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Sample records for supernumerary wheat chromosomes

  1. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

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    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  2. Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in Human Infertility.

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    Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Liehr, Thomas; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by banding cytogenetics. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of sSMC frequency and characterization in a context of infertility and to review the literature describing sSMC in relation with male and female infertility. Therefore, a systematic literature review on sSMC associated with infertility was conducted by means of a PubMed literature and a sSMC database (http://ssmc-tl.com/sSMC.html) search. A total of 234 patients with infertility were identified as carriers of sSMC. All chromosomes, except chromosomes 10, 19 and the X, were involved in sSMC, and in 72% the sSMC originated from acrocentric chromosomes. Euchromatic imbalances were caused by the presence of sSMC in 30% of the cases. Putative genes have been identified in only 1.2% of sSMC associated with infertility. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to a partial trisomy of some genes but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Further precise molecular and interphase-architecture studies on sSMC are needed in the future to characterize the relationship between this chromosomal anomaly and human infertility.

  3. Supernumerary ring chromosome 17 identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, K. [Hunter Area Pathology Service, New South Wales (Australia); Edwards, M. [Western Suburbs Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)

    1997-04-14

    We present a patient with multiple anomalies and severe developmental delay. A small supernumerary ring chromosome was found in 40% of her lymphocyte cells at birth. The origin of the marker chromosome could not be determined by GTG banding, but fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) later identified the marker as deriving from chromosome 17. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Supernumerary ring chromosome: an etiology for Pallister-Killian syndrome?

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    Lloveras, E; Canellas, A; Cirigliano, V; Català, V; Cerdan, C; Plaja, A

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of marker chromosomes before the introduction of array CGH (aCGH) assays was only based on their banding patterns (G, C, and NOR staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques. The use of aCGH greatly improves the identification of marker chromosomes in some cases. We describe an atypical case of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) detected at prenatal diagnosis with a very unusual cytogenetic presentation: a supernumerary ring chromosome including two copies of 12p. A similar anomaly described in a postnatal patient suggests ring chromosome as a possible cause of PKS. Extra ring chromosomes might be a more common etiology for PKS than previously thought, given the difficulty in their characterization before the advent of aCGH.

  5. Multiple forms of atypical rearrangements generating supernumerary derivative chromosome 15

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    Sigman Marian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternally-derived duplications that include the imprinted region on the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 underlie a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, seizures and a substantial risk for autism spectrum disorders1. The duplications most often take the form of a supernumerary pseudodicentric derivative chromosome 15 [der(15] that has been called inverted duplication 15 or isodicentric 15 [idic(15], although interstitial rearrangements also occur. Similar to the deletions found in most cases of Angelman and Prader Willi syndrome, the duplications appear to be mediated by unequal homologous recombination involving low copy repeats (LCR that are found clustered in the region. Five recurrent breakpoints have been described in most cases of segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 15q11-q13 and previous studies have shown that most idic(15 chromosomes arise through BP3:BP3 or BP4:BP5 recombination events. Results Here we describe four duplication chromosomes that show evidence of atypical recombination events that involve regions outside the common breakpoints. Additionally, in one patient with a mosaic complex der(15, we examined homologous pairing of chromosome 15q11-q13 alleles by FISH in a region of frontal cortex, which identified mosaicism in this tissue and also demonstrated pairing of the signals from the der(15 and the normal homologues. Conclusion Involvement of atypical BP in the generation of idic(15 chromosomes can lead to considerable structural heterogeneity.

  6. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat

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    Branched spike or supernumerary spikelet (SS) is a naturally occurring variant in wheat and holds great potential for increasing the number of grains per spike, and ultimately, increasing wheat yield. However, detailed knowledge of the molecular basis of spike branching in common wheat is lacking. I...

  7. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) in humans; are there B chromosomes hidden among them

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    Ogilvie Caroline; Kosyakova Nadezda; Mrasek Kristin; Liehr Thomas; Vermeesch Joris; Trifonov Vladimir; Rubtsov Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) and B-chromosomes represent a heterogeneous collection of chromosomes added to the typical karyotype, and which are both small in size. They may consist of heterochromatic and/or euchromatic material. Also a predominance of maternal transmission was reported for both groups. Even though sSMC and B-chromosomes show some similarity it is still an open question if B-chromosomes are present among the heterogeneous group of sSMC. Ac...

  8. Somatic Mosaicism in Cases with Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

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    Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Merkas, Martina; Brecevic, Lukrecija; Hamid, Ahmed B.; Ewers, Elisabeth; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that. PMID:21358988

  9. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes and their correlation with specific syndromes

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    Jafari-Ghahfarokhi, Hamideh; Moradi-Chaleshtori, Maryam; Liehr, Thomas; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Teimori, Hossein; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam

    2015-01-01

    A small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) is a structurally abnormal chromosome. It is an additional chromosome smaller than one chromosome most often lacking a distinct banding pattern and is rarely identifiable by conventional banding cytogenetic analysis. The origin and composition of an sSMC is recognizable by molecular cytogenetic analysis. These sSMCs are seen in different shapes, including the ring, centric minute, and inverted duplication shapes. The effects of sSMCs on the phenotype depend on factors such as size, genetic content, and the level of the mosaicism. The presence of an sSMC causes partial tris- or tetrasomy, and 70% of the sSMC carriers are clinically normal, while 30% are abnormal in some way. In 70% of the cases the sSMC is de novo, in 20% it is inherited from the mother, and in 10% it is inherited from the father. An sSMC can be causative for specific syndromes such as Emanuel, Pallister-Killian, or cat eye syndromes. There may be more specific sSMC-related syndromes, which may be identified by further investigation. These 10 syndromes can be useful for genetic counseling after further study. PMID:26322288

  10. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

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    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  11. Newborn with Supernumerary Marker Chromosome Derived from Chromosomes 11 And 22- A Case Report.

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    Vahidi Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya; Dehghan Tezerjani, Masoud; Nori-Shadkam, Mahmoud; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Dehghani, Mohammadreza

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of supernumerary chromosome is important for genetic counseling and prognosis. Here, we used SNP array and conventional karyotyping method to identify a denovo marker chromosome originated from chromosome 22 and 11 in a newborn transferred to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in 2015. Clinical abnormalities identified in the newborn were dysmorphic face, intrauterine growth retardation, atrial septal defect (ASD), the hypoplasia of corpus callosum and septum pellucidum. These clinical abnormalities can be related to this marker, and it may help genetic counselor for predicting abnormality risk in susceptible individuals as well as prenatal diagnosis.

  12. Centromere activity in dicentric small supernumerary marker chromosomes.

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    Ewers, Elisabeth; Yoda, Kinya; Hamid, Ahmed B; Weise, Anja; Manvelyan, Marina; Liehr, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Twenty-five dicentric small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) derived from #13/21, #14, #15, #18, and #22 were studied by immunohistochemistry for their centromeric activity. Centromere protein (CENP)-B was applied as marker for all centromeres and CENP-C to label the active ones. Three different 'predominant' activation patterns could be observed, i.e., centric fusion or either only one or all two centromeres were active. In one inherited case, the same activation pattern was found in mother and son. In acrocentric-derived sSMC, all three activation patterns could be present. In contrary, in chromosome 18-derived sSMC, only the fusion type was observed. In concordance with previous studies a certain centromeric plasticity was observed in up to 13% of the cells of an individual case. Surprisingly, the obtained data suggests a possible influence of the sSMC carrier's gender on the implementation of the predominant activation pattern; especially, only one active centromere was found more frequently in female than in male carriers. Also, it might be suggested that dicentric sSMC with one active centromere could be less stable than such with two active ones-centromeric plasticity might have an influence here, as well. Also, centromere activity in acrocentric-derived dicentrics could be influenced by heteromorphisms of the corresponding short arms. Finally, evidence is provided that the closer the centromeres of a dicentric are and if they are not fused, the more likely it was that both of them became active. In concordance and refinement with previous studies, a distance of 1.4 Mb up to about 13 Mb the two active centromere state was favored, while centromeric distance of over approximately 15 Mb lead to inactivation of one centromere. Overall, here, the first and largest ever undertaken study in dicentric sSMC is presented, providing evidence that the centromeric activation pattern is, and parental origin may be of interest for their biology. Influence of

  13. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC in humans; are there B chromosomes hidden among them

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    Ogilvie Caroline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC and B-chromosomes represent a heterogeneous collection of chromosomes added to the typical karyotype, and which are both small in size. They may consist of heterochromatic and/or euchromatic material. Also a predominance of maternal transmission was reported for both groups. Even though sSMC and B-chromosomes show some similarity it is still an open question if B-chromosomes are present among the heterogeneous group of sSMC. According to current theories, sSMC would need drive, drift or beneficial effects to increase in frequency in order to become B chromosome. However, up to now no B-chromosomes were described in human. Results Here we provide first evidence and discuss, that among sSMC B-chromosomes might be hidden. We present two potential candidates which may already be, or may in future evolve into B chromosomes in human: (i sSMC cases where the marker is stainable only by DNA derived from itself; and (ii acrocentric-derived inverted duplication sSMC without associated clinical phenotype. Here we report on the second sSMC stainable exclusively by its own DNA and show that for acrocentric derived sSMC 3.9× more are familial cases than reported for other sSMC. Conclusion The majority of sSMC are not to be considered as B-chromosomes. Nonetheless, a minority of sSMC show similarities to B-chromosomes. Further studies are necessary to come to final conclusions for that problem.

  14. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-04-20

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on

  15. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion.

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    Jeffrey J Coleman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani, is a member of a group of >50 species known as the "Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI. Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique

  16. Human ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes-do they have telomeres?

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    Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Klein, Elisabeth; Venner, Claudia; Hamid, Ahmed B; Bhatt, Samarth; Melaragno, Maria Isabel; Volleth, Marianne; Polityko, Anna; Kulpanovich, Anna; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are enigmatic types of derivative chromosomes, in which the telomeres are thought to play a crucial role in their formation and stabilization. Considering that there are only a few studies that evaluate the presence of telomeric sequences in ring chromosomes and on sSMC, here, we analyzed 14 ring chromosomes and 29 sSMC for the presence of telomeric sequences through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that ring chromosomes can actually fall into two groups: the ones with or without telomeres. Additionally, telomeric signals were detectable at both ends of centric and neocentric sSMC with inverted duplication shape, as well as in complex sSMC. Apart from that, generally both ring- and centric minute-shaped sSMC did not present telomeric sequences neither detectable by FISH nor by a second protein-directed immunohistochemical approach. However, the fact that telomeres are absent does not automatically mean that the sSMC has a ring shape, as often deduced in the previous literature. Overall, the results obtained by FISH studies directed against telomeres need to be checked carefully by other approaches.

  17. Pallister-Killian syndrome caused by mosaicism for a supernumerary ring chromosome 12p.

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    Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Giouzeppos, Olivia; Amor, David J

    2009-03-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare but distinctive chromosomal syndrome distinguished by severe intellectual impairment, characteristic facial features, and variable structural anomalies. The characteristic cytogenetic abnormality in PKS is a supernumerary isochromosome 12p that confers mosaic tetrasomy. We describe a female child with PKS in whom tetrasomy 12p resulted from a supernumerary ring chromosome containing two copies of chromosome 12cen --> p13, a novel cytogenetic finding. The ring chromosome exhibited tissue-limited mosaicism, being absent in blood but detected in 38% of buccal mucosa cells and 41% of skin fibroblasts. Our patient demonstrated the typical dysmorphic characteristics of PKS, but her development was relatively advanced in comparison to children with isochromosome PKS. Her milder developmental phenotype may be attributable to differences in the mosaic distribution or the genomic content of the ring chromosome compared to mosaic isochromosome 12p.

  18. Supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosome 6: cytogenetic, molecular cytogenetic, and array CGH characterization.

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    Huang, Bing; Pearle, Phyllis; Rauen, Katherine A; Cotter, Philip D

    2012-07-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) are relatively common in prenatal diagnosis. As the clinical outcomes vary greatly, a better understanding of the karyotype-phenotype correlation for different SMCs will be important for genetic counseling. We present two cases of prenatally detected de novo, small SMCs. The markers were present in 80% of amniocyte colonies in Case 1 and 38% of the colonies in Case 2. The SMCs were determined to be derived from chromosome 6 during postnatal confirmation studies. Although the sizes and the chromosomal origin of the SMCs in these two cases appeared to be similar, the clinical outcomes varied. The clinical manifestations observed in Case 1 included small for gestational age, feeding difficulty at birth, hydronephrosis, deviated septum and dysmorphic features, while the phenotype is apparently normal in Case 2. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed and showed increase in dosage for approximately 26 Mb of genetic material from the proximal short and long arms of chromosome 6 in Case 1. Results of array CGH were uninformative in Case 2, either due to mosaicism or lack of detectable euchromatin. The difference in the clinical presentation in these two patients may have resulted from the difference in the actual gene contents of the marker chromosomes and/or the differential distribution of the mosaicism.

  19. Mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 at amniocentesis: prenatal diagnosis, molecular genetic analysis and literature review.

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    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Ming; Su, Yi-Ning; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Chen, Li-Feng; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case.

  20. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

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    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric r

  1. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small, familial supernumerary ring chromosome 7 associated with mental retardation and an abnormal phenotype

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    Tan-Sindhunata, G; Castedo, S; Leegte, B; Mulder, [No Value; van der Veen, AYV; van der Hout, AHV; van Essen, AJ

    2000-01-01

    A family is described in which a mother and two of her children were mosaic for a small supernumerary ring chromosome. As the origin of the ring chromosome could not be determined by routine cytogenetic studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed, which indicated that the ring chromosom

  2. Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. van der Veken (Lars); M.M.J. Dieleman (Marianne); H. Douben (Hannie); J.C. van de Brug (Judith); R. van de Graaf (Raoul); A.J.M. Hoogeboom; P.J. Poddighe (Pino); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities mi

  3. Origin and molecular organization of supernumerary chromosomes of Prochilodus lineatus (characiformes, prochilodontidae) obtained by DNA probes.

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    Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Laudicina, Alejandro; Senhorini, José Augusto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2010-12-01

    In Prochilodus lineatus B-chromosomes are visualized as reduced size extra elements identified as microchromosomes and are variable in morphology and number. We describe the specific total probe (B-chromosome probe) in P. lineatus obtained by chromosome microdissection and a whole genomic probe (genomic probe) from an individual without B-chromosome. The specific B-chromosome was scraped and processed to obtain DNA with amplification by DOP-PCR, and so did the genomic probe DNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using the B-chromosome probe labeled with dUTP-Tetramethyl-rhodamine and the genomic probe labeled with digoxigenin-FITC permitted to establish that in this species supernumerary chromosomes with varying number and morphology had different structure of chromatin when compared to that of the regular chromosomes or A complement, since only these extra elements were labeled in the metaphases. The present findings suggest that modifications in the chromatin structure of B-chromosomes to differentiate them from the A chromosomes could occur along their dispersion in the individuals of the population.

  4. Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies

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    Hoogeboom A Jeannette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities might reveal cytogenetic abnormalities of an unexpected complexity. Results We report a 24 years old male patient with lower spinal anomalies, hypospadia, bifid scrotum, cryptorchism, anal atresia, kidney stones, urethra anomalies, radial dysplasia, and a hypoplastic thumb. Some of the anomalies overlap with the VACTERL association. Chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed an additional ring chromosome in 13% of the metaphases. Both parents had a normal karyotype, demonstrating the de novo origin of this ring chromosome. FISH analysis using whole chromosome paints showed that the additional chromosomal material was derived from chromosome 18. Chromosome analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed only one cell with the supernumerary ring chromosome in the 400 analyzed. To characterize the ring chromosome in more detail peripheral blood derived DNA was analyzed using SNP-arrays. The array results indicated a 5 Mb gain of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18q10-q11.2. FISH analysis using BAC-probes located in the region indicated the presence of 6 signals on the r(18 chromosome. In addition, microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the unique supernumerary ring chromosome was paternally derived and both normal copies showed biparental disomy. Conclusions We report on an adult patient with multiple congenital abnormalities who had in 13% of his cells a unique supernumerary ring chromosome 18 that was composed of 6 copies of the 5 Mb gene rich region of 18q11.

  5. Phenotypic Spectrum of 20 Novel Patients With Molecularly Defined Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes 15 and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Leeuw, Nicole; Wolf, Roy; Nillesen, Willy M.; Schobers, Gaby; Mieloo, Hanneke; Willemsen, Marjolein; Perrotta, Concetta Simona; Poddighe, Pino J.; Feenstra, Ilse; Draaisma, Jos; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) originating from chromosome 15 are the most common SMCs. They encompass clinically irrelevant SMC(15)s containing only heterochromatin and 15p material, and clinically relevant SMC(15)s that consist of both eu- and heterochromatic 15q material. On the basis of

  6. Phenotypic Spectrum of 20 Novel Patients With Molecularly Defined Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes 15 and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Leeuw, Nicole; Wolf, Roy; Nillesen, Willy M.; Schobers, Gaby; Mieloo, Hanneke; Willemsen, Marjolein; Perrotta, Concetta Simona; Poddighe, Pino J.; Feenstra, Ilse; Draaisma, Jos; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMC) originating from chromosome 15 are the most common SMCs. They encompass clinically irrelevant SMC(15)s containing only heterochromatin and 15p material, and clinically relevant SMC(15)s that consist of both eu- and heterochromatic 15q material. On the basis of

  7. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small, familial supernumerary ring chromosome 7 associated with mental retardation and an abnormal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Sindhunata, G; Castedo, S; Leegte, B; Mulder, I; vd Veen, A Y; vd Hout, A H; Wiersma, T J; van Essen, A J

    2000-05-15

    A family is described in which a mother and two of her children were mosaic for a small supernumerary ring chromosome. As the origin of the ring chromosome could not be determined by routine cytogenetic studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed, which indicated that the ring chromosome was derived from the pericentromeric region of chromosome 7. Further characterization with a YAC-probe showed the involvement of the proximal q-arm of chromosome 7. Both sibs had speech difficulties and were mildly mentally retarded whereas the mother's intelligence was at the lower end of the normal range. They all had an unusual face, characterized by a flat profile, short forehead, downslant of the palpebral fissures, high and broad nasal bridge, simply formed ears, and prognathia. This is the second report of a small supernumerary ring chromosome derived from the pericentromeric region of chromosome 7, and the described clinical phenotype differs from that delineated in the previous report.

  8. B chromosome dynamics in Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) and comparisons with supernumerary chromosome system in other Prochilodus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Silvana; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Penitente, Manolo; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Within the genus Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829, five species are known to carry B chromosomes, i.e. chromosomes beyond the usual diploid number that have been traditionally considered as accessory for the genome. Chromosome microdissection and mapping of repetitive DNA sequences are effective tools to assess the DNA content and allow a better understanding about the origin and composition of these elements in an array of species. In this study, a novel characterization of B chromosomes in Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 (2n=54) was reported for the first time and their sequence complementarity with the supernumerary chromosomes observed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) and Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 was investigated. The hybridization patterns obtained with chromosome painting using the micro B probe of P. costatus and the satDNA SATH1 mapping made it possible to assume homology of sequences between the B chromosomes of these congeneric species. Our results suggest that the origin of B chromosomes in the genus Prochilodus is a phylogenetically old event. PMID:28919971

  9. Dosage Effects of X and Y Chromosomes on Language and Social Functioning in Children with Supernumerary Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies: Implications for Idiopathic Language Impairment and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wallace, Gregory L.; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Lopez, Katherine C.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Clasen, Liv S.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (X/Y-aneuploidies), the presence of extra X and/or Y chromosomes, are associated with heightened rates of language impairments and social difficulties. However, no single study has examined different language domains and social functioning in the same sample of children with tri-, tetra-, and…

  10. Unexpected structural complexity of supernumerary marker chromosomes characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Anne V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs are structurally abnormal extra chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding techniques. In the past, SMCs have been characterized using a variety of different molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although these techniques can sometimes identify the chromosome of origin of SMCs, they are cumbersome to perform and are not available in many clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Furthermore, they cannot precisely determine the region or breakpoints of the chromosome(s involved. In this study, we describe four patients who possess one or more SMCs (a total of eight SMCs in all four patients that were characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results In at least one SMC from all four patients, array CGH uncovered unexpected complexity, in the form of complex rearrangements, that could have gone undetected using other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although array CGH accurately defined the chromosome content of all but two minute SMCs, fluorescence in situ hybridization was necessary to determine the structure of the markers. Conclusion The increasing use of array CGH in clinical cytogenetic laboratories will provide an efficient method for more comprehensive characterization of SMCs. Improved SMC characterization, facilitated by array CGH, will allow for more accurate SMC/phenotype correlation.

  11. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Tosca, L; Kara Terki, A; Bas, C; Lecerf, L; Young, J; Briand-Suleau, A; Tou, B; Bouligand, J; Brisset, S; Misrahi, M; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Goossens, M; Tachdjian, G

    2012-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding cytogenetics. This study describes four patients with sSMC in relation with infertility. Patient 1 had primary infertility. His brother, fertile, carried the same sSMC (patient 2). Patient 3 presented polycystic ovary syndrome and patient 4 primary ovarian insufficiency. Cytogenetic studies, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and sperm analyses were compared with cases previously reported. sSMC corresponded to the 15q11.2 region (patients 1 and 2), the centromeric chromosome 15 region (patient 3) and the 21p11.2 region (patient 4). Array CGH showed 3.6-Mb gain for patients 1 and 2 and 0.266-Mb gain for patient 4. Sperm fluorescent in-situ hybridization analyses found ratios of 0.37 and 0.30 of sperm nuclei with sSMC(15) for patients 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). An increase of sperm nuclei with disomy X, Y and 18 was noted for patient 1 compared with control and patient 2 (P < 0.001). Among the genes mapped in the unbalanced chromosomal regions, POTE B and BAGE are related to the testis and ovary, respectively. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to duplication, but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis.

  12. Unusual small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) 9 in a Klinefelter patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, T; Mrasek, K; Starke, H; Claussen, U; Schreiber, G

    2005-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are small additional chromosomes characterizable for their origin only by molecular cytogenetic approaches. sSMC have been reported previously in four types of syndromes associated with chromosomal imbalances: in approximately 150 cases with Turner syndrome, 26 cases with Down syndrome and only one case each with Klinefelter syndrome and "Triple-X"-syndrome. Here we report the second case with an sSMC detected in addition to a Klinefelter karyotype. Molecular cytogenetics applying centromere-specific multicolor FISH (cenM-FISH) and a specific subcentromere-specific (subcenM-FISH) probe set characterized the sSMC as a dic(9)(:p12-->q11.1::q11.1--> p11.1:). The reported patient was described with hypogonadism, gynaecomastia plus a bronchial carcinoma. The patient's clinical features are discussed in connection with other Klinefelter cases and possible consequences of presence of the sSMC(9). Furthermore, a suggestion is made for the mode of sSMC-formation in this case.

  13. Small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6 and 20 in a woman with recurrent spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Nouchy, Marc; Lecerf, Laure; Cornet, Dominique; Brisset, Sophie; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we describe a case of multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) presenting with recurrent abortions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of a young, healthy and non-consanguineous couple who asked for genetic evaluation after two spontaneous miscarriages were obtained for karyotypes. Lymphocytes of the woman were analyzed by FISH techniques and DNA was extracted and used for array CGH investigation. Karyotyping revealed 48,XX,+2mar[24]/47,XX,+mar[5]/46,XX[3] for the woman and 46,XY for her husband. FISH analysis showed that the two sSMC consisted of chromosomes 6 and 20. Array CGH analysis showed gains of the 6p11.2q12 (9 Mb) and 20 p11.21 (3.3 Mb) chromosomal regions with a total of 42 genes present on both sSMC. Our findings support also the hypothesis that the modification of the expression of some genes involved in embryo implantation, like THBD gene, could be responsible in the recurrent abortions. This report underpins the necessity of array CGH for characterizing precisely sSMC and helping in genotype-phenotype correlations. Furthermore, a literature review on sSMC is included.

  14. A clinical, cytogenetic, FISH and molecular study of supernumerary marker 15 chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, N.R. [Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Crolla, J.A.; Harvey, J.F. [Salisbury District Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    We studied 17 patients with supernumerary marker chromosomes shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 15-centromere specific probe pTRA-25 to be 15-derived. Genetic constitution of the marker chromosomes was investigated using FISH, Southern blot analysis and PCR for proximal and distal loci on 15q as well as conventional cytogenetics. Eight of the 17 patients were mentally retarded. Six of the eight carried a de novo marker 15 containing one or two doses of loci known to be in or near the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWS/AS) region, whereas none of the nine non-retarded patients had duplications of this region, and only two of the eight whose parents were available had a de novo marker. None of the mentally retarded patients had PWS or AS. In two retarded patients (one de novo, one familial) there was no duplication of the PWS/AS region. Uniparental disomy affecting the normal 15 homologs was excluded in 10 of the patients, including all eight with mental retardation.

  15. Three Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in a Patient with Developmental Delay, Mental Retardation, and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized three supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs simultaneously present in a 2-year- and 10-month-old male patient with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Peripheral blood chromosome analysis revealed two to three SMCs in 25/26 cells analyzed. The remaining one cell had one SMC. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH showed mosaicism for gains of 5q35.3, 15q11.2q13.3, and 18p11.21q11.1 regions. All three gains contain multiple OMIM genes. FISH studies indicated that one of the SMCs is a dicentric ring 15 with two copies of the 15q11.2q13.3 region including SNRPN/UBE3A and two copies of the 5q35.3 region. One of the der(18s contains the 18 centromere and 18p11.2 regions, while the other der(18 has a signal for the 18 centromere only. The phenotype of the patient is compared with that of patients with tetrasomy 15q11.2q13.3, trisomy 5q35.3, and trisomy 18p11.2. Our study demonstrates that aCGH and FISH analyses are powerful tools, which complement the conventional cytogenetic analysis for the identification of SMCs.

  16. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  17. Clinical impact of somatic mosaicism in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, T; Klein, E; Mrasek, K; Kosyakova, N; Guilherme, R S; Aust, N; Venner, C; Weise, A; Hamid, A B

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is present in slightly more than 50% of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) carriers. Interestingly, non-acrocentric derived sSMC show mosaicism much more frequently than acrocentric ones. sSMC can be present in different mosaic rates, which may go below 5% of the studied cells. Also cryptic mosaicism can be present and mosaics may be differently expressed in different tissues of the body. Even though in the overwhelming majority of the cases somatic sSMC mosaicism has no direct clinical effect, there are also cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. Also clinically important is the fact that a de novo sSMC, even present in mosaic, may be a hint of uniparental disomy (UPD). As it is under discussion to possibly replace standard karyotyping by methods like array-CGH, the impracticality of the latter to detect low-level sSMC mosaics and/or UPD has to be considered as well. Overall, sSMC mosaicism has to be studied carefully in each individual case, as it can be extremely informative and of importance, especially for prenatal genetic counseling.

  18. Pure and complete trisomy 18p due to a supernumerary marker chromosome associated with moderate mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabboux, P; Brisset, S; Aboura, A; Pineau, D; Koubi, V; Joannidis, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2007-04-01

    Trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 18 or trisomy 18p, is rarely described. We report on a 13-year-old boy with minor facial anomalies, mental retardation, bilateral cryptorchidism associated with a de novo supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization analyses, this SMC corresponded to the p arm of chromosome 18 associated with a centromere of either chromosome 13 or 21 and nucleolus organizing regions (NORs). We report here the first case of a pure and complete trisomy 18p due to a SMC. This report and review of literature confirm that the main phenotypic anomaly associated with trisomy 18p is moderate mental retardation.

  19. A small supernumerary marker chromosome present in a Turner syndrome patient not derived from X- or Y-chromosome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeesch Joris; Andrieux Joris; Desai Manisha; Sheth Jayesh; Weise Anja; Kosyakova Nadezda; Ewers Elisabeth; Sheth Frenny; Hamid Ahmed B; Ziegler Monika; Liehr Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) can be present in numerically abnormal karyotypes like in a 'Turner-syndrome karyotype' mos 45,X/46,X,+mar. Results Here we report the first case of an sSMC found in Turner syndrome karyotypes (sSMCT) derived from chromosome 14 in a Turner syndrome patient. According to cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic characterization the karyotype was 46,X,+del(14)(q11.1). The present case is the third Turner syndrome case with an sSMCT ...

  20. Characterization of a prenatally assessed de novo supernumerary minute ring chromosome 20 in a phenotypically normal male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garas Antonios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneous group of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs presents serious counseling problems, especially if they are present de novo and diagnosed prenatally. The incidence has been estimated at 1 in 1000 prenatal samples. We present a case of mosaic sSMC diagnosed prenatally after amniocentesis. The sSMC was characterized by various molecular cytogenetic techniques and determined to be a r(20 chromosome. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a boy with minor phenotypic variants was born after 39 weeks of pregnancy. The case is compared with four other cases of prenatally detected r(20 mosaicism. Results Here we describe a 3 months old male child with normal pre- and postnatal development and with a de novo ring supernumerary marker chromosome in amniocytes cultures. Using new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques, three distinguishable sSMCs (cryptic mosaicism, all derived from chromosome 20, were observed, including ring and minute chromosomes. This heterogeneity was impossible to detect by the conventional G-banding technique or conventional FISH technique that were used before the application of new FISH techniques (subcentromere-specific multicolor-FISH [subcenM-FISH] and a probe, specific for the 20p12.2 band. The sSMC present in 25% of the cells was present as r(20(::p12.2~12.3->q11.1::5/r(20;20(::p12.1->q11.1::q11.1 >p12.1::2/min(20;20(:p12.1->q11.1::q11.1->p12.1:1. The final karyotype was 47,XY,+r(20[25%]/46,XY[75%]. Conclusion We emphasize the importance of application of molecular cytogenetics in a prenatally diagnostic laboratory and description of more cases to enable a better genetic counseling and risk evaluation.

  1. A small supernumerary marker chromosome present in a Turner syndrome patient not derived from X- or Y-chromosome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeesch Joris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC can be present in numerically abnormal karyotypes like in a 'Turner-syndrome karyotype' mos 45,X/46,X,+mar. Results Here we report the first case of an sSMC found in Turner syndrome karyotypes (sSMCT derived from chromosome 14 in a Turner syndrome patient. According to cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic characterization the karyotype was 46,X,+del(14(q11.1. The present case is the third Turner syndrome case with an sSMCT not derived from the X- or the Y-chromosome. Conclusion More comprehensive characterization of such sSMCT might identify them to be more frequent than only ~0.6% in Turner syndrome cases according to available data.

  2. Supernumerary ring chromosomes derived from the long arm of chromosome 12 as the primary cytogenetic anomaly in a rare soft tissue chondroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadan, F F; Mascarello, J T; Newbury, R O; Dennis, T; Spallone, P; Stock, A D

    2000-04-15

    Supernumerary ring chromosomes varying with respect to both size and number were found as the primary cytogenetic anomaly in a rare benign soft tissue chondroma resected from the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old girl. Reverse fluorescence in situ hybridization paint probes prepared by polymerase chain reaction from microdissected rings produced fluorescent signal over two large but discontinuous parts of the chromosome 12 long arm, subdivided into four regions. This case expands the spectrum of mesenchymal neoplasms in which ring chromosomes have been described as the primary genetic anomaly. A review of the literature reporting similar findings in other soft tissue tumors further supports the possibility that low-level amplification of chromosome 12 long-arm regions may contribute to abnormal cellular proliferation in a variety of mesenchymal tumors. Genes implicated in the control of the cell cycle such as sarcoma amplified sequence (SAS), the human homolog of the murine double-minute type 2 gene (MDM-2), proto-oncogenes CHOP/GADD153, GLI, A2MR, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4), and the high mobility group (HMGIC) gene implicated in mesenchymal tumorigenesis are all located on the long arm of chromosome 12. Chromosomal abnormalities involving the 12q13-q15 region are associated with a wide range of benign soft tissue tumors and sarcomas.

  3. Fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes in a supernumerary ring chromosome in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuma, Hammurabi; Möller, Emely; Collin, Anna; Domanski, Henryk A; Von Steyern, Fredrik Vult; Mandahl, Nils; Mertens, Fredrik

    2010-06-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare, low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either benign or more malignant tumor types. Commonly, this tumor affects young adults and typically arises in the deep proximal extremities or trunk with frequent recurrences and can metastasize to the lungs many years later. Most cases have a recurrent balanced translocation involving chromosomes 7 and 16, t(7;16)(q32-34;p11), which leads to the fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes. However, supernumerary ring chromosomes have been identified in a subset of FUS/CREB3L2-positive LGFMS, but it has not yet been formally demonstrated that such ring chromosomes harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Here, we report the genetic findings of a supernumerary ring chromosome from an LGFMS from a 77-year-old man. Chromosome banding analysis revealed a supernumerary ring chromosome, and further studies with fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the ring contained material from chromosomes 7 and 16, that the FUS gene was present in two rearranged copies, and that it expressed the FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Moreover, an assessment of previously reported cases showed that tumors with ring chromosomes relapsed more often than tumors with a balanced t(7;16), suggesting that ring formation in LGFMS is correlated with tumor progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

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    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  5. In search for significant cognitive features in Klinefelter syndrome through cross-species comparison of a supernumerary X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruining, H; Swaab, H; de Sonneville, L M J; van Rijn, S; van Engeland, H; Kas, M J H

    2011-08-01

    The behavioral characterization of animals that carry genetic disorder abnormalities in a controlled genetic and environmental background may be used to identify human deficits that are significant to understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we studied whether previously reported object recognition impairments in mice with a supernumerary X chromosome relate to specific cognitive deficits in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). We aimed to optimize face validity by studying temporal object recognition in human cognitive assays. Thirty-four boys with Klinefelter syndrome (mean age 12.01) were compared with 90 age-matched normal controls, on a broad range of visual object memory tasks, including tests for pattern and temporal order discrimination. The results indicate that subjects with Klinefelter syndrome have difficulty in the processing of visual object and pattern information. Visual object patterns seem difficult to discriminate especially when temporal information needs to be processed and reproduced. On the basis of cross-species comparison, we propose that impaired temporal processing of object pattern information is an important deficit in Klinefelter syndrome. The current study shows how cross-species behavioral characterization may be used as a starting point to understand the neurobiology of syndromal phenotypic expression. The features of this study may serve as markers for interventions in Klinefelter syndrome. Similar cross-species evaluations of standard mouse behavioral paradigms in different genetic contexts may be powerful tools to optimize genotype-phenotype relationships.

  6. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  7. Small supernumerary marker chromosome and chromosome 18p abnormalities%编外标记染色体与18p染色体异常

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉鹏; 秦炯

    2016-01-01

    人类正常细胞核中有22对常染色体与1对性染色体,但一些人细胞核内另有多余的常染色体片段,被称为编外标记染色体(small supernumerary marker chromosome,sSMC).sSMC属于染色体结构异常,因其片段太小,并缺少明显的显带模式,无法通过传统的细胞遗传学显带技术进行识别,需要采用芯片比较基因组杂交或荧光原位杂交等多种分子生物学诊断方法才能确诊.由sSMC导致的染色体异常综合征较多,常见为Pallister-Killian综合征、等臂18p染色体综合征、猫眼综合征、Emanuel综合征.智力障碍人群中sSMC中发生率较高,临床缺乏特异性表现,随着分子细胞遗传学分析技术的提高,sSMC的识别率逐步提高.遗传咨询及产前诊断是减少sSMC发生的重要措施,分子生物学技术是明确sSMC的必要方法.现就sSMC相关18p染色体异常综合征的核型特点、发病机制、临床表现等进行综述.%Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in cells,and a pair of sex chromosomes.Some individuals have an extra,autosomal chromosome called a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC).sSMC is a structurally abnormal chromosome fragment.The fragments are too small and no-specific banding pattern to be identified by conventional banding cytogenetic analysis.Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH),fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or other molecular biological methods are necessary for the diagnosis.This article summarized the karyotype,pathogenesis,and the clinical manifestations of the sSMC-related chromosome 18p abnormalities.The patients with sSMC usually presented with abnormal chromosome syndrome.Some syndromes are relative common,such as Pallister-Killian syndrome,isochromosome 18p syndrome,Cat eye syndromes or Emanuel syndrome.sSMC is considered to be the frequent cause of mental retardation.The patients have no specific symptoms.With the progress of molecular cytogenetics

  8. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Yatsenko, Alexander N; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC(+)) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC(-)), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC(+) to sSMC(-) spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 - 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient's sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient.

  9. [Aluminum induces chromosome aberrations in wheat root meristem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, N V; Synzynys, B I; Koz'min, G V

    2001-12-01

    The yield and pattern of chromosome structure aberrations in wheat seedlings treated with aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate at various concentrations have been determined by the anaphase method. Aluminum has a genotoxic effect causing genome, chromatid, and chromosome aberrations in apical root meristem cells. The relationship between the total yield of structural mutations and the aluminum concentration follows a bell-shaped curve. The mutagenic activity of aluminum nitrate peaks at 10(-3) mg/ml, which is twice as high as the permissible concentration limit (PCL) of aluminum in potable water. The maximum of the mutagenic activity of aluminum sulfate is observed at 5 x 10(-4) mg/ml, i.e., one PCL. Tap water boiled for 2 h in an aluminum vessel has virtually no genotoxic effect on wheat cells.

  10. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  11. Transfer of small chromosome fragments of Agropyron elongatum to wheat chromosome via asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The chromosome constitution of hybrids and chromatin patterns of Agropyron elongatum(Host)Neviski in F5 somatic hybrid lines Ⅱ -1-3 and I-1-9 between Triticum aestivum L.and A.Elongatum were analyzed.Based on the statistic data of pollen mother cells,F5 I-1-9 and Ⅱ-1-3 had 20-21 bivalents with a frequency of 84.66% and 85.28%,of which,89.83% and 89.57% were ring bivalents.The result indicated that both hybrid lines were basically stable in the chromosome constitution and behavior.RAPD analysis showed that the two hybrids contained biparental and integrated DNA.GISH(Genome in situ hybridization)revealed that in the form of small chromosome segments,A.Elongatum chromatin was scattered on 4-6 wheat chromosomes near by the region of centromere and telomere in the two hybrid lines.SSR analysis indicated that A.Elongatum DNA segments were distributed on the 2A,5B,6B and 2D wheat chromosomes in the hybrids,which was in accordance with the GISH results that small-segments intercalated poly-site.

  12. DOP-PCR-based chromosome painting of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat-rye hybrid 1R and 1RS chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. In oeder to determine whether the chromosome painting techniques can be used to identify rye genome in wheat genetic background, 1R and 1RS chromosomes were microdissected from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King ll) and wheat-rye a...

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of a Fetus with de novo Supernumerary Ring Chromosome 16 Characterized by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Cignini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fetus with de novo ring chromosome 16 is presented. At 20 weeks' gestation, ultrasound examination demonstrated bilateral clubfoot, bilateral renal pyelectasis, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and transposition of the great vessel. Amniocentesis was performed. Chromosome analysis identified a ring chromosome 16 [47,XY,r(16] and array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH demonstrated that the ring included the euchromatic portion 16p11.2. Postmortem examination confirmed prenatal findings. This is the first case of de novo ring chromosome 16 diagnosed prenatally with a new phenotypic pattern and also reinforces the importance of offering amniocentesis with a-CGH if fetal anomalies are detected.

  14. Genetic compensation abilities of Aegilops speltoides chromosomes for homoeologous B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheat in disomic S(B) chromosome substitution lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The S genome of Aegilops speltoides is closely related to the B and G genomes of polyploid wheats. However, little work has been reported on the genetic relationships between the S-genome and B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheat. Here we report the isolation of a set of disomic substitutions (DS)...

  15. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  16. Induction of small-segment-translocation between wheat and rye chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任正隆; 张怀琼

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to produce wheat-rye translocation, based on the genetic instability caused by monosomic addition of rye chromosome in wheat, is described. 1 283 plants from the selfed progenies of monosomic addition lines with single chromosome of inbred rye line R12 and complete chromosome complement of wheat cultivar Mianyang 11 were cytologically analyzed on a plant-by-plant basis by the improved C-banding technique. 63 of the plants, with 2n = 42, were found containing wheat-rye translocation or substitution, with a frequency of 4. 91% . Compared with the wheat parent, other 32 plants with 2n = 42 exhibited obvious phenotypic variation, but their com-ponent of rye chromosome could not be detected using the C-banding technique. In situ hybridization with a biotin-la-beled DNA probe was used to detect rye chromatin and to determine the insertion sites of rye segments in the wheat chromosomes. In 20 out of the 32 variant wheat plants, small segments of rye chromosomes were found being inserted into dif

  17. 胎儿标记染色体及衍生染色体的细胞与分子遗传学研究%Cytogenetic and molecular genetic study of fetal supernumerary marker chromosomes and derivative chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林少宾; 史珊珊; 谢英俊; 陈争; 陈宝江; 吴坚柱; 方群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prenatal diagnosis and phenotypic assessment strategies for fetal supernumerary marker chromosomes and derivative chromosomes. Methods Five cases of fetal supernumerary marker chromosomes and one case of fetal derivative chromosomes were diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from March 12, 2010 to November 9, 2012 by conventional chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). These cases were retrospectively reviewed. Combined with the results of ultrasonography, abnormal phenotypes and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated in these cases. Results All of the five supernumerary marker chromosomes were de novo, in which two were mosaic and the remaining three cases were non-mosaic. Of these five cases, two were type 47, XX+mar and ultrasound indicated abnormal phenotypes. FISH and SKY confirmed that they were derived from chromosome 4 and 22, respectively. The other three cases were marker chromosome with Turner syndrome karyotype (abnormal phenotypes were not found by ultrasound), in which two cases were derived from chromosome Y (by FISH) and one case was identified as ring chromosome X (by FISH and SKY). One de novo derivative chromosome was verified as a product of reciprocal translocation between chromosome 2 and 6 (by FISH and SKY). Induced abortion was performed in all cases between 25 and 32 gestational weeks. Conclusions By combining conventional chromosome banding, FISH and SKY, the origin and content of supernumerary marker chromosomes and derivative chromosomes can be identified. On this basis, clinical phenotype evaluation and genetic counseling may be offered with the ultrasonographic result.%目的:探讨胎儿标记染色体及衍生染色体的产前诊断与评估策略。方法通过传统染色体显带技术、荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)及光谱核型分析(spectral karyotyping,SKY)等3种技

  18. Partial hexasomy for the Prader-Willi-Angelman syndrome critical region due to a maternally inherited large supernumerary marker chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppman-Chaney, Nicole L; Dawson, D Brian; Nguyen, Lai; Sengupta, Sunanda; Reynolds, Kara; McPherson, Elizabeth; Velagaleti, Gopalrao

    2010-08-01

    Extra copies of the Prader-Willi-Angelman syndrome critical region (PWASCR) have been shown to have detrimental phenotypic effects depending on the parent of origin. Hexasomy for the PWASCR is rare; only 6 cases have been described to date. We report on a 15-year-old girl referred for developmental delay and seizures with a mosaic tricentric small marker chromosome (SMC) 15 identified by routine G-banding chromosome studies. C-banding and FISH confirmed the presence of three chromosome 15 centromeres as well as four copies of the PWASCR on the SMC in approximately 60% of interphase cells. Microsatellite genotyping documented maternal inheritance of the SMC, and methylation-sensitive multiplex ligation-dependent PCR amplification (MS-MLPA) showed that the extra copies of the PWASCR contained on the marker chromosome bear a methylation pattern similar to a normal maternal chromosome, implying maternal inheritance. These findings are consistent with the patient's phenotype as paternal inheritance of such a marker chromosome is thought to be benign. However, this patient's phenotype is the mildest described to date and may be a result of mosaicism for the SMC.

  19. Dissecting the phenotype of supernumerary marker chromosome 20 in a patient with syndromic Pierre Robin sequence: combinatorial effect of gene dosage and uniparental disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kubota, Noriko; Arakawa, Michiko; Takayama, Masayoshi; Harada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Nishi, Eriko; Hidaka, Eiko

    2015-06-01

    Clinical phenotypes in individuals with a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) are mainly caused by gene dosage effects due to the genes located on the SMC. An additional effect may result from uniparental disomy (UPD). Consequently, the occurrence of UPD may be a confounding factor in identifying genotype-phenotype correlations in SMC syndromes. Here, we report on a patient that illustrates this problem; the phenotype of this patient was a consequence of a combined effect of gene dosage and UPD. The proband showed facial dysmorphisms, growth retardation and developmental delay. G-band karyotype of the proband's peripheral blood showed the presence of mosaic SMC. A SNP array analysis documented maternal UPD20 and 20p duplication. It is known that maternal UPD20 causes prenatal onset growth retardation and feeding difficulties. By contrast, duplication of 20p causes facial dysmorphisms, micrognathia, cleft palate, developmental delay and vertebral anomalies. Our classification of the proband's phenotype showed a mixture of these two effects. Therefore, we suggest the routine use of genome-wide SNP array towards the detailed genotype-phenotype correlations for SMC syndromes.

  20. Chromosomal structural changes and microsatellite variations in newly synthesized hexaploid wheat mediated by unreduced gametes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAO LI; YAJUAN WANG; XIAOXUE GUO; YINPENG DU; CHANGYOU WANG; WANQUAN JI

    2016-12-01

    Allohexaploid wheat was derived from interspecific hybridization, followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Newly synthesized hexaploid wheat by crossing Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii provides a classical model to understand the mechanisms of allohexaploidization in wheat. However, immediate chromosome level variation and microsatellite level variation of newly synthesized hexaploid wheat have been rarely reported. Here, unreduced gametes were applied to develop synthesized hexaploid wheat, NA0928, population by crossing T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum MY3478 and Ae. tauschii SY41, and further S0–S3 generations of NA0928 were assayed by sequential cytological and microsatellite techniques. We demonstrated that plentiful chromosomal structural changes and microsatellite variations emerged in the early generations of newlysynthesized hexaploid wheat population NA0928, including aneuploidy with whole-chromosome loss or gain, aneuploidy with telosome formation, chromosome-specific repeated sequence elimination (indicated by fluorescence in situ hybridization) and microsatellite sequence elimination (indicated by sequencing), and many kinds of variations have not been previously reported. Additionally, we reported a new germplasm, T. turgidum accession MY3478 with excellent unreduced gametes trait, and then succeeded to transfer powdery mildew resistance from Ae. tauschii SY41 to synthesized allohexaploid wheatpopulation NA0928, which would be valuable resistance resources for wheat improvement.

  1. Genes for resistance to stripe rust on chromosome 2B and their application in wheat breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peigao Luo; Xueyun Hu; Huaiyu Zhang; Zhenglong Ren

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide.Growing resistant cultivars is the most economic and environmental friendly way to control the disease.There are many resistance genes to stripe rust located on wheat chromosome 2B.Here,we propose a strategy to construct the recombinant wheat chromosome 2B with multiple resistances to stripe rust by making crosses between wheat lines or cultivars carrying Yr genes and using marker-assisted selection,based on the reported information about resistance spectrum,chromosomal location,and linked markers of the genes.Pyramiding the resistance genes on 2B would afford a valuable strategy to control the disease by cultivating varieties with durable resistance.The possibility,efficiency,and prospect of the suggested strategy are reviewed in the paper.

  2. Detailed comparison between the wheat chromosome group 7 short arms and the rice chromosome arms 6S and 8L with special reference to genes involved in starch biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongyi; Huang, Bingyan; Rampling, Lynette

    2004-01-01

    on wheat chromosome 7AS and the virtual rice contig covering wheat chromosome 7AS. A preliminary comparison between the short arms of chromosome 7A and 7D in wheat showed that both chromosomes had a similar level of sequence synteny with rice. Therefore, there appears to be considerable variation in gene...

  3. Chromosome Specific Substitution Lines of Aegilops geniculata Alter Parameters of Bread Making Quality of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Aman; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Rohit; Chunduri, Venkatesh; Sharma, Nand Kishor; Chawla, Meenakshi; Sharma, Saloni; Mundey, Jaspreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) ≤wheat ≤1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species’ potential. PMID:27755540

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng 6Ns chromosome addition in common wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Du

    Full Text Available The development of alien addition lines is important for transferring useful genes from exotic species into common wheat. A hybrid of common wheat cv. 7182 (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs via embryo culture produced the novel intergeneric disomic addition line 59-11. The seed morphology of 59-11 resembled the parent 7182 and it exhibited extreme agronomic characteristics, i.e., twin stable spikelets, fertile florets, and multi-kernel clusters. Furthermore, 59-11 produced plump kernels with a high seed-setting percentage during the advanced maturation stage. The line was screened based on genomic in situ hybridization, EST-SSR, EST-STS, and gliadin to identify P. huashanica chromatin in the wheat background. The chromosome number and configuration of 59-11 was 2n = 44 = 22 II and we confirmed the 6Ns disomic chromosome additions based on A-PAGE analysis and molecular markers. The results suggested that the production of twin spikelets and multiple kernels per spike in the wheat-P. huashanica addition line was related to homologous group 6 in the wheat chromosome. This is the first report of the introduction of improved spike traits into common wheat from the alien species P. huashanica and it opens up the possibility of increasing the wheat yield based on this enlarged gene pool.

  5. Mosaic supernumerary inv dup(15) chromosome with four copies of the P gene in a boy with pigmentary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Keiko; Spritz, Richard A; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Mitsui, Norimasa; Matsushima, Kazushige; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2004-04-30

    Association of the pink-eye-dilution gene (P) with hypopigmentation is seen in patients who have oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) or Angelman syndrome (AS). However, it remains unknown whether duplication or amplification of the P gene causes hyperpigmentation. We previously reported a woman who had hyperpigmentation with a duplication of the proximal part of 15q, including the P gene. Here, we describe an additional patient with mosaicism of inv dup(15) and clinical manifestations of severe psychmoter retardation, epilepsy, and pigmentary dysplasia showing mottled and linear patterns of hyperpigmentation. His karyotype was 47,XY,+idic(15)(pter-->q14::q14-->pter)[38]/46,XY[12] de novo. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed six copies of the P gene. Therefore, his cutaneous mosaicism might be caused by the presence of both normal and hyperpigmented skin due to multicopies of the P gene.

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular markers for detecting Aegilops uniaristata chromosomes in a wheat background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Li, Guangrong; Zhou, Jianping; Li, Genying; Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chengyan; Zhao, Zhendong; Yang, Zujun

    2014-09-01

    Aegilops uniaristata has many agronomically useful traits that can be used for wheat breeding. So far, a Triticum turgidum - Ae. uniaristata amphiploid and one set of Chinese Spring (CS) - Ae. uniaristata addition lines have been produced. To guide Ae. uniaristata chromatin transformation from these lines into cultivated wheat through chromosome engineering, reliable cytogenetic and molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes need to be developed. Standard C-banding shows that C-bands mainly exist in the centromeric regions of Ae. uniaristata but rarely at the distal ends. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using (GAA)8 as a probe showed that the hybridization signal of chromosomes 1N-7N are different, thus (GAA)8 can be used to identify all Ae. uniaristata chromosomes in wheat background simultaneously. Moreover, a total of 42 molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes were developed by screening expressed sequence tag - sequence tagged site (EST-STS), expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers. The markers were subsequently localized using the CS - Ae. uniaristata addition lines and different wheat cultivars as controls. The cytogenetic and molecular markers developed herein will be helpful for screening and identifying wheat - Ae. uniaristata progeny.

  7. A chromosome bin map of 2148 expressed sequence tag loci of wheat homoeologous group 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Lazo, G R; Hegstad, J; Wentz, M J; Kianian, P M A; Simons, K; Gehlhar, S; Rust, J L; Syamala, R R; Obeori, K; Bhamidimarri, S; Karunadharma, P; Chao, S; Anderson, O D; Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Gill, B S; Linkiewicz, A M; Ratnasiri, A; Dubcovsky, J; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Miftahudin; Ross, K; Gustafson, J P; Radhawa, H S; Dilbirligi, M; Gill, K S; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N L V; Greene, R A; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; Sorrells, M E; Feril, O; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Conley, E J; Anderson, J A; Choi, D W; Fenton, D; Close, T J; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Kianian, S F

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a high-density chromosome bin map of homoeologous group 7 in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), to identify gene distribution in these chromosomes, and to perform comparative studies of wheat with rice and barley. We mapped 2148 loci from 919 EST clones onto group 7 chromosomes of wheat. In the majority of cases the numbers of loci were significantly lower in the centromeric regions and tended to increase in the distal regions. The level of duplicated loci in this group was 24% with most of these loci being localized toward the distal regions. One hundred nineteen EST probes that hybridized to three fragments and mapped to the three group 7 chromosomes were designated landmark probes and were used to construct a consensus homoeologous group 7 map. An additional 49 probes that mapped to 7AS, 7DS, and the ancestral translocated segment involving 7BS also were designated landmarks. Landmark probe orders and comparative maps of wheat, rice, and barley were produced on the basis of corresponding rice BAC/PAC and genetic markers that mapped on chromosomes 6 and 8 of rice. Identification of landmark ESTs and development of consensus maps may provide a framework of conserved coding regions predating the evolution of wheat genomes.

  8. Effects of heavy-ion beams on chromosomes of common wheat, Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Saito, Yoshinaka [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Hisashi, E-mail: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    To investigate the nature of plant chromosomes irradiated by heavy-ion beams, the effects of nitrogen (N) and neon (Ne) ion beams on hexaploid wheat chromosomes were compared with those of X-ray. Chromosome aberrations, such as short, ring and dicentric chromosomes appeared in high frequency. The average numbers of chromosome breaks at LD-50 by irradiation with X-ray, N and Ne ion beams were 32, 20 and 20, respectively. These values may be underestimated because chromosome rearrangement without change in chromosome morphology was not counted. Thus, we subsequently used a wheat line with a pair of extra chromosomes from an alien species (Leymus racemosus) and observed the fate of the irradiated marker chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that 50 Gy of neon beam induced about eight times more breaks than those induced by X-ray. This result suggests that heavy-ion beams induce chromosome rearrangement in high frequency rather than loss of gene function. This suggests further that most of the novel mutations produced by ion beam irradiation, which have been used in plant breeding, may not be caused by ordinary gene disruption but by chromosome rearrangements.

  9. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  10. Analphoid supernumerary marker chromosome characterized by aCGH and FISH as inv dup(3(q25.33qter de novo in a child with dysmorphic features and streaky pigmentation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramathan R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC occur in 0.075% of unselected prenatal and in 0.044% of consecutively studied postnatal cases. Individuals with sSMC present with varying phenotype, ranging from normal to extremely mild or severe depending on the chromosomal region involved, the euchromatic content present and degree of mosaicism. Except for chromosomes 15 and 22, the number of reported cases of sSMC is extremely small to provide us with a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Analphoid sSMC are even rarer. To our knowledge only eight cases of analphoid inversion-duplication 3q sSMC are reported so far. Results We describe here a one month old female child with several dysmorphic features and with a de novo analphoid supernumerary marker chromosome only in cultured skin fibroblast cells and not in lymphocytes. The marker was characterized as analphoid inversion-duplication 3q25.33-qter by oligo array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies. The final skin fibroblast karyotype was interpreted as 47,XX,+der(3.ish inv dup(3(qter-q25.33::q25.33-qter(subtel 3q+,subtel 3q+ de novo. Conclusion In addition to the eight reported cases of analphoid inversion-duplication 3q supernumerary marker in the literature, this is yet another case of 3q sSMC with a new breakpoint at 3q25.33 and with varying phenotype as described in the case report. Identification of more and more similar cases of analphoid inversion-duplication 3q marker will help in establishing a better genotype-phenotype correlation. The study further demonstrates that aCGH in conjunction with routine cytogenetics and FISH is very useful in precisely identifying and characterizing a marker chromosome, and more importantly help in providing with an accurate genetic diagnosis and better counseling to the family.

  11. Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Sunish K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA generated 11,014,359 bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626 bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19 kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4% was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4 kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39 kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from

  12. A radiation hybrid map of chromosome ID reveals synteny conservation at a wheat speciation locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species cytoplasm specific (scs) genes affect nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions in interspecific hybrids. A radiation hybrid (RH) mapping population of 188 individuals was employed to refine the location of the scsae locus of Tritcum aestivum chromosome 1D. ‘Wheat Zapper’, a comparative genomic...

  13. A high resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread wheat has a large and complex allohexaploid genome with low recombination level at chromosome centromeric and peri-centromeric regions. This significantly hampers ordering of markers, contigs of physical maps and sequence scaffolds and impedes obtaining of high-quality reference genome sequenc...

  14. Chromosome engineering for alien gene introgression in wheat: Progress and prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for introgression of desirable genes from wild relatives into cultivated wheat. However, it has been a challenge to transfer a small amount of alien chromatin containing the gene of interest from one genome to another non-homologous genome through classic...

  15. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Patrick E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large

  16. Management of supernumerary teeth

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    Abhishek Parolia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary paramolars are the rare anomalies of the maxillofacial complex. These are more common in the maxilla than in the mandible. This article reviews the etiology, frequency, classification, complications, diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth (bilateral maxillary paramolars

  17. Intracranial supernumerary tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, S.; Loerinc, P.

    1984-12-01

    Case report of an accidentally diagnosed supernumerary tooth in the superior orbital fissure. Computed tomography (CT) contributed with a more precise localization of the tooth being situated between the orbit and the brain. CT also showed that there was no cyst or other pathological process around the supernumerary tooth, which is plausible and frequently reported in the literature.

  18. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  19. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1 gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds.

  20. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  1. Spontaneous and divergent hexaploid triticales derived from common wheat × rye by complete elimination of D-genome chromosomes.

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    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.

  2. Addition of Aegilops U and M Chromosomes Affects Protein and Dietary Fiber Content of Wholemeal Wheat Flour

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    Marianna Rakszegi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of β-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX than wheat lines, and elevated β-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits.Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.

  3. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  4. Fertility of CMS wheat is restored by two Rf loci located on a recombined acrocentric chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Almudena; Atienza, Sergio G; Martín, Azahara C

    2014-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibility between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes, and is characterized by the inability to produce viable pollen. The restoration of male fertility generally involves the introgression of nuclear genes, termed restorers of fertility (Rf). CMS has been widely used for hybrid seed production in many crops but not in wheat, partly owing to the complex genetics of fertility restoration. In this study, an acrocentric chromosome that restores pollen fertility of CMS wheat in Hordeum chilense cytoplasm (msH1 system) is studied. The results show that this chromosome, of H. chilense origin and named H(ch)ac, originated from a complex reorganization of the short arm of chromosomes 1H(ch) (1H(ch)S) and 6H(ch) (6H(ch)S). Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers and cytological analysis indicate that H(ch)ac is a kind of `zebra-like' chromosome composed of chromosome 1H(ch)S and alternate fragments of interstitial and distal regions of chromosome 6H(ch)S. PCR-based markers together with FISH, GISH, and meiotic pairing analysis support this result. A restorer of fertility gene, named Rf6H(ch)S, has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 6H(ch)S. Moreover, restoration by the addition of chromosome 1H(ch)S has been observed at a very low frequency and under certain environmental conditions. Therefore, the results indicate the presence of two Rf genes on the acrocentric chromosome: Rf6H(ch)S and Rf1H(ch)S, the restoration potential of Rf6H(ch)S being greater. The stable and high restoration of pollen fertility in the msH1 system is therefore the result of the interaction between these two restorer genes.

  5. The molecular features of chromosome pairing at meiosis: the polyploid challenge using wheat as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Faridoon K; Al-Kaff, Nadia; Moore, Graham

    2010-05-01

    During meiosis, chromosome numbers are halved, leading to haploid gametes, a process that is crucial for the maintenance of a stable genome through successive generations. The process for the accurate segregation of the homologues starts in pre-meiosis as each homologue is replicated and the respective products are held together as two sister chromatids via specific cohesion proteins. At the start of meiosis, each chromosome must recognise its homologue from amongst all the chromosomes present in the nucleus and then associate or pair with that homologue. This process of homologue recognition in meiosis is more complicated in polyploids because of the greater number of related chromosomes. Despite the presence of these related chromosomes, for polyploids such as wheat to produce viable gametes, they must behave as diploids during meiosis with only true homologues pairing. In this review, the relationship between the Ph1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like genes in wheat and the CDK2 genes in mammals and their involvement in controlling this process at meiosis is examined.

  6. Supernumerary teeth in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Szkaradkiewicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition amounts 0.1-6.9%, and in deciduous dentition 0.4-0.8%. The presence of supernumerary teeth can be found in everyday dental practice.Case presentation: We describe 3 cases of patients with supernumerary teeth. First patient had supernumerary lateral incisor 12s, second - premolar fused, multicuspid, supernumerary deciduous tooth 64s of having several interconnected roots, and third - erupted odontoma between teeth 13 and 14. In all cases treatment involved the removal of the supernumerary tooth.Conclusions: The decision on proceeding with the supernumerary teeth should be based on the full clinical picture and interview. Early diagnosis and removal of supernumerary teeth allow to avoid or reduce possible complications.

  7. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th.intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th.intermedium in common wheat-Th.intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization.Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes.This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line,but also a replacing line.The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed.A special probe of Th.intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library.The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data.This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance,adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  8. Microdissection of additional chromosome in common wheat-Th. intermedium TAI-27 and screening of its special probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田靫; 卢一凡; 邓继先; 李滨; 张学勇; 刘广田

    2000-01-01

    It was identified that there were 4 St chromosomes derived from Th, intermedium in common wheat-Th. intermedium alien additional line TAI-27 by in situ hybridization. Two St chromosomes added to wheat chromosome in TAI-27 as well as two of them replaced two of 42 in wheat chromosomes. This indicates that TAI-27 is not only an alien additional line, but also a replacing line. The additional chromosomes in TAI-27 were microdissected and a microcloning library was constructed. A special probe of Th. intermedium was obtained from a microcloning library. The sequence analysis indicated that there were no homology with Genebank data. This makes it possible to screen genes with the disease-resistance, adversity-tolerance and fine character from Th.intermedium.

  9. Introgression of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Conferred by Chromosome 2R by Crossing Wheat Nullisomic 2D with Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the nullisomic back-cross procedure, four wheat-rye chromosome substitution 2R (2D) lines with different agronomic performance, designated WR02-145-1, WR01-145-2, WR02-145-3, and WR02-145-4, were produced from a cross between 2D nullisomic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. "Xiaoyan 6") and rye (Secale cereale L. cv. "German White"). The chromosomal constitution of 2n=42=21 in WR02-145 lines was confirmed by cytological and molecular cytogenetic methods. Using genomic in situ hybridization on root tip chromosome preparations, a pair of intact rye chromosomes was detected in the WR02-145 lines. PCR using chromosome-specific primers confirmed the presence of 2R chromosomes of rye in these wheat-rye lines, indicating that WR02-145 lines are disomic chromosome substitution lines 2R (2D). The WR02-145 lines are resistant to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici E. Marchal) isolates prevalent in northern China and may possess gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differ from the previously identified Pm7 gene located on chromosome 2RL. The newly developed "Xiaoyan 6"- "German White"2R (2D) chromosome substitution lines are genetically stable, show desirable agronomic traits, and are expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  10. Characterization of wheat-Secale africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives carrying Secale specific genes for grain hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangrong; Gao, Dan; La, Shixiao; Wang, Hongjin; Li, Jianbo; He, Weilin; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2016-05-01

    New wheat- Secale africanum chromosome 5R (a) substitution and translocation lines were developed and identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular markers, and chromosome 5R (a) specific genes responsible for grain hardness were isolated. The wild species, Secale africanum Stapf. (genome R(a)R(a)), serves as a valuable germplasm resource for increasing the diversity of cultivated rye (S. cereale L., genome RR) and providing novel genes for wheat improvement. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular markers were applied to characterize new wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) derivatives. Labeled rye genomic DNA (GISH) and the Oligo-probes pSc119.2 and pTa535 (FISH) were used to study a wheat-S. africanum amphiploid and a disomic 5R(a) (5D) substitution, and to identify a T5DL.5R(a)S translocation line and 5R(a)S and 5R(a)L isotelosome lines. Twenty-one molecular markers were mapped to chromosome 5R(a) arms which will facilitate future rapid identification of 5R(a) introgressions in wheat backgrounds. Comparative analysis of the molecular markers mapped on 5R(a) with homoeologous regions in wheat confirmed a deletion on the chromosome T5DL.5R(a)S, which suggests that the wheat-S. africanum Robertsonian translocation involving homologous group 5 may not be fully compensating. Complete coding sequences at the paralogous puroindoline-a (Pina) and grain softness protein gene (Gsp-1) loci from S. africanum were cloned and localized onto the short arm of chromosome 5R(a). The S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) substitution and translocation lines showed a reduction in the hardness index, which may be associated with the S. africanum- specific Pina and Gsp-1 gene sequences. The present study reports the production of novel wheat-S. africanum chromosome 5R(a) stripe rust resistant derivatives and new rye-specific molecular markers, which may find application in future use of wild Secale genome resources for grain quality

  11. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  12. Subgenome chromosome walking in wheat: A 450-kb physical contig in Triticum monococcum L. spans the Lr10 resistance locus in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nils; Feuillet, Catherine; Wicker, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Keller, Beat

    2000-01-01

    For many agronomically important plant genes, only their position on a genetic map is known. In the absence of an efficient transposon tagging system, such genes have to be isolated by map-based cloning. In bread wheat Triticum aestivum, the genome is hexaploid, has a size of 1.6 × 1010 bp, and contains more than 80% of repetitive sequences. So far, this genome complexity has not allowed chromosome walking and positional cloning. Here, we demonstrate that chromosome walking using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones is possible in the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (Am genome). BAC end sequences were mostly repetitive and could not be used for the first walking step. New probes corresponding to rare low-copy sequences were efficiently identified by low-pass DNA sequencing of the BACs. Two walking steps resulted in a physical contig of 450 kb on chromosome 1AmS. Genetic mapping of the probes derived from the BAC contig demonstrated perfect colinearity between the physical map of T. monococcum and the genetic map of bread wheat on chromosome 1AS. The contig genetically spans the Lr10 leaf rust disease resistance locus in bread wheat, with 0.13 centimorgans corresponding to 300 kb between the closest flanking markers. Comparison of the genetic to physical distances has shown large variations within 350 kb of the contig. The physical contig can now be used for the isolation of the orthologous regions in bread wheat. Thus, subgenome chromosome walking in wheat can produce large physical contigs and saturate genomic regions to support positional cloning. PMID:11078510

  13. Development of SSR markers from ESTs of gramineous species and their chromosome location on wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linzhi Li; Sishen Li; Junjun Wang; Ying Guo; Fangshan Jiang; Yunfeng Xu; Yingying Wang; Haitao Pan; Guanzhu Han; Ruijun Li

    2008-01-01

    A total of 407,663 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of wheat,barley,maize,rice,and sorghum,obtained from GenBank/dbEST,were used to search for simple sequence repeats (SSRs).A total of 10,253 EST-SSRs,which accounted for 2.52% of all the ESTs,were iden-tiffed.Using Primer Premier 5.0,1367 EST-SSR primer pairs were designed,of which 715 with high quality were synthesized.The 715 primer pairs were tested on wheat,rice,maize,cotton,and soybean under the same PCR conditions,and the effective primer pairs in the five crops were 500 (69.93%),383 (53.57%),452 (63.22%),357 (49.93%),and 388 (56.27%),respectively.This indicated a high transfer-ability of EST-SSR markers between far-ranging species.In addition,139 EST-SSR primer pairs with 240 loci were localized on all the 21 wheat chromosomes by using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines of wheat.

  14. Alteration of Terminal Heterochromatin and Chromosome Rearrangements in Derivatives of Wheat-Rye Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Xiang Guo; Xiangqi Zhang; Fangpu Han

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-rye addition and substitution lines and their self progenies revealed variations in telomeric heterochromatin and centromeres.Furthermore,a mitotically unstable dicentric chromosome and stable multicentric chromosomes were observed in the progeny of a Chinese Spring-Imperial rye 3R addition line.An unstable multicentric chromosome was found in the progeny of a 6R/6D substitution line.Drastic variation of terminal heterochromatin including movement and disappearance of terminal heterochromatin occurred in the progeny of wheatrye addition line 3R,and the 5RS ditelosomic addition line.Highly stable minichromosomes were observed in the progeny of a monosomic 4R addition line,a ditelosomic 5RS addition line and a 6R/6D substitution line.Minichromosomes,with and without the FISH signals for telomeric DNA (TTTAGGG)n,derived from a monosomic 4R addition line are stable and transmissible to the next generation.The results indicated that centromeres and terminal heterochromatin can be profoundly altered in wheat-rye hybrid derivatives.

  15. 四例男性不育患者的15q11额外小标记染色体分析%Analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosome 15q11 in four infertile males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂向东; 丛学文; 曾健; 郑德柱; 严爱贞; 林炎鸿; 丘丽萍; 张敏; 钟福春

    2013-01-01

    目的 对4例男性不育患者所携带的额外小标记染色体(small supernumerary marker chromosome,sSMC)进行定位分析,以探讨其对男性不育的影响.方法 综合应用外周血培养染色体核型G显带、N显带、多重连接依赖探针扩增(multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification,MLPA)、荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)、单核苷酸多态性芯片(single nucleotide polymorphisms array,SNP-array)等技术对4例男性不育患者的15q11额外小标记染色体进行分析.结果 G显带分析显示4例患者染色体核型均为47,XY,+mar.N显带分析提示sSMC均为双随体,位于mar两侧.MLPA(SALSA着丝粒探针p180/p182试剂盒)分析提示,1例患者的15q1 1.2基因拷贝数重复.SNP-array分析提示,4例患者均为15q11.1-q11.2区重复,片段大小分别为3.06 Mb、0.9118 Mb、1.728 Mb、0.287 Mb.CEP15 DI5Z4着丝粒探针FISH分析mar均有2个杂交信号,为双着丝粒染色体.综合分析4例患者mar 均来自15号染色体,为双随体、双着丝粒,倒位重复形式,分子细胞核型为47,XY,+mar.ish inv dup(15)(q11) (D15Z4++).结论 15q11 sSMC可能是导致男性不育的重要原因之一.%Objective To delineate the origins of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs)identified in 4 infertile males.Methods The sSMCs were analyzed with combined G-banding,N-banding,multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA),fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphisms array (SNP-array) techniques.Results G-banding analysis has suggested a 46,X,-Y,+mar karyotype in all of the 4 cases.N banding revealed that all of the sSMCs possessed two satellites located on both sides.By MLPA,1 patient showed copy number gains for 15q11.2 region.SNParray analysis suggested that all had duplication for 15q11.1-q11.2 region,spanning 3.06 Mb,0.9118 Mb,1.728 Mb and 0.287 Mb,respectively.By FISH analysis,all of the sSMCs showed two hybridization signals

  16. A comparison of male and female recombination frequency in wheat using RFLP maps of homoeologous group 6 and 7 chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Hyne, V; Chao, S; Gale, M D; Henry, Y; De Buyser, J; Snape, J W

    1995-10-01

    A novel approach was used to compare male and female recombination rates in wheat. Doubled haploid lines were developed from an F1 using two distinct approaches: the anther-culture technique and the Hordeum bulbosum system, from which sets of lines were developed from "male" and "female" meioses, respectively. The genotype of the lines was established at RFLP and isozyme markers polymorphic on chromosomes of homoeologous groups 6 and 7, and "male" and "female" linkage maps were calculated using this information. The markers in one segment of chromosome 6B exhibited disturbed segregation frequencies in the anther-culture population. The "male" and "female" maps differed significantly in recombination frequency between some markers on two chromosomes, and these were consistent in direction within chromosomes and inconsistent in direction between chromosomes. In two of the four chromosomes studied the "male" map was much longer than the "female" map. These results suggest that significant differences may exist in male and female recombination frequencies in bread wheat which are specific to certain chromosomal segments but are inconsistent in direction between chromosomes. Other factors, such as environmental influences, may also be important in creating differences.

  17. Supernumerary Teeth in Nepalese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a patient sample of Nepalese children. Study Design. A survey was performed on 2684 patients (1829 females and 1035 males ranging in age from 6 to 14 for the presence of supernumerary teeth. For each patient with supernumerary teeth the demographic variables (age and sex, number, location, eruption status, and morphology were recorded. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 46 subjects (1.6%, of which 26 were males and 20 were females with a male : female ratio of 1.3 : 1. The most commonly found supernumerary tooth was mesiodens followed by maxillary premolars, maxillary lateral incisor, and mandibular lateral incisor. Of the 55 supernumerary teeth examined, 58.18% (n=32 had conical morphology, followed by tuberculate (30.90%, n=17 and supplemental (10.90%, n=6 forms. The majority of the supernumerary teeth were erupted (56.36%, n=31. Conclusion. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in Nepalese children was found to be 1.6%, the most frequent type being mesiodens. Conical morphology was found to be the most common form of supernumerary tooth.

  18. Supernumerary teeth in Nepalese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Sharma, Amita; Sharma, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a patient sample of Nepalese children. A survey was performed on 2684 patients (1829 females and 1035 males) ranging in age from 6 to 14 for the presence of supernumerary teeth. For each patient with supernumerary teeth the demographic variables (age and sex), number, location, eruption status, and morphology were recorded. Descriptive statistics were performed. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 46 subjects (1.6%), of which 26 were males and 20 were females with a male : female ratio of 1.3 : 1. The most commonly found supernumerary tooth was mesiodens followed by maxillary premolars, maxillary lateral incisor, and mandibular lateral incisor. Of the 55 supernumerary teeth examined, 58.18% (n = 32) had conical morphology, followed by tuberculate (30.90%, n = 17) and supplemental (10.90%, n = 6) forms. The majority of the supernumerary teeth were erupted (56.36%, n = 31). The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in Nepalese children was found to be 1.6%, the most frequent type being mesiodens. Conical morphology was found to be the most common form of supernumerary tooth.

  19. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  20. Electrophoretic and cytological karyotyping of the foliar wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals many chromosomes with a large size range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Taga, M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The karyotypes of three isolates of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch pathogen of wheat, were analyzed with both pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the cytological technique called germ tube burst method (GTBM). These analyses revealed a chromosome length polymorphism

  1. TaXA21-A1 on chromosome 5AL is associated with resistance to multiple pests in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quantitative trait locus QYr.osu-5A on the long arm of chromosome 5A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=6x=42; AABBDD) was previously reported to confer consistent resistance in adult plants to predominant stripe rust races, but the gene causing the quantitative trait locus (QTL) is not know...

  2. Construction of whole genome radiation hybrid panels and map of chromosome 5A of wheat using asymmetric somatic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanen Zhou

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of constructing a whole genome radiation hybrid (WGRH map in plant species with large genomes, asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. was performed. The protoplasts of wheat were irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV and gamma-ray and rescued by protoplast fusion using B. scorzonerifolium as the recipient. Assessment of SSR markers showed that the radiation hybrids have the average marker retention frequency of 15.5%. Two RH panels (RHPWI and RHPWII that contained 92 and 184 radiation hybrids, respectively, were developed and used for mapping of 68 SSR markers in chromosome 5A of wheat. A total of 1557 and 2034 breaks were detected in each panel. The RH map of chromosome 5A based on RHPWII was constructed. The distance of the comprehensive map was 2103 cR and the approximate resolution was estimated to be ∼501.6 kb/break. The RH panels evaluated in this study enabled us to order the ESTs in a single deletion bin or in the multiple bins cross the chromosome. These results demonstrated that RH mapping via protoplast fusion is feasible at the whole genome level for mapping purposes in wheat and the potential value of this mapping approach for the plant species with large genomes.

  3. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaoguo An

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization, mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mc-GISH (multicolor GISH and EST (expressed sequence tag-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering.

  4. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqi Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR. In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD, only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat.

  5. Whole-genome and chromosome evolution associated with host adaptation and speciation of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva H Stukenbrock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola has been a pathogen of wheat since host domestication 10,000-12,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent. The wheat-infecting lineage emerged from closely related Mycosphaerella pathogens infecting wild grasses. We use a comparative genomics approach to assess how the process of host specialization affected the genome structure of M. graminicola since divergence from the closest known progenitor species named M. graminicola S1. The genome of S1 was obtained by Illumina sequencing resulting in a 35 Mb draft genome sequence of 32X. Assembled contigs were aligned to the previously sequenced M. graminicola genome. The alignment covered >90% of the non-repetitive portion of the M. graminicola genome with an average divergence of 7%. The sequenced M. graminicola strain is known to harbor thirteen essential chromosomes plus eight dispensable chromosomes. We found evidence that structural rearrangements significantly affected the dispensable chromosomes while the essential chromosomes were syntenic. At the nucleotide level, the essential and dispensable chromosomes have evolved differently. The average synonymous substitution rate in dispensable chromosomes is considerably lower than in essential chromosomes, whereas the average non-synonymous substitution rate is three times higher. Differences in molecular evolution can be related to different transmission and recombination patterns, as well as to differences in effective population sizes of essential and dispensable chromosomes. In order to identify genes potentially involved in host specialization or speciation, we calculated ratios of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates in the >9,500 aligned protein coding genes. The genes are generally under strong purifying selection. We identified 43 candidate genes showing evidence of positive selection, one encoding a potential pathogen effector protein. We conclude that divergence of these pathogens was

  6. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  7. Transmission of the Chromosome 1 R in Winter Wheat Germplasm Aimengniu and Its Derivatives Revealed by Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunhua; CUI Fa; ZONG Hao; WANG Yu-hai; BAO Yin-guang; HAO Yuan-feng; DU Bin; WANG Hong-gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the transmission of the rye chromosome 1R in winter wheat germplasm Aimengniu and its derivatives,17 derivatives and 7 types of Aimengniu were examined through molecular-marker technology.The results showed that the chromosome arm 1RS of Neuzucht was transmitted to 5 of the 7 types of Aimengniu,i.e.,Aimengniu II and Aimengniu Ⅳ-Aimengniu Ⅶ,no segment of 1RS was identified in Aimengniu Ⅰ or Aimengniu Ⅲ.As for the 17 derivatives,the 1RS chromosome arm of Aimengniu was transmitted to 11 derivatives,part segments of 1RS were found in 1 derivative,while no segment was found in the remaining 5 ones.The results provided the evidence that molecular-marker technology was an efficient approach and suitable for analysis of the transmission of chromosome 1R.

  8. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed.......Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...

  9. Chromosomal Location of Traits Associated with Wheat Seedling Water and Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Different Water and Phosphorus Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi Song

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring- Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient and Egyptian Red (donor cultivars were measured to determine the chromosomal locations of genes controlling water use efficiency (WUE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE under different water and phosphorus conditions. The results underlined that chromosomes 1A, 7A, 7B, and 3A showed higher leaf water use efficiency (WUEl = Pn/Tr; Pn = photosynthetic rate; Tr = transpiration rate under W-P (Hoagland solution with1/2P, -W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P and 10% PEG. Chromosomes 7A, 3D, 2B, 3B, and 4B may carry genes for positive effects on individual plant water use efficiency (WUEp = biomass/TWC; TWC = total water consumption under WP (Hoagland solution, W-P and -W-P treatment. Chromosomes 7A and 7D carry genes for PUE enhancement under WP, -WP (Hoagland solution with 10% PEG and W-P treatment. Chromosome 7A possibly has genes for controlling WUE and PUE simultaneously, which indicates that WUE and PUE may share the same genetic background. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of the investigated traits showed that photosynthetic rate (Pn and transpiration rate (Tr, Tr and WUEl showed significant positive and negative correlations under WP, W-P, -WP and -W-P, W-P, -WP treatments, respectively. Dry mass (DM, WUEP, PUT (phosphorus uptake all showed significant positive correlation under WP, W-P and -WP treatment. PUE and phosphorus uptake (PUT = P uptake per plant showed significant negative correlation under the four treatments. The results might provide useful information for improving WUE and PUE in wheat genetics.

  10. Chromosome Based Strategies to Decipher the Structure and Evolution of the Hexaploid Wheat Genome: Chromosome 3B, a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Paux; P. Sourdille; J. Salse; P. Leroy; J. Dolezel; M. Bernard; C. Feuillet

    2007-01-01

    @@ With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world's population. Improvement in bread wheat quality and yield in the context of sustainable agriculture is needed in the next decades to meet human needs by 2050.

  11. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  12. Supernumerary Jawbone Tooth: Clinical Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Gutiérrez, Jesús; Carlos Sánchez, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: supernumerary teeth are dental development anomalies, alsoknown as hyperdontia or extra teeth. Their prevalence ranges between 0.3% and 3.8%.Their morphology may be normal or dismorphic and are associated to the etiology ofocclusal alterations. It is important to make an early diagnostic through a radiographicalstudy. Case presentation:this article presents a clinical case of a supernumerary tooth thatcaused rotation and crowding of the anterior bottom teeth, which was addressed...

  13. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Thinopyrum chromatin in a wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid and six derived chromosome addition lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; Conner; Laroche; Ji; Armstrong; Fedak

    1999-12-01

    The genomic origin of alien chromosomes present in a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 (2n = 8x = 56) and six derived chromosome addition lines were analyzed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (2n = 2x = 14, SS) as a probe. The GISH analysis clearly showed that the chromosome complement of the partial amphiploid TAF46 consists of an entire wheat genome plus one synthetic genome consisting of a mixture of six S genome chromosomes and eight J (=E) genome chromosomes derived from Th. intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJ(s)J(s)SS). There were no Js genome chromosomes present in TAF46. The J genome chromosomes present in TAF46 displayed a unique GISH hybridization pattern with the S genomic DNA probe, in which S genome DNA strongly hybridized at the terminal regions and weakly hybridized over the remaining parts of the chromosomes. This provides a diagnostic marker for distinguishing J genome chromosomes from Js or S genome or wheat ABD genome chromosomes. The genomic origin of the alien chromosomes present in the six derived chromosome addition lines were identified by their characteristic GISH hybridization patterns with S genomic DNA probe. GISH analysis showed that addition lines L1, L2, L3, and L5 carried one pair of J genome chromosomes, while addition lines L4 and L7 each carried one pair of S genome chromosomes. GISH patterns detected by the S genome probe on addition line of L1 were identical to those of the J genome chromosomes present in the partial amphiploid TAF46, suggesting that these chromosomes were not structurally altered when they were transferred from TAF46 to addition lines.

  14. Heritable alteration of DNA methylation induced by whole-chromosome aneuploidy in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihong; Diarso, Moussa; Zhang, Ai; Zhang, Huakun; Dong, Yuzhu; Liu, Lixia; Lv, Zhenling; Liu, Bao

    2016-01-01

    Aneuploidy causes changes in gene expression and phenotypes in all organisms studied. A previous study in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana showed that aneuploidy-generated phenotypic changes can be inherited to euploid progenies and implicated an epigenetic underpinning of the heritable variations. Based on an analysis by amplified fragment length polymorphism and methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we found that although genetic changes at the nucleotide sequence level were negligible, extensive changes in cytosine DNA methylation patterns occurred in all studied homeologous group 1 whole-chromosome aneuploid lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), with monosomic 1A showing the greatest amount of methylation changes. The changed methylation patterns were inherited by euploid progenies derived from the aneuploid parents. The aneuploidy-induced DNA methylation alterations and their heritability were verified at selected loci by bisulfite sequencing. Our data have provided empirical evidence supporting earlier suggestions that heritability of aneuploidy-generated, but aneuploidy-independent, phenotypic variations may have an epigenetic basis. That at least one type of aneuploidy - monosomic 1A - was able to cause significant epigenetic divergence of the aneuploid plants and their euploid progenies also lends support to recent suggestions that aneuploidy may have played an important and protracted role in polyploid genome evolution.

  15. Genetic mapping of major-effect seed dormancy quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2B using recombinant substitution lines in tetraploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer in the...

  16. Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield compon...

  17. Genetics of gliadins coded by the group 1 chromosomes in the high-quality bread wheat cultivar Neepawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachkevitch, T; Redaelli, R; Biancardi, A M; Metakovsky, E V; Pogna, N E

    1993-04-01

    The inheritance and biochemical properties of gliadins controlled by the group 1 chromosomes of the high-quality bread wheat cultivar Neepawa were studied in the progeny of the cross Neepawa x Costantino by six different electrophoretic procedures. Chromosome 1B of Neepawa contains two gliadin loci, one (Gli-B1) coding for at least six ω- or γ-gliadins, the other (Gli-B3) controlling the synthesis of gliadin N6 only. The map distance between these loci was calculated as 22.1 cM. Amongst the chromosome 1A gliadins, three proteins are encoded at the Gli-A1 locus whereas polypeptides N14-N15-N16 are controlled by a remote locus which recombines with Gli-A1. Six other gliadins are controlled by a gene cluster at Gli-D1 on chromosome 1D. Canadian wheat cultivars sharing the Gli-B1 allele of Neepawa were found to differ in the presence or absence of gliadin N6. The electrophoretic mobilities of proteins N6 and N14-N15-N16 were unaffected by the addition of a reducing agent during two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamid-gel electrophoresis, suggesting the absence of intra-chain disulphide bonds in their structure.

  18. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated with yellow rust resistance in Turkish bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F. Senturk Akfirat; F. Ertugrul; S. Hasancebi; Y. Aydin; K. Akan; Z. Mert; M. Cakir; A. Altinkut Uncuoglu

    2013-08-01

    We have previously reported Xgwm382 as a diagnostic marker for disease resistance against yellow rust in Izgi2001 × ES14 F2 population. Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the susceptible parent and in the susceptible bulks. To understand the chromosome group location of these diagnostic markers, Xgwm382 and Xgwm311, in the same population, we selected 16 SSR markers mapped only in one genome of chromosome group 2 around 1–21 cM distance to these diagnostic markers based on the SSR consensus map of wheat. Out of 16 SSRs, Xwmc658 identified resistant F2 individuals as a diagnostic marker for yellow rust disease and provided the location of Xgwm382 and Xgwm311 on chromosome 2AL in our plant material.

  19. Supernumerary teeth "mesiodens". Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itro, A; Difalco, P

    2003-09-01

    The supernumerary tooth is an anomaly of dental eruption that is not rare to find in the clinical practice. Among the supernumerary teeth the "mesiodens" is most frequent. The mesiodens is found in the region of the superior central incisors and it can be the cause of many complications. The aim of this work is the description of a rare symptomatic case of mesiodens and the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to adopt when this dental anomaly occurs. In particular the authors suggest making radiographic examinations only in the family of patients with dental anomalies of number, thinking that the incidence of such anomalies is too low to justify mass radiographic examinations.

  20. Characterization of B chromosomes in Lilium hybrids through GISH and FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.L.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, A.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes and small aberrant chromosomes were detected in Lilium hybrids and characterized through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two small, supernumerary or B chromosomes were detected as extra chromosomes in a tetraploid plant

  1. Chromosome engineering techniques for targeted introgression of rust resistance from wild wheat relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid wheat has relatively narrow genetic diversity due to its evolution and domestication processes compared to its wild relatives that often carry agronomically important traits including resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many genes have been introgressed into wheat from wild relative...

  2. Chromosomal location of genes for novel glutenin subunits and gliadins in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S S; Khan, K; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Nygard, G

    2004-05-01

    The glutenin and gliadin proteins of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides, have potential for improvement of durum wheat ( T. turgidum L. var. durum) quality. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomes controlling the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins present in three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions (Israel-A, PI-481521, and PI-478742), which were used as chromosome donors in Langdon durum- T. turgidum var. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) chromosome substitution lines. The three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions, their respective LDN-DIC substitution lines, and a number of controls with known HMW glutenin subunits were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea/SDS-PAGE, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE). The results revealed that all three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions possess Glu-A1 alleles that are the same as or similar to those reported previously. However, each T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accession had a unique Glu-B1 allele. PI-478742 had an unusual 1Bx subunit, which had mobility slightly slower than the 1Ax subunit in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. The subunits controlled by chromosome 1B of PI-481521 were slightly faster in mobility than the subunits of the Glu-B1n allele, and the 1By subunit was identified as band 8. The 1B subunits of Israel-A had similar mobility to subunits 14 and 16. The new Glu-B1 alleles were designated as Glu-B1be in Israel-A, Glu-B1bf in PI-481521, and Glu-B1bg in PI-478742. Results from A-PAGE revealed that PI-481521, PI-478742, and Israel-A had eight, 12, and nine unique gliadin bands, respectively, that were assigned to specific chromosomes. The identified glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins in the LDN-DIC substitution lines provide the basis for evaluating their effects on end-use quality, and they are also useful biochemical markers for identifying specific chromosomes or chromosome

  3. Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Goodwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. Control of the disease has been hampered by a limited understanding of the genetic and biochemical bases of pathogenicity, including mechanisms of infection and of resistance in the host. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it evades host defenses. Although this type of stealth pathogenicity occurs commonly in Mycosphaerella and other Dothideomycetes, the largest class of plant-pathogenic fungi, its genetic basis is not known. To address this problem, the genome of M. graminicola was sequenced completely. The finished genome contains 21 chromosomes, eight of which could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. This eight-chromosome dispensome is dynamic in field and progeny isolates, is different from the core genome in gene and repeat content, and appears to have originated by ancient horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. Synteny plots of the M. graminicola chromosomes versus those of the only other sequenced Dothideomycete, Stagonospora nodorum, revealed conservation of gene content but not order or orientation, suggesting a high rate of intra-chromosomal rearrangement in one or both species. This observed "mesosynteny" is very different from synteny seen between other organisms. A surprising feature of the M. graminicola genome compared to other sequenced plant pathogens was that it contained very few genes for enzymes that break down plant cell walls, which was more similar to endophytes than to pathogens. The stealth pathogenesis of M. graminicola probably involves degradation of proteins rather than carbohydrates to evade host defenses during the biotrophic

  4. Late Developing Supernumeraries in a Case of Nonsyndromic Multiple Supernumerary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Bozkurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This case report presents 3-year follow-up of a case of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (NSMST with 11 supernumerary teeth, 2 of which showed subsequent formation. Case Report. A 10-year-old girl was referred to the dental clinic with the chief complaint of delayed eruption. Radiographic examination showed 9 retained supernumerary teeth. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary teeth and associated primary teeth in order to allow the permanent teeth to erupt. After 2 years of follow-up, 2 additional supernumerary teeth were observed. Conclusion. Regular follow-up for late forming supernumeraries is crucial for NSMST cases.

  5. Effects on Genome Constitution and Novel Cell Wall Formation Caused by the Addition of 5RS Rye Chromosome to Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Cheng; Minoru Murata; Sodmergen; Xiao-Mei Li; Hai Nian; Jian-Min Wan

    2008-01-01

    The cytological instability of common wheat-rye addition lines was investigated in the present study. The chromosome numbers of almost all addition lines were considerably stable, but those of CS + 5R were very variable. The rye chromosome added in this line was found to be much shorter than expected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA and the centromere-specific probes clearly revealed that the short rye chromosome contains only a short arm of chromosome 5R (5RS). In this line, chromosome numbers of both 5RS and common wheat were changeable. The chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 36 to 2n = 44 in the cells carrying two 5RS, and ranged from 2n = 31 to 2n = 44 in one 5RS cells. In addition to the chromosome instability, the multicells wrapped in a sac-like structure were frequently observed in the root meristematic tissues of CS + 5RS after the enzyme treatment for chromosome preparation. Genomic in situ hybridization with rye DNA as a probe showed that all cells in sacs investigated were at the interphase stage and contained one or two 5RS chromosomes. An electron microscopic analysis revealed that the cells of CS + 5RS, particularly in sacs, have abnormal (irregular and curved) cell walls. These results indicate that 5RS has (a) specific factor(s) influencing the cell wall development as well as the genome stability.

  6. Chromosomal Passports Provide New Insights into Diffusion of Emmer Wheat: e0128556

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina D Badaeva; Jens Keilwagen; Helmut Knüpffer; Louise Waßermann; Olga S Dedkova; Olga P Mitrofanova; Olga N Kovaleva; Olga A Liapunova; Vitaly A Pukhalskiy; Hakan Özkan; Andreas Graner; George Willcox; Benjamin Kilian

    2015-01-01

      Emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccon schrank (syn. T. dicoccum (schrank) schÜbl.), is one of the earliest domesticated crops, harboring a wide range of genetic diversity and agronomically valuable traits...

  7. Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for rapid distinction between unique sequence positive and negative marker chromosomes in prenatal diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Opstal (Diane); M. Boter (Marjan); P. Noomen (Petra); M. Srebniak (Malgorzata); G. Hamers (Guus); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are extra structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified with conventional chromosome banding techniques. These marker chromosomes may cause an abnormal phenotype or be harmless depending on different fa

  8. Characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium Alien Chromosomes and Their Translocations in Wheat Derivatives of Zhong 5 by Multicolor Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyong; Phillip M Banks; P.J. Larkin

    2000-01-01

    Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are alien addition lines to wheat involving Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes. We have characterized the Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes or segments in these lines using multi-color florescence in situ hybridization. The probes used included total genomic DNA of Pseudoroegneria stipfolia (St) and cloned probes of highly tandem repetitive DNA pSc119. 2 and pAs1. Disomic addition lines Z1, Z2 and Z6 have the same single pair of alien chromo-somes carrying the resistant gene(s) to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). This alien chromosome is a St/E translocation; within the long arm, there is a big insertion of an E-genome chromosomalsegment (30%). Disomic addition line Z3 carries one pair of St/E Robertsonian translocation chromosomes ; on the short arm (E) there is a nuclear organizer region, which expresses in some cells. In Z5, the added chromosome is one pair of translocated chromosomes. Chromosomes 2D, 3D and 3Stwere involved in the translocation with great possibility〔2IS · 3DL (0. 47) - 3StL (0. 53)〕. The St segment is responsible for resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Addition line Z4 also carries the translo cated chromosome found in Z5, but in addition carries one pair of 7AS (0. 64) - 7StS (0. 36) · 7StL translocation chromosomes. The 7St fragment bears the stripe rust resistance, and replaces the normal 7A. All of the translocations in Z1, Z2, Z6 and Z3 existed in one of their parents, the wheat Th. intermedium partial amphiploid, Zhong 5. The two wheat-Th. intermedium translocations in Z4 and Z5 occurred during the backcrossing of Zhong 5 to the other wheat varieties in the development of the addition lines. Spontaneous homoeologous translocations showed a close genome relationship between wheat and Th. intermedium. This paper also demonstrated the potential of highly repetitive sequences DNA in verification and characterization of translocation chromosomes.

  9. Characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium Alien Chromosomes and Their Translocations in Wheat Derivatives of Zhong 5 by Multicolor Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are alien addition lines to wheat involving Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes. We have characterized the Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes or segments in these lines using multi-color florescence in situ hybridization. The probes used included total genomic DNA of Pseudoroegneria stipfolia (St) and cloned probes of highly tandem repetitive DNA pSc119. 2 and pAs1. Disomic addition lines Z1, Z2 and Z6 have the same single pair of alien chromo-somes carrying the resistant gene(s) to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). This alien chromosome is a St/E translocation; within the long arm, there is a big insertion of an E-genome chromosomalsegment (30%). Disomic addition line Z3 carries one pair of St/E Robertsonian translocation chromosomes ; on the short arm (E) there is a nuclear organizer region, which expresses in some cells. In Z5, the added chromosome is one pair of translocated chromosomes. Chromosomes 2D, 3D and 3Stwere involved in the translocation with great possibility[2IS · 3DL (0. 47) - 3StL (0. 53)]. The St segment is responsible for resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Addition line Z4 also carries the translo cated chromosome found in Z5, but in addition carries one pair of 7AS (0. 64) - 7StS (0. 36) · 7StL translocation chromosomes. The 7St fragment bears the stripe rust resistance, and replaces the normal 7A. All of the translocations in Z1, Z2, Z6 and Z3 existed in one of their parents, the wheat Th. intermedium partial amphiploid, Zhong 5. The two wheat-Th. intermedium translocations in Z4 and Z5 occurred during the backcrossing of Zhong 5 to the other wheat varieties in the development of the addition lines. Spontaneous homoeologous translocations showed a close genome relationship between wheat and Th. intermedium. This paper also demonstrated the potential of highly repetitive sequences DNA in verification and characterization of translocation chromosomes.

  10. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  11. Supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, Santosh; Karjodkar, Freny Rashmiraj; Sontakke, Subodh; Sansare, Kaustubh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-03-15

    Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth without associated syndrome is a rare phenomenon, as supernumerary teeth are usually associated with cleft lip and palate or other syndromes such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and so on. Five patients with supernumerary teeth visited our department. They had no familial history or other pathology, certain treatment protocols was modified due to the presence of supernumerary teeth. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth, if asymptomatic, need to have periodical radiographic observation. If they showed no variation as they impacted in the jaw, careful examination is necessary because they may develop into pathological status such as dentigerous cysts. The importance of a precise clinical history and radiographic examination for patients with multiple supernumerary teeth should be emphasized.

  12. Late Developing Supernumeraries in a Case of Nonsyndromic Multiple Supernumerary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Bozkurt; Tugba Bezgin; Ayşegül Tüzüner Öncül; Rukiye Göçer; Şaziye Sarı

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report presents 3-year follow-up of a case of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (NSMST) with 11 supernumerary teeth, 2 of which showed subsequent formation. Case Report. A 10-year-old girl was referred to the dental clinic with the chief complaint of delayed eruption. Radiographic examination showed 9 retained supernumerary teeth. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary teeth and associated primary teeth in order to allow the permanent tee...

  13. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Castillo

    Full Text Available Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production.

  14. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Martín, Azahara C; Pistón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production.

  15. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Délio Marques Conde; Renato Zocchio Torresan; Eiji Kashimoto; Luiz Eduardo Campos de Carvalho; Cássio Cardoso Filho

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. Th...

  16. Identification of a member of the catalase multigene family on wheat chromosome 7A associated with flour b* colour and biological significance of allelic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dora A; Walker, Esther; Francki, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Carotenoids (especially lutein) are known to be the pigment source for flour b* colour in bread wheat. Flour b* colour variation is controlled by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 7AL and one gene from the carotenoid pathway, phytoene synthase, was functionally associated with the QTL on 7AL in some, but not all, wheat genotypes. A SNP marker within a sequence similar to catalase (Cat3-A1snp) derived from full-length (FL) cDNA (AK332460), however, was consistently associated with the QTL on 7AL and implicated in regulating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to control carotenoid accumulation affecting flour b* colour. The number of catalase genes on chromosome 7AL was investigated in this study to identify which gene may be implicated in flour b* variation and two were identified through interrogation of the draft wheat genome survey sequence consisting of five exons and a further two members having eight exons identified through comparative analysis with the single catalase gene on rice chromosome 6, PCR amplification and sequencing. It was evident that the catalase genes on chromosome 7A had duplicated and diverged during evolution relative to its counterpart on rice chromosome 6. The detection of transcripts in seeds, the co-location with Cat3-A1snp marker and maximised alignment of FL-cDNA (AK332460) with cognate genomic sequence indicated that TaCat3-A1 was the member of the catalase gene family associated with flour b* colour variation. Re-sequencing identified three alleles from three wheat varieties, TaCat3-A1a, TaCat3-A1b and TaCat3-A1c, and their predicted protein identified differences in peroxisomal targeting signal tri-peptide domain in the carboxyl terminal end providing new insights into their potential role in regulating cellular H2O2 that contribute to flour b* colour variation.

  17. Hemangioendothelioma of bone in a patient with a constitutional supernumerary marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A; Zhang, Z M

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year old girl was diagnosed as having a bone hemangioendothelioma. Cytogenetic studies identified the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome in this patient. Classical cytogenetic methods using G-, C-, Ag-NOR-banding were supplemented by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescen...

  18. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  19. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-07-26

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  20. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  1. Chromosome engineering, mapping, and transferring of resistance to Fusarium head blight disease from Elymus tsukushiensis into wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and wheat corn rotation agriculture have spawned massive epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on cereal crops mainly wheat and barley since the 1990’s and devastated farm economies of north central US and many of the major wheat growing regions of the world. Wheat has limited resis...

  2. Fine mapping of a major QTL for grain yield on chromosome 3B of durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Graziani, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In durum wheat, two major QTL for grain yield (Qyld.idw-2B and Qyld.idw-3B) and related traits were identified in a recombinant population derived from Kofa and Svevo (Maccaferri et al. 2008). To further investigate the genetic and physiological basis of allelic variation for this important trait, the fine mapping of Qyld.idw-2B e Qyld.idw-3B was done during the PhD. In this regard, new molecular markers were added to increase the map resolution in the target interval. For Qyld.idw-2B ...

  3. A resistance-like gene identified by EST mapping and its association with a QTL controlling Fusarium head blight infection on wheat chromosome 3BS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaorong; Francki, Michael G; Ohm, Herbert W

    2006-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease in the wheat growing regions of the world. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3B controls much of the variation for resistance. The cloning of candidate disease-resistance genes for FHB QTLs on chromosome 3B can provide further elucidation of the mechanisms that control resistance. However, rearrangements and divergence during plant genome evolution often hampers the identification of sequences with similarity to known disease-resistance genes. This study focuses on the use of wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that map to the region on chromosome 3B containing the QTL for FHB resistance and low-stringency BLAST searching to identify sequences with similarity to known disease-resistance genes. One EST rich with leucine repeats and low similarity to a protein kinase domain of the barley Rpg1 gene was identified. Genetic mapping using a Ning894037 x Alondra recombinant inbred (RI) population showed that this EST mapped to the QTL on the short arm of chromosome 3B and may represent a portion of a newly diverged gene contributing to FHB resistance. The EST is a new marker suitable for marker-assisted selection and provides a starting point to begin map-based cloning for chromosome walking and investigate new diverged genes at this locus.

  4. A Major Locus for Chloride Accumulation on Chromosome 5A in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Taylor, Julian; Rongala, Jay; Oldach, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl− ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl− toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl− concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl− accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl− concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl− accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl− concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl− concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27–32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl− transport, which is discussed. PMID:24893005

  5. A major locus for chloride accumulation on chromosome 5A in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Genc

    Full Text Available Chloride (Cl- is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+ and Cl- ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl- toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+ and Cl- concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl- accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl- concentration were moderately correlated (genetically with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl- accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl- concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186 was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

  6. Fate of Aegilops speltoides-derived, repetitive DNA sequences in diploid Aegilops species, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Friebe, B; Gill, B S

    2010-07-01

    The present study reports the cloning and characterization of an Aegilops speltoides-derived subtelomeric repeat, designated as pSp1B16. Clone pSp1B16 has 98% sequence homology with the previously isolated Ae. speltoides repeat Spelt1. The distribution of pSp1B16 and another Ae. speltoides repeat, pGc1R1, was analyzed in diploid Aegilops species, tetra- and hexaploid wheats, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clones pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 revealed FISH sites in Ae. speltoides, Ae. sharonensis and Triticum timopheevii, whereas additional pGc1R1 FISH sites were observed in Ae. longissima and Ae. caudata. The pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 FISH patterns of the Aegilops chromosomes in the wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and chromosome addition lines are similar to those present in the Aegilops parent accession. We did not observe any evidence of pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 sequence elimination, which is in contrast to previous studies using similar hybrids and repeats. The presented data suggest that the genomic changes in synthetic amphiploids observed in previous studies might be caused by homoeologous recombination, which was suppressed in the amphiploid analyzed in this study.

  7. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  8. Chromosomal aberrations found in Paracalanus aculeatus (Giesbrecht) at the time of solar eclipse

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    Chromosomal aberrations in the form of an unequal heteromorphic homologous pair and a supernumerary chromosome were observed in the gonad of a copepod - @iParacalanus aculeatus@@ after being exposed to the total solar eclipse of Feb. 16, 1980...

  9. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear, and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were produced from lateral meristems in bread wheat. One is supernumerary shoot that was developed from an axillary bud at the axil of leaves on the elongated internodes of the main stem. The other is supernumerary spike that was generated from a spikelet meristem on a spike. In addition, supernumerary spikelets were generated on the same rachis node of the spike in the plant that had supernumerary shoot and spikes. All of these supernumerary shoots/spikes/spikelets found in the super wheat plants produced normal fertility and seeds, displaying huge yield potential in bread wheat.

  10. Resistance to Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus in durum wheat is controlled by a major QTL on chromosome arm 2BS and minor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ratti, Claudio; Rubies-Autonell, Concepcion; Vallega, Victor; Demontis, Andrea; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna

    2011-08-01

    Soil-borne cereal mosaic (SBCM) is a viral disease, which seriously affects hexaploid as well as tetraploid wheat crops in Europe. In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the elite germplasm is characterized by a wide range of responses to SBCMV, from susceptibility to almost complete resistance. In this study, the genetic analysis of SBCMV resistance was carried out using a population of 181 durum wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) obtained from Meridiano (resistant) × Claudio (moderately susceptible), which were profiled with SSR and DArT markers. The RILs were characterized for SBCMV response in the field under severe and uniform SBCMV infection during 2007 and 2008. A wide range of disease reactions (as estimated by symptom severity and DAS-ELISA) was observed. A large portion of the variability for SBCMV response was explained by a major QTL (QSbm.ubo-2BS) located in the distal telomeric region of chromosome 2BS near the marker triplet Xbarc35-Xwmc661-Xgwm210, with R(2) values ranging from 51.6 to 91.6%. The favorable allele was contributed by Meridiano. Several QTLs with minor effects on SBCMV response were also detected. Consistently with the observed transgressive segregation, the resistance alleles at minor QTLs were contributed by both parents. The presence and effects of QSbm.ubo-2BS were validated through association mapping in a panel of 111 elite durum wheat accessions.

  11. Karyotype analysis of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reveals a large X chromosome with rRNA and histone gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Jana; Havelka, Jan; Starý, Petr; Koutecký, Petr; Vítková, Magda

    2011-03-01

    The Russsian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a worldwide pest of cereals. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its genome. Here we investigated physical genomic features in RWA by karyotype analysis using differential staining with AgNO(3), CMA(3), and DAPI, by chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H3 and H4 histone genes, and the "arthropod" telomeric sequence (TTAGG)(n) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and by measuring the RWA genome size using flow cytometry. The female karyotype, 2n = 10, is composed of four autosome pairs and a pair of X chromosomes, whereas the male karyotype, 2n = 9, has a single X. The X chromosome is the largest element in the karyotype. All three molecular markers used, i.e., 18S rRNA and both H3 and H4 probes are co-localized at one end of the X chromosome. The FISH probes revealed that the AgNO(3)-positive bridge between two prometaphase X chromosomes of females, which is believed to be responsible for the elimination of one X chromosome in aphid oocytes determined to undergo male development, contains clusters of both histone genes, in addition to an rDNA cluster. Interestingly, RWA lacks the (TTAGG)(n) telomeric sequence in its genome, in contrast to several previously investigated aphid species. Additionally, we compared female and male genome sizes. The female genome size is 2C = 0.86 pg, whereas the male genome size is 2C = 0.70 pg. The difference between the DNA content in the two genders suggests that the RWA X chromosome occupies about 35% of the female haploid genome (1C = 0.43 pg), which makes it one of the largest sex chromosomes in the animal kingdom.

  12. Variabilidade fenotípica na síndrome do cromossomo supernumerário der(22t(11;22 (síndrome de Emanuel Phenotypical variability in supernumerary chromosome der(22t(11;22 syndrome (Emanuel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar dois pacientes com a síndrome de Emanuel (SE ou cromossomo supernumerário der(22t(11;22, secundária a translocações balanceadas familiares, apresentando fenótipos distintos. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: O primeiro paciente é uma menina branca de cinco anos de idade, apresentando hipotonia, atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, movimentos estereotipados, microcefalia, ptose palpebral, orelhas proeminentes, fossetas e apêndices pré-auriculares, e imperfuração anal. As avaliações adicionais identificaram hipoplasia cerebral e estenose da válvula pulmonar. Possuía história também de laringotraqueomalácia e fenda palatina. O segundo paciente é um menino branco de seis meses de idade com hipotonia, movimentos coreoatetóticos, déficit de crescimento, microcefalia, microssomia hemifacial, fenda palatina, microtia, apêndices pré-auriculares e polegares proximalmente implantados. A ecocardiografia demonstrou estenose da válvula pulmonar, comunicação interatrial e interventricular, persistência do canal arterial e da veia cava superior esquerda. A radiografia de tórax identificou uma costela cervical. O cariótipo por bandas GTG mostrou a presença, em ambos os pacientes, de um cromossomo adicional der(22t(11;22, secundário a uma translocação balanceada materna no primeiro caso e paterna no segundo caso. COMENTÁRIOS: Apesar de a primeira paciente apresentar achados frequentes da SE, o caso adicional representa a segunda descrição da literatura com um fenótipo de espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral (EOAV. Assim, ambos salientam a variabilidade clínica observada na SE e a importância da avaliação cariotípica em indivíduos com fenótipo de EOAV.OBEJECTIVE: To report two patients with Emanuel syndrome (ES or supernumerary chromosome der(22t(11;22, secondary to familial balanced translocations, presenting distinct phenotypes. CASES DESCRIPTION: The first patient was a five-year-old white girl presenting

  13. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  14. Chromosomal location and comparative genomics analysis of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm51 in a putative wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Haixian; Li, Guangrong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Guo, Huijuan; Gong, Wenping; Jia, Juqing; Qiao, Linyi; Ren, Yongkang; Yang, Zujun; Chang, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs.

  15. The management of premolar supernumeraries in three orthodontic cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence, etiology and location of supernumerary teeth with emphasis on premolar supernumeraries and examines the management of supernumerary premolars of three patients undergoing orthodontics. These cases demonstrate that the management of premolars is assessed individually and treatments based on potential complications, which may occur during the orthodontic and surgical management of the dentition. Progress and posttreatment radiographs are recommended for the assessment of late forming supernumerary teeth.

  16. Prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and complications of supernumerary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ata-Ali Mahmud, Fadi; Ata-Ali Mahmud, Francisco Javier; Peñarrocha Oltra, David; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the literature on supernumerary teeth, analyzing their prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and possible complications. An electronic search was made in the Pubmed-Medline database up to January 2014 using the key search terms “multiple supernumerary teeth” (n=279), “prevalence supernumerary teeth” (n=361), and “supernumerary teeth” (n=2412). In addition to the articles initially identified, others were included in the review proceeding from a manua...

  17. 罕见核型Turner综合征患儿的sSMC来源及临床表型分析%Analysis of the origin of the small supernumerary marker chromosome in Turner syndrome and the clinical manifestations characteristics of a patient with a rare karyotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 佟彤; 陈悦; 陈艳玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 对1例因身材矮小就诊的Turner综合征患儿所携带的额外小标记染色体(small supernumerary marker chromosome,sSMC)进行来源分析,以探讨其与患儿临床表型的相互关系.方法 综合应用外周血培养染色体核型G显带、荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)、聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)等技术对患者额外小标记染色体的来源进行分析.结果 G显带分析显示患者染色体核型为45,X0/46,X,-X,+mar1/46,X,-X,+mar2 (62∶30∶8).FISH结果显示两种sSMC均来源于Y染色体,较小者(mar1)呈带有单着丝粒的染色体小片段状,较大者(mar2)以双着丝粒染色体形式存在.经PCR法证实患儿sSMC中存在SRY基因片段.结论 对于存在sSMC的Turner综合征患者,应进一步结合多种分子遗传学方法确认sSMC的具体来源,为进一步明确诊断、指导治疗及遗传咨询提供重要的客观依据.

  18. Translocações cromossômicas entre trigo e centeio: uma alternativa ao melhoramento Chromosomes translocations between wheat and rye: an alternative to plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Casassola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Translocações são rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais que envolvem segmentos cromossômicos de extensão variada pertencentes a cromossomos homólogos ou não homólogos. Tanto a ocorrência natural quanto a induzida de translocações tem possibilitado um avanço no melhoramento varietal, uma vez que esses segmentos translocados podem carregar genes de resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos. O centeio é uma espécie da famíla Triticeae muito utilizada para transferência de genes para o trigo como, por exemplo, genes de resistência às ferrugens da folha e do colmo e também genes que favorecem o rendimento, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade de grãos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi o de revisar as principais translocações envolvendo o trigo e o centeio, no qual se verificou, a partir dos dados analisados, que as translocações envolvendo os cromossomos 1 e 2 mostraram-se mais vantajosas para o rendimento de grãos em trigo e que as demais foram importantes, principalmente, na transferência de genes de resistência a estresses. Portanto, essa estratégia tem demonstrado efetividade na busca de novos genes que favorecem o cultivo de trigo e sua utilização vem crescendo grandemente nos últimos anos.Translocations are structural chromosomal rearrangements which involve segments with different length belonging to homologous or non homologous chromosomes. Either natural or induced occurrence of translocations have been enabled an improvement in the plant breeding, when these translocated segments carry resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stress. Rye is a grass largely used to transfer genes to wheat such as resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and genes that support the wheat yield, either in grain quantity or in quality. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the main translocations involving wheat and rye, which demonstrated, from the data analyzed, that translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 2 were

  19. Supernumerary teeth: Report of four unusual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary tooth denotes duplication of tooth in the normal series. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. The supernumerary tooth might cause esthetic and/or functional problems, especially if it is situated in the maxillary anterior region. Complications reported were delayed or prevented eruption of succedaneous teeth, displacement or rotation, crowding of the affected region, abnormal diastema, dilacerations, cystic formation, and sometime eruption into the nasal cavity. In this case report, four unusual cases of supernumerary teeth that resulted in varying degrees of disturbances in permanent dentition are presented. Conservative surgical intervention and light orthodontic forces were used to bring the teeth into normal position with minimal disturbance to the surrounding oral structures.

  20. Supernumerary teeth: Report of four unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Namdev, Ritu; Bakshi, Lokesh; Dutta, Samir

    2012-04-01

    Supernumerary tooth denotes duplication of tooth in the normal series. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. The supernumerary tooth might cause esthetic and/or functional problems, especially if it is situated in the maxillary anterior region. Complications reported were delayed or prevented eruption of succedaneous teeth, displacement or rotation, crowding of the affected region, abnormal diastema, dilacerations, cystic formation, and sometime eruption into the nasal cavity. In this case report, four unusual cases of supernumerary teeth that resulted in varying degrees of disturbances in permanent dentition are presented. Conservative surgical intervention and light orthodontic forces were used to bring the teeth into normal position with minimal disturbance to the surrounding oral structures.

  1. Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome Plasticity, and Stealth Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; M'Barek, Ben S.; Dhillon, B.; Wittenberg, A.H.J.; Crane, C.F.; Hane, J.K.; Foster, A.J.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Grimwood, J.; Aerts, A.; Antoniw, J.; Bailey, A.; Bluhm, B.; Bowler, J.; Bristow, J.; Burgt, van der A.; Canto-Canché, B.; Churchill, A.C.L.; Conde-Ferràez, L.; Cools, H.J.; Coutinho, P.M.; Csukai, M.; Dehal, P.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Donzelli, B.; Geest, van de H.C.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Henrissat, B.; Kilian, A.; Kobayashi, A.K.; Koopmann, E.; Kourmpetis, Y.; Kuzniar, A.; Lindquist, E.; Lombard, V.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Martins, N.; Mehrabi, A.; Nap, J.P.H.; Ponomarenko, A.; Rudd, J.J.; Salamov, A.; Schmutz, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Shapiro, H.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Torriani, S.F.F.; Tu, H.; Vries, de R.P.; Waalwijk, C.; Ware, S.B.; Wiebenga, A.; Zwiers, L.H.; Oliver, R.P.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici) causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. C

  2. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  3. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities.

  4. Supernumerary Teeth in Indian Children: A Survey of 300 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study children with supernumerary teeth who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Government Dental College and Hospital, Rohtak, Haryana, India. Only children with supernumerary teeth were included in the study while patients having supernumerary teeth with associated syndromes were excluded. Supernumeraries were detected by clinical and radiographic examination. The results indicated that males were affected more than females with a sex ratio of 2.9 : 1. Single supernumerary tooth was seen in 79% of the patients, 20% had double, and 1% had three or more supernumeraries. Premaxillary supernumeraries accounted for 93.8% of the cases. Conical shaped supernumerary teeth were the most common type (59.7%. Majority of supernumeraries remained unerupted (65%. Fusion of supernumerary tooth with a regular tooth was observed in 4% of the patients. Talon cusp, an associated dental anomaly, was seen in 5% of the cases. Simultaneous hypodontia occurred in 2.3% of patients with supernumeraries.

  5. Molecular and genealogical analysis of grain dormancy in Japanese wheat varieties, with specific focus on MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Nakamura, Shingo

    2015-03-01

    In the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Zenkoujikomugi', a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A (MFT-3A) causes an increase in the level of gene expression, resulting in strong grain dormancy. We used a DNA marker to detect the 'Zenkoujikomugi'-type (Zen-type) SNP and examined the genotype of MFT-3A in Japanese wheat varieties, and we found that 169 of 324 varieties carry the Zen-type SNP. In Japanese commercial varieties, the frequency of the Zen-type SNP was remarkably high in the southern part of Japan, but low in the northern part. To examine the relationship between MFT-3A genotype and grain dormancy, we performed a germination assay in three wheat-growing seasons. On average, the varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP showed stronger grain dormancy than the varieties carrying the non-Zen-type SNP. Among commercial cultivars, 'Iwainodaichi' (Kyushu), 'Junreikomugi' (Kinki-Chugoku-Shikoku), 'Kinuhime' (Kanto-Tokai), 'Nebarigoshi' (Tohoku-Hokuriku), and 'Kitamoe' (Hokkaido) showed the strongest grain dormancy in each geographical group, and all these varieties, except for 'Kitamoe', were found to carry the Zen-type SNP. In recent years, the number of varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP has increased in the Tohoku-Hokuriku region, but not in the Hokkaido region.

  6. Wheat beta-expansin (EXPB11 genes: Identification of the expressed gene on chromosome 3BS carrying a pollen allergen domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jizeng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expansins form a large multi-gene family found in wheat and other cereal genomes that are involved in the expansion of cell walls as a tissue grows. The expansin family can be divided up into two main groups, namely, alpha-expansin (EXPA and beta-expansin proteins (EXPB, with the EXPB group being of particular interest as group 1-pollen allergens. Results In this study, three beta-expansin genes were identified and characterized from a newly sequenced region of the Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring chromosome 3B physical map at the Sr2 locus (FPC contig ctg11. The analysis of a 357 kb sub-sequence of FPC contig ctg11 identified one beta-expansin genes to be TaEXPB11, originally identified as a cDNA from the wheat cv Wyuna. Through the analysis of intron sequences of the three wheat cv. Chinese Spring genes, we propose that two of these beta-expansin genes are duplications of the TaEXPB11 gene. Comparative sequence analysis with two other wheat cultivars (cv. Westonia and cv. Hope and a Triticum aestivum var. spelta line validated the identification of the Chinese Spring variant of TaEXPB11. The expression in maternal and grain tissues was confirmed by examining EST databases and carrying out RT-PCR experiments. Detailed examination of the position of TaEXPB11 relative to the locus encoding Sr2 disease resistance ruled out the possibility of this gene directly contributing to the resistance phenotype. Conclusions Through 3-D structural protein comparisons with Zea mays EXPB1, we proposed that variations within the coding sequence of TaEXPB11 in wheats may produce a functional change within features such as domain 1 related to possible involvement in cell wall structure and domain 2 defining the pollen allergen domain and binding to IgE protein. The variation established in this gene suggests it is a clearly identifiable member of a gene family and reflects the dynamic features of the wheat genome as it adapted to a range of

  7. Molecular Mapping of a Stripe Rust Resistance Gene YrH9020a Transferred from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng on Wheat Chromosome 6D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-guang; YAO Wei-yuan; SHEN Xue-xue; CHAO Kai-xiang; FAN Yu; LI Min-zhou; WANG Bao-tong; LI Qiang; JING Jin-xue

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat throughout the world. H9020-1-6-8-3 is a translocation line originally developed from interspeciifc hybridization between wheat line 7182 and Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng and is resistant to most Pst races in China. To identify the resistance gene(s) in the translocation line, H9020-1-6-8-3 was crossed with susceptible cultivar Mingxian 169, and seedlings of the parents, F1, F2, F3, and BC1 generations were tested with prevalent Chinese Pst race CYR32 under controlled greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that there is a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrH9020a, conferring resistance to CYR32. The resistance gene was mapped by the F2 population from Mingxian 169/H9020-1-6-8-3. It was linked to six microsatellite markers, including Xbarc196, Xbarc202, Xbarc96, Xgpw4372, Xbarc21, and Xgdm141, lfanked by Xbarc96 and Xbarc202 with at 4.5 and 8.3 cM, respectively. Based on the chromosomal locations of these markers and the test of Chinese Spring (CS) nullitetrasomic and ditelosomic lines, the gene was assigned to chromosome 6D. According to the origin and the chromosomal location, YrH9020a might be a new resistance gene to stripe rust. The lfanking markers linked to YrH9020a could be useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  8. Genetic dissection of yield and its component traits using high-density composite map of wheat chromosome 3A: bridging gaps between QTLs and underlying genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Earlier we identified wheat (Triticum aestivum L. chromosome 3A as a major determinant of grain yield and its component traits. In the present study, a high-density genetic linkage map of 81 chromosome 3A-specific markers was developed to increase the precision of previously identified yield component QTLs, and to map QTLs for biomass-related traits. Many of the previously identified QTLs for yield and its component traits were confirmed and were localized to narrower intervals. Four novel QTLs one each for shoot biomass (Xcfa2262-Xbcd366, total biomass (wPt2740-Xcfa2076, kernels/spike (KPS (Xwmc664-Xbarc67, and Pseudocercosporella induced lodging (PsIL were also detected. The major QTLs identified for grain yield (GY, KPS, grain volume weight (GVWT and spikes per square meter (SPSM respectively explained 23.2%, 24.2%, 20.5% and 20.2% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of the genetic map with the integrated physical map allowed estimation of recombination frequency in the regions of interest and suggested that QTLs for grain yield detected in the marker intervals Xcdo549-Xbarc310 and Xpsp3047-Xbarc356 reside in the high-recombination regions, thus should be amenable to map-based cloning. On the other hand, QTLs for KPS and SPSM flanked by markers Xwmc664 and Xwmc489 mapped in the low-recombination region thus are not suitable for map-based cloning. Comparisons with the rice (Oryza sativa L. genomic DNA sequence identified 11 candidate genes (CGs for yield and yield related QTLs of which chromosomal location of two (CKX2 and GID2-like was confirmed using wheat aneuploids. This study provides necessary information to perform high-resolution mapping for map-based cloning and for CG-based cloning of yield QTLs.

  9. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: report of a case with 6 supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghibakhsh M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Multiple supernumerary teeth are rare and often found in association with syndromes such as Gardner, Cleidocranial dysplasia and cleft lip and palate, with a much less chance for isolated"nnon-syndromic cases. The aim of this study was to report a case with 6 supernumerary teeth without syndromic association."nCase Report: The patient was a 33 year-old female, referred to oral diseases and diagnosis department with chief complaint of sensitivity to cold and hot food in right upper premolar region. Oral examination revealed 5 erupted lingually supernumerary teeth (four in mandibular and one in maxillary premolar region, respectively. Further panoramic radiography clarified an extra impacted tooth in the palatal region of left premolar maxillary area. All extra teeth had been appeared since the age of 17 during one year, as the patient claimed. Medical history and thorough clinical and paraclinical examinations were not significant except for the hypothyroidism, since 5 years ago. No other family member noticed to be the case. Based on our findings, a diagnosis of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth was established."nConclusion: A thorough examination of each patient presented with supernumerary teeth, including panoramic and intraoral radiographic images may provide valuable information regarding accompanying syndromes and unerupted teeth. Early diagnosis is an essential step for orthodontic or surgical decisions making, preventing or avoiding worsening complications such as malocclusion, adjacent normal teeth delayed eruption or rotation, diasthema, cystic lesions and resorption of contiguous teeth.

  10. Study on the Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Wheat with Different Chromosome Ploidy at Tillering Stage%不同染色体倍性小麦分蘖期氮同位素组成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王周锋; 刘卫国; 王政; 邓西平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同染色体倍性小麦分蘖期氮同位素组成(δN)的变化.[方法]以不同染色体倍性小麦及不同抗旱性小麦为试验材料,采用EA-Delta pluse质谱仪测定并研究了小麦叶片、根系和整株氮含量、δN的变化.[结果]随着染色体倍性的增加(2n→6n),小麦整株δN呈增加趋势,整株δN更能代表小麦生长过程中氮的分馏情况;现代小麦整株δN与其收获性状有关,即高产小麦的δN较低.[结论]该研究可为选择高氮利用效率小麦提供理论依据.%[ Objective] The variation of nitrogen isotopic composition ( δ15 N) of wheat with different chromosome ploidy at tillering stage was studied in our paper. [ Method] Using wheat with different chromosome ploidy and drought resistance as test material,the nitrogen content and δ15 N of wheat leaf,root and whole plant were determined and studied by means of EA-Delta pluse mass spectrometer. [ Result] With the increase of chromosome ploidy (2n→6n) ,the δ15N of whole plant showed increase trend and could more reflect the fractionation of nitrogen in the growth of wheat; the δ15N of whole plant in modern wheat was related to yield character,namely high-yield wheat had lower δ15N. [ Conclusion] Our study could provide theoretical basis for choosing wheat with high nitrogen use efficiency.

  11. Isolation of chromosome DNA of wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma%小麦蓝矮植原体染色体DNA的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旺; 李艳; 吴云锋

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分离小麦蓝矮(WBD)植原体染色体DNA,并建立WBD植原体染色体分离纯化体系.[方法]采用差速离心和脉冲电泳(PFGE)方法富集纯化WBD植原体染色体DNA,并通过PCR和Southern blot进行检测验证,实时荧光定量PCR方法对分离纯化效果进行定量检测.[结果]脉冲电泳凝胶中出现一条大小约为650 kb的条带,经PCR检测和Southern blot分析表明该条带为WBD植原体的染色体DNA.实时荧光定量PCR检测结果表明采用差速离心与脉冲电泳结合的方法可以将WBD植原体基因组的相对拷贝数提高436.5倍.[结论]采用差速离心与脉冲电泳法结合可以有效地从感染WBD长春花中分离到纯的WBD植原体染色体DNA,WBD植原体染色体DNA大小约为650 kb.%[Objective] Isolating chromosome DNA of wheat blue dwarf (WBD) phytoplasma and establishing an effective protocol of purification for chromosome DNA. [Methods] Dif- ferential centrifugation and plus-filed gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to purify the chromosome DNA of WBD phytoplasma. The band observed in PFGE was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. The effect of each step was detected by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. [Results] Using differential centrifugation and PFGE, a band about 650 kb was observed, which was confirmed as the chromosome DNA of WBD phytoplasma by Southern blot hybridization and PCR. Meanwhile, real-time PCR analysis showed that the relative copies of WBD phytoplasma chromosome DNA derived from differential centrifugation and PFGE was 436.5 times than that in the total DNA of infected periwinkle. [Conclusion] The size of WBD phytoplasma chromosome DNA is about 650 kb, purified WBD phytoplasma chromosome DNA can be obtained effectively using differential centrifugation and PFGE.

  12. B chromosomes in the species Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae: morphologicalidentity and dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Penitente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes have attracted the attention of Neotropical fish cytogeneticists in recent years, both for their remarkable occurrence in this group and also because of the interest in studies of the genetic structure and role played in the genome of these organisms. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in Prochilodus argenteus (Agassiz, 1829, this being the fifth carrier species among thirteen within the genus Prochilodus (Agassiz, 1829. The extra elements identified in this species are small sized heterochromatic chromosomes characterized by a low mitotic instability index, being very similar to other supernumerary chromosomes described in the species of the genus Prochilodus. Morphology, structure and dispersion of the supernumerary genomic elements which occur in species of this genus are discussed aiming to better understand aspects involved the origin of supernumerary chromosomes and the differentiation process and relationships among species of this family.

  13. Canaliculitis in supernumerary puncta and canaliculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Chui Yong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of supernumerary puncta and canaliculi presented with canaliculitis. A-59 year-old gentleman presented with painful swelling of the left lower lid for a week, which was associated with epiphora. The swelling was confined to the nasal aspect of the left lower lid (0.5¥0.5 mm with inflamed overlying skin. Two puncta (0.5 mm apart were noted. The outer punctum at the normal anatomical position was a cul-de-sac while the inner punctum it the caruncle was patent. We described the embryology leading to supernumerary puncta and canaliculi to explain the paradoxical patency of the abnormally located punctum as well as the pathomechanism leading to canaliculitis. The patient was treated with oral cloxacillin 500 mg, 6 hourly for 5 days; the cellulitis subsided after three days.

  14. Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome Plasticity, and Stealth Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Ben M'Barek, S.; Dhillon, B.; Wittenberg, A.H.J.; Crane, C.F.; Hane, J.K.; Foster, A.J.; van der Lee, T.A.J.; Grimwood, J.; Aerts, A.; Antoniw, J.; Bailey, A.; Bluhm, B.; Bowler, J.M.; Bristow, J.; van der Burgt, A.; Canto-Canché, B.; Churchill, A.C.L.; Conde-Ferràez, L.; Cools, H.J.; Coutinho, P.M.; Csukai, M.; Dehal, P.; de Wit, P.; Donzelli, B.; Geest, H.G.; van Ham, R.C.H.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Henrissat, B.; Kilian, A.; Kobayashi, A.K.; Koopmann, E.; Kourmpetis, Y.; Kuzniar, A.; Lindquist, E.; Lombard, V.; Maliepaard, C.; Martins, N.; Mehrabi, R.; Nap, J.P.H.; Ponomarenko, A.; Rudd, J.J.; Salamov, A.; Schmutz, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Shapiro, H.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Torriani, S.F.F.; Tu, H.; de Vries, R.P.; Waalwijk, C.; Ware, S.B.; Wiebenga, A.; Zwiers, L.H.; Oliver, R.P.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola causes septoria tritici blotch, one of the most economically important diseases of wheat worldwide and a potential threat to global food production. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it seems

  15. Novel QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosomes 4A and 6B in soft white winter wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a devastating disease in temperate regions when susceptible varieties are grown and environmental conditions sustain high disease pressures. With frequent and severe outbreaks, disease resistance is a key too...

  16. Supernumerary teeth: Review of literature and decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Amarlal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are those which are additional or in excess of the normal number. They can be either single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral and can be present anywhere in the dental arch with predilection for the premaxilla. Supernumerary teeth are mostly classified on position and form. Timing of surgical intervention of supernumerary teeth has been controversial with various authors having different opinions. Hence a new decision support system is put forward which can help in the treatment planning of supernumerary teeth.

  17. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape.

  18. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Hoa; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. Materials and Methods The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Results Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Conclusion Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape. PMID:28035303

  19. Bilateral supernumerary teeth in deciduous dentition-a rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mondal, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition and more often seen in males. A supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent central incisors which will further alter occlusion and may compromise esthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. Here we discuss a case of bilateral supernumerary teeth in deciduous dentition in a female child.

  20. Chromosomal location of genes encoding for resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in substitution lines of wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.; Worland, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal location of resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola was studied in substitution lines of resistant Triticum genotypes into the (susceptible) cultivar Chinese Spring (T. aestivum). (Moderately) resistant genotypes for which substitution lines were available were tested in a first screeni

  1. A QTL on chromosome 6A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is associated with longer coleoptiles, greater seedling vigour and final plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmeyer, W; Hyles, J; Joaquim, P; Azanza, F; Bonnett, D; Ellis, M E; Moore, C; Richards, R A

    2007-06-01

    Wheat crops with greater early vigour shade the soil surface more rapidly and reduce water loss. Evaporative losses affect water-use efficiency particularly in drier regions where most of the rainfall occurs early in the growing season before canopy closure. Greater seedling leaf area and longer coleoptiles are major determinants of increased vigour and better crop establishment. A previously developed high vigour breeding line 'Vigour 18' was used to establish a large recombinant inbred family and framework map to identify a QTL on chromosome 6A that accounted for up to 8% of the variation for coleoptile length, 14% of seedling leaf width and was associated with increased plant height. The SSR marker NW3106, nearest to the 6A QTL, was also associated with greater leaf width in a breeding population that was also derived from a cross involving the high vigour donor line 'Vigour18'. The association between the NW3106 marker and coleoptile length was validated in a second breeding population which was developed using an unrelated long coleoptile donor line. The 'Vigour18' allele of the QTL on chromosome 6A promoted coleoptile length and leaf width during early plant growth but was also associated with increased plant height at maturity. Markers linked to the QTL are being used to increase the frequency of increased vigour and long coleoptile alleles in early generations of breeding populations.

  2. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wujun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and

  3. Impacted supernumerary tooth in coronoid process: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Je Ho; Park, Hyok; Jung, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Impaction of tooth is a situation in which an unerupted tooth is wedged against another tooth or teeth or otherwise located so that it cannot erupt normally. The supernumerary tooth is also called as hyperdontia and defined as the condition of having additional tooth to the regular number of teeth. The most common supernumerary tooth is a mesiodens, which is a mal-formed, peg-like tooth that occurs between the maxillary incisors. The supernumerary tooth is commonly impacted but they are frequently impacted on maxilla. Ectopic impaction of supernumerary tooth on mandibular condyle, coronoid process, ascending ramus, and pterygomandibular space is very rare condition. In this case, we report a case of impacted supernumerary tooth on mandibular sigmoid notch without definite pathologic change.

  4. Bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary premolars associated with unusual clinical complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth in comparison to the normal dentition. Their prevalence varies between 0.1% and 3.8%. Supernumeraries are more common in permanent dentition and its incidence is higher in maxillary incisor region, followed by maxillary third molar and mandibular molar, premolar, canine, and lateral incisor. The prevalence of supernumerary premolars is between 0.075-0.26%, and they may occur in single or multiple numbers Bilateral occurrence is uncommon and large percentage of supernumerary premolars remains impacted, unerupted, and usually asymptomatic; radiograph plays an important role in diagnosis of these. The present paper reports a case of bilaterally impacted completely developed supernumerary premolars associated with common clinical complication in unusual manner along with taurodontism of the upper and lower molars.

  5. Multilobed mesiodens: a supernumerary tooth with unusual morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bhavna; Patel, Jalark; Swadas, Milan; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-02-06

    An 8-year-old boy came with a chief complaint of an abnormally shaped tooth situated in upper front teeth region. On examination a supernumerary tooth with multiple lobes was present palatally to the maxillary right permanent central incisor. The morphology of the tooth crown was found to be unusual due to the presence of five lobes in the crown portion. Because of the supernumerary tooth, the permanent right central incisor was displaced labially. Radiographic examination showed a completely formed supernