilhas inseminadas em tempo fixo.This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the economical advantage of using flunixin meglumine (FM to block uterine secretion of prostaglandin in order to reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle females. Postpartum cows (E1 and heifers (E2 were submitted to estrus synchronization and inseminated at fixed time. Fourteen days after the insemination the animals were assigned to the FM treatment group (FMG, including 59 cows and 23 heifers and to the control group (CG, including 56 cows and 20 heifers. Pregnancy rates (42.4% for FMG and 42.8% for CG in E1 and (39.1% for FMG and 25.0% for CG in E2 did not differ between groups. Estimates of net income were 21.62, 9.24, 14.36 and 12.06% for the CG e FMG protocols in cows and in heifers, respectively

  6. Eficiência reprodutiva de matrizes bovinas de corte submetidas a três diferentes tipos de suplementação mineral Reproduction performance of beef cattle cows given three different types of mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Em uma fazenda do município de Cássia, Minas Gerais, o desempenho reprodutivo de aproximadamente 1200 matrizes bovinas de corte, criadas a campo, foi avaliado frente a três diferentes tipos de suplementação mineral, durante cinco anos. Enquanto que a mistura A (sal mineral comercial foi oferecida nos anos de 1997 e 1998, a mistura B (cloreto de sódio 50% e fosfato bicálcico 50% foi disponibilizada, em 1999, para as matrizes mantidas em um dos setor es da fazenda e a mistura C (apenas cloreto de sódio, foi oferecida, neste mesmo ano, para os lotes criados em outros dois setores. Nos anos de 2000 e 2001, a mistura C foi ofertada a todas matrizes. Não houve queda na eficiência reprodutiva pela suplementação exclusiva com cloreto de sódio, pelo contrário, as percentagens de matrizes inseminadas e matrizes prenhes, que eram, respectivamente, de 92,5 e 78,2 (1997 e 92,2 e 80,5 (1998 alcançaram níveis de 94,5 e 85,7 (2000 e 96,7 e 89,7 (2001. A redução nos índices de matrizes inseminadas e de prenhez verificadas no ano de 1999 foi atribuída à baixa precipitação pluviométrica registrada naquele ano. Os autores ressalvam, porém, que a suplementação seletiva, isto é, aquela baseada na exclusiva administração do (s mineral (is que está (ão faltando em uma determinada fazenda, só deve ser implantada mediante avaliação e acompanhamento clínico-nutricional do rebanho, o que exige apoio de profissional com adequados conhecimentos sobre nutrição, deficiências minerais e clínica de ruminantes. Por outro lado, a suplementação seletiva, pode representar uma despesa 2 a 3 vezes menor do que a verificada com a ''mineralização'' convencional do rebanho. Discute-se se a melhoria dos índices reprodutivos deveu-se à adequação do manejo ou à cessação de possível antagonismo entre os minerais.The reproduction performance of about 1,200 beef cows, raised on pasture and given three different mineral supplements, was

  7. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  8. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  9. The influence of season and sire on the results of superovulation and embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hegedűšová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of season and sires on profit and quality of embryos after superovulated treatment. Next we evaluated the conception rate after transfer of fresh and frozen embryos.In 1991–2004 there were used the beef cattle. Into the basic statistic evaluation it was involved 487 realised embryo recoveries and 2008 realised transfers in 1991–2004. Data for database were obtaining from ETprotocols – ET team Research Institute for Cattle Breeding, Ltd., Rapotin, prof. Říha. The data processing was carried out by means of the common variation-statistical methods.The best results were achieved in summer (suitable 3.68 ± 3.65; the ratio of the suitable and total: 59.3% and in autumn (suitable 3.54 ± 3.80; the ratio: 54.48% and the good results, little different from the summer and autumn results, were achieved in spring.The average number of the recovered ova of the chosen breeds sires were variable (from 6.60 ± 6.17 in Blonde d´Aquitaine to 17.16 ± 6.66 in Charolais. The most of the suitable embryos was recovered in the donors inseminated by the Hereford breed sires (7.15 ± 6.42. It was evaluated the above-average conception in the Simmental breed (63.43 %.

  10. Impaired fertility in T-stock female mice after superovulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A J; Bishop, J B; Marchetti, F; Zudova, D

    2003-12-05

    Superovulation of female mice with exogenous gonadotrophins is routinely used for increasing the number of eggs ovulated by each female in reproductive and developmental studies. We report an unusual effect of superovulation on fertilization in mice. In vivo matings of superovulated T-stock females with B6C3F1 males resulted in a 2-fold reduction (P<0.001) in the frequencies of fertilized eggs compared to control B6C3F1 matings. In addition, {approx}22 hr after mating only 15% of fertilized eggs recovered in T-stock females had reached the metaphase stage of the first cleavage division versus 87% in B6C3F1 females (P < 0.0001). Matings with T-stock males did not improve the reproductive performance of T-stock females. To investigate the possible cause(s) for the impaired fertilization and zygotic development, the experiments were repeated using in vitro fertilization. Under these conditions, the frequencies of fertilized eggs were not different in superovulated T-stock and B6C3F1 females (51.7% {+-} 6.0 and 64.5% {+-}3.8, P=0.10). There was a 7-fold increase in the frequencies of fertilized T-stock eggs that completed the first cell cycle of development after in vitro versus in vivo fertilization. These results rule out an intrinsic deficiency of the T-stock oocyte as the main reason for the impaired fertility after in vivo matings and suggest that superovulation of T-stock females induces a hostile oviductal and uterine environment with dramatic effects on fertilization and zygotic development.

  11. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were availabl

  12. Superovulation of the Cloned Cattle Derived from Somatic Cells and the Transfer of the Vitrified-Thawed Embryos of the Cloning Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ya-juan; BAI Xue-jin; LI Jian-dong; CHENG Ming

    2004-01-01

    In this experiment, it was designed to carry out superovulation on the two cloned cattles, vitrification and transfer of the embryos recovered from them. First of all, it was carried out vitrification on embryos obtained by IVF. Results showed that there were no significant differences between the blastocysts (obtained by IVF) vitrified in EPS10 and these in EPS20 on the resuscitative rate and the developmental rate. The hatched rate of the blastocysts vitrified in EPS10 (31.3%, 35/112) was significantly higher than that in EPS20 (12.2%, 13/107) (P<0.01), so EPS20 was selected as the vitrification solution to freeze the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle. After superovulation, six (four usable embryos) and ten (nine usable embryos) embryos were respectively recovered from Kangkang and Shuanghuang. Two embryos were selected from the recovered embryos of each cloned cattle to freeze in EPS20, subsequently thawed and transferred into luteal ipsilateral uterine horns of 4 Holstein recipient cows after synchronization of estrus, respectively. At last, one recipient cow (No. 9908) became pregnant and delivered one healthy calf (descendant of the cloned cattle-Shuangshuang). The results of this experiment show that the cloned cattle as well as common cattle had better response to the exotic FSH and better ability to multiovulation, the embryos recovered from the cloned cattle can be vitrificated.

  13. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows with progesterone and estradiol may cause pulsatile secretion of LH.

  14. Repeated superovulation may affect mitochondrial functions of cumulus cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan-Ke; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Yin, Shen; Zhang, Cui-Lian; Ge, Zhao-Jia

    2016-10-04

    Controlled ovarian stimulation by exogenous gonadotrophins is a key procedure during the in vitro fertilization cycle to obtain a sufficient number of oocytes in humans. Previous studies demonstrated that repeated superovulation had deleterious effects on the ovaries. However, whether repeated superovulation adversely affects the mitochondrial functions of cumulus cells remains unclear. In this study, mice were divided into three groups: superovulation once (R1); superovulation three times (R3), and superovulation five times (R5). We evaluated the effects of repeated superovulation on mitochondrial DNA copies (mtDNA) and observed decreased mtDNA copies per cell with increasing number of superovulation cycles. Further, we investigated the DNA methylation status in exon 2 and the mRNA expression level of nuclear-encoded DNA polymerase gamma A (PolgA). The results showed that the DNA methylation levels of PolgA in R1 and R5 were slightly lower than in R3. Additionally, the altered DNA methylation in PolgA coincided with the changes in PolgA expression in cumulus cells. We also found that the mRNA expression of COX1, CYTB, ND2, and ND4 was altered by repeated superovulation in cumulus cells. Thus, repeated superovulation had adverse effects on mitochondrial function.

  15. Adverse Effect of Superovulation Treatment on Maturation, Function and Ultrastructural Integrity of Murine Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungook; Ahn, Jong Il; Lee, Ah Ran; Ko, Dong Woo; Yang, Woo Sub; Lee, Gene; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jeong Mook

    2017-08-01

    Regular monitoring on experimental animal management found the fluctuation of ART outcome, which showed a necessity to explore whether superovulation treatment is responsible for such unexpected outcome. This study was subsequently conducted to examine whether superovulation treatment can preserve ultrastructural integrity and developmental competence of oocytes following oocyte activation and embryo culture. A randomized study using mouse model was designed and in vitro development (experiment 1), ultrastructural morphology (experiment 2) and functional integrity of the oocytes (experiment 3) retrieved after PMSG/hCG injection (superovulation group) or not (natural ovulation; control group) were evaluated. In experiment 1, more oocytes were retrieved following superovulation than following natural ovulation, but natural ovulation yielded higher (p superovulation. The capacity of mature oocytes to form pronucleus and to develop into blastocysts in vitro was similar. In experiment 2, a notable (p superovulation group. Multivesicular body formation was also increased, whereas early endosome formation was significantly decreased. No obvious changes in other microorganelles, however, were detected, which included the formation and distribution of mitochondria, cortical granules, microvilli, and smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. In experiment 3, significant decreases in mitochondrial activity, ATP production and dextran uptake were detected in the superovulation group. In conclusion, superovulation treatment may change both maturational status and functional and ultrastuctural integrity of oocytes. Superovulation effect on preimplantation development can be discussed.

  16. Potential metabolic pathways associated with differences in weight maintenance and gain in mature cow skeletal and adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed costs are the greatest expenditure for beef cow operations. During the production year of a cow, the majority of nutrients are used to support maintenance. Differences in feedstuff utilization and metabolism can impact the ability of the cow to meet maintenance requirements. The objective of th...

  17. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1) polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET) of Cipelang

    OpenAIRE

    Cece Sumantri; M. Imron; Sugyono; E. Andreas; M. Restu; A. B. L. Ishak

    2011-01-01

    The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI) and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken...

  18. The Influence of Seasons on the Superovulation of Holstein Heifers%季节对荷斯坦育成牛超排效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 刘潇; 毕江华; 余文莉; 李树静

    2011-01-01

    为了研究季节对石家庄地区荷斯坦奶牛超数排卵的影响,对达到12月龄的荷斯坦育成牛逐月进行3次超数排卵.结果表明,头均胚胎总数和头均退化胚胎数各月差异不显著(P>0.05);头均可用胚胎数量3月最高(7.04±4.92),8月最低(3.20±3.33),两者间差异显著(P<0.05),与其它各月间无显著差异.总体而言,超排效果随着气温升高而呈下降的趋势,在气候较为适宜奶牛生理生存状态的季节,超排效果更为理想.说明超数排卵效果春季最好,秋冬季效果好于夏季,超排应避开夏季炎热的月份.%To research the influence of seasons on the superovulation of Holstein, the Holstein heifers of 12 months had been superovulated for 3 times among the year. The results showed that there were no significant differences among seasons for the mean number of the recovered embryos and the degenerated embryos(P>0. 05), the mean number of the transferable em-broys in march(7. 04±4. 92) was significantly higher than the data in august (3. 20±3. 33) (P0. 05). The increased temperature had a negative influence on the effect of superovulation, the success of superovulation could be obtained in th season which was suitable for the cows physilogical functions. It was concluded that the effect of superovulation was related to the seasons, the best season for superovulation was spring, autumn and winter were better than summer, the tropical months should be avoided for superovulation.

  19. Studies on Effects of High-intensity and Repeated Superovulation in Wagyu-catalo%和牛杂交牛高强度重复超排效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 余文莉; 李树静

    2012-01-01

    为研究和牛杂交牛短期内重复超排效果,自2011年6月至2011年8月对100头和牛杂交牛连续进行了3次重复超排.结果发现,3次超排获得回收胚平均数分别为11.65±8.96、13.28±7.69、13.2±8.39枚;可用胚平均数分别为7.52±7.16、8.51±6.94和8.92±6.59枚.试验结果表明,对和牛杂交牛进行间隔为33 d的连续3次超排,能够获得较好的超排效果,且个体差异是影响超排效果的主要因素;育成牛超排有效率稍高于经产牛(P>0.05),但可用胚平均数显著低于经产牛(P<0.05).%To study the repeated superovulation effect in brief period in wagyu-catalo,100 head of wagyu-catalo were super-ovulated continuously for three times from Jun in 2011 to Aug in 2011. The three times superovulation obtained the mean of embryo recovered were 11. 65±8. 96,13. 28±7. 69 and 13. 24±8. 39,respectively;the mean of usable embryos were 7. 52± 7. 16,8. 51±6. 94 and 8. 92±6. 59,respectively. The experimental results indicated that a good result could be obtained by proceeding consecutively three times repeated superovulation in 33 d interval in wagyu-catalo. There were obvious individual differences in the effect of superovulation. The superovulation efficiency of primiparous was a little better than multipara cow (P>0. 05) ,but the number of available embryos of multiparous was better than primiparous cow notablely(P<0. 05),

  20. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  1. Metabolomic Prediction of Pregnancy Viability in Superovulated Cattle Embryos and Recipients with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR metabolomics to identify spectral models predictive of pregnancy outcome. Embryos collected on Day 6 from superovulated cows in 2 countries were individually cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid medium with BSA for 24 h before embryo transfer. Spent CM, blank controls, and plasma samples (Day 0 and Day 7 were evaluated using FTIR. The spectra obtained were analyzed. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy, specificity (nonpregnancy, and area under the ROC curve (AUC. Endpoints considered were Day 60 pregnancy and birth. High AUC was obtained for Day 60 pregnancy in CM within individual laboratories (France AUC=0.751±0.039, Spain AUC=0.718±0.024, while cumulative data decreased the AUC (AUC=0.604 ± 0.029. Predictions for CM at birth were lower than Day 60 pregnancy. Predictions with plasma at birth improved cumulative over individual results (Day 0: France AUC=0.690±0.044; Spain AUC<0.55; cumulative AUC=0.747±0.032. Plasma generally predicted pregnancy and birth better than CM. These first results show that FTIR metabolomics could allow the identification of embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability, which may contribute to increasing the efficiency of selection schemes based on ET.

  2. Indução hormonal da ovulação e desmame precoce na fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte homozigotas e heterozigotas para o microssatélite BMS3004 Hormonal induction of ovulation and early weaning in postpartum fertility of homozigous and heterozigous beef cows for the microsatellite BMS3004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Medeiros Bastos

    2003-10-01

    , associated to the temporary weaning for 96 hours, with the definitive weaning at 60 days in beef cows, for the induction of estrus and ovulation. One hundred and eighty-three suckled beef cows were used. The breeds of the cows were Charolais (C and Nellore (N and their crosses. The animals were genotyped as homozygous (HOM and heterozigous (HET for the microsatellite BMS3004, that is localized in the same chromossome of the LH beta chain gene. The cows were distributed in two groups between 60 and 80 days postpartum (day 0. In the hormonal induction group (HI, the cows (n=87 received (day 0 250 mg of medroxiprogesteron acetate for 8 days, 2.5 mg of estradiol benzoate (day 1 and 500 UI of eCG (day 7. On day 8, the calves were weaned for 96 hours. In the same day (day 8, the cows (n=96 of the other group were just submitted to early weaning (group EW. Twelve hours after weaning, artificial insemination (AI was done during four days. After this period, they were mated. The first diagnosis of pregnancy (DP was performed 60 days after the AI period and, the second, 60 days after the end of mating. The estrus rates were higher in cows from HI group than in those of EW group. In the HI group, the cows with body condition 2.5 and 3.0 presented lower pregnancy rates at the 1st DP (29.6 and 46.4% than in the EW group (56.0 and 72.2%. The rates of pregnancy in cows with body index 65-73 did not differ between the HI and EW groups. The N cows of HI group presented lower pregnancy rate at 1st DP than the F1 (27.7 vs. 64.2%, but was not different than the C cows (40.0%. In the HI group, the pregnancy rate at the 2nd DP was lower in HOM cows than in the HET ones. The cows in the early definitive weaning group showed to be more efficient than in the hormonal induction group to improve the pregnancy rate.

  3. Digestibilidade e metabólitos sanguíneos de vacas da raça Holandesa superovuladas que receberam Lac100® ou linhaça em grão como fontes de gordura Digestibility and blood concentration of metabolites in superovulated dairy cows fed Lac100® or linseed as fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.B. Cavalieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de duas fontes de gordura, Lac100® (Yakult, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-6, e linhaça em grão (Linum usitatissimum (LIN, fonte de ácido graxo ômega-3, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DMS, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, fibra em detergente ácido (DFDA e extrato etéreo (DEE, e concentrações sanguíneas de HDL, LDL, VLDL, colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, cálcio, fósforo, N-ureico e progesterona. Foram utilizadas 10 vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, distribuídas nos dois tratamentos, em um delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores valores de DFDN (57,44% vs. 50,80% e DEE (77,70% vs. 72,18% quando comparados aos alimentados com LIN. Os animais alimentados com Lac100® apresentaram maiores concentrações de LDL (111,00 vs. 45,46mg/dL, HDL (82,27 vs. 64,93mg/dL e colesterol total (203,60 vs. 116,13mg/dL e menor concentração de N-ureico (13,22 vs. 15,19mg/dL em relação aos animais alimentados com linhaça em grão. As concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, cálcio, fósforo e progesterona não foram alteradas. Os resultados sugerem que a fonte de gordura na dieta modifica a DFDN e a DEE e, as concentrações sanguíneas de LDL, HDL e colesterol total em vacas em lactação.The effect of two sources of fat, calcium salts of soybean oil, Lac100® (Yakult, a source of omega-6 fatty acids or whole flaxseed (Linum usitatissiumum, a source of omega-3 fatty acids were evaluated to determine the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (DNDF, acid detergent fiber (DADF, and ether extract (DEE; and blood concentrations of HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, N-urea, and progesterone. Ten lactating Holstein cows were allocated in two treatments and a completely randomized design was used. Cows fed Lac100® had higher

  4. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    weaning at 100 (EW and at 180 (CW days of age, were evaluated using 92 beef calves from Hereford and Braford primiparous cows. The sex of the calves affected significantly the birth weight, and no effect was observed for the breed of cow. The treatments and breed of cow did not affect the average daily gain (ADG of the calves from birth to early weaning (GEW. Calves born from Braford cows had higher LW at EW (WEW than calves born from Hereford cows, while the WEW was not affected by the treatments. Calves born from Braford cows on T2 had ADG up to 180 days (ADG180 and LW at 180 days (LW180 greater than calves born from Braford cows on T1 and Hereford cows on T2. Calves from CW had greater LW180 and ADG180 than calves from EW. However, treatments and weaning ages did not affect the LW at 365 days and the ADG up to 365 days of age. The three cows post-partum management schemes and the two calves weaning ages evaluated did not affect the calves performance up to one year of age.

  5. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  6. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  7. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  8. Preliminary study of factors affecting the superovulatory response of high producing dairy cows superstimulated regardless of the stage of estrous cycle in Egypt

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    M.M. Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted as a first time commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows using multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET technology in Egypt. We studied factors affecting the superovulatory response (SR in superovulated cows and effects of propylene glycol (PG on embryo quality. Daily milk production at flushing had significantly negative effects on SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. In addition, Brown Swiss cows had better SR than Holstein cows. Moreover, cows having more than 3 parities yielded better response, compared to cows in the first three parities. However, factors such as body weight at flushing, body condition score (BCS at flushing and days in milk (DIM at flushing did not have any association with SR in cows. In addition, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR (Right CL number, P < 0.05; Left CL number, P < 0.05, total embryos per flush (P < 0.05, first grade embryos per flush (P < 0.01 and tended to improve transferable embryos (P = 0.13 and second grade embryos per flush (P = 0.11. However, it tended to increase the number of degenerated embryos per flush (0.06. In conclusion, commercial production of embryos from lactating Holstein and Brown Swiss cows regardless of stage of estrous cycle by MOET proved successful under Egyptian conditions. Milk yield was negatively associated with SR and embryo yields in superovulated cows. Moreover, drenching of PG prior to and during the superovulatory treatment improved SR and embryo yields.

  9. Oocyte Pickup from Live Cows Through Laparoscopic Guided Aspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this experiment, the bovine follicular oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries of Chinese Holsteins with laparoscope made in China. The results were as following: for identifying the suitable negative aspiration pressure, six different pressures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300mmHg)were tested. The aspiration pressure of 100mmHg was the best. Its oocyte recovery rate was 37. 2%, and G I , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 89. 5%. The heifers were picked up by laparoscope once or twice a week. Each heifer was collected with 2. 4 oocytes once a week or 4. 4 oocytes twice a week.Its oocyte recovery rate was 48. 0% and the G Ⅰ ,G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 93. 5%. In addition, 1.9 oocytes were collected from each cow once a week or 5.4 oocytes from each cow twice a week. Its oocyte recovery rate was 51.7% and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It showed that it was possible to pick up bovine oocyte twice a week. Two cows were picked up twice a week for several weeks(53 times). 268 follicles were aspirated(5.1 follicles per cow per time), and 141 oocytes were recovered(2.7 oocytes per cow per time). The oocyte recovery rate was 52.5%, and the G Ⅰ , G Ⅱ oocyte rate was 85. 1%. It was advisable to pick up oocytes twice a week continuously. Some cows in estrous cycles were superovulated with PMSG(500IU). Each of them could be recovered 2.3 follicles and 1.1 oocytes, the others were superovulated with FSH(0. 7mg) , each of them could be aspirated with 4.4 follicles and 2.3 oocytes. It was obvious that the effect of OPU(oocyte pick up) by superovulation with FSH was much better than that with PMSG. The best time for OPU with laparoscope was at the beginning of cow's estrous cycles. At the first day of their estrus, each of them could be averagely aspirated with 8 follicles and 5.7 oocytes.

  10. Genetic analysis of superovulation and embryo transfer traits in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and investigate genomic regions of interest associated with superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle. Superovulation and embryo transfer are methods commonly used by dairy producers to increase the rate of genetic gain achie...

  11. Programa hormonal associado ao desmame temporário, na indução de ovulação em vacas de corte durante o pós-parto Hormonal program associated to temporary weaning in the induction of ovulation in beef cows during post-partum

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    Marlon Nadal Maciel

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de tratamentos hormonais, associados ao desmame temporário, na indução de ovulação após o parto, em fêmeas de corte criadas extensivamente. Foram utilizadas 143 vacas (Hereford e cruzas Hereford x Nelore, pluríparas, entre 50 e 70 dias após o parto, com condição corporal (CC 2 e 3 (1-5. O grupo SEMED (somatotropina, estradiol, medroxiprogesterona, gonadotrofina e desmame foi constituído por 50 vacas, as quais receberam (dia 0 500mg de somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r, 5mg de benzoato de estradiol e um pessário intravaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medróxiprogesterona (MAP e, seis dias após, (dia 6 500UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina (eCG. No momento da retirada dos pessários (dia 7, os terneiros foram separados totalmente das vacas por 96h. No grupo EMED (estradiol, medroxiprogesterona, gonadotrofina e desmame, constituído de 48 vacas, adotou-se um tratamento semelhante ao do grupo anterior, diferindo apenas na não utilização da somatotrofina. No grupo CONTROLE, 43 vacas foram unicamente separadas dos seus filhos por 96h. Logo após a retirada dos pessários vaginais e de realizado o aparte dos terneiros, as vacas foram colocadas em um piquete com touros (1:10. Após 53 dias, foi realizado o diagnóstico de gestação por palpação retal e ultra-sonografia, para detectar as vacas que conceberam no estro subseqüente aos tratamentos. Obtiveram-se índices de prenhez de 11,1% , 38,0% e 56,2% respectivamente, para os grupos CONTROLE, SEMED e EMED, cujas diferenças foram significativas (pThe purpose of this experiment was to assess the efficiency of hormonal treatments on the fertility of beef cows raised extensively on the west border region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A hundred and forty-three cows (Hereford and Crossing breeds which were between 50 and 70 days after delivery were used and, after being classified according to their

  12. Superovulation in mice alters the methylation pattern of imprinted genes in the sperm of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouder, Christelle; Deutsch, Samuel; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2009-12-01

    Some steps of the assisted reproduction techniques, such as superovulation, may interfere with imprinting reprogramming. In the present study, superovulation was induced in the mouse and its possible effects on the differentially methylated domains of 2 paternally (H19 and Gtl2) and 3 maternally (Peg1, Snrpn and Peg3) imprinted genes were tested in the male offspring over 2 generations. The CpGs methylation status was analyzed by pyro- and bisulfite sequencing. In liver, skeletal muscle and tail, no effect of superovulation could be observed. In the sperm, however, a significant 6% decrease in the number of methylated CpGs of H19 and significant 2.8- and 7.0-fold increases in those of Peg1 and Snrpn, respectively were observed following superovulation. The changes were still present in the H19 and Snrpn genes of the second generation offspring. This suggests that superovulation in the mother transgenerationally affects the offspring sperm methylation pattern.

  13. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  14. Modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte com base no escore de condição corporal Simulation model of the reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram desenvolver um modelo matemático dinâmico para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção de bovinos de corte e simular o desempenho reprodutivo do rebanho, com base no desempenho individual das fêmeas, determinado a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto e da maturidade sexual. Trata-se de um modelo empírico, dinâmico e que contém elementos determinísticos e estocásticos. O desenvolvimento do modelo foi baseado na relação entre o escore de condição corporal (ECC e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé. Para novilhas e vacas vazias, a concepção foi baseada na probabilidade de conceber, de modo que, para novilhas, a idade e/ou o peso à puberdade foram fatores limitantes. O modelo tem duas formas de leitura dos dados de entrada: uma do relatório de parição gerado pelo software; e a outra, a partir dos dados de entrada definidos pelo usuário. Os dados de entrada são considerados médias, com exceção dos referentes à estação reprodutiva, e o modelo atribui um desvio-padrão para cada variável, de modo que os dados utilizados na execução do modelo seguem uma distribuição normal. A saída final, em formato de relatórios, fornece, além de outras informações, o total de kg de bezerros desmamados/vaca/ano. É possível alterar valores de entrada para testar o impacto dessas mudanças nas variáveis de resposta. O desenvolvimento do modelo contribuiu para maior compreensão do sistema estudado e permitiu a simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte a partir do ECC ao parto (ECCPAR. Seu uso, para auxiliar no processo de tomadas de decisão no mundo real, depende das próximas etapas do trabalho, como verificação, calibração e validação.A dynamic mathematical model was developed to describe the reproductive process in beef cattle production systems and to simulate individual cow reproductive performance while

  15. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  16. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  17. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  18. Relationship of lactate dehydrogenase activity with body measeurements of Angus x Charolais cows and calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus x Charolais cows (n = 87) and their Angus-sired, spring-born calves (n = 86) were utilized to examine relationships between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and body measurements of beef cows; and the relationship between maternal LDH activity in late gestation and subsequent calf birth we...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  20. Establishment of superovulation procedure in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tanaka, Minako; Morita, Mami; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Tomogane, Hiroshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-08-01

    Japanese field vole (Microtus montebelli) is a wild-derived rodent and have unique characteristic. Thus, these species have been expected as model animal. This study was performed to develop novel superovulation procedure for Japanese field vole. First, when 30 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 30 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were administrated 48 hours apart, females showed higher response to hCG compared with three concentrations of PMSG. Second, to effectively induce ovulation on females after vaginal opening, they were mated with vasectomized male instead of hCG administration. Average number of ovulated oocytes using PMSG mating (13.9 ± 1.9 oocytes) was higher than PMSG-hCG (control; 6.9 ± 2.3 oocytes) or PMSG-hCG mating (6.8 ± 0.8 oocytes). Finally, we attempted superovulation using GnRH agonist (GnRHa). With this treatment, we speculated that GnRHa might induce endogenous luteinizing hormone releasing to cause ovulation. Such superovulation was performed with 30 IU PMSG and different concentration of 20% polyvinylpyrrolidone-GnRHa (15, 30, 45, and 60 μg/kg). As results, average number of ovulated oocytes was highest with 30 μg/kg GnRHa (14.5 ± 4.1 oocytes). The numbers of ovulated oocytes of other concentrations were 5.0 ± 1.4 (15 μg/kg), 12.8 ± 2.7 (45 μg/kg), and 8.8 ± 3.7 oocytes (60 μg/kg). Nuclear status of most collected oocytes was the second meiotic division (range, 94.3%-100%). These superovulation procedures will be useful for development of in vitro culture systems and assisted reproductive technologies for not only Japanese field vole but also other voles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects in cattle of genetic variation within the IGF1R gene on the superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Yang, Li-Guo; Riaz, Hasan; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Chen, Long; Li, Shu-Jing

    2013-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating most biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, and has an important effect on ovulation, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy rate. The objectives of this study were to detect IGF1R gene polymorphisms of cattle and analyze the relationship with superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET), as well as the hormone concentrations at the day of ET. One reported SNP of IGF1R G404T and a novel SNP of IGF1R G399A were analyzed in 170 Chinese Holstein donor cows and 118 Luxi recipients cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that the G404T mutation was associated (p=0.019) with increased ovulation rate and females with this mutation had enhanced performance in producing transferable embryos. For the polymorphic locus G399A, recipients with g.399 GG and g.399 GA genotypes had greater pregnancy rates after ET than that of g.399 AA genotype. Furthermore, the same tendency was observed that the genotype groups with greater pregnancy rates had greater progesterone and lesser estrogen concentrations, but these did not reach statistical significance. Results of the present study showed, for the first time, that the polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with superovulation traits, and indicated that the IGFIR gene can be used as a potential marker for donor selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of estradiol cypionate and GnRH treatment on plasma estradiol-17β concentrations, synchronization of ovulation and on pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows treated with FTAI-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslenghi, G; Vater, A; Rodríguez Aguilar, S; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different ovulation inducers on E-17β plasma concentrations, synchronized ovulations and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows received a progesterone intravaginal device (PID) with 1 g of progesterone (P4) plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) (day 0). At PID removal (day 8), cows received 0.150 mg of D-cloprostenol and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10/treatment): Group ECP: 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at PID removal, Group EB: 1 mg of EB 24 hr after PID removal, Group GnRH: 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr after PID removal, Group ECP-GnRH: 1 mg of ECP at PID removal plus 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. GnRH-treated cows ovulated later (p decreased later compared to treatments without ECP. In Experiment 2, cows received (i) ECP: n = 126; (ii) EB: n = 126; (iii) GnRH: n = 136; (iv) ECP+GnRH: n = 139; FTAI was performed 48-50 hr after PID removal. Pregnancy rates did not differ among ovulation inducers (p > .05; ECP: 54.0%, 68/126; EB: 49.2%, 62/126; GnRH: 40.4%, 55/136; ECP+GnRH: 43.9%, 61/139). In conclusion, ECP administration (ECP and ECP+GnRH treatments) affected E-17β concentrations, determining its earlier increase and later decrease compared to treatments without ECP (EB and GnRH treatments). ECP+GnRH-treated cows achieved the best distribution of ovulations without affecting pregnancy rates.

  3. EFFECT OF SUPEROVULATION ON MILK YIELD IN THE NILI-RAVI BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ullah and M. Anwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effect of superovulatory treatment on milk yield of buffaloes. Eleven lactating buffaloes of the Nili-Ravi breed were treated with follicle stimulating hormone for superovulation. Milk yield of these buffaloes was recorded for 15 days before and 15 days after superovulation. Milk yield of another 11 untreated buffaloes of similar lactation, during the same days, was also recorded and compared with that of treated buffaloes. This comparison showed no difference between the milk yield of treated and untreated animals. It was concluded that there was no ill effect of superovulation on milk yield in buffaloes.

  4. Efeitos da everminação de matrizes e de bezerros lactentes em sistema de produção de bovinos de corte na região de Cerrado Effects of deworming of cow-calf beef herds in brazilian savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Catto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da everminação de vacas no pré-parto e de bezerros antes do desmame, no número de ovos de nematódeos nas fezes (OPG e nos parâmetros produtivos em dois rebanhos de gado de corte na região do Brasil Central. Quatro lotes de vacas prenhes receberam os seguintes tratamentos: T1- vacas e bezerros controle, T2- somente bezerros tratados, T3- somente vacas tratadas antes do parto com ivermectina e T4- vacas e bezerros tratados. Os bezerros dos lotes T2 e T4 foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: A- tratados aos 3 a 5 meses de idade com ivermectina de ação prolongada, B- tratados com ivermectina e C- controle. Nas vacas a everminação não diminuiu o OPG durante a lactação, como também não teve efeito significativo na taxa de concepção, no ganho de peso e no peso dos bezerros aos 3 a 5 meses de idade. Os bezerros do Grupo A ganharam até o desmame, 84 a 108 dias após o tratamento, em média 4,2kg (P= 0,0003 e 7,1kg (PThe effect of deworming with ivermectin of cows before calving and of suckling calves on fecal egg counts (EPG and productive performance of two beef cattle herds in Central Brazil was studied. Four groups of pregnant cows received the following treatments: T1- cows and calves not treated, T2- only calves treated, T3- only cows treated, and T4- cows and calves treated. The calves of T2 and T4 were distributed in the following treatments: A- calves treated at 3 to 5 months of age with long action ivermectin, B- treated with ivermectin, and C- control. For the cows, the deworming did not diminish the EPG during lactation and also did not have significant effect on the conception rate, live weight gain and the body weight of their calves at 3 to 5 months of age. The calves of treatment A gained, from the time of treatment to weaning (84 to 108 days, an average of 4.2kg (P=0.0003 and 7.1kg (P<0.0001 more than those of treatment B and C, respectively. The average difference in live weight gain of 2.9kg

  5. Melatonin Promotes Superovulation in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and PRL were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1 ± 2.04 ng/mL at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98 ± 0.07 ng/mL in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p < 0.05. The average number of embryos in the deer treated with 40 mg of melatonin was higher than that of the control; however, this increase did not reach significant difference (p > 0.05, which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  6. The evolution of improved and simplified superovulation protocols in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapletoft, Reuben J; Bó, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    Superovulation protocols have improved greatly since the early days of bovine embryo transfer when purified gonadotrophins were not available, follicular wave dynamics were unknown physiological phenomena and prostaglandins were not available. Although superstimulatory protocols in cattle are normally initiated mid-cycle, elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer. However, the most common treatment for the synchronisation of follicular wave emergence involves the use of oestradiol, which cannot be used in many parts of the world. Therefore, the need for alternative treatments has driven recent research. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave following ovulation induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Alternatively, it has been shown that it may be possible to ignore follicular wave status and, by extending the treatment protocol, induce subordinate follicles to superovulate. Finally, the short half-life of pituitary FSH necessitates twice-daily treatments, which are time-consuming, stressful and subject to error. Recent treatment protocols have permitted superstimulation with a single FSH treatment or two treatments 48h apart, reducing the need for animal handling during gonadotrophin treatments.

  7. Melatonin promotes superovulation in sika deer (Cervus nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Wen-Qing; Tan, Dun-Xian; Gao, Chao; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Shi-En; Yun, Peng; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-07-08

    In this study, the effects of melatonin (MT) on superovulation and reproductive hormones (melatonin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and PRL) were investigated in female sika deer. Different doses (40 or 80 mg/animal) of melatonin were subcutaneously implanted into deer before the breeding season. Exogenous melatonin administration significantly elevated the serum FSH levels at the time of insemination compared with levels in control animals. During superovulation, the serum LH levels in donor sika deer reached their highest values (7.1±2.04 ng/mL) at the point of insemination, compared with the baseline levels (4.98±0.07 ng/mL) in control animals. This high level of LH was sustained until the day of embryo recovery. In contrast, the serum levels of PRL in the 80 mg of melatonin-treated group were significantly lower than those of control deer. The average number of corpora lutea in melatonin-treated deer was significantly higher than that of the control (p0.05), which may be related to the relatively small sample size. In addition, embryonic development in melatonin-treated groups was delayed.

  8. Effect of Different Superovulation Schemes and Repeated Superovulation on Calf Superovulation%不同超排方案以及重复超排对犊牛超排效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小青; 朱玉林; 薛建华; 贾振伟; 宣柏华; 李艳华; 梁鸿斌

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 9-12 week-old calves were superovulated by hormone, the results showed that the number of follicles and oocytes were different with different superovulation schemes, the best method is implant CIDR on l d, injection of FSH on 5d and 6d, surgical collection oocytes on 7d, can obtain more follicles and oocytes. The calves were repeated superovulated for second and third times, results showed that the average number of follicles and oocytes were no significant difference between superovulation and second times superovulation, but the average number of follicles and oocytes were significantly lower than the first and second superovulation.%本试验选择北京奶牛中心良种场36头9~12月龄的犊牛进行超排采卵,研究了不同超排方案以及重复超排对犊牛超排的效果。结果表明,超排方案以埋植CIDR的同时,第5天、第6天注射FSH,第7天手术采卵获得的可用卵母细胞数最多。两次重复超排对犊牛平均卵泡数和平均卵母细胞数没有显著影响,但三次超排后的平均卵泡数和平均卵母细胞数显著低于一次和二次超排。

  9. Natural and improved natural pastures on the reproductive performance of first-calf beef cows Pastagens naturais e melhoradas no desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte primíparas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tanure

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the reproductive performance of first-calf cows at three years of age, submitted or not to protein supplementation at yearling on natural pastures. After calving, cows were managed on natural or improved pastures. The feeding managements were the following: on natural pastures as yearlings and during pregnancy, post-calving period and breeding season; on natural pastures with protein supplement as yearlings and only natural pasture during pregnancy, post-calving and breeding season; on natural pastures as yearlings and during pregnancy and on improved natural pastures (Lolium multiflorum L., Trifolium repens cv. Yi and Lotus corniculatus cv. São Gabriel during the post-calving period and breeding season; on natural pastures with protein supplement at yearling, on natural pastures during pregnancy, and on improved natural pasture during post-calving period and breeding season. Cows did not differ on body weight, but from calving to the beginning of breeding season, cows on improved natural pastures presented higher weight gain than those on natural pastures (0.203 vs. 0.109 kg/day. Cows in post-calving on natural pastures lost 1.0 point of body condition score during mating, determinant of the lowest pregnancy rate and later conception in relation to cows on improved natural pasture. Pregnant cows presented higher body weight (440 vs. 413 kg and body condition score (4.14 vs. 3.66 points than open cows at the end of the breeding season.O trabalho avaliou o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas primíparas aos três anos de idade, submetidas previamente ou não à suplementação protéica no sobreano sobre pastagens naturais. Após o parto, foram manejadas em pastagens naturais ou naturais melhoradas. Os manejos alimentares foram: em pastagem natural na recria e nos períodos de gestação, pós-parto e reprodutivo; em pastagem natural com suplemento protéico na recria e somente pastagem natural durante os períodos de gesta

  10. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  11. Embryonic imprinting perturbations do not originate from superovulation-induced defects in DNA methylation acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, Michelle M; Zhang, Liyue; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether superovulation disrupts maternal imprint acquisition in oocytes. Animal model. Academic institute. Spontaneously ovulated and superovulated mice. Low and high hormone dosage treatments were administered to females, and ovulated metaphase II oocytes were collected. Imprinted DNA methylation was analyzed at Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, and H19 in individual oocytes. Examination of 125 individual oocytes derived from females subjected to low and high hormone treatments revealed normal imprinted methylation patterns that were comparable to oocytes derived from spontaneously ovulated females. Maternal imprint acquisition was not affected by superovulation. Given its aberrant effects during preimplantation development, superovulation must instead disrupt maternal-effect gene products that are required after fertilization for imprint maintenance. These results eliminate imprint acquisition per se as the initial stage of imprint loss and point to the importance of analyses on early embryos after procedures involving oocyte manipulation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  13. Condição corporal, variação de peso e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de cria em pastagem nativa no Pantanal Body condition score, weight variation and reproductive performance of beef cows in rangelands from the Pantanal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Santos

    2009-02-01

    probabilidade de produção de um bezerro por vaca por ano.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance of beef cows before and after calving and to evaluate the calving probability using body condition score and weight variation during critical periods of the cow reproductive cycle. From 2001 to 2005, the body condition score was recorded in 248 multiparous cows raised in native pastures, submitted to different supplementation treatments (mineral mixture only - control; dry supplement; liquid supplement and liquid supplement for cow and calves. Weighing and body condition evaluation were made on a 1-9 point scale in August (prepartum period, 60-90 days before parturition and January (postpartum and reproductive period. A reproduction score was created in function of the body scores in four consecutive years. Except for the treatment, the other factors (body condition score in the prepartum and postpartum periods and cow age influenced the reproduction score. Thus, the calving probabilities were estimated for all cows. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to evaluate the calving probability in function of the exploratory variables over time. Calving probability higher than 80% was obtained when cows scored 5,5 before calving. In relation to weight, the results showed that about 60% of calving cows maintained or gained weight in the postpartum period, leading to increase in the rebreeding probability. Similar situation occurred with single cows; however, the calving probability was lower. These results indicate that the calving probability using BCS is better estimated before calving. Furthermore, it indicates the presence of cows more adapted to the Pantanal climatic and feeding conditions than others.

  14. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227, 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0. On day six, cloprostenol (125µg and eCG (400IU were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group or on day eight (TAI group. All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit standing estrus received GnRH (100µg on day 9. In experiment I, the follicular growth was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound exams, from day 6 to day 9. The average size of the dominant follicle on day nine was 11.1±0.99mm (BioRep, n=7 and 11.5±0.65mm (TAI, n=7 and all animals ovulated. In experiment II, the BioRep group cows (n=106 were observed for estrous behavior after withdrawal of the device, twice a day for 48h, and inseminated 12h after detection. In the TAI group (n=107, the devices were withdrawn on day eight and after 24h these cows and those from the BioRep group, which were not stand in estrus, received 100µg of GnRH and TAI 16h later. The pregnancy rates were 57.6% (BioRep and 52.3% (TAI. In conclusion, an increase on MPA exposure time did not affect the follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates and allow TAI without estrous observation. Furthermore, the treatment for eight days provides an efficient TAI system in suckled beef cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação, avaliando o intervalo entre a retirada do progestágeno e a aplicação de GnRH sobre a dinâmica folicular e a prenhez. Para tanto, vacas (n=227 em pós-parto de 60 a 80 dias receberam benzoato de estradiol (5mg e um pessário vaginal de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (250mg MAP; dia 0. No dia seis, os animais receberam cloprostenol sódico (125µg, gonadotrofina

  15. Superovulation at a specific stage of the estrous cycle determines the reproductive performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyawilert, Wilasinee; Liao, Yu-Jing; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2016-12-01

    Inconsistent reproductive performance has been reported in superovulated mice. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect and possible mechanism of superovulation timing on mouse reproductive performance. The results showed that mice superovulated at the metestrous (23.08±6.08%) and diestrous stages (33.33±11.45%) presented significantly lower pregnancy rates compared with those superovulated at the estrous stage (66.67±9.20%). After superovulation at the proestrous and estrous stages, mucin 1 (MUC1) and let-7a/let-7b microRNA (miRNA) expression levels were significantly attenuated and enhanced on embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5), respectively, whereas no significant differences in the expression level were found in mice superovulated at the other two stages. A higher number of developing and Graafian follicles was observed in the ovarian sections 48h after the administration of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) at the proestrous and estrous stages. The sections from mice treated at the metestrous and diestrous stages, however, presented more corpora lutea. Therefore, mice superovulated at the proestrous and estrous stages exhibited the best pregnancy rates. Furthermore, the disordered expression of MUC1 and let-7a/let-7b miRNA in mice superovulated at the metestrous and diestrous stages may impair reproduction performance. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Poznań University of ... Jersey cows, very similar levels were recorded for four culling reasons: "sterility and reproductive ... specialization of large farms have been observed.

  17. Multiple factors affecting superovulation in Poll Dorset in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, F; Zhang, Z; An, Z; Hua, S; Zhao, X; Zhang, Y

    2011-02-01

    To expand the breeding flock of Poll Dorset sheep in China, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding program was applied to the limited number of imported Australian Poll Dorset sheep. This study investigated the effects of FSH from three different manufacturers, parity (nulliparous vs multiparous), repeated superovulation, oestrus induction, corpus luteum regression and oestrus delay on Poll Dorset superovulation. The results showed that gonadotropin FSH from Canada Folltropin-V (Ca-FSH) was successfully used for superovulatory treatment with 160 mg-200 mg dosage per ewe and recovered 12.91 ± 7.80 embryos. Multiparous ewes for superovulation treatment were significantly better nulliparous ewes (p<0.05). The successive superovalution treatment reduced significantly embryo collection but did not affect transferable embryo number. Ewes with natural oestrus resulted in significantly higher number of embryos (13.83 ± 4.64) and of transferable embryos (12.00 ± 5.76) than ewes with induced oestrus (7.00 ± 4.92; 4.22 ± 3.42) and unknown oestrus cycle (5.94 ± 3.38; 3.19 ± 2.56, p<0.05). The delayed oestrus ewes at 24 h after superovulatory treatment produced significantly fewer embryos and transferable embryos (0.92 ± 1.51 vs 0.42 ± 0.90) than those with normal oestrus (p<0.01). Furthermore, the more transferable embryos were recovered from ewes with normal corpus luteum than those with corpus luteum regression (5.88 ± 5.09 vs 3.59 ± 4.30 and 8.83 ± 5.75 vs. 6.66 ± 5.41, p<0.01). These results suggest that in our farm practice, a comprehensive treatment method by using the Canadian FSH (Folltropin-V), plus choosing multiparous and natural oestrus ewes with normal corpus luteum might obtain an optimum embryo collection and embryos transfer in sheep. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  19. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  20. Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video monitoring to predict intake of discrete food items of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo non-nursing beef cows. Thirty-five cows were released into a 405-m2 rectangular dry lot, either in pairs (pilot tests) or individually (...

  1. Beef Supply Response Under Uncertainty: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi; Coyle, Barry T.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first econometric study of dynamic beef supply response to incorporate risk aversion or, more specifically, price variance. Autoregressive distributed lag (ADL) models are estimated for cow-calf and feedlot operations using aggregate data for Alberta. In all cases, output price variance has a negative impact on output supply and investment. Moreover, the impacts of expected price on supply response are greater in magnitude and significance than in risk-neutral models.

  2. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  3. Circulating placental lactogen levels in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, F F; Ulberg, L C; Fellows, R E

    1976-11-01

    Levels of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) have been measured in the serum of dairy and beef cattle and in the milk and amniotic fluid of pregnant animals with a highly specific radioimmunoassay. In both dairy and beef cows, serum bPL levels remain low (less than 50 ng/ml) during the first two trimesters and then rise rapidly between 160 and 200 days of gestation to a plateau. The bPL levels do not decline prior to parturition. During the last trimester, serum levels in dairy cows, 1103+/-342 ng/ml, are significantly higher than those in beef cattle, 650+/-37 ng/ml (P less than 0.01); furthermore, dairy cows having a high milk production also tend to have high bPL levels. Serum levels are almost twice as high in twin pregnancies and are not correlated with fetal sex or birth weight. bPL levels in milk and amniotic fluid from dairy cattle during the last trimester are approximately 86% and 25% of the serum values, respectively, suggesting that bPL enters these fluids by passive diffusion.

  4. Desempenho de bezerros de corte filhos de vacas submetidas a diferentes manejos alimentares, desmamados aos 42 ou 63 dias de idade Performance of beef calves produced by cows submitted to different feeding managements, weaned at 42 or 63 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cerdótes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de bezerros de corte, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, filhos de vacas Charolês (C, Nelore (N, mestiças CN e NC, mantidas em pastagem nativa, suplementadas com farelo de arroz integral e que desmamaram aos 42 ou 63 dias pós-parto, ou não suplementadas e que desmamaram aos 63 dias. A idade das vacas variou de 3 a 12 anos, sendo agrupadas em quatro classes, primíparas, jovens, adultas e velhas. Bezerros desmamados aos 63 dias de idade, cujas vacas foram suplementadas, apresentaram maior ganho de peso médio diário (GMD durante o aleitamento (561 contra 457 g, foram mais pesados ao desmame (67 contra 59,9 kg e aos 84 dias (76 contra 69,2 kg em relação aqueles cujas vacas não foram suplementadas, não diferindo destes nos pesos aos 5, 7 e 12 meses. Bezerros desmamados aos 42 dias apresentaram menor GMD nos primeiros 21 dias após o desmame (360 contra 482 g e foram menos pesados aos 12 meses (174,4 contra 189,4 kg em relação aos desmamados aos 63 dias. Bezerros mestiços filhos de vacas CN e NC foram mais pesados ao desmame que os puros, não diferindo dos C aos 12 meses. Bezerros N apresentaram peso similar aos C no desmame, mas foram mais leves e apresentaram condição corporal inferior do que os últimos aos 5, 7 e 12 meses. O peso e a condição corporal dos bezerros filhos de vacas primíparas foi inferior aos demais, no entanto, não diferiram destes aos 9 e 12 meses. Não se justifica a suplementação das vacas quando se considera o peso dos bezerros após os 5 meses. O desmame aos 42 dias de idade não é recomendado, pois resulta em menor peso aos 12 meses.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of beef calves, from birth to weaning, produced by Charolais (C, Nellore (N, CN and NC crossbred cows, kept on native pasture, supplemented with rice bran and weaned at 42 or 63 days postpartum, or non supplemented and weaned at 63 days. Cow age ranged from 3 to

  5. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  6. Superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the midgestation mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Amanda L; Lopes, Flavia L; Darricarrère, Nicole; Martel, Josée; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2008-06-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in embryonic growth and development as well as in placental function. Many imprinted genes acquire their epigenetic marks during oocyte growth, and this period may be susceptible to epigenetic disruption following hormonal stimulation. Superovulation has been shown to affect growth and development of the embryo, but an effect on imprinted genes has not been shown in postimplantation embryos. In the present study, we examined the effect of superovulation/in vivo development or superovulation/3.5dpc (days post-coitum) embryo transfer on the allelic expression of Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1 and H19 in embryos and placentas at 9.5 days of gestation. Superovulation followed by in vivo development resulted in biallelic expression of Snrpn and H19 in 9.5dpc placentas while Kcnq1ot1 was not affected; in the embryos, there was normal monoallelic expression of the three imprinted genes. We did not observe significant DNA methylation perturbations in the differentially methylated regions of Snrpn or H19. Superovulation followed by embryo transfer at 3.5dpc resulted in biallelic expression of H19 in the placenta. The expression of an important growth factor closely linked to H19, Insulin-like growth factor-II, was increased in the placenta following superovulation with or without embryo transfer. These results show that both maternally and paternally methylated imprinted genes were affected, suggesting that superovulation compromises oocyte quality and interferes with the maintenance of imprinting during preimplantation development. Our findings contribute to the evidence that mechanisms for maintaining imprinting are less robust in trophectoderm-derived tissues, and have clinical implications for the screening of patients following assisted reproduction.

  7. The effect of superovulation prior to mating on fetal growth in Iambs from Javanese thin-tail ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Manalu

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine fetuses (11 fetuses from 9 non-superovulated ewes and 18 fetuses from 8 superovulated ewes were used to study the effect of superovulation of ewes prior to mating on fetal weight, fetal length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, weights of the body, head, neck, limb, and viscera. Superovulated ewes, though with a higher litter size, had a greater fetal growth as was indicated by the greater fetal weight and length, the length and weight of the body and limb on day 49 of pregnancy. On day 105 of pregnancy, superovulated ewes with multiple fetuses (≥3 had similar fetal growth than nonsuperovulated ewes with single and twin fetuses. However, superovulated ewes with a single fetus had greater fetal growth as was shown by the greater fetal weight and length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, and weight of the body, limb, and viscera when compared to those non-superovulated ewes with a single or twin fetuses. The results of the experiment suggested that superovulation of ewes prior to mating could be used to improve fetal prenatal growth during pregnancy

  8. [Measuring the estrus cycle and its effect on superovulation in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Jia, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Kun; Zhao, Xiao-E; Wei, Qiang; Ma, Bao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    This study compares superovulation efficiency during different stages of the estrus cycle in mice by investigating the pudendum appearance, vaginal epithelial cell type, and the follicular development dynamics, in relation to the estrus cycle. We determined the stages of the estrus cycle by observing the pudendum and making vaginal smears of the Kunming mouse, and ascertaining the follicular development by making paraffin sections. Based on the observation, mice in stages of proestrus, oestrus, metoestrus and dioestrus were superovulated respectively, and their follicular developments and embryo collection results were tracked to ascertain the appropriate estrus cycle stage for superovulation. Our data showed that pudendum appearance and vaginal smears could effectively distinguish different stages of the estrus cycle and that ovarian tissue observation showed that follicular development, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis were regular during the estrus cycle. Likewise, during the estrus cycle of the Kunming mouse, pudendum appearance, vaginal epithelial cell type and follicular development were relational to one another. Superovulating mice in different stages of the estrus cycle showed marked differences both in pregnancy rate and average number of embryos collected. Proestrus was significantly better than metoestrus and dioestrus (P0.05). We suggest that pudendum appearance and vaginal smears can be used to distinguish estrus cycle stages and that proestrus is the optimal stage of the estrus cycle for superovulation.

  9. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  10. Superovulation strategies for 6 commonly used mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Charlie; Zuñiga, Juliana; Edison, Earnessa; Palla, Shana; Dong, Wenli; Parker-Thornburg, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined different weight ranges and hormone dosages to determine superovulation protocols for 6 mouse strains commonly used in genetic engineering: C57BL/6NHsd, B6(Cg)-Tyr(c-2J)/J, B6D2F1/Hsd, FVB/NHsd, BALB/cAnNCr, and Crl:CD1(ICR). Mice from each strain were divided into groups based on weight roughly corresponding to those of 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-wk-old mice. Mice were treated with 5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The weights of mice that produced maximal numbers of oocytes in response to these doses were 14.2 g or less for C57BL/6NHsd, 13.7 g or less for B6(Cg)-Tyr(c-2J)/J, 6.0 to 9.9 g for B6D2F1/Hsd, 14.5 to 16.4 g for FVB/NHsd, 14.8 g or less for BALB/cAnNCr, and 23.5 g or more for Crl:CD1(ICR). We then compared PMSG dosages of 5 and 2.5 IU per mouse and determined whether 2 doses of PMSG (5 or 2.5 IU, depending on prior results) administered 1 wk apart, followed by the standard HCG injection, would produce more oocytes when compared to a single dose of PMSG. FVB, B6D2F1, BALB/c, and CD1 mice responded best to a single dose of 5 IU of each hormone, whereas B6(Cg)-Tyr (c-2J)/J mice produced more oocytes after 2.5 IU PMSG. Although C57BL/6 mice given the standard dose produced good numbers of oocytes, the number was higher after 2 doses of PMSG at 5 IU per dose. We conclude that response to superovulation can be optimized based on mouse strain, weight, and the dose and timing of hormone injection. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  11. Quality Management and Information Transmission in Cattle Markets: A Case Study of the Chariton Valley Beef Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Hueth; Lawrence, John D.

    2002-01-01

    The declining share of beef in total U.S. meat consumption has motivated industry-ï¾­wide efforts to improve average beef quality through more effective coordination among the various market participants. Increased use of explicit "grid" pricing mechanisms over the last decade represents initial efforts at improved coordination. More recent efforts include animalï¾­specific carcass data collection, with subsequent transmission to feeders and the relevant cowï¾­calf operations, and improved "s...

  12. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta superovulatória e a digestibilidade aparente da dieta em vacas de corte = Induced hypothyroidism effect on superovulatory response and diet apparent digestibility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou determinar o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana ao hormônio folículo estimulante exógeno, a normalidade do ciclo estral de vacas e a digestibilidade aparente. Utilizaram-se 10 vacas Nelore tratadas com propylthiouracil (PTU. A digestibilidade aparente da Matéria Seca, os números médios de corpos lúteos, de embriões, de estrururas colhidas, de estruturas infertilizadas, de estruturas degeneradas, de mórulas, de índice de colheita e de índice de fertilização não variaram significativamente (P>0,05. Os valores médios de T3 foram de 1,35+0,1 e 1,91+0,1 ng mL-1, de T4 de 20,95+1,37 e 61,82+1,37, de TSH 7,95+0,36 e 2,61+0,36, respectivamente, para os animais tratados e controle, havendo diferença significativa (PThe experiment aimed to establish the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian response to the exogenous follicle stimulatinghormone, the normality of the cows estrous cycle, and apparent diet digestibility. 10 Nelore cows were used and treated with propylthiouracil (PTU. DM apparent digestibility, average numbers of corpus luteum, collected embryos, unfertilized structures, degenerated structures, morulas, collecting rate, fertilization rate, did not present significant variation (P>0.05. In the treated animals, de average T3, T4, and TSH values were 1.35 ±0.1, 20.95±1.37 and 7.95±0.36, respectively, and in the controls 1.91+0.1 for T3, 61.82+1.37 for T4 and 2.61+0.36 TSH, with significant difference (P<0.05. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude thathypothyroidism did not affect diet apparent digestibility, embryos production, steroidogenesis or ovarian activity.

  13. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  14. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  15. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Superovulation Effect on Follicular Development after Autologous Ovarian Transplantation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tamadon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of superovulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG on autologous transplanted ovaries in the lumbar muscles of mice was histomorphometrically evaluated using the indices of number and volume of different kind of follicles and volume of corpora lutea, ovary, and stroma. Angiogenesis was observed after mouse ovarian transplantation on days 14 and 21 after ovarian grafting. After transplantation, the total number and volume of primary and secondary follicles reduced, while PMSG superovulation increased the total number and total volume of tertiary follicles and also the ovarian volume after transplantation. Transplantation increased the average size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Therefore, primary and secondary follicles can survive after autologous transplantation but their reservations diminished by increasing the time of transplantation. However, number of tertiary follicles and their response to superovulation increased over time after transplantation.

  16. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  17. Clinical review: The use of aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction and superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Mary Ellen; Bulun, Serdar E

    2013-05-01

    Anovulation is likely responsible for 20% of female infertility. Although clomiphene citrate remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in anovulatory patients who are not estrogen-deficient and to treat unexplained infertility, there remains a discrepancy between ovulation and conception rates with its use, attributed to its antiestrogenic effects on cervical mucus and the endometrium. Alternative agents, including aromatase inhibitors, have been used that have not been associated with these side effects. A literature search was conducted to specifically explore the use of aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction and superovulation. Recent studies have found that aromatase inhibitors may be safe and useful agents for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome as well a treatment option for superovulation in patients with either unexplained infertility or endometriosis. Aromatase inhibitors may be an effective alternative treatment to clomiphene citrate for both ovulation induction and superovulation.

  18. Superovulation and expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in young rabbit females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To optimise the use of juvenile in vitro embryo transfer technologies in young rabbit females, superovulation was performed in New Zealand White young rabbit females at different ages and the expression mode of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR was explored using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro maturation (IVM together with fertilisation (IVF was conducted immediately after superovulation. The results showed that (1 the age factor significantly affected superovulation in young rabbit females, with 60 d as an optimal age; (2 the mRNA level of FSHR exhibited a rising trend, though it was lower at 30 to 40 d of age; (3 the maturation rate of the oocytes from 60 d old rabbits was significantly higher than in those from 50 d old rabbits; (4 the fertilisation rate of oocytes was not significantly different among rabbits 50, 60 and 70 d old.

  19. Relationship between stem cell factor and gonadotropin in ovarian follicles development during superovulation cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-hong; ZHAO Hai-bo; XIN Xiao-yan; LIN Guo-cheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study whether stem cell factor (SCF) and gonadotropin work synergisticly in superovulation stimulation of an in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Methods: Total cycles of 30 IVF-ET patients with regular menstrual period were studied. The same superovulation regimen was employed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were used to determine the levels of SCF, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in follicular fluid (FF) during ooeyte pick-up (OPU) and in serum before and after superovulation. Results: FF-SCF of follicles with diameter over 20 mm were different in three groups [(2. 6±0. 4), (4. 7±0. 5), and (5.3±0. 9), respectively, P<0. 01], whereas the total numbers of developing follicles (diametre≥5 mm) were similar. Conclusion: SCF and gonadotropin may have synergistic effects on the development of follicles during gonadotropin stimulation in IVF-ET program.

  20. Collection of superovulated mouse oocytes continuously by surgery and their development after activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min-kang; Zhang Tian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new way to collect superovulated oocytes or zygotes repeatedly from an individual mouse. Methods: Superovulations were induced by injection PMSG and hCG in Kunming strain mice. The ampullaes of oviduct of all anaesthetised mouse were put in a specially designed "U" sink and released. The second and third times of PMSG injection were made on the sixth day and eleventh day after the first superovulation injection. The capacity of development was examined by in vitro culture of parthenogenesis activation oocytes. Results: Development to blastocyst stage was not significantly different between the first and second time collection. The percentage of blastocyst stage in CD and Sr++ treatment was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the oocytes treated in CB and Sr++. Conclusion: This method enables us to collect oocytes or zygotes repeatedly from one individual mouse in an interval as short as 5 days and without influence on the quality of oocytes.

  1. Verificação e calibração do modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte baseado no escore de condição corporal avaliação interna Verification and calibration of a simulation model for reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score internal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com os objetivos de demonstrar e fazer a avaliação interna do modelo matemático desenvolvido para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção e simular o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto (ECCPAR. O modelo é baseado na relação entre o ECCPAR e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé; para novilhas e vacas vazias à concepção, foi baseado na probabilidade de ocorrência. Para a avaliação interna do modelo, foi utilizada a metodologia de verificação e calibração. O uso da técnica de variação dos dados de entrada foi feito por meio da construção de cenários, variando ECCPAR, data de início da estação reprodutiva (IER, data média do parto (DPAR e ganho médio diário do nascimento ao desmame (GMDND. Esses cenários serviram também para demonstração do modelo. Por meio da calibração, foram escolhidos novos desvios-padrão para as variáveis: período de gestação, GMDND e data média do parto (DPAR. Os testes de degenerescência e independência de sementes geradoras de números aleatórios, após a calibração, comprovaram coerência do modelo na geração de aleatoriedade para as variáveis de interesse. A variação nos dados de entrada indicou eficácia do modelo para simular a dinâmica do processo reprodutivo, no entanto ajustes na taxa de concepção de primíparas são necessários para que o modelo simule valores compatíveis com a realidade.This work was carried out with the goal of demonstrating and performing internal evaluation of the mathematical model developed to describe the reproductive performance in production systems and to simulate reproductive performance of beef cows from the body condition score at calving (BCSAC. This model is based on the relationship between BCSAC and the interval between calving and conception (ICC for lactating cows; for heifers and empty cows at

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Synchronization of follicular wave emergence prior to superovulation in Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjou, D; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Skidmore, J A; Mogheiseh, A; Razavi, K; Gerami, A; Ghanbari, A

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to synchronize follicle wave emergence prior to superovulation using either GnRH or progestogen treatments, in Bactrian camels. GnRH group camels (n=5) received 20 microg of the GnRH analogue Buserelin on Days -18 and -4 of the experiment (initiation of superovulation=Day 0). Camels in the progestogen group (n=5) received two consecutive treatments of progestogens, 7 days apart, on Days -14 and -8 of the experiment. On each occasion, each female received three norgestomet implants and 200mg progesterone (i.m.) and all implants were removed 14 days after the first progestogen treatment coinciding with Day -1 of superovulation. A combination of eCG and FSH was used to induce superovulation and the growth of all subsequent follicles and CLs were monitored daily by ultrasonography. Following the first GnRH injection, mature follicles ovulated within 1-2 days, and a new follicle wave emerged after 3+/-0.77 days. At the time of the second GnRH injection, a mature follicle (15.6+/-0.97 mm) ovulated and a new follicular wave emerged between 1 and 2 days after GnRH injection. Growing follicles at the time of the first progestogen treatment became either atretic (n=1) or persistent (n=4) and a new follicle wave (n=3) emerged 3-6 days later. At the initiation of superovulation, the diameters of the largest follicle in GnRH and progestogen groups were 7.4+/-0.59 and 20.5+/-2.26 mm, respectively but after superovulation and mating there was no significant differences in the number of unovulated follicles or CLs between groups. In conclusion, two GnRH injections, 14 days apart, may be used to synchronize follicle wave emergence in Bactrian camel.

  4. Optimal control for predicting customized drug dosage for superovulation stage of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila

    2014-08-21

    in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most highly pursued assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide. IVF procedure is divided into four stages: Superovulation, Egg-retrieval, Insemination/Fertilization and Embryo transfer. Among these superovulation is the most crucial stage since it involves external injection of hormones to stimulate development and maturation of multiple follicles or oocytes. Although numerous advancements have been made in IVF procedures, little attention has been given to modifying the existing protocols based on a 'patient specific' predictive model. A model for follicle growth and number change as a function of the injected hormones and patient characteristics has been developed and validated for data available on 50 superovulation cycles. The model has 9 patient specific parameters which can be determined from the initial 2 days of observation and can help in projecting the superovulation outcome for the ongoing cycle. Based on this model, the dosage of the hormones to stimulate multiple ovulation or follicle growth is predicted by using the theory of optimal control. The objective of successful superovulation is to obtain maximum number of mature oocytes/follicles within a particular size range. Using the mathematical model of follicle growth dynamics and optimal control theory, optimal dose and frequency of medication customized for each patient (n=5) is predicted for obtaining the desired result. The results indicate a better final day follicle size distribution when the dosage of the hormones is varied by some amounts as compared to the actual dosage given to the patient in the existing cycles. This ensures a better success rate for the superovulation cycles and reduces the costs of excess medication and daily monitoring. The idea is to provide the medical practitioners with a guideline for planned treatment, for a procedure currently based on trial and error in order to get better success rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Advances in recombinant gonadotropin production for use in bovine superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, M W; Morris, J C; Gibbons, J R

    2011-10-01

    Bovine ovarian hyperstimulation is a process that currently relies on pituitary-derived follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to facilitate the maturation of multiple follicles to achieve dominance and eventual ovulation. The prevalence of this process, also called superovulation, has more than doubled in the past 10 years, but the efficiency of recovered transferable embryos has remained low at ~6 per collection. The use of pituitary-derived products presents other problems including contamination from other hormones, inconsistencies within and among batches, and the possibility of the spread of disease-transmitting agents. Recombinant gonadotropins have been engineered to yield varieties of FSH and luteinizing hormone from a myriad of heterologous hosts with the resulting products demonstrating various levels of biological activity. Research has also been devoted to alternative delivery methods to reduce the frequency of injections required in current superovulatory protocols. Together, recombinant gonadotropins and alternative delivery approaches potentially provide an economical alternative to the use of pituitary-derived products. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The recovery rate of embryos using eight different protocols of synchronization and superovulation in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    A large number of embryo recovery and also transferable is a major problem in superovulation regime of the ewe. The purpose of the study was to recover a large number of transferable embryos by using eight different protocols of synchronization and superovulation for each group of sheep. In this study, the Merino ewes aged between 1-3 years and rams between 2-5 years were used. The embryos were collected surgically on day-7, day-8, day-9 and day-10 after the onset of oestrus. The mean number ...

  7. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows under negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingu, H; Hodate, K; Kushibiki, S; Touno, E; Oshibe, A; Ueda, Y; Shinoda, M; Ohashi, S

    2009-04-01

    The current study was performed to clarify the effects of GHRH treatment on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in lactating Japanese Black cows (a beef breed) under negative energy balance (EB). Ten multiparous lactating beef cows were offered a normal-energy diet daily (110% of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation) until 5 d in milk (DIM) to standardize the cows before dietary treatment. From 6 DIM to the final days (63 DIM) of the experiment, the cows were allotted to experimental dietary treatments: 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 130% [high-energy diet (HED)] and the remaining 5 cows were offered a diet formulated for 80% [low-energy diet (LED)] of ME requirements for maintenance and lactation. In addition, all cows received daily subcutaneous injections of 3 mg of bovine GHRH from 36 to 56 DIM (GHRH treatment period). Differences in BW of HED- and LED-fed cows at 63 DIM were +28.4 and -7.2 kg compared with BW at 6 DIM, and HED- and LED-fed cows were under positive EB (+23.7 MJ/d) and negative EB (-11.6 MJ/d) throughout the experiment period. Treatment with GHRH increased (Pnegative EB in lactating beef cows.

  8. Effect of feeding period for dry cull cows on carcass quality, meat quality, and consumer reactions to loin steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels T.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bredahl, Lone

    A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having a considera......A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having...... thoroughly. The present study comprise two trials. The results of both the first and second trail, including 62 cows in 2002, are reported here....

  9. Superovulation with a single administration of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel: a novel superovulation method for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Koji

    2016-10-18

    Superovulation (SOV) is a necessary technique to produce large numbers of embryos for embryo transfer. In the conventional methods, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is administered to donor cattle twice daily for 3 to 4 days. As this method is labor intensive and stresses cattle, improving this method has been desired. We previously developed a novel and simple SOV method, in which the intramuscular injection of a single dose of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-gel) induced the growth of multiple follicles, ovulation and the production of multiple embryos. Here we show that AH-gel can efficiently adsorb FSH and release it effectively in the presence of BSA, a major interstitial protein. When a single intramuscular administration of the FSH and AH-gel mixture was performed to cattle, multiple follicular growth, ovulation and embryo production were induced. However, the treatments caused indurations at the administration sites in the muscle. To reduce the muscle damage, we investigated alternative administration routes and different amounts of aluminum in the gel. By administering the FSH in AH-gel subcutaneously rather than intramuscularly, the amount of aluminum in the gel could be reduced, thus reducing the size of the induration. Moreover, repeated administrations of FSH with AH-gel did not affect the superovulatory response. These results indicate that a single administration of FSH with AH-gel is an effective, novel and practical method for SOV treatment.

  10. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  11. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryogi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  12. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  13. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  14. Superovulation in waptiti (Cervus elaphus) during the anovulatory season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkell, Robert B; Woodbury, Murray R; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of three previously unreported ovarian superovulatory treatment protocols in wapiti. Protocols were initiated specifically at the time of ovarian follicular wave emergence, and intended to enable determination of the effects of frequency of treatment (i.e., animal handling) and LH supplementation on ovarian response. Thirteen parous wapiti hinds, 2 to 4 y of age, were used late in the anovulatory season (July). The ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography. Hinds were given 5 mg estradiol 17-β im (day of treatment designated as Day 0) to induce a new wave of ovarian follicular development. On the expected day of wave emergence (Day 3), hinds were assigned randomly to three treatment groups and given: (1) 100 mg FSH im once a day for 4 days (N = 5); (2) 200 mg FSH sc on Day 3 and Day 5 (N = 4); or (3) 200 mg FSH plus 2.5 mg LH sc on Day 3 and Day 5 (N = 4). All hinds were given 10 mg LH im on Day 6 to induce ovulation. The mean (± SEM) number of ovulations per animal in the respective groups was 6.2 ± 2.0, 15.5 ± 5.9, and 14.8 ± 2.7. In conclusion, the technique of inducing follicular wave emergence to initiate superovulatory treatment at the time of wave emergence was effective in wapiti during the anovulatory season. The most efficient and effective method of ovarian superovulation in this study involved administration of estradiol 17-β on Day 0, followed by 200 mg FSH sc on Days 3 and 5, and induction of ovulation (10 mg of LH) on the evening of Day 6. Compared with conventional methods that require 14 days and handling the hinds six times, the protocol used herein reduced the treatment period to 8 days and the number of animal handlings to four. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. STUDY ON SUPEROVULATION THERAPY——A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF 23 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXin-Yan; HECui-Hua; ZHANGYi-Wen; FANGuang-Sheng; HUFang; ZHANGDe-Yong; LIUMei-Zhi; ZHANGHao; CHENGYu-Fang

    1989-01-01

    A superovulation therapy with C. C+hMG+hCG on 23 infertile female patients who were considered to be suitable for IVF-ET or GIFT treatment. The whole therapy period was 24 menstrual cycles. Development and maturation of follicles were monitored by the

  16. Effect of PMSG/hCG Superovulation on Mouse Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bao-jiang; XUE Hong-yan; CHEN Li-ping; DAI Yan-feng; GUO Ji-tong; LI Xi-he

    2013-01-01

    Kunming mouse strain is widely used in China, and the superovulation was administrated with 10 IU PMSG combined with 10 IU hCG. In this study, the effects of the exogenous gonadotropins on superovulation of Kunming mice and embryo quality derived from the superovulated mice were assessed. Female mice at 6-8-wk old were superovulated with 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 IU PMSG/hCG and mated with male mice. The embryos were retrieved at 2.5 d post coitum. No statistic difference was observed for the number of 2-cell embryos collected per mouse between control and 5 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group, but the number significantly increased for 7.5 and 10 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group (P0.05). This indicated that exogenous gonadotropins have no effects on development of Kunming mouse embryos. The quality of blastocyst was assessed by labelling with Hoechst and propidium iodide for inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells, the result showed that ICM/TE ratio significantly decreased for 10 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group compared with control, 5 and 7.5 IU PMSG/hCG treatment group (P<0.05). This suggested that the embryo quality of Kunming mouse has been affected by high dose of gonadotropins.

  17. Pregnancy after ovarian superovulation by transdermal delivery of follicle-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Nicolas H; Murtinger, Maximilian; Uher, Petr

    2011-06-30

    Because of its size of 32 kDa and physicochemical properties, urinary FSH cannot permeate intact skin. We report the first pregnancy after laser microporation and transdermal delivery of FSH for ovarian superovulation as a substitute for SC or IM injections. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term effects of repeated superovulation on ovarian structure and function in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoying; Guo, Yueshuai; Cao, Huarong; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhu, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To assess the long-term effects of repeated controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) on ovarian structure and function. Experimental study. Laboratory. Adult female rhesus macaques. A repeated COH rhesus macaque model (superovulation group) with spontaneously ovulating macaques used as controls (normal group) and samples of serum and ovarian tissue collected over a 5-year period. Steroid hormone levels, and structural, functional, and protein changes in ovaries. The follicular histology, proportion of follicles at each developmental stage, and expression levels of oocyte-specific genes showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. However, the superovulation group exhibited mitochondrial abnormalities in the granulosa cells and a low expression of genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis compared with the normal group. A comparison of protein expression in the ovaries of both groups using tandem mass tag labeling with mass spectrometry revealed that most of the differentially-expressed proteins were down-regulated in the superovulation group. These proteins were mainly localized in the mitochondria and cytosol, and changes in protein levels in the superovulation group mainly inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation but promoted apoptosis. Our study indicates that repeated COH could change the expression of many proteins in the ovaries even after several years, potentially affecting the development and function of ovarian cells. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Produtividade e eficiência biológica de sistemas pecuários de cria diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto e na taxa de natalidade do rebanho no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and biological efficiency of beef cow-calf systems differing in age at first calving and herd calving rate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Beretta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada por intermédio da simulação a produtividade e eficiência de sistemas de criação de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto (IP, anos e na taxa de natalidade (TN: "Sistema Tradicional" (ST IP=4; "Sistema Melhorado" (SM IP=3; e o "Sistema Um Ano" (SU IP=2. Em cada sistema foi avaliado o efeito da TN variando entre 50 e 90%. Foi usado um modelo estático determinístico. A resposta em produtividade e eficiência à redução na IP foi dependente da TN. No SM e SU foi determinada resposta curvilinear a aumentos na TN, atingindo uma produção máxima de 83,9 e 77,9 quilos de bezerro desmamado (BD/ha com TN de 82,5 e 92,3%, respectivamente. No ST a resposta foi linear, com aumentos de 6,1 kg BD/ha a cada 10% de aumento na TN. O custo energético por quilo BD produzido diminuiu linearmente, na medida em que a TN aumentou.A simulation model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of beef cow-calf systems in Rio Grande do Sul State with different heifers first calving age (CA, years and calving rates (CR: "Traditional System" (TS CA=4; "Improved System (IS" CA=3; "One Year System (OYS" CA=2. In each system it was studied the effect of CR varying from 50 to 90%. A statistic deterministic model was used. The effect of reducing CA on productivity and efficiency was dependent of CR. IS and OYS showed a quadratic response curve, with maximum production of 83,9 and 77,9 kg of weaned calf (WC/ ha for CR of 82,5 and 92,3%, respectively. TS response was linear, with increments of 6,1 kg WC/ha for each 10% increase in CR. Energetic cost per quilogram of WC was reduced linearly with increments in CR.

  20. Association between molecular markers linked to the Leptin gene and weight gain in postpartum beef cows Associação entre marcadores moleculares ligados ao gene da Leptina e ganho de peso em vacas de corte no pós-parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Esteves Matos Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Three short tandem repeats (STRs, BMS1074, BM1500, IDVGA-51, and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, LEPSau3AI (A/B, LEPSau3AI (+/- and LEPKpn2I linked to the LEP gene were investigated to verify associations with productive performance in postpartum cows of two beef cattle breeds, Aberdeen Angus (AA, n=98 and Charolais (C, n=83. After polymerase chain reaction, STRs were analyzed by vertical electrophoresis and SNPs in agarose gel after endonucleases cleavage. In AA herd 79% of BMS1074*151 carriers had a lower average daily weight gain (ADG when compared with the population mean daily weight gain (103g, while 62% of BMS1074*151 non-carriers presented a higher ADG (PForam investigadas três repetições curtas em tandem (STRs, BMS1074, BM1500 e IDVGA-51 e três polimorfismos de um único nucleotídeo (SNPs LEPSau3AI (A/B, LEPSau3AI (+/- e LEPKpn2I, ligados ao gene da leptina, verificando-se associações com o desempenho produtivo em vacas no pós-parto, em dois rebanhos de gado de corte, Aberdeen Angus (AA, n=98 e Charolês (C, n=83. Após a reação em cadeia da polimerase, os STRs foram analisados em géis de poliacrilamida e os SNPs em gel de agarose, após a clivagem com endonucleases. Na raça AA, 79% dos portadores do alelo BMS1074*151 apresentaram ganho médio de peso diário (ADG menor, quando comparados com a média da população (103g, enquanto 62% dos não-portadores mostraram ADG mais alto (P<0,01; os animais AA com pelo menos um alelo BMS1074*151 possuem ADG cerca de 159g menor que os outros animais (P<0,01. Em ambos os rebanhos, portadores do alelo BM1500*136 apresentaram ADG mais alto (em torno de 75g dia-1 em AA, P<0,05 e 96g dia-1 em C, P<0,10 e animais com um alelo BM1500*136 possuem cerca de três vezes mais chance de ter um ADG maior que os não-portadores.

  1. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  2. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  3. Identification of variables contributing to superovulation efficiency for production of transgenic prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Alaine C; Modi, Meera E; Barrett, Catherine E; Jin, Chengliu; Young, Larry J

    2012-07-27

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is an emerging animal model for biomedical research because of its rich sociobehavioral repertoire. Recently, lentiviral transgenic technology has been used to introduce the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the prairie vole germline. However, the efficiency of transgenesis in this species is limited by the inability to reliably produce large numbers of fertilized embryos. Here we examined several factors that may contribute to variability in superovulation success including, age and parentage of the female, and latency to mating after being placed with the male. Females produced from 5 genetically distinct breeder lines were treated with 100 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and immediately housed with a male separated by a perforated Plexiglas divider. Ovulation was induced 72 hr later with 30 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and 2 hrs later mating was allowed. Superovulation was most efficient in young females. For example, females aged 6-11 weeks produced more embryos (14 +/- 1.4 embryos) as compared to females aged 12-20 weeks (4 +/- 1.6 embryos). Females aged 4-5 weeks did not produce embryos. Further, females that mated within 15 min of male exposure produced significantly more embryos than those that did not. Interestingly, there was a significant effect of parentage. For example, 12 out of 12 females from one breeder pair superovulated (defined as producing 5 or more embryos), while only 2 out of 10 females for other lines superovulated. The results of this work suggest that age and genetic background of the female are the most important factors contributing to superovulation success and that latency to mating is a good predictor of the number of embryos to be recovered. Surprisingly we found that cohabitation with the male prior to mating is not necessary for the recovery of embryos but is necessary to recover oocytes. This information will dramatically reduce the number of

  4. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  7. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72 h (cows) or 54 h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45 days following TAI and ≥ 45 days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P ≥ 0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥ 55 days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and < 55 days postpartum (39%) or ≥ 55 days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows.

  8. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  9. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  10. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burd, N.A.; Hamer, H.M.; Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One

  11. Dual effects of superovulation: loss of maternal and paternal imprinted methylation in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market-Velker, Brenna A; Zhang, Liyue; Magri, Lauren S; Bonvissuto, Anne C; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2010-01-01

    Superovulation or ovarian stimulation is currently an indispensable assisted reproductive technology (ART) for human subfertility/infertility treatment. Recently, increased frequencies of imprinting disorders have been correlated with ARTs. Significantly, for Angelman and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromes, patients have been identified where ovarian stimulation was the only procedure used by the couple undergoing ART. In many cases, increased risk of genomic imprinting disorders has been attributed to superovulation in combination with inherent subfertility. To distinguish between these contributing factors, carefully controlled experiments are required on spontaneously ovulated, in vivo-fertilized oocytes and their induced-ovulated counterparts, thereby minimizing effects of in vitro manipulations. To this end, effects of superovulation on genomic imprinting were evaluated in a mouse model, where subfertility is not a confounding issue. This work represents the first comprehensive examination of the overall effects of superovulation on imprinted DNA methylation for four imprinted genes in individual blastocyst stage embryos. We demonstrate that superovulation perturbed genomic imprinting of both maternally and paternally expressed genes; loss of Snrpn, Peg3 and Kcnq1ot1 and gain of H19 imprinted methylation were observed. This perturbation was dose-dependent, with aberrant imprinted methylation more frequent at the high hormone dosage. Superovulation is thought to primarily affect oocyte development; thus, effects were expected to be limited to maternal alleles. Our study revealed that maternal as well as paternal H19 methylation was perturbed by superovulation. We postulate that superovulation has dual effects during oogenesis, disrupting acquisition of imprints in growing oocytes, as well as maternal-effect gene products subsequently required for imprint maintenance during pre-implantation development.

  12. Use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of embryo donor cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ismael Fernandez-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of endometrial cytology and metabolic profiles for selection of donor cows in embryo transfer programmes. For this purpose, 69 clinically healthy Holstein cows were enrolled in the study. At the start of the superovulation procedure (Day 0, blood and endometrial samples were obtained to determine metabolic and uterine status, respectively. The cows were then subjected to porcine follicle stimulating hormone (pFSH superovulation treatment, and embryos were recovered after 7 days. The mean number of embryos obtained per flush was 9.89±8.21 (4.63±5.34 viable embryos, 0.82±2.01 degenerated embryos and 4.57±6.44 unfertilized ova. The following statistically significant variables were entered in a regression model: beta-hydroxybutyrate, serum cholesterol, body condition, number of calvings and percentage of neutrophils. In almost all cases, the model explained some percentage of the variance: total number of embryos, 4.8% (p<0.05; number of degenerate embryos, 4.2% (p=0.051; and number of unfertilized ova, 14.2% (p<0.01. Statistical models for the percentage of viable embryos and unfertilized ova accounted for 24.0% and 29.4% of the variance, respectively, and both were statistically significant (p<0.01. The model for the percentage of degenerated embryos was statistically significant (p<0.05 and explained 4.4% of the variance. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that positive energy balance and healthy uterus can improve ovarian response and the proportion of viable embryos in cows. Efficient tools for monitoring the metabolic and uterine status should therefore be used in bovine embryo transfer programmes.

  13. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  14. Effect of winter cover crop grazing on animal performance and antibiotic resistance during pre-weaning period in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effect of winter wheat grazing on body weight gain and the level of antibiotic resistant bacteria in beef cattle. Calves and cows (16 each) were equally randomized into tall fescue or wheat pastures. Body weights and fecal samples were taken on d 0, d 7, d 14 and d 21. Samples we...

  15. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  16. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...... in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle....

  17. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  18. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  19. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  20. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  1. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modifications of carbohydrate residues in the sheep oviductal ampulla after superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, S; Accogli, G; Silvestre, F; Binetti, F; Caira, M; Lacalandra, G M

    2015-04-01

    Epithelium of oviductal ampulla was studied in normal and in superovulated sheep using morphologic analysis and lectin glycohistochemistry. The lining epithelium consisted of two types of cells, ciliated and nonciliated cells. Unlike superovulated samples, the nonciliated cells from control ewes showed apical protrusions indicating an apocrine secretory activity. The ciliated cells showed lectin-binding sites mainly at the level of the cilia which bound all the used lectins except Peanut agglutinin, suggesting the lack of glycans terminating with Galβ1,3GalNAc. In superovulated specimens, the ciliated cells with high mannosylated glycans Concanavalin A (Con A) and GlcNAc and GalNac termini Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II (GSA II) and Dolicurus biflorus agglutinin (DBA) decreased. The luminal surface of nonciliated cells showed all investigated sugar residues in controls, whereas it was lacking in high mannosylated (Con A) and terminal GalNAcα1,3(LFucα1,2)Galβ1,3/4GlcNAcβ1 sequence (DBA) in superovulated ewes. Apical protrusions from control ampullae nonciliated cells showed glycans containing mannose, GlcNac, GalNAc, galactose, and α2,3-linked sialic acid (Con A, KOH-sialidase- Wheat germ agglutnin [WGA], GSA II, SBA, Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin-isolectin B4 [GSA I-B4], Maackia amurensis agglutinin II [MAL II]). The supranuclear cytoplasm of nonciliated cells expressed terminal GlcNAc (GSA II) in all specimens, also O-linked glycans (mucin-type glycans) with GalNAc and sialic acid termini (Helix pomatia agglutinin [HPA] and MAL II) in control animals, and also N-linked glycans with fucose, galactose, lactosamine, and α2,3-linked sialic acid termini (Ulex europaeus agglutinin I [UEA I], GSA I-B4, Ricinus communis agglutinin120 [RCA120], and Sambucus nigra agglutinin [SNA] ) in superovulated ewes. These results report for the first time that the superovulation treatment affects the secretory activity and the glycan pattern of the epithelium lining

  3. Glycan profile of oviductal isthmus epithelium in normal and superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Silvestre, Fabio; Binetti, Francesco; Cox, Sharon Natasha; Roscino, Mariateresa; Caira, Michele; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Glycans of oviductal isthmus are implicated in sperm-isthmus interaction, sperm storage, survival, and capacitation. Isthmus morphology and glycoprotein production are controlled by sex steroids, which could be responsible for alterations of some reproductive events in the superovulated ewes (SE). In this study, the oviductal isthmus epithelium was evaluated in normal and in SE using morphologic and lectin histochemical analysis. The epithelium of normal isthmi was significantly taller in folds than in crypts, whereas it significantly decreased in the folds of SE. Nonciliated cells (NCs) from normal, showed apical blebs revealing apocrine secretory activity, which was missing in SE. The quantitative analysis of lectin staining revealed higher Con A, DBA, and PNA reactivity but lower affinity to KOH-sialidase- (Ks)WGA, GSA II, LTA, UEA I, SBA, GSA I-B4, RCA120, KsPNA, MAL II, SNA in control isthmi compared with superovulated ones. The NCs apical blebs showed terminal fucose (Fuc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), galactose (Gal), lactosamine, and O- and N-sialoglycans. In normal isthmi, the luminal surface of NCs and ciliated cells expressed Fuc, highly mannosilated N-glycans terminating with lactosamine as well as O-glycans ending with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and GalNAc. Moreover, NCs microvilli contained Gal and α2-3-linked sialic acids. In SE, the luminal surface lacked Gal and GalNAcα1, 3(LFucα1,2)Galβ1,3/4GlcNAcβ1, whereas it was enriched with Fuc in the folds and with α2-3sialo-mucins both in crypts and in folds. The apical surface showed additional O- and N-linked sialoglycans in NCs and αGal in the cilia, which expressed α2-6-linked sialic acid only in the folds. The cytoplasm of control NCs showed highly mannosilated N-glycans throughout the epithelium and GlcNAc in the folds. After superovulation treatment, NCs expressed cytoplasmic terminal Fuc, βGalNAc, lactosamine, α2-3-, and α2-6-linked sialic acids in the folds. The cytoplasm of normal

  4. Effect the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG hormone following superovulation treatment in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies had been reported to evaluate the effect of hormone for superovulation treatment in buffaloes, however the numbers of embryo recovered is still very small. One of the limiting factors which affect the numbers of embryo recovered is preovulatery LH concentration. The experiment was carried out to study the effect of hCG following superovulation treatments in buffaloes as an effort to increase the embryo recovered. Ten (10 buffaloes in three different genotypes (Riverine, swamp and its crosses were superovulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. A total of 12 ml FSH (Folltropin was injected intramuscularry twice a day with 12 hours interval in a decreasing doses for 4 days (2.5, 2.5; 2.0, 2.0; 1.0, 1.0 and 0.5, 0.5 ml. Prostaglandin was injected intramuscularry 2 days after the first injection of FSH followed by administration of 500 IU hCG two days later. At the same days of administration of hCG, artificial insemination (AI using frozen semen was conducted and repeated again after 12 and 24 hours. Blood collecting was conducted 3 times a week for obtaining the progesteron level of plasma blood. Embryo was collected by non-surgically technique on day 6 of estrus cycle by flushing each horn of uterus with 500 ml Dubelco's Phosphat Buffer Saline (DBPS. Parameter recorded were diameter of ovary (DO, total corpus luteum (TCL, number of embryo collected (NE, percentage of recovery rate (%RR and peak progesteron level (PP. Administration of hCG significantly increase the response of buffalo to superovulation treatment. The mean of DO (cm, TCL, NE and RR (% was 4.0, 6.3, 2.1 and 37.2 and 4.5, 7.5, 3.9 and 48.1 for controll and 500 IU hCG respectively. The mean NE was significantly higher (P<0.05 in hCG than those control. The peak progesterone concentration was highly significant higher (P<0.01 in hCG (8.9 ng/ml than those control (6.8 ng/ml. Both left and right ovary gave a similar response to superovulation treatments. In

  5. Fixed-time induction of ovulation in camels superovulated by different eCG modalities during the transition period in Egypt : Superovulation in camels during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Marwa Ahmed; Rateb, Sherif Abdel-Razzak; El-Bahrawy, Khalid Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The current investigation aimed to establish a fixed-time induction of ovulation/ insemination protocol in camels superovulated by different equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) regimens during the transition period in Egypt (mid-October to mid-November). Seventeen pluriparous camels, Camelus dromedarius, were used. All females retained controlled intra-vaginal drug releasers (CIDRs) for 13 consecutive days, and at CIDR withdrawal, the camels were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (n = 5) received 1 ml saline intra-muscularly (i.m.), whereas remaining camels were superovulated by 2500 IU eCG either in a single shot (SS, n = 6) or in serial decreasing doses over 3 days (DD, n = 6). Ovarian dynamics were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography at 2-day intervals, and ovulation was induced by 5000 IU hCG i.m. The changes in reproductive hormones throughout the period of the study were determined. The results showed that mean values of total no. of follicles and size of dominant follicles remained low (P superovulated groups compared to the control, where the dominant follicles attained the highest (P 25 mm), which did not respond to induction to ovulation. These results elucidate that eCG administration in serial decreasing doses generates a reliable superovulatory response in camels, and ovulation can be blindly induced 12 days after the gonadotropin treatment. This fixed-time hormonal protocol represents a sufficient alternative to conventional day-to-day ultrasonography and would have profound implication for enhanced fertility in dromedary camels by facilitating infield application of embryo transfer technique.

  6. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  7. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  8. Prevalence, virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains, isolated from beef in Greater Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Walid; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jbeli, Mounir; Zrelli, Samia; Ettriqui, Abdelfettah

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in 300 beef meat samples collected from cattle carcasses of different categories (young bulls, culled heifers and culled cows). The detection of Salmonella spp. was performed by the alternative VIDAS Easy Salmonella technique and confirmed by PCR using Salmonella specific primers. Salmonella serotypes were determined by slide agglutination tests. The resistance to 12 antibiotics was determined by the diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar antibiotic discs. The overall contamination rate of beef by Salmonella spp. was 5.7% (17/300). This rate varied from naught (0/100) in bulls' meat to 14% (14/100) in culled cows' meat (pinvA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Only one isolate (S. Kentucky) harbored the h-li virulence gene.

  9. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  10. Relationships of survival time, productivity and cause of death with telomere lengths of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kazuyuki; Yonai, Miharu; Kaneyama, Kanako; Ito, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hideo; Yoshioka, Hajime; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive ability, milk-producing capacity, survival time and relationships of these parameters with telomere length were investigated in 4 groups of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Each group was produced using the same donor cells (6 Holstein (1H), 3 Holstein (2H), 4 Jersey (1J) and 5 Japanese Black (1B) cows). As controls, 47 Holstein cows produced by artificial insemination were used. The SCNT cows were artificially inseminated, and multiple deliveries were performed after successive rounds of breeding and conception. No correlation was observed between the telomere length and survival time in the SCNT cows. Causes of death of SCNT cows included accidents, accident-associated infections, inappropriate management, acute mastitis and hypocalcemia. The lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was superior to those of the controls and cell donor cows. All SCNT beef cows with a relatively light burden of lactation remained alive and showed significantly prolonged survival time compared with the cows in the SCNT dairy breeds. These results suggest that the lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was favorable, and their survival time was more strongly influenced by environmental burdens, such as pregnancy, delivery, lactation and feeding management, than by the telomere length.

  11. Growth and Development of the Uterus and Placenta of Superovulated Gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVOLSON ALEXIUS MEGE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty eight gilts with average body weight of 107.83 + 5.08 kg were used in experiments to study the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG as superovulation agent in gilts to increase piglet production. Four groups of twelve gilts were injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200, and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpens. On days 15, 35, and 70 of gestation, gilts were slaughtered in order to measure the number of corpus luteum, growth and development of the uterus and placenta. Blood samples were collected to determine progesterone and estradiol concentrations. The resuts showed that superovulation dose levels of 600 to 1200 IU/gilt increased progesterone and estradiol secretions, growth and development of the uterus and placenta in gestation ages of 15, 35, and 70 days. It is concluded that superovulation with dose of 600 to 1200 IU can improve the gilts reproduction.

  12. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Wang

    Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART. The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants.

  13. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ya; Wang, Ning; Le, Fang; Li, Lei; Lou, Hang-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Zheng, Ying-Ming; Qian, Ye-Qing; Chen, Yun-Long; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2015-01-01

    This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART). The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants.

  14. The interfering effects of superovulation and vitrification upon some important epigenetic biomarkers in mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari, Azizollah; Rahmani, Hamid-Reza; Bonakdar, Elham; Jafarpour, Farnoosh; Asgari, Vajiheh; Hosseini, Sayyed-Mortaza; Hajian, Mehdi; Edriss, Mohammad-Ali; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Appropriate epigenetic changes in preimplantation embryos are critical for embryonic development and successful pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of some assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) on a panel of epigenetic biomarkers by immunofluorescence staining at blastocyst stage. For this purpose, four treatment groups were designed: control (C), superovulation (S), superovulation+in vitro culture (SI), and superovulation+vitrification+in vitro culture (SVI). Results showed that vitrification decreased the developmental competence of embryos cultured in vitro (PSuperovulation, elevated the level of H3K9acetylation of trophectoderm (TE) in comparison to C and SI groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, ARTs manipulations influenced H3K9acetylation in the ICM (P<0.05). The fluorescence intensity of H4K12acetylation in TE for SVI group was higher than C and S (P<0.05). For H3K4tri-methylation, S group had higher fluorescence intensity in the ICM in comparison to SI and SVI (P<0.05). Finally, in vitro culture decreased Pou5f1 protein signal in comparison to in vivo-derived embryos at blastocyst stage (P<0.05). In conclusion, ART manipulations may have important influences on multiple epigenetic biomarkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina.

  16. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, João Paulo A; Dohoo, Ian R; VanLeewen, John A

    2005-03-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and beef cattle for Canadian bovine practitioners. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection. Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. caninum from a Canadian perspective, culling decisions based on the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively made in the control of N. caninum-associated disease.

  17. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  18. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  19. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  20. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  1. Identification of variables contributing to superovulation efficiency for production of transgenic prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keebaugh Alaine C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an emerging animal model for biomedical research because of its rich sociobehavioral repertoire. Recently, lentiviral transgenic technology has been used to introduce the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP into the prairie vole germline. However, the efficiency of transgenesis in this species is limited by the inability to reliably produce large numbers of fertilized embryos. Here we examined several factors that may contribute to variability in superovulation success including, age and parentage of the female, and latency to mating after being placed with the male. Methods Females produced from 5 genetically distinct breeder lines were treated with 100 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and immediately housed with a male separated by a perforated Plexiglas divider. Ovulation was induced 72 hr later with 30 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and 2 hrs later mating was allowed. Results Superovulation was most efficient in young females. For example, females aged 6-11 weeks produced more embryos (14 +/- 1.4 embryos as compared to females aged 12-20 weeks (4 +/- 1.6 embryos. Females aged 4-5 weeks did not produce embryos. Further, females that mated within 15 min of male exposure produced significantly more embryos than those that did not. Interestingly, there was a significant effect of parentage. For example, 12 out of 12 females from one breeder pair superovulated (defined as producing 5 or more embryos, while only 2 out of 10 females for other lines superovulated. Conclusions The results of this work suggest that age and genetic background of the female are the most important factors contributing to superovulation success and that latency to mating is a good predictor of the number of embryos to be recovered. Surprisingly we found that cohabitation with the male prior to mating is not necessary for the recovery of embryos but is necessary to recover

  2. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg) compared with LIT (11.3 ± 0.19 kg) BW cows. Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was

  3. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  4. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  5. Effects of melatonin on superovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation in small-tailed han sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chai, Menglong; Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Fu, Yao; He, Changjiu; Deng, Shoulong; Lian, Zhengxing; Feng, Jiangzhong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of melatonin on superovulation and the transfer of transgenic embryos were investigated in Small-Tailed Han sheep. Different doses of melatonin (0, 40 or 80 mg/animal) were subcutaneously implanted into both multiparous (4-5 years old) donors and recipients before superovulation and estrus synchronization. The one-year-old young ewes without melatonin treatment served to evaluate the reproductive efficiency of the adult multiparous ewes. Ewes with superovulation were used as embryo donors. The estrus were induced in embryo recipients after embryo transpimplanted. The results showed that the number of corpora lutea of the ewes received subcutaneous 40 or 80 mg melatonin implant (13.4±1.05/ewe, 15.1±1.62/ewe) were significantly higher than that of in control group (8.8±0.37/ewe) (psuperovulation and transgenic embryo transplantation efficiency in sheep.

  6. 影响西门塔尔牛超数排卵效果的因素研究%Study on the Factors of Effecting Superovulation in Simmental Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永阔; 徐照学; 王二耀; 魏成斌; 辛晓玲; 冯亚杰; 董文听; 李晓霞; 禹学礼

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to analyze the factors of influencing superovulation in Simmental Cattle, with the aim of increasing the availability of donor cows and accelerating industrialization of the embryo transplantation. The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos were taken as the main technical indicators, in agricultural areas of Hubei Province and pasturing areas of Inner Mongolia, the main factors of superovulation were compared, including primiparous and heifers, FSH of CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and FSH of Canada, two different superovulation programs and different seasons. The results showed that: (1) The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos of heifers (9.8, 7.5) were higher than those of primiparous (7.5, 4.2) in agricultural areas (P0.05), and the similar result was acquired in pasturing areas, also no differences between the FSH of CAS (8.8, 5.5) and FSH of Canada (9.5, 6.5; P>0.05). (3) The Superovulation effects of program A (FSH+PG) and program B (CIDR+E2+P4+FSH+PG) were compared. The average number of recovered embryos and the average number of available embryos of program B (10.5, 8.0) were higher than that of program A (7.5, 4.8) in pasturing areas (P0.05). In conclusion: (1) Heifers could be the best choice as donors in agricultural and pasturing areas. (2) The FSH of CAS was better choice considering good superovulation result and low price. (3) The superovulation result in application of program B was better than that of program A. (4) For Pasturing areas, superovulation should be performed in summer, and for agricultural areas, superovulation could be performed both in spring and autumn.%  为探讨影响西门塔尔牛超数排卵效果的因素,提高供体母牛利用率、加速胚胎移植技术产业化。以头均回收胚数和头均可用胚数为主要技术指标,在湖北和内蒙古乌拉盖进行超排试验,比较经产牛

  7. Effect of season and mating system in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH on fertilization rate and embryo recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. M. A. Al-Mola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of laparoscopic intrauterine insemination to the improvement of fertilization and embryo recovery in Awassi ewes superovulated with FSH in breeding and non-breeding season. Twelve nonpregnant and cycling Awassi ewes of 3-4 years of age were randomly allocated in equal numbers (n = 6 to two groups. Each ewe was treated with a progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge for 12 days. All ewes were superovulated with FSH in eight reducing doses for four days in the morning and evening from two days prior to sponge withdrawal. Ewes of group 1 were mated naturally at least two times with Awassi rams of proven fertility. Ewes of group 2 had intrauterine insemination and were conducted 44-46 h after sponge removal, under laparoscopic visualization of uterine horns, depositing 1 ml of semen in the distal portion of each uterine horn. Ovarian response was assessed by determining number of corpora lutea by laparoscopy on day 6 after mating. Embryo recovery was performed by hand assisted laparoscopy and by flushing both uterine horns. Ovarian response of the ewes superovulated with FSH was decreased to half in the non-breeding season. High number of unfertilized ova (P<0.05 was observed in ewes superovulated with FSH in the non-breeding season when naturally inseminated compared to ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic technique. Higher rates of embryo recovery (P<0.05 were achieved in superovulated ewes in the breeding season when ewes were inseminated by laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. The fertilization rates in ewes inseminated intrauterine using laparoscopic techniques in breeding season and non-breeding season were 88.1% and 37.98%, respectively. It could be concluded from the results of the present study that the use of FSH to induce superovulation in Awassi ewes combined with laparoscopic intrauterine insemination can increase the fertilization rate in the breeding

  8. Association of a hypoxia-inducible factor-3α gene polymorphism with superovulation traits in Changbaishan black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Chen, C Z; Li, C H; Yu, W L; Chen, X; Zhang, J B

    2015-11-19

    This study was designed to examine a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HIF-3α gene in three hundred Changbaishan black cattle using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine whether there is an association between this SNP and superovulation. The cloning and sequencing results indicate that the polymorphism is due to a point mutation at the 278-bp position in the HIF-3α gene, resulting in 3 genotypes (AA, AB, and BB). Association analysis indicated that the polymorphism has a significant effect on the number of unfertilized embryos (NUE) (P superovulation improvement, and assisted fertility.

  9. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  11. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  12. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  13. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  14. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI.

  15. Effect of different superovulation stimulation protocols on adenosine triphosphate concentration in rabbit oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Carmela; Salvetti, Pascal; Joly, Thierry; Viudes-de-Castro, Maria Pilar

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian stimulation protocols are used usually to increase the number of oocytes collected. The determination of how oocyte quality may be affected by these superovulation procedures, therefore, would be very useful. There is a high correlation between oocyte ATP concentration and developmental competence of the resulting embryo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) origin and administration protocols on oocyte ATP content. Rabbit does were distributed randomly into four groups: (i) a control group; (ii) the rhFSH3 group: females were injected, every 24 h over 3 days, with 0.6 μl of rhFSH diluted in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP); (iii) the pFSH3 group: females were injected every 24 h over 3 days with 11.4 μg of pFSH diluted in PVP; and (iv) the pFSH5 group: females were injected twice a day for 5 days with 11.4 μg of pFSH diluted in saline serum. Secondly, the effect of pFSH5 protocol on developmental potential was evaluated. Developmental competence of oocytes from the control and pFSH5 groups was examined. Differences in superovulation treatments were found for ATP levels. In the pFSH5 group, the ATP level was significantly lower than that of the other groups (5.63 ± 0.14 for pFSH group versus 6.42 ± 0.13 and 6.19 ± 0.15 for rhFSH3 and pFSH3, respectively; P superovulation treatment, oocyte metabolism would be affected.

  16. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors.

  17. Superovulation induces alterations in the epigenome of zygotes, and results in differences in gene expression at the blastocyst stage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sarah Rose; Pak, Youngju; Rivera, Rocío Melissa

    2015-03-01

    Gamete and embryo manipulations can result in alterations to the epigenome, and are associated with altered gene expression. The initial objective of this study was to determine the transcript level of several epigenetic modifiers in embryos that had been cultured from the 2-cell stage until the late-blastocyst stage in four culture conditions. Cultured embryos were compared to control, in vivo-produced late blastocysts to ascertain if differences in gene expression existed among the culture conditions; none were observed. As all of the embryos used were produced in females that had undergone superovulation, we next compared the transcript level of the same epigenetic modifiers between superovulated, in vivo-produced embryos and embryos produced from natural ovulation. Following in vitro culturing, expression of the genes analyzed was increased in all superovulation groups. We therefore hypothesized that the superovulation procedure-used to increase the number of embryos obtained for experimentation-may have caused an inappropriate acquisition of epigenetic modifications in the maternal genome prior to ovulation, which in turn caused misexpression of genes at the blastocyst stage. To test this hypothesis, we compared the level of global DNA methylation and histone 3 lysine-9 or -14 acetylation in zygotes obtained by natural- or superovulation. Indeed, superovulation decreased global DNA methylation on the maternal pronucleus of zygotes, which inversely correlated with H3K9/14 acetylation. In conclusion, superovulation alters the epigenome of the oocyte, resulting in the dysregulation of gene expression at the blastocyst stage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identification of miRNAs during mouse postnatal ovarian development and superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hamid Ali; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Qian; Du, Yu-Ai; Dan, Yi; Huo, Li-Jun

    2015-07-08

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in regulation of gene expression in wide array of tissues including the ovary through sequence complementarity at post-transcriptional level. Tight regulation of multitude of genes involved in ovarian development and folliculogenesis could be regulated at transcription level by these miRNAs. Therefore, tissue specific miRNAs identification is considered a key step towards understanding the role of miRNAs in biological processes. To investigate the role of microRNAs during ovarian development and folliculogenesis we sequenced eight different libraries using Illumina deep sequencing technology. Different developmental stages were selected to explore miRNAs expression pattern at different stages of gonadal maturation with/without treatment of PMSG/hCG for superovulation. From massive sequencing reads, clean reads of 16-26 bp were selected for further analysis of differential expression analysis and novel microRNA annotation. Expression analysis of all miRNAs at different developmental stages showed that some miRNAs were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed at different stages. Among differentially expressed miRNAs we reported 61 miRNAs with a fold change of more than 2 at different developmental stages among all libraries. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, mmu-mir-1298 had the highest fold change with 4.025 while mmu-mir-150 was down-regulated more than 3 fold. Furthermore, we found 2659 target genes for 20 differentially expressed microRNAs using seven different target predictions programs (DIANA-mT, miRanda, miRDB, miRWalk, RNAhybrid, PICTAR5, TargetScan). Analysis of the predicted targets showed certain ovary specific genes targeted by single or multiple microRNAs. Furthermore, pathway annotation and Gene ontology showed involvement of these microRNAs in basic cellular process. These results suggest the presence of different miRNAs at different stages of ovarian development and

  19. Synchronization and superovulation of mature cycling gilts for the collection of pronuclear stage embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jeffrey R.; Collins, E. Bruce; Estrada, Jose L.; Petters, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    An efficient protocol was developed to synchronize and superovulate mature pigs for the collection of pronuclear stage embryos suitable for DNA microinjection. A timed and coordinated regimen of Lutalyse®, PG600® and Chorulon® along with daily checking for estrus allowed synchronization of groups of gilts having estrous cycles at regular intervals. Pigs 10 to 16 days after the beginning of standing estrus have been successfully synchronized into estrus using this protocol. A standard dose of each drug was used independent of size or age of the animal. One protocol averaged 38.9 ovulations and 31.1 1-cell embryos recovered per animal. PMID:17118586

  20. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  1. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  2. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important...... implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However......, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...

  5. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  6. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  7. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  8. Increased Oocyte Production after Acupuncture Treatment during Superovulation Process in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-lan JIN; Kazuo Tohya; Koichi Kuribayashi; Michio Kimura; Yuki-hisa Hirao

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether acupuncture treatment during superovulation process improves ovarian response and increases egg production. Methods ICR female mice aged 12-15 weeks were divided into control group, anaesthesia group and acupuncture group. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG), followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection 56 h later. Anaesthesia group and acupuncture group were anaesthetized three times by injecting 10% nembutal solution according to 7.5-10.0 μl/g weight. Acupuncture group was treated three times with puncture Sanyinjiao Points(SP6) under anaesthesia. After 17 h of hCG injection, eggs were recovered and ovaries were isolated. Matured eggs were counted, ovarian histology and expression of follicle stimulating hormone receptor(FSH-R) in ovary were analyzed.Results Acupuncture treatment statistically increased the number of ovulated eggs. Histological section showed that some matured follicles left in the ovaries of control and anaesthesia groups after ovulation. On the contrary, all matured follicles ruptured and converted into corpus lutea in Acupuncture group. Expression of FSH-R in ovary was decreased in acupuncture group compared with those of the two others.Conclusion Acupuncture treatment during superovulation process improves ovarianresponse so as to increase egg production. The positive effect of acupuncture may beassociated with regulated FSH-R expression.

  9. The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition throughout a superovulation protocol in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alécio Matos; de Souza Júnior, Antônio; Machado, Fernanda Brandão; Gonçalves, Gleisy Kelly Neves; Feitosa, Lauro César Soares; Reis, Adelina Martha; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Costa, Amilton Raposo

    2015-12-01

    Many studies identified new components of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), such as Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1–7)] and Angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), in mammalian ovaries.We previously showed Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition, which increases the level of Ang-(1–7), stimulated ovarian estradiol output in ewe after estrous synchronization. Considering that Ang-(1–7) stimulates ovarian function and elevated estradiol before ovulation is associated with increased chance of achieving pregnancy, the present study investigated whether ACE inhibition throughout a superovulation protocol in ewe might improve ovulation outcome. At first, immunohistochemistry in ovaries of nonpregnant ewes revealed localization of Angiotensin II (Ang II), Ang-(1–7) and ACE2 in theca cells of antral follicles and in corpus luteum. Ang II and Ang-(1–7)were also detected in follicular fluid (FF) by Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Enalapril treatment throughout the superovulation protocol decreased 17β-estradiol (E2) output and raised progesterone:estradiol (P4:E2) ratio without a direct influence on ovulation and quality of embryos.

  10. The recovery rate of embryos using eight different protocols of synchronization and superovulation in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WieWie Caroline

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of embryo recovery and also transferable is a major problem in superovulation regime of the ewe. The purpose of the study was to recover a large number of transferable embryos by using eight different protocols of synchronization and superovulation for each group of sheep. In this study, the Merino ewes aged between 1-3 years and rams between 2-5 years were used. The embryos were collected surgically on day-7, day-8, day-9 and day-10 after the onset of oestrus. The mean number of normal embryos recovered (3.90±1.49 at day 7 with oFSH alone (4-4.5ml and the combination of oFSH (4-4.5ml with PMSG (400 IU was significantly higher (P<0.01 than in the sheep treated with PMSG (1,200 IU alone (0.92±0.32. The results of this study showed that a mixture of oFSH and PMSG gives the best result in embryo recovery of the ewe and also transferable compared to other methods.

  11. Dominant follicle removal by ultrasound guided transvaginal aspiration and superovulatory response in Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradela A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the physiological significance of the dominant follicle (DF and its removal on the superovulatory response of 42 Nellore cows and tested the hypothesis that the number of subordinate small follicles (3-8mm could be used as a single criterion for the evaluation of the presence or absence of a DF in the ovaries. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed two days before the beginning of superovulatory treatment (D0 and the cows divided into three groups: group without DF (NDF, group with a DF (DF and group with an aspirated DF (ADF. The superovulatory response of the donors did not differ between groups, but the rate of embryonic viability was higher in NDF (69.40% and ADF (68.99% groups compared to DF (48.54%. The number of unfertilized structures did not differ between NDF and DF or between NDF and ADF groups, but was higher in DF compared to ADF. It is concluded that, in Nellore cows, the number of subordinate follicles is a safe criterion for the evaluation of the presence of a DF in the ovaries, but errors could be avoided if only 4-8mm follicles were considered, and that the presence of a DF at the beginning of superovulation reduced the embryonic viability rate and its removal by transvaginal aspiration guided by ultrasound induced embryonic viability rates similar to that observed in the absence of a DF.

  12. Cows for fear: is BSE a threat to human health? Bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-a disease that causes lack of coordination, muscle twitching or jerking, dementia, and, eventually, death-suddenly appeared in Great Britain. It is believed that the victims contracted the disease from eating the beef of cattle stricken with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. As of December 1997, at least 25 people in the United Kingdom and France have contracted vCJD.

  13. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor system in porcine oviducts after induction of ovulation and superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małysz-Cymborska, I; Andronowska, A

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of insemination as well as treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system in porcine oviducts. In the first experiment, 10 gilts were assigned to 2 groups: cyclic (treated with phosphate-buffered saline; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5). In experiment II, 15 gilts were assigned to 3 groups: inseminated (control; n = 5), induced ovulation and inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5), and superovulated and inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5). Oviducts (isthmus and ampulla) were collected 3 days after phosphate-buffered saline treatment (experiment I) or insemination. Blood samples were collected during slaughter for E2 (estradiol) and P4 (progesterone) analysis. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) of the VEGF system were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein by Western blot and E2 and P4 using radioimmunoassays. Insemination by itself decreased VEGF120 mRNA expression and VEGF-A protein level in the oviductal isthmus (P Superovulation decreased VEGF120 and VEGF164 mRNA expression in the isthmus compared with the inseminated group (P superovulated gilts (P superovulated groups (P superovulated group of gilts (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 for E2 and P4, respectively). Our study showed that insemination alone as well as ovarian stimulation affected the mRNA and protein profiles of the VEGF system in the porcine oviduct. Disrupted VEGF system expression may be crucial to many events occurring during the periovulatory period and consequently could lead to deprivation of VEGF-dependent factors that are necessary for proper fertilization, gamete transport, and embryo development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  15. Efeitos do livre acesso de bezerros ao creep-feeding sobre os esempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas Effects of free access of beef calves to creep-feeding on productivity and reproductive performance of primiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do livre acesso ao creep-feeding sobre os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas primíparas mantidas em pastagem nativa melhorada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., trevo branco (Trifolium repens Lam. e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel foram avaliados nesta pesquisa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por quatro tratamentos segundo esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sexos: vacas amamentando bezerros ou bezerras; dois sistemas de alimentação: vacas amamentando bezerros (as com ou sem acesso a creep-feeding, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais. As vacas primíparas do sistema com creep-feeding apresentaram peso corporal e escore de condição corporal, no final do experimento, mais altos que as do sistema sem creep-feeding (412 kg e 3,94 vs. 399 kg e 3,77, respectivamente. Vacas do sistema com creep-feeding tiveram ganho de peso médio diário mais elevados que o de vacas com bezerros não-suplementados (0,549 vs. 0,449 kg/dia. O creep-feeding e o sexo dos animais não influenciaram a taxa de prenhez das vacas primíparas.The research evaluated the effects of the creep-feeding on the productive and reproductive performance of the primiparous cows, maintained on improved natural pasture with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., white clover (Trifolium repens Lam. and cornichão (Lotus corniculatus Lam. cv. São Gabriel. A completely randomized experimental design composed by four treatments according to 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two sex: cows suckling male or female calves; two systems of feeding: cows suckling male or female with or without access creep-feeding, totalizing 16 experimental units. The primiparous cows of the creep-feeding system showed body weight and corporal condition, in the end of the experiment, higher in relation to the ones without creep-feeding system (412 kg and 3.94 versus 399 kg and 3.77, respectively. Cows in the creep-feeding system showed average

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Yuwana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meet their obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions (5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fattening and cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage cluster random sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang, Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiple linear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calf operation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’ income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510. Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital, collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capital and collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effects on credit return.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  18. Corpus luteum development and function after supplementation of long-acting progesterone during the early luteal phase in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliesi, G; Oliveria, M L; Scolari, S C; Lopes, E; Pinaffi, F V; Miagawa, B T; Paiva, Y N; Maio, J R G; Nogueira, G P; Binelli, M

    2014-02-01

    Strategic supplementation of P4 may be used to increase conception rates in cattle, but timing of supplementation in relation to ovulation, mass of supplementary P4 and formulation of the P4-containing supplement has not been determined for beef cattle. Effects of supplementation of long-acting progesterone (P4) on Days 2 or 3 post-ovulation on development, function and regression of corpus luteum (CL) were studied in beef cattle. Cows were synchronized with an oestradiol/P4-based protocol and treated with 150 or 300 mg of long-acting P4 on Day 2 or 3 post-ovulation (6-7 cows/group). Colour-doppler ultrasound scanning and blood sample collection were performed from Day 2-21.5. Plasma P4 concentrations were greater (p  0.05) among groups, suggesting no effect of P4 treatment on luteal development. The frequency of cows that began luteolysis before Day 15 was greater (p beef cattle. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  20. Superovulation alters embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (Epab) and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (Pabpc1) gene expression in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Saffet; Yaba-Ucar, Aylin; Sozen, Berna; Mutlu, Derya; Demir, Necdet

    2016-03-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1) play critical roles in translational regulation of stored maternal mRNAs required for proper oocyte maturation and early embryo development in mammals. Superovulation is a commonly used technique to obtain a great number of oocytes in the same developmental stages in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and in clinical or experimental animal studies. Previous studies have convincingly indicated that superovulation alone can cause impaired oocyte maturation, delayed embryo development, decreased implantation rate and increased postimplantation loss. Although how superovulation results in these disturbances has not been clearly addressed yet, putative changes in genes related to oocyte and early embryo development seem to be potential risk factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of superovulation on Epab and Pabpc1 gene expression. To this end, low- (5IU) and high-dose (10IU) pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) were administered to female mice to induce superovulation, with naturally cycling female mice serving as controls. Epab and Pabpc1 gene expression in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, MII oocytes and 1- and 2-cell embryos collected from each group were quantified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Superovulation with low or high doses of gonadotropins significantly altered Epab and Pabpc1 mRNA levels in GV oocytes, MII oocytes and 1- and 2-cell embryos compared with their respective controls (Psuperovulation.

  1. 针刺对超排卵小鼠胚胎质量的影响∗%Effects of acupuncture on embryo quality in superovulating mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 丁德光; 朱书秀

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore effects of electroacupuncture on embryo quality in superovulating mice. Methods 60 female mice were randomly divided into natural group, negative control group, su-perovulating group and electroacupuncture group. Acupuncture group was treated with electroacupuncture on Sanyinjiao(SP6), Guanyuan(RN3) and Zhongji(RN4). Embryonic quality was evaluated based on the embryonic development status and blastula evaluation system. Results Superovulating group presen-ted with the most number of embryos. High-quality embryo rate was relatively low. Moreover, the rate of Grade 3~6 blastocyst was the lowest in superovulating group. Compared with superovulating group, blas-tocyst rate in the electroacupuncture group was not significantly different (P>0. 05). However, rates of high-quality blastocyst and Grade 3~6 blastocyst were higher than the superovulating group with statisti-cal significance ( P0.05),但优质囊胚率及3~6级囊胚率均高于超排卵组,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针刺可以改善超排卵小鼠的胚胎质量,从而提高着床率。

  2. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  3. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  4. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  5. Alternatives for large-scale production of cultured beef:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matilda S M Moritz; Sanne E L Verbruggen; Mark J Post

    2015-01-01

    Cultured beef is a method where stem cel s from skeletal muscle of cows are cultured in vitro to gain edible muscle tissue. For large-scale production of cultured beef, the culture technique needs to become more efifcient than today’s 2-dimensional (2D) standard technique that was used to make the ifrst cultured hamburger. Options for efifcient large-scale production of stem cel s are to culture cel s on microcarriers, either in suspension or in a packed bed bioreactor, or to culture aggregated cel s in suspension. We discuss the pros and cons of these systems as wel as the possibilities to use the systems for tissue culture. Either of the production systems needs to be optimized to achieve an efifcient production of cultured beef. It is anticipated that the optimization of large-scale cel culture as performed for other stem cel s can be translated into successful protocols for bovine satel ite cel s resulting in resource and cost efifcient cultured beef.

  6. Globalization of the Amazon soy and beef industries: opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Almeida, Oriana T

    2006-12-01

    Amazon beef and soybean industries, the primary drivers of Amazon deforestation, are increasingly responsive to economic signals emanating from around the world, such as those associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease") outbreaks and China's economic growth. The expanding role of these economic "teleconnections" (coupled phenomena that take place in distant places on the planet) led to a 3-year period (2002-2004) of historically high deforestation rates. But it also increases the potential for large-scale conservation in the region as markets and finance institutions demand better environmental and social performance of beef and soy producers. Cattle ranchers and soy farmers who have generally opposed ambitious government regulations that require forest reserves on private property are realizing that good land stewardship-including compliance with legislation-may increase their access to expanding domestic and international markets and to credit and lower the risk of "losing" their land to agrarian reform. The realization of this potential depends on the successful negotiation of social and environmental performance criteria and an associated system of certification that are acceptable to both the industries and civil society. The foot-and-mouth eradication system, in which geographic zones win permission to export beef, may provide an important model for the design of a low-cost, peer-enforced, socioenvironmental certification system that becomes the mechanism by which beef and soy industries gain access to markets outside the Amazon.

  7. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  8. The effects of superovulation of donor sows on ovarian response and embryo development after nonsurgical deep-uterine embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, M A; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gomis, J; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of superovulation protocols in improving the efficiency of embryo donors for porcine nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) programs. After weaning (24 hours), purebred Duroc sows (2-6 parity) were treated with 1000 IU (n = 27) or 1500 IU (n = 27) of eCG. Only sows with clear signs of estrus 4 to 72 hours after eCG administration were treated with 750 IU hCG at the onset of estrus. Nonhormonally treated postweaning estrus sows (n = 36) were used as a control. Sows were inseminated and subjected to laparotomy on Days 5 to 6 (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Three sows (11.1%) treated with the highest dosage of eCG presented with polycystic ovaries without signs of ovulation. The remaining sows from nonsuperovulated and superovulated groups were all pregnant, with no differences in fertilization rates among groups. The number of CLs and viable embryos was higher (P superovulated groups compared with the controls and increased (P superovulated groups than in the control group. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between the number of CLs and the number of viable and transferable embryos, but the number of CLs and the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos were not correlated. A total of 46 NsDU ETs were performed in nonhormonally treated recipient sows, with embryos (30 embryos per transfer) recovered from the 1000-IU eCG, 1500-IU eCG, and control groups. In total, pregnancy and farrowing rates were 75.1% and 73.2%, respectively, with a litter size of 9.4 ± 0.6 piglets born, of which 8.8 ± 0.5 were born alive. There were no differences for any of the reproductive parameters evaluated among groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the efficiency of eCG superovulation treatments in decreasing the donor-to-recipient ratio. Compared with nonsuperovulated sows, the number of transferable embryos was increased in superovulated sows without affecting their quality and in vivo capacity to

  9. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  10. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMFenvironments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios.

  11. Ovarian response, embryo production and hormonal profile in superovulated goats treated with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, S; Agarwal, S K; Karche, S D; Majumdar, A C

    2003-03-01

    The influence of insulin on ovarian response and embryo production was investigated in 30 mixed breed goats, divided randomly into three equal (n=10) groups. Goats in Group 1 (control) were superovulated using 20 IU FSH i.m. in six divided descending doses, i.e. 4/4, 3/3 and 3/3 IU at 12 h interval for three consecutive days and were not given insulin treatment. Goats in Group 2 (insulin pretreatment) were pretreated with long acting purified bovine insulin 0.2 IU/kg body weight per day s.c. on Days 7, 8 and 9 of the estrous cycle prior to initiation of superovulatory treatment as in Group 1. Animals in Group 3 (insulin cotreatment) were treated as in Group I, but in addition received long acting purified bovine insulin 0.2 IU/kg body weight per day s.c. as a cotreatment along with the first, third and fifth FSH treatments on three consecutive days. Total ovarian response (corpus luteum and unovulated large follicle (UOLF)) was significantly (Pembryos did not differ significantly among treatments. Progesterone concentration on the day of PGF(2)alpha treatment was not different (P>0.05) between the insulin treatment groups (5.28+/-0.79; 5.30+/-0.66 ng/ml). Estradiol-17beta concentration was significantly (P<0.05) higher on the day of PGF(2)alpha treatment in both the insulin treatment groups (36.67+/-6.40; 34.33+/-4.33 pg/ml) as compared to the control group (20.00+/-2.73 pg/ml). There is ample evidence to indicate beneficial effect of insulin on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in superovulated goats.

  12. Superovulation on Red Angus and Treatmen with Estrus Synchronization for Cattle Recipients%红安格斯牛超数排卵和胚胎移植受体同期发情处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权富生; 马会民; 张涌; 朱士恩; 周艳华

    2011-01-01

    One hundred red Angus cows were selected as donors of MOET nuclear breed herd, two protocols were designed, and 77 donors were effectively superovulated by using CAS (Chinese Academy of Science) FSH. Meanwhile, synchronization of estrus were induced for recipient by adopting 3 protocols. The results showed that the total embryos recovered from cows and heifers were 8.45 and 9.23, respectively, and the transferable embryo numbers were 6.33 and 7.02 respectively. The total number of embryos were 10.10 and 7.63 and the transferable embryos were 6.62 and 6.51 recovered by protocol 1 and protocol 2. The percents of estrus synchronization were 71.19%, 74.44% and 77.63% respectively, the percents of recipient utilization were 66.67%, 64.93% and 69.49%, and the pregnancy rate of recipient were 50.00%, 55.17% and 56.10% by injecting PGF2α once or twice and the treatment by CIDR + PGF2α to induce estrus synchronization. The results indicated that good superovulation had been obtained by both protocol 1 and protocol 2 on red Angus cows and heifers. There were no significant effects on superovulatory between heifers and adult cows. Effects of synchronization of estrus were the same in three different protocols by luteal choice, and there were no differences between the natural estrus recipients and the introduced estrus recipients in utilization rate and pregnancy rate of recipient.%选择100头红安格斯母牛使用2种超数排卵处理方案,有效超排供体母牛77头.对受体牛采用3种方案进行同期发情处理.结果表明:育成母牛和经产母牛平均回收胚胎数分别为8.45、9.23枚(P>0.05),平均回收可用胚胎数分别为6.33、7.02枚(P>0.05);2种超排方案均取得较好的效果,超排方案1和方案2分别回收胚胎数为10.10、7.63枚,回收可用胚胎数为6.62、6.51枚.受体同期发情处理一次PG法、二次PG法及CIDR+PG法,同期发情率分别为71.19%、74.44%和77.63%(P>0.05),发

  13. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  14. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pemission factor, in calculating CH4 outputs from 4 diverse beef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level.

  15. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  16. The promising and potential role of IVF in cattle and beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Debnath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective : IVF is one of the Assisted Reproductive technology . The study was conducted to reveal the importance of IVF in cattle and beef industries . It was revealed that IVF has a dynamic advantage. In addition , it is not necessary to superovulate the cattles and on the other hand a cattle can be aspirated every 20 days. As cattle can be harvested at a very young age , it reduces the generation interval with desirable trait. This technology is tremendously used in reproductive management strategies for improving pregnancy with low fertility. Method : In this present work oocytes were collected and were fertilized with sperm under laboratory procedure following the transfer of fertilized egg to the uterus of surrogate mother. Oocytes were collected by punction of 2-4 nm follicles by aspiration method. Stimulated with hormone FSH-P follicular fluid and few cumulous cells. Further , oocytes were washed repeatedly in the washing media and then transferred in fertilization media and inseminated with sperm , which gives rise to the embryo. Result :The work was performed by taking a total of 46 oocytes ; out of which 19 were matured and among them 7 were developed in embryos. The result of the study witnessed that the success rate of such In-vitro- produced embryos is 15%. Conclusion : The In-vitro produced embryos play a major role in genetic selection scheme based on allelic variance of specific gene. The method might suggests that further research is required to improve the aspects of IVF.

  17. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  18. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  19. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  20. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  1. Avaliação da introdução de tecnologias no sistema de produção de gado de corte no Pantanal Evaluation of new management technologies on the performance and culling rate of Pantanal beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Gomes Pinto de Abreu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho produtivo de 1.075 matrizes e a estrutura etária do rebanho foram monitorados durante cinco anos (maio de 1994 a maio de 1999 em uma fazenda com sistema extensivo de cria de bovinos de corte na região do Pantanal. Nesse período, tecnologias foram introduzidas com o objetivo de modificar o sistema tradicional de produção da região e, conseqüentemente, melhorar o desempenho produtivo do rebanho de cria como um todo. As vacas foram numeradas e monitoradas durante a realização dos trabalhos de gado (TG, sendo classificadas como solteira ou parida e, conforme avaliação do desempenho reprodutivo ao longo dos trabalhos de gado, eram mantidas no rebanho ou descartadas. Os resultados foram modelados por meio de equações de estimação generalizadas (EEG com a função de ligação logística e distribuição binomial. Utilizou-se o teste de Wald para análise do efeito das variáveis ao longo do tempo. O desempenho produtivo foi significativamente influenciado pelos efeitos das variáveis exploratórias invernada, ordem de trabalho, idade da vaca linear e quadrático. O descarte de matrizes foi influenciado de forma significativa pelos efeitos de invernada, ordem de trabalho de gado e idade da vaca linear. A introdução de tecnologias não representou tendência clara de aumento da probabilidade de as vacas serem classificadas como paridas. Após a introdução da estação de monta, a pressão de descarte foi maior, aumentando a probabilidade de descarte e diminuindo a probabilidade de permanência da matriz no rebanho nas idades mais avançadas, o que o tornou mais dinâmica a reposição das vacas.Performance and age distribution of 1,075 cows were recorded during five years (May 1994 to May 1999 in a herd with an extensive cow-calf system in the Pantanal region. During this period new management technologies were introduced with the objective of modify the traditional system and improve herd production. Cows were identified

  2. Demographics of the Canadian cow-calf industry for the period 1991 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray D; Kennedy, Richard; Campbell, John R

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian cow-calf sector is about to undergo major transformative change because of shifts in Canada's population demographics. To understand the impact of this change on the Canadian beef cow-calf sector, Statistics Canada census data from 1991 to 2011 were analyzed for trends. From 2006 to 2011, the number of Canadian cow-calf producers and operations decreased by 24.6% and 26.0%, respectively. Furthermore, as of 2011, 61.9% of producers were > 50 y of age. The number of cow-calf producers is positioned to decrease by another 40% by 2021. If Canada's cow-calf industry is to maintain its current levels of production then the average herd size will need to increase markedly. The shift towards fewer but larger operations will impact the type of veterinary services demanded by cow-calf producers, and the number of veterinarians required to service this industry. Veterinary colleges will need to examine whether they are producing graduates who will meet the changing demands of livestock producers.

  3. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Usama M; Sayed, Ahmed M

    2011-06-21

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles) or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles). Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76) and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = superovulation and IUI. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075.

  4. Association of growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 gene polymorphism with superovulation traits in Changbaishan black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J B; Deng, Q

    2016-12-19

    The application of assisted reproductive technology in animal production benefits the economy and conservation of biological resources. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) was used as predictive markers for breeding and reproduction. In the present study, we examined the association between a SNP of the grb10 gene and superovulation traits in cattle. Sequencing results indicated a point mutation and statistical analysis showed a significant association of the mutation with superovulation traits. The high number of embryos collected from the heterozygotes suggested that the mutation in the grb10 gene exerted a significant effect on the number of embryos recovered although the quality was not affected. The grb10 gene may serve as a useful biomarker for donor selection.

  5. Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle – effect of management factors with emphasis on sex-sorted semen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been established in cattle breeding since the 1970s. It is an efficient means to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females. Despite nearly 50 years of development, the average number of transferable embryos recovered in a single embryo collection has remained nearly constant at approximately six embryos per donor. Several animal-related, environmental and management factors contribute to the outcome of superovulation a...

  6. Superovulation using the combined administration of inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin increases the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Takeo

    Full Text Available Superovulation is a reproductive technique generally used to produce genetically engineered mice. Superovulation in mice involves the administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG to promote follicle growth and then that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG to induce ovulation. Previously, some published studies reported that inhibin antiserum (IAS increased the number of ovulated oocytes in ddY and wild-derived strains of mice. However, the effect of IAS on the C57BL/6 strain, which is the most widely used inbred strain for the production of genetically engineered mice, has not been investigated. In addition, the combined effect of IAS and eCG (IASe on the number of ovulated oocytes in superovulation treatment has not been examined. In this study, we examined the effect of IAS and eCG on the number of ovulated oocytes in immature female mice of the C57BL/6 strain in superovulation treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the quality of obtained oocytes produced by superovulation using IASe by in vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from C57BL/6 or genetically engineered mice. The developmental ability of fresh or cryopreserved embryos was examined by embryo transfer. The administration of IAS or eCG had a similar effect on the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice. The number of ovulated oocytes increased to about 3-fold by the administration of IASe than by the administration of IAS or eCG alone. Oocytes derived from superovulation using IASe normally developed into 2-cell embryos by IVF using sperm from C57BL/6 mice. Fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell embryos produced by IVF between oocytes of C57BL/6 mice and sperm from genetically engineered mice normally developed into live pups following embryo transfer. In summary, a novel technique of superovulation using IASe is extremely useful for producing a great number of oocytes and offspring from genetically engineered mice.

  7. Superovulation using the combined administration of inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin increases the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Superovulation is a reproductive technique generally used to produce genetically engineered mice. Superovulation in mice involves the administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) to promote follicle growth and then that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovulation. Previously, some published studies reported that inhibin antiserum (IAS) increased the number of ovulated oocytes in ddY and wild-derived strains of mice. However, the effect of IAS on the C57BL/6 strain, which is the most widely used inbred strain for the production of genetically engineered mice, has not been investigated. In addition, the combined effect of IAS and eCG (IASe) on the number of ovulated oocytes in superovulation treatment has not been examined. In this study, we examined the effect of IAS and eCG on the number of ovulated oocytes in immature female mice of the C57BL/6 strain in superovulation treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the quality of obtained oocytes produced by superovulation using IASe by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm from C57BL/6 or genetically engineered mice. The developmental ability of fresh or cryopreserved embryos was examined by embryo transfer. The administration of IAS or eCG had a similar effect on the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice. The number of ovulated oocytes increased to about 3-fold by the administration of IASe than by the administration of IAS or eCG alone. Oocytes derived from superovulation using IASe normally developed into 2-cell embryos by IVF using sperm from C57BL/6 mice. Fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell embryos produced by IVF between oocytes of C57BL/6 mice and sperm from genetically engineered mice normally developed into live pups following embryo transfer. In summary, a novel technique of superovulation using IASe is extremely useful for producing a great number of oocytes and offspring from genetically engineered mice.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  9. The long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zeng-Tao; Lu, Xi-Lan; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Li, Hua; Jia, Gui-Hua; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of superovulation on fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice. The mice were superovaluted, and the fertility of male offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were evaluated in terms of the percentage of plugs and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm motility. Furthermore, the sexual behavior of male offspring and sex ratio (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. There were no significant differences in the percentage of plug and pregnancies, serum testosterone concentrations, sperm motilities and sex ratio between the offspring in naturally conceived group and superovulation groups (both F1 generation and F2 generation). The sperm hyperactivity at 90 min after incubation of F1 generation in naturally conceived group were higher than that of F1 generation in superovulation group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The offspring produced by superovaluted oocytes (both F1 generation and F2 generation) did not exhibit significant alterations in sexual behavior. No significant alterations were found in fertility and sexual behavior of male offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  10. Multi-state Beef Reproduction Task Force provides science-based recommendations for the application of reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Funston, R N; Hall, J B; Kesler, D J; Lamb, G C; Lauderdale, J W; Patterson, D J; Perry, G A; Strohbehn, D R

    2011-09-01

    Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural

  11. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  12. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  13. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  14. Activity of glycosidases (β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase) in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after multiple ovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Theodora; Amiridis, Georgios S.; Vainas, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the activity of β-N-acetyloglucosaminidase (β-NAGASE), α-mannosidase, and β-galactosidase in the uterine luminal fluid of cows after superovulation treatment, along with the possible associations between the activity of these 3 glycosidases and the superovulatory response. Embryos and a sample of fluid flushed from each uterine horn were collected on day 7 after artificial insemination (on estrus day 0) from 32 cows in which superovulation was induced with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone. Glycosidase activity was assayed colorimetrically. The cows were classified as to superovulatory response according to the number of corpora lutea per ovary (group 1, 1 to 4; group 2,> 4) and according to the total number of embryos per horn (T1, 0; T2, 1 to 2; T3, 3 to 4; T4, > 4) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (TR1, 0; TR2, 1 to 2; TR3, 3 to 4; TR4, > 4). The mean activity of β-NAGASE was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group 2 than in group 1, at 95.99 (standard error 20.43) versus 226.72 (46.77) IU/L. It was also significantly lower (P < 0.01) in group T4 compared with groups T1, T2, and T3, at 50.09 (8.21) versus 129.25 (34.60), 222.27 (62.62), and 290.26 (93.77) IU/L, respectively, as well as in group T1 compared with group T3. There was a positive relationship between β-NAGASE activity and both the total number of embryos (P = 0.047) and the number of transferable embryos per horn (P = 0.013) when 1 to 4 corpora lutea developed per ipsilateral ovary. No difference in α-mannosidase or β-galactosidase activity was detected among the groups. PMID:17955905

  15. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  16. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  17. Comparison of three protocols for superovulation of brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Eveline dos Santos; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ovulation rate and the presence of functional corpora lutea after treatment by three different protocols designed to cause superovulation in brown brocket deer. Six female received an intravaginal device containing 0.33 g of progesterone (CIDR®) for 8 days, followed by 0.5 mg injection of estradiol benzoate at the time of insertion and 265 µg of cloprostenol at the time of removal. Afterwards, the hinds were divided into three groups (n = 2): Treatment A received injection of 600 IU eCG on Day 4 after CIDR® insertion; Treatment B received injection of 300 IU eCG at the same time; and Treatment C received injection of 250 IU FSH dissolved in PVP, also on Day 4 post-insertion. The treatments were crossed over with 44-48 day intervals after CIDR® removal, such that all the deer were submitted to all three treatments. The mean ovulation rate (Treatment A = 3.40 ± 0.68, Treatment B = 1.40 ± 0.24, Treatment C = 0.80 ± 0.49), total ovarian stimulation (Treatment A = 4.80 ± 1.02, Treatment B = 1.80 ± 0.37, Treatment C = 1.40 ± 0.60), and mean CL diameter (Treatment A = 7.33 ± 0.76 mm, Treatment B = 3.94 ± 0.19 mm, Treatment C = 2.18 ± 0.49 mm) in Treatment A were significantly higher than the mean ovulation rates, total ovarian stimulation, and mean CL diameter in Treatments B and C. The mean fecal progesterone metabolites at the luteal phase in Treatment A (6,277.94±2,232.47 ng/g feces) was significantly different from Treatment C (1,374.82±401.77 ng/g feces). Thus, although fertility was not evaluated directly, Treatment A proved capable of induce superovulation in the species Mazama gouazoubira, presenting the greatest mean ovulation rates, with the formation of functional corpora lutea. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cool Cow Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Provides a game to help develop the skill of estimating and making educated guesses. Uses facts about cows to explain some problems associated with the dairy industry. Includes cards and rules for playing, class adaptation procedures, follow-up activities, and availability of background information on humane concerns. (RT)

  19. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  20. Farmer views on calving difficulty consequences on dairy and beef farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Hely, F; Byrne, T J; Evans, R; Cromie, A R; Amer, P R

    2017-02-01

    Calving difficulty (CD) is a key functional trait with significant influence on herd profitability and animal welfare. Breeding plays an important role in managing CD both at farm and industry level. An alternative to the economic value approach to determine the CD penalty is to complement the economic models with the analysis of farmer perceived on-farm impacts of CD. The aim of this study was to explore dairy and beef farmer views and perceptions on the economic and non-economic on-farm consequences of CD, to ultimately inform future genetic selection tools for the beef and dairy industries in Ireland. A standardised quantitative online survey was released to all farmers with e-mail addresses on the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation database. In total, 271 farmers completed the survey (173 beef farmers and 98 dairy farmers). Both dairy and beef farmers considered CD a very important issue with economic and non-economic components. However, CD was seen as more problematic by dairy farmers, who mostly preferred to slightly reduce its incidence, than by beef farmers, who tended to support increases in calf value even though it would imply a slight increase in CD incidence. Farm size was found to be related to dairy farmer views of CD with farmers from larger farms considering CD as more problematic than farmers from smaller farms. CD breeding value was reported to be critical for selecting beef sires to mate with either beef or dairy cows, whereas when selecting dairy sires, CD had lower importance than breeding values for other traits. There was considerable variability in the importance farmers give to CD breeding values that could not be explained by the farm type or the type of sire used, which might be related to the farmer non-economic motives. Farmer perceived economic value associated with incremental increases in CD increases substantially as the CD level considered increases. This non-linear relationship cannot be reflected in a standard linear index

  1. Association of a missense mutation in the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR) with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Upon binding luteinizing hormone in the ovary, the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for follicular maturation and ovulation, as well as luteal function. We detected mutations in the LHCGR gene and evaluated their association with superovulation. Methods Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing, we examined polymorphisms in LHCGR and the genotypes associated with superovulation traits in 127 Chinese Holstein heifers. Results A G/T polymorphism (ss52050737) in exon 11 was significantly associated with the total number of ova and the number of transferable embryos. Conclusions LHCGR may be a new predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein heifers. PMID:23140330

  2. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, nested PCR probe was performed on blood samples. Association between potential risk factors and seroprevalence was estimated. Results. Overall seroprevalence was 23% (35/149 samples, while the prevalence of parasite DNA in blood was 28% (42/149 samples. Of the 149 animals examined 28 (19% were positive to both tests (25 cows and 3 bulls. Concordance between tests was k = 0.63. All herds had seropositive animals with positive parasite DNA detection in blood. The only risk factor identified was the presence of dogs (OR= 2.65. Conclusions. This study showed that bovine neospososis should be considered as an important infectious disease in north-central Mexico herds. Therefore, an epidemiological control should be taken into consideration to avoid the negative effect of this disease on mexican beef industry.

  3. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  4. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  5. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  6. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  8. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  9. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  10. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  11. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  12. Concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas de corte mantidas a pasto suplementadas com levedura de cromo durante a estação de monta Cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus plasma concentration in grazing beef cows supplemented with high chromium yeast during breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fabian Aragón Vásquez

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a influência da suplementação com cromo (Cr sobre a concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas zebu mantidas a pasto e numa situação de estresse calórico durante a estação de monta. Foram utilizadas trinta vacas primíparas com peso entre 380 e 385kg. Os animais foram divididos em grupos de 15 vacas, formando o tratamento suplementado com Cr e o tratamento não suplementado (controle. As vacas pastorearam em piquetes formados por Brachiaria brizanta cv. Marandu. A fonte de Cr foi levedura enriquecida (1g Cr kg-1 de produto comercial e foi adicionado à mistura mineral aportando 0,017% de Cr. Amostras de sangue foram tomadas em três períodos através de venipunção jugular e coletadas em tubos contendo heparina. As amostras de plasma foram analisadas para fósforo, cálcio, uréia e cortisol. Os dados foram analisados como um desenho de blocos ao acaso. O consumo médio diário de mistura mineral foi de 72,92g no grupo suplementado com Cr (12,40mg Cr/cabeça/dia e 77,84g no grupo controle (0,78mg Cr/cabeça/dia. A concentração plasmática de cortisol, no grupo suplementado com Cr, foi menor que no tratamento controle (2,11mg dl-1 vs. 3,29mg dl-1. As concentrações plasmáticas de fósforo (6,36mg dl-1 vs 3,56mg dl-1 e de cálcio (12,87mg dl-1 vs 9,02mg dl-1 foram maiores no grupo suplementado com Cr durante o primeiro período, mas não existiram diferenças no segundo e terceiro períodos de colheita. Os níveis plasmáticos de uréia (17,13mg dl-1 vs. 17,70mg dl-1 não foram diferentes entre os grupos experimentais.The influence of supplemental chromium (Cr on plasma cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus concentration were investigated in grazing cattle in caloric stress situation during the breeding season. Thirty primiparous zebu cows with 380 to 385kg of body weight were assigned to the following treatments: 15 cows fed supplemental Cr and 15 cows without supplemental Cr (Control

  13. Executive summary of effects of air emissions from sour gas plants on the health and productivity of beef and dairy herds in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M. H.

    1998-07-01

    The effects of licensed emissions into air from sour gas processing plants and oilfield batteries on the health and productivity of beef cow-calf and dairy herds was investigated. Four distinct atmospheric dispersion models were used to assess historical exposures at 1,382 dairy and 5,726 beef cow-calf farm sites from 1985 through 1994 to three exposure variables: (1) emissions into air from licensed sour gas processing plants, (2) sulphur dioxide from all larger industrial sources, or (3) solution gas flaring. In the dairy study, none of the emissions were found to have harmful association with herd culling or mortality, milk production, milk somatic cell count, stillbirths or twin births. The beef cow-calf study showed no significant negative association between the sour gas or sulphur dioxide exposure variables and herd culling, the calf-crop delivered, stillbirth, calf mortality, or calf-crop weaned. Some negative association was found to exist between the level of exposure to sulphur dioxide from large industrial sources, which increased the number of twin births and produced an increased calving season profile. However, this finding does not directly implicate the sour gas industry as a cause.

  14. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  15. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  16. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  17. Oestrus synchronisation and superovulation alter the production and biochemical constituents of ovine cervicovaginal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jessie W; Rickard, Jessica P; Mooney, Ethan; Bernecic, Naomi C; Soleilhavoup, Clement; Tsikis, Guillaume; Druart, Xavier; Leahy, Tamara; de Graaf, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Controlled breeding programmes utilising exogenous hormones are common in the Australian sheep industry, however the effects of such programmes on cervicovaginal mucus properties are lacking. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate cervicovaginal (CV) mucus from naturally cycling (NAT), progesterone synchronised (P4), prostaglandin synchronised (PGF2α), and superovulated (SOV) Merino ewes. Experiment 1; volume, colour, spinnbarkeit, chemical profile and protein concentration of mucus (NAT, P4, PGF2α and SOV; n=5 ewes/treatment) during the follicular (5 d) and luteal phases (8 d) was investigated. Experiment 2; in vivo mucus pH and in vitro mucus penetration by frozen-thawed spermatozoa (NAT, P4 and SOV; n=11 ewes/treatment) was investigated over oestrus (2 d) and the mid-luteal phase (pH only, 2 d). Oestrus mucus was more abundant, clearer in colour and less proteinaceous than luteal phase mucus (p0.05). Results indicate that exogenous hormones used for controlled breeding affect cervicovaginal mucus production, but few other tested characteristics. Further research is required to explain fertility differences between synchronised and naturally cycling animals following cervical AI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Superovulation induces defective methylation in line-1 retrotransposon elements in blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-Wei; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Sun, Shao-Chen; Jin, Yong-Xun; Heo, Young Tae; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-07-18

    Series of epigenetic events happen during preimplantation development. Therefore assistant reproduction techniques (ART) have the potential to disrupt epigenetic regulation during embryo development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether defects in methylation patterns in blastocyst due to superovulation originate from abnormal expression of Dnmts. Low- (6 IU) and high- (10 IU) dosage of PMSG was used to stimulate the female mice. The metaphase II(MII) oocytes, zygotes and blastocyst stage embryos were collected. Global methylation and methylation at H3K9 in zygote, and methylation at repeated sequence Line 1 and IAP in blastocysts were assayed. In addition, expression of Dnmts was examined in oocytes and zygotes. Global DNA methylation and methylation at H3K9 in zygotes derived from females after low- or high-dosage hormone treatment were unaltered compared to that in controls. Moreover, DNA methylation at IAP in blastocysts was also unaffected, regardless of hormone dosage. In contrast, methylation at Line1 decreased when high-dose hormone was administered. Unexpectedly, expression of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt3L as well as maintenance Dnmt1o in oocytes and zygotes was not disrupted. The results suggest that defects in embryonic methylation patterns do not originate from the disruption of Dnmt expression.

  19. Impact of including growth, carcass and feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal for combined milk and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Juga, J

    2017-04-01

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle could result in more profitable and environmentally sustainable dairy production through lowering feed costs and emissions from dairy farming. In addition, beef production based on dairy herds generates fewer greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat output than beef production from suckler cow systems. Different scenarios were used to assess the profitability of adding traits, excluded from the current selection index for Finnish Ayrshire, to the breeding goal for combined dairy and beef production systems. The additional breeding goal traits were growth traits (average daily gain of animals in the fattening and rearing periods), carcass traits (fat covering, fleshiness and dressing percentage), mature live weight (LW) of cows and residual feed intake (RFI) traits. A breeding scheme was modeled for Finnish Ayrshire under the current market situation in Finland using the deterministic simulation software ZPLAN+. With the economic values derived for the current production system, the inclusion of growth and carcass traits, while preventing LW increase generated the highest improvement in the discounted profit of the breeding program (3.7%), followed by the scenario where all additional traits were included simultaneously (5.1%). The use of a selection index that included growth and carcass traits excluding LW, increased the profit (0.8%), but reduced the benefits resulted from breeding for beef traits together with LW. A moderate decrease in the profit of the breeding program was obtained when adding only LW to the breeding goal (-3.1%), whereas, adding only RFI traits to the breeding goal resulted in a minor increase in the profit (1.4%). Including beef traits with LW in the breeding goal showed to be the most potential option to improve the profitability of the combined dairy and beef production systems and would also enable a higher rate of self-sufficiency in beef. When considering feed efficiency related traits, the

  20. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  1. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  2. 带犊繁育体系母牛养殖经营模式的效益分析%Analysis on Economy Benefit of Cow Breeding with Different Business Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚一; 何龙; 王琼; 赵德兵; 李雪娇; 曹琼; 莫放

    2012-01-01

    According to the investigation on beef cow feeding in Ganjun Town,the economy benefit of cow feeding with different business models were analyzed and compared.The business models for cow breeding involved were: ①cow + calf; ② cow + calf + feeder cattle; ③cow + calf + (+ feeder cattle) + fattening beef.The results showed that cow feeding costs could be reduced by sharing of calf,feeder cattle,fattening cattle so that a positive balance could be gotten,especially with fattening cattle.%文章调查了甘肃省张掖市甘浚镇农村繁殖母牛饲养规模、饲料资源、人力资源等情况.结果表明带犊繁育体系母牛养殖经营模式有“母牛+犊牛”经营模式、“母牛+犊牛+架子牛”经营模式、“母牛+犊牛(+架子牛)+育肥牛”经营模式,母牛养殖的成本由犊牛、架子牛、育肥牛分担后仍有盈亏正平衡.母牛养殖不同经营模式中,参与育肥可明显提高带犊繁育体系母牛养殖的效益.

  3. Neospora caninum in beef herds in New South Wales, Australia. 1: seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, B J; Kirkland, P D; Heuer, C

    2017-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across New South Wales (NSW) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors. Cross-sectional survey of beef breeding cows (n = 3298) from 63 properties (approximately 55 cows per herd) sampled randomly from six regions in NSW using a multistage survey design. Samples were tested by ELISA for N. caninum. Seroprevalence was determined at animal and herd levels, using an analysis approach to account for stratification, sample weighting and within-herd clustering. Animal-level seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% across regions and the overall animal seroprevalence for NSW was 5.9%. The mean within-herd seroprevalence was 5.2%. The herd seroprevalence ranged from 50% to 92%, with an overall point estimate for NSW of 63.8% (using ≥ 1 animal positive = herd positive). The within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 1.6% to 32.7% Prevalence and associated confidence limits were adjusted for the design of the survey. Overall, about two-thirds of all herds in NSW showed evidence of infection, but the seroprevalence of N. caninum in individual beef cattle in NSW was low to moderate (1.8-11.3%). Significant differences occurred between regions. The risk for herds being positive for N. caninum was associated with geographic factors, particularly in the Mid-North Coast Region. © 2017 State of New South Wales.

  4. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  5. Estimation of the intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus thoracis in crossbred beef cattle based on live animal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Purwin, Cezary

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of live animal measurements in estimating the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of m. longissimus thoracis (MLT) in beef cattle. Live animal measurements were performed in young crossbred bulls (96) and steers (59), the offspring of Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolais), at the end of the fattening period. The content of intramuscular fat was determined in samples from MLT by chemical analyses. A prediction model was developed by stepwise regression. In the validation model, the values of R(2)=0.74, RMSE=0.37% were determined. The results indicate that selected biometric (chest width, chest girth) ultrasound measurements (thickness of subcutaneous rump and back fat) and selected blood parameters (triglycerides) can be used to predict IMF content with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyzed parameters could constitute a valuable tool in the process of selecting beef quality traits and determining the slaughter value of young beef cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  7. Embryo production in superovulated goats treated with insulin before or after mating or by continuous propylene glycol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A L; Galeati, G; Almeida, A P; Arruda, I J; Govoni, N; Freitas, V J F; Rondina, D

    2008-04-01

    Seventeen adult and cyclic Moxoto goats were synchronized using 60 mg MPA vaginal sponge for 11 days and 50 mug cloprostenol, 48 h before sponge removal, and superovulated with 120 mg pFSH i.m. in decreasing doses at 12 h intervals for three consecutive days. In seven goats, 0.2 IU/kg BW/day of long acting insulin was subcutaneously injected at same time as pFSH, and in the other five goats, the same dose of insulin was injected for three consecutive days starting 24 h after mating. Finally, five goats were supplemented with an oral dose of 80 ml/goat/day of propylene glycol continuously during the experiment. The animals were flushed at 7 days after mating and the embryos were classified based on International Embryo Transfer Society criteria. Blood samples were collected every 3 days for insulin assay. Administration of insulin raised the insulin levels of the goats (p propylene glycol, insulin rate was different only between FSH treatment and after mating (p 0.05) by responsiveness to superovulation, which averaged 64%. By contrast, insulin treatments were shown to increase the number of embryos considered excellent with respect to goats supplemented with propylene glycol (p < 0.05). When insulin was given before mating, a strong relationship (r = 0. 90) (p < 0.05) between number of transferable embryo and ovulations was observed in the animals. In conclusion, superovulated goats treated with low doses of exogenous insulin resulted in an enhancement in embryo quality, which was related to changes in circulating insulin concentrations.

  8. Immunotherapy using inhibin antiserum enhanced the efficacy of equine chorionic gonadotropin on superovulation in major inbred and outbred mice strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi

    2016-09-15

    Improvement of the superovulation technique will help to enhance the efficiency of embryo and animal production. Blocking inhibin using inhibin antiserum (IAS) is known to promote follicular development by increasing the level of FSH. Previously, we reported that coadministration of IAS and eCG produced more than 100 oocytes from a single female C57BL/6 mouse at 4 weeks old. The oocytes derived from the IAS + eCG (IASe) treatment were able to fertilize and develop normally into offspring. In this study, we examined the effect of IASe treatment on the numbers of ovulated oocytes in major inbred (A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3HeJ, DBA/2J, and FVB/NJ) and outbred (CD1) mice strains at 4 weeks old. We confirmed the fertilization and developmental ability of the IASe-derived oocytes. IASe treatment ovulated 1.5 to 3.2 times higher numbers of oocytes than eCG treatment alone. The fertilization rate of IASe-derived oocytes was similar to that of eCG-derived oocytes. In vitro and in vivo developmental rates of the embryos derived from IASe were similar to the rates of embryos derived from eCG. We have shown that superovulation by IASe is very effective in obtaining high numbers of ovulated oocytes from small numbers of oocyte donor in a number of mice strains. The superovulation technique will contribute to the archiving of cryopreserved embryos of genetically engineered mice using small numbers of donors and has the potential to produce more live animals for rederivation of the archived mouse lines in mouse repositories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Superovulation and in vitro oocyte maturation in three species of mice (Mus musculus, Mus spretus and Mus spicilegus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Coello, J; González, R; Crespo, C; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2008-10-01

    Mouse oocytes can be obtained via superovulation or using in vitro maturation although several factors, including genetic background, may affect response. Our previous studies have identified various mouse species as models to understand the role of sexual selection on the evolution of sperm traits and function. In order to do comparative studies of sperm-oocyte interaction, we sought reliable methods for oocyte superovulation and in vitro maturation in mature females of three mouse species (genus Mus). When 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and 5 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) were injected 48 h apart, and oocytes collected 14 h post-hCG, good responses were obtained in Mus musculus (18+/-1.3 oocytes/female; mean+/-S.E.M.) and Mus spretus (12+/-0.8), but no ovulation was seen in Mus spicilegus. Changes in PMSG or hCG doses, or longer post-hCG intervals, did not improve results. Use of PMSG/luteinizing hormone (LH) resulted in good responses in M. musculus (19+/-1.2) and M. spretus (12+/-1.1) but not in M. spicilegus (5+/-0.9) with ovulation not increasing with higher LH doses. Follicular puncture 48 h after PMSG followed by in vitro maturation led to a high oocyte yield in the three species (M. musculus, 23+/-0.9; M. spretus, 17+/-1.1; M. spicilegus, 10+/-0.9) with a consistently high maturation rates. In vitro fertilization of both superovulated and in vitro matured oocytes resulted in a high proportion of fertilization (range: 83-87%) in the three species. Thus, in vitro maturation led to high yields in all three species. These results will allow future studies on gamete interaction in these closely related species and the role of sexual selection in gamete compatibility.

  10. High-Yield Superovulation in Adult Mice by Anti-Inhibin Serum Treatment Combined with Estrous Cycle Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ayumi; Mochida, Keiji; Inoue, Hiroki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Endo, Tamao; Watanabe, Gen; Ogura, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Producing many mature oocytes is of great importance for assisted reproductive technologies. In mice, superovulation by consecutive injections of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been the gold standard for oocyte collection. However, the yield of mature oocytes by this regimen can fluctuate according to the stage of the estrous cycle, strain, and age. Therefore, our objective was to develop a high-yield superovulation protocol to collect higher numbers of oocytes from adult female mice of different strains and ages. First, we aimed to synchronize the estrous cycle using C57BL/6 (B6) female mice. Most (93%) were synchronized to metestrus after two daily injections of progesterone. Second, we found that with the injection of anti-inhibin serum (AIS) instead of eCG, the mean number of ovulated oocytes almost doubled (21 vs. 41 per mouse). Third, by combining estrous cycle synchronization with two AIS injections, we obtained 62 oocytes per mouse, about three times that with the eCG-hCG protocol. Importantly, this approach increased the proportion of mice that ovulated >25 oocytes from about 40% (eCG-hCG) to 90%. The same protocol was also effective in other inbred (BALB/cA), outbred (ICR), and hybrid (B6D2F1) strains. In addition, B6 female mice aged over 1 yr ovulated 1.8-fold more oocytes by this protocol. Thus, estrous cycle synchronization followed by AIS-hCG yielded a broadly applicable, highly efficient superovulation. This protocol should promote the effective use of invaluable female mouse strains and decrease the numbers of animals euthanized. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  12. Influence of factors during superovulation on embryo production in Korean Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Songjeon; Lee, Byeongchun; Jang, Goo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.

  13. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta superovulatória e a digestibilidade aparente da dieta em vacas de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.47 Induced hypothyroidism effect on superovulatory response and diet apparent digestibility in beef cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.47

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou determinar o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana ao hormônio folículo estimulante exógeno, a normalidade do ciclo estral de vacas e a digestibilidade aparente. Utilizaram-se 10 vacas Nelore tratadas com propylthiouracil (PTU. A digestibilidade aparente da Matéria Seca, os números médios de corpos lúteos, de embriões, de estrururas colhidas, de estruturas infertilizadas, de estruturas degeneradas, de mórulas, de índice de colheita e de índice de fertilização não variaram significativamente (P>0,05. Os valores médios de T3 foram de 1,35+0,1 e 1,91+0,1 ng mL-1, de T4 de 20,95+1,37 e 61,82+1,37, de TSH 7,95+0,36 e 2,61+0,36, respectivamente, para os animais tratados e controle, havendo diferença significativa (PThe experiment aimed to establish the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian response to the exogenous follicle stimulating hormone, the normality of the cows estrous cycle, and apparent diet digestibility. 10 Nelore cows were used and treated with propylthiouracil (PTU. DM apparent digestibility, average numbers of corpus luteum, collected embryos, unfertilized structures, degenerated structures, morulas, collecting rate, fertilization rate, did not present significant variation (P>0.05. In the treated animals, de average T3, T4, and TSH values were 1.35 ±0.1, 20.95±1.37 and 7.95±0.36, respectively, and in the controls 1.91+0.1 for T3, 61.82+1.37 for T4 and 2.61+0.36 TSH, with significant difference (P<0.05. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that hypothyroidism did not affect diet apparent digestibility, embryos production, steroidogenesis or ovarian activity

  14. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by Buserelin (GnRH) administration prior to superovulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-01-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonatotropin (PMSG) and 48 hours later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...

  15. 母兔超数排卵影响因素的研究%Study on Superovulation in Female Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金姬; 张顺; 石金月; 句舒; 蒋建荣; 韦英明; 谭世俭; 石德顺; 陆凤花

    2011-01-01

    The effect factors of the superovulation in rabbit were investigated in this study. The results showed; ①The average number of oocytes recovered from FSH-treated group(30. 05 ±8. 97) was significantly higher than PMSG-treated group (22. 46±5. 18)(P0. 05), but both of them were higher than Summer group (P<0. 05). ③ The average number of oocytes recovered from superovulation in pluriparous rabbit group (30. 56 ±6. 79) was higher than young rabbit group (21. 60±3. 66)(P<0. 05). These results indicated that the effect of FSH on superovulation in rabbit was more effective than PMSG.and the season of spring and pluriparous rabbit were comparatively suitable for superovulation.%采用国产促性腺激素对新西兰白兔进行超数排卵试验,研究激素、季节及兔龄对超排效果的影响.结果发现:①FSH组(30.05±8.97个/只)平均排卵数显著高于PMSG组(22.46±5.18个/只)(P<0.05).②母兔在春季、夏季、秋季、冬季的平均排卵数为32.34±5.58、15.96±4.11、24.18±4.95和22.61±3.75个/只,春季的处理效果显著优于其他3个季节(P<0.05),而秋季和冬季处理组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05),但都显著高于夏季(P<0.05).③经产母兔超排处理后的平均排卵数(30.56±6.79个/只)显著高于青年母兔平均排卵数(21.60±3.66个/只)(P<0.05).以上结果表明,SH超排效果优于PMSG,且在春季对母兔进行超排处理比较合适,经产母兔比青年母兔超排效果更好.

  16. 犊牛超数排卵方法的研究%Study on the Method of Superovulation in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑自华; 毛献宝; 陈宝剑; 潘斌; 黎江; 范晓明; 沈创; 韦英明

    2012-01-01

    In order to define the best superovulation program, the best month old of calves and the best repeated superovulation time interval, different superovulation programs were conducted on different months old calves (1~6 months old) in this study. The results showed that the superovulation program 4, of which the average number of eggs collected was 80. 0 missiles, the average number of oocytes recovered was 43. 3 missiles and the average number of eggs available was 37. 8 missiles, were significantly higher than the other four programs (P<0. 05). It suggested that program 4 was fitted for superovulation of 3 months old calves; program 4 was much better than other 4 programs in 2 months old, 3 months old, 4 months old, 5 month old calves with the average number of eggs of 33. 5, 41. 0, 34. 5 and 32. 8 missiles respectively, and the difference between each other was not significant. The results of 1 month and 6 months old calves with the average number of available eggs of 10. 8 and 18. 3 missiles was significantly lower than the other four age groups (P<0. 05), it suggested that the superovulation treatment program 4 was most suitable for 2 to 5 months calves. Moreover, we also found that the results of superovulation interval of 2 weeks group with average number of eggs available of 6.3 missiles were significantly worse than the interval of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks group (P<0. 05) with that of 16. 7, 23. 7, 23.0 missiles, respectively. The superovulation difference between 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks groups was not significant indicated that the best time interval of 3 to 4 weeks was best for repeated superovulation treatment on calves.%本试验采用不同超排处理方案对不同月龄犊牛(1~6月龄)进行超排处理,以得出犊牛超数排卵的最佳方案、最佳月龄和重复超排的最佳时间间隔.结果表明,超排方案4的超排效果最好,平均采卵数(80.0枚)、平均回收卵数(43.3枚)和平均可用卵数(37.8

  17. Simulated efficiency of range beef production. III. Culling strategies and nontraditional management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, R M; Brinks, J S

    1987-10-01

    A modified version of the Texas A&M Beef Cattle Production Model was used to simulate life-cycle biological and economic efficiency of various culling strategies and non-traditional management systems in a northern plains, range environment. Biological efficiency was defined as the ratio of TDN input (kg) to product output (kg), and economic efficiency was defined as the ratio of cost ($) to product output (100 kg), where products were live weight at weaning (LWW), empty body weight at slaughter (EBW) and fat-free weight at slaughter (FFW). Several economic scenarios were simulated. Culling cows at younger ages increased biological efficiency, but not necessarily economic efficiency. The simulated optimal age at culling was 8 yr, the same age at which simulated feed intake and milk production began to decline. Finishing young cows in the feedlot had little effect on biological efficiency and generally increased economic efficiency, although specific results depended on feed prices and relative values of cull cows vs fed animals. A simulated sex-controlled system in which only heifer calves were produced, while extremely biologically efficient for production of lean, resulted in relatively little output and was not economically efficient in most cases. Sex control combined with feeding of 2-yr-old cows was economically efficient, but not markedly more efficient than a conventional system. Results suggest that sex-controlled systems may be more appropriate where emphasis is on lean product and heifers can be bred at very early ages. General results indicate that producers should pay attention to relative values of cull cows and fed animals in choosing culling strategies and management systems.

  18. Identification of Biomarkers Associated with the Rearing Practices, Carcass Characteristics, and Beef Quality: An Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Monteils, Valérie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-09-20

    Data from birth to slaughter of cull cows allowed using a PCA-based approach coupled with the iterative K-means algorithm the identification of three rearing practices classes. The classes were different in their carcass characteristics. Old cows raised mainly on pasture have better carcass characteristics, while having an equivalent tenderness, juiciness, flavor, intramuscular fat content, and pHu to those fattened with hay or haylage. The Longissimus thoracis muscle of the cows raised on pasture (with high physical activity) showed greater proportions of IIA fibers at the expense of the fast IIX ones. Accordingly, the meat of these animals have better color characteristics. Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and αB-crystallin quantified by Dot-Blot were the only other biomarkers to be more abundant in "Grass" class compared to "Hay" and "Haylage" classes. The relationships between the biomarkers and the 6 carcass and 11 meat quality traits were investigated using multiple regression analyses per rearing practices. The associations were rearing practice class and phenotype trait-dependent. ICDH and TP53 were common for the three classes, but the direction of their entrance was different. In addition, rearing practices and carcass traits were not related with Hsp70-Grp75 and μ-calpain abundances. The other relationships were specific for two or one rearing practices class. The rearing practices dependency of the relationships was also found with meat quality traits. Certain proteins were for the first time related with some beef quality traits. MyHC-IIx, PGM1, Hsp40, ICDH, and Hsp70-Grp75 were common for the three rearing practices classes and retained to explain at list one beef quality trait. A positive relationship was found between PGM1 and hue angle irrespective of rearing practices class. This study confirms once again that production-related traits in livestock are the result of sophisticated biological processes finely orchestrated during the life of the animal

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  20. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  1. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  2. Effect of high fat diet on artificial oocyte activation following superovulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Chika; Kitazato, Takane; Iwasa, Takeshi; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of increased dietary intake and high fat diet (HFD) in mice on artificial oocyte activation by using puromycin or roscovitine. Six-week-old mice were fed as either a control diet group, an increased dietary intake group or an HFD group for 4 weeks. Oocytes were obtained following superovulation and were divided into three treatment groups (no activation treatment, calcium ionophore and puromycin treatment, and calcium ionophore and roscovitine treatment) and were incubated for 4 h. Retrieved oocytes and numbers of oocytes activated as assessed by morphological changes were compared among the three treatment groups. The proportion of degenerated oocytes in HFD mice was significantly higher than that in control diet mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine were 90.3% in control diet mice, 89.8% in increased dietary intake mice and 67.9% in HFD mice. The rate of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin were 90.6% in control diet mice, 94.0% in increased dietary intake mice and 71.4% in HFD mice, and the rate of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. HFD-induced obesity deteriorated induction of oocyte activation by roscovitine or puromycin in mice.

  3. Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E

    2014-05-01

    Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for

  4. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R

    2012-01-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and

  5. Induksi Superovulasi dengan Kombinasi CIDR, Hormon FSH dan hCG pada Induk Sapi Potong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Kaiin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of superovulation treatment using combination of CIDR, FSH and hCG in beef cattle as donor embryos using MOET programme. All animals had been palpated to evaluated the ovary status and normal cows were used as donor and synchronized with CIDR (Eazy BreedTM . At day 10 of oestrus cycle, cows were divided into two groups, first group: cows were injected intramuscularly with FSH (Antrin 40 IU per cow with decreasing doses (for 4 days and second group cows were treated the same way but at day 5 after FSH injection, they were injected intramuscularly with 1,500 IU hCG (Chorulon. Embryo collection was done at day 7 after Artificial Insemination (AI. Average number of corpora lutea (CL in animals that superovulated with CIDR, FSH and hCG was significantly higher (P<0.05 compared to animals treated with CIDR and FSH only (5.52. Average number of embryo collection and number of transferable embryos were also higher in group treated with hCG (6.00 vs 5.44 compared with those treated without hCG (4.33 vs 3.17. The conclusion is hCG superovulation injection with CIDR and FSH can increase the respon of superovulation

  6. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  7. The association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in growth hormone (GH) gene with litter size and superovulation response in goat-breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Yun; Huang, Kunkun; Zeng, Wenbing; Xu, Deqing; Wen, Qunying; Yang, Liguo

    2011-01-01

    Two active mutations (A 781 G and A 1575 G) in growth hormone (GH) gene, and their associations with litter size (LS), were investigated in both a high prolificacy (Matou, n = 182) and a low prolificacy breed (Boer, n = 352) by using the PCR-RFLP method. Superovulation experiments were designed in 57 dams, in order to evaluate the effect of different genotypes of the GH gene on superovulation response. Two genotypes (AA and AB, CC and CD) in each mutation were detected in these two goat breeds. Neither BB nor DD homozygous genotypes were observed. The genotypic frequencies of AB and CC were significantly higher than those of AA and CD. In the third parity, Matou dams with AB or CC genotypes had significantly larger litter sizes than those with AA and CD (p superovulation treatments, a significantly higher number of corpora lutea and ova, with a lower incidence of ovarian cysts, were harvested in the AB and CC genotypes than in AA and CD. These results show that the two loci of GH gene are highly associated with abundant prolificacy and superovulation response in goat breeds. PMID:21637543

  8. Estrogen administration during superovulation increases oocyte quality and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and nitric oxide synthase in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Choong-Sik; Joo, Bo-Sun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Joo, Jong-Kil; Kim, Hwi-Gon; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated whether estrogen administration during superovulation enhances oocyte quality using a mice model. We also investigated whether this estrogen treatment regulates the expressions of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in the ovary. Female mice were co-injected with various doses of estrogen (1 microM, 10 microM and 100 microM) and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin during superovulation, followed by human chorionic gonadotrophin injection 48 hours later. Then they were mated with individual males. After 18 hours, zygotes were flushed and cultured to blastocyst. The expression of VEGF and eNOS in the ovary was examined using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The control group was superovulated without estrogen. Both numbers of ovulated zygotes and the rate of embryo development to blastocyst were significantly increased in the 1-microM estrogen dose compared to the control group. VEGF and eNOS expressions were stimulated by estrogen treatment. In particular, VEGF expression was significantly increased at 1-microM estrogen concentration, whereas, eNOS expression was significantly increased in all estrogen concentrations compared to controls. The study showed that estrogen co-injection during superovulation increased the ovarian response, embryo developmental competence and expressions of VEGF and eNOS in the ovary.

  9. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  10. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013. Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P<0.001 but not at study completion (P=0.075. Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81 cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis.

  11. Some alternatives to calving date and interval as measures of fertility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Torre, G; Brinks, J S

    1990-09-01

    Records of 594 calving dates and 493 calving intervals collected from a herd of Retinta beef cows in southwest Spain were studied. Their efficacy as reproductive measures were compared when a long breeding season was utilized. Variables used were date of present calving (DOC), date of subsequent calving (DOSC), time from start of breeding season to calving (TBSC), interval to next calving (CI), two adjustments of calving interval by subtracting the time that bulls were not available to the cow from actual CI (ACI1 and ACI2), and three scores. Period score (SCOR) measured the 20-d increment of the 220-d calving season in which the cow calved. Pair score (PAIR) was computed by subtracting the deviation of calving interval from 365 d from the average SCOR of the two calvings involved. Adjusted pair score (APAIR) was calculated in the same way as PAIR, but using ACI1 instead of CI. Heritability estimates for DOC, SCOR, and DOSC and CI were .16, .14, .13 and 0, respectively. Heritabilities of all other measures ranged from .01 to .06. Repeatability estimates for DOC, SCOR, DOSC and CI were .29, .28, .34 and .14, respectively. Repeatability values were .28, .18, .18, .23 and .32 for TBSC, ACI1, ACI2, PAIR and APAIR, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among CI and its alternative measures were very high and favorable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  13. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ahmed M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles. Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Results Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76 and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = Conclusion The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075

  14. Administration of visfatin during superovulation improves developmental competency of oocytes and fertility potential in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Joo, Bo-Sun; Sun, Sheng-Ta; Park, Min-Jung; Son, Jung-Bin; Joo, Jong-Kil; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether visfatin administration during superovulation improves ovarian response, developmental competence of oocytes, and fertility in aged female mice. Controlled experimental study. University hospital. Two groups of differently aged C57BL female mice (6-11 and 26-31 weeks). Female mice were coinjected intraperitoneally with 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and visfatin of various doses (0-500 ng/mL), followed by 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection 48 hours later. Then the mice were immediately mated with an individual male. After 18 hours zygotes were cultured, and expression of ovarian visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined. Potential pregnancies of visfatin-administered aged female mice were monitored for delivery of offspring. Number of zygotes retrieved, embryo developmental competency, fertility potential, ovarian visfatin and VEGF expression. Ovarian visfatin expression was significantly decreased in the aged mice group compared with the young. Visfatin administration significantly increased embryo developmental rate and ovarian visfatin and VEGF expressions in the aged mice. Visfatin-administered aged mice delivered significantly higher numbers of offspring than controls. This study suggests that visfatin administration during superovulation plays an important role in regulating oocyte quality and can improve oocyte quality and fertility of aged female mice. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  16. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  17. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  18. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  19. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  20. Influence of category--heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows--in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcio de Oliveira; Morotti, Fábio; da Silva, Camila Bizarro; Júnior, Mario Ribeiro; da Silva, Rubens César Pinto; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of category (heifers, primiparous or multiparous cows) on pregnancy rates in a large scale resynchronization ovulation program. Nelore heifers (n = 903), primiparous lactating cows (n = 338) and multiparous lactating cows (n = 1,223) were synchronized using a conventional protocol of estradiol/P4-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Thirty days after ultrasonography, females who failed the first FTAI were resynchronized with the same hormonal protocol prior to a second FTAI. The pregnancy status of each cohort was evaluated by ultrasonography 30 days after each FTAI. The average conception rate after the first FTAI and resynchronization was 80.5%. Heifers had a higher conception rate (85%) than primiparous (76%) or multiparous cows (78%; p = 0.0001). The conception rate after the first FTAI was similar among heifers (57%), primiparous cows (51%) and multiparous cows (56%; p = 0.193). After the second FTAI, heifers exhibited a higher conception rate (66%) than primiparous or multiparous cows (51%; p = 0.0001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of resynchronization in large beef herds for providing consistent pregnancy rates in a short period of time. We also demonstrated that ovulation resynchronization 30 days after FTAI is particularly effective for heifers, providing a conception rate of up to 66%.

  1. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  2. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  3. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  4. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  5. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  6. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  7. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  8. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  9. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  10. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  11. Influence of CIDR treatment during superovulation on embryo production and hormonal patterns in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, M; Ponsart, C; Nibart, M; Durand, M; Morel, A; Jeanguyot, N; Badinand, F; De Mari, K; Humblot, P

    2002-10-01

    One of the major sources of success in embryo transfer is timing of AI relative to the LH surge and ovulation. The aim of this study was to compare the embryo production following superovulation during a PGF2alpha (control cycle) or a CIDR-B synchronized cycle (CIDR-B cycle). CIDR-B (CIDR-B ND, Virbac, Carros, France) was inserted on Day 11 of a previously synchronized cycle and left for 5 days. A total dose of 350 microg FSH was administered (eight injections i.m. for 4 days; first on Day 13, decreasing doses) and PGFalpha analog (750 microg i.m.: Uniandine ND, Schering-Plough, Levallois-Perret, France) injected at the time of third FSH injection. Artificial inseminations were performed 12 and 24 h after standing estrus (Day 0). Embryos were collected on Day 7. Luteinizing hormone was measured by EIA (Reprokit Sanofi, Libourne, France) from blood samples collected every 3 h for 36 h, starting 24 h after PGF2alpha (control cycle) or 12 h after CIDR-B removal (CIDR-B cycle). The effects of treatment group and interval between the LH peak and AI (two classes, or = 10 h) on embryo production and quality were analyzed by ANOVA. No effect of treatment was observed on embryo production variables. The intervals between the end of treatment and onset of estrus and between end of treatment and LH surge were greater in heifers treated during a control than a CIDR-B cycle, respectively (45.5 +/- 1.4 versus 31.9 +/- 0.7; 42.0 +/- 1.6 versus 31.0 +/- 1.5; P or = 10 h (7.2 +/- 0.9 and 3.5 +/- 0.6) when compared to shorter intervals (4.2 +/- 1.1 and 2.0 +/- 0.7) whereas total number of embryos was unchanged (11.8 +/- 1.4 versus 10.3 +/- 1.8). It is concluded that late occurrence of LH peaks in relation to estrous behavior is associated with a lower embryo quality when first AIs are performed systematically 12 h after standing estrus. Further studies are needed to know if results may be improved when making AI at a later time after standing estrus or if LH assays are useful to

  12. 不同处理方法对萨福克肉羊超排回收效果的影响%The Effect of Suffork Mutton Superovulation Recycling Effect with Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈童; 林嘉鹏; 黄俊成

    2011-01-01

    对119只萨福克肉羊进行超排处理,其中48只为首次超排处理,71只为第二次超排处理.结果表明,首次超排胚胎回收率显著高于二次超排胚胎回收率(P0.05);供体羊经第二情期或埋栓同期发情处理后均能达到预期的效果,但首次超排和二次超排供体羊胚胎回收率均差异显著(P<0.05).%119 suffork mutton were superovulated,include 48 were first superovulated sheep and 71 used again. The results showed that the average recovered embryos of second superovulated sheep was significantly lower than first superovulated donors(P<0.05), The number of corpus luteum was not significant different by the first and second blunt donors(P>0. 05),both the available rate embryo of was not significant different (P>0. 05). The synchronization of estrous through the second estrous cycle or vaginal plug methods,achieved the desired results,but both the average recovery embryos of second superovulated sheep were significantly lower than first superovulated donors (P<0.05).

  13. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Dikmen, S; Null, D J; Cole, J B; Hansen, P J

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these methods remains the variability of animal responses to the procedures. If some variability can be explained genetically, selection can be used to improve animal response. Data collected from a Holstein dairy farm in Florida from 2008 to 2015 included 926 superovulation records (number of structures recovered and number of good embryos), 628 in vitro fertilization records (number of oocytes collected, number of cleaved embryos, number of high- and low-quality embryos, and number of transferrable embryos), and 12,089 embryo transfer records (pregnancy success). Two methods of transformation (logarithmic and Anscombe) were applied to count variables and results were compared. Univariate animal models were fitted for each trait with the exception of pregnancy success after embryo transfer. Due to the binary nature of the latter trait, a threshold liability model was fitted that accounted for the genetic effect of both the recipient and the embryo. Both transformation methods produced similar results. Single-step genomic BLUP analyses were performed and SNP effects estimated for traits with a significant genetic component. Heritability of number of structures recovered and number of good embryos when log-transformed were 0.27 ± 0.08 and 0.15 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates from the in vitro fertilization data ranged from 0.01 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.15, but were not significantly different from zero. Recipient and embryo heritability (standard deviation) of pregnancy success after embryo transfer was 0.03 (0.01) and 0.02 (0.01), respectively. The 10-SNP window explaining the largest proportion of variance (0.37%) for total structures collected was located on

  14. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  15. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  16. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  17. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  20. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  1. Transport of pollutants from cow feedlots in eastern Colorado into Rocky Mountain alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, A.; Denning, S.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), also called factory farms, are known for raising tens of millions head of livestock including cows (beef and dairy), swine, and poultry. With as many as 250 head of cattle per acre, a United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) report showed beef cattle from CAFOs in the United States produce as much as 24.1 million tons of manure annually. Gases released from cow manure include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and ammonia (NH3). During boreal summers Colorado experiences fewer synoptic weather systems, allowing the diurnal cycle to exert greater control of meteorological events along the mountain-plains interface. Anabatic, or upslope winds induced by the diurnal cycle, contribute largely to the transport of gases and particulates from feedlots in eastern Colorado into the Rocky Mountains, presenting a potential harm to natural alpine ecosystems. This study focuses on locating the source of transport of gases from feedlots along the eastern Front Range of Colorado into alpine lakes of the Rocky Mountains. Source regions are approximated using backward time simulation of a Lagrangian Transport model.

  2. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  3. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a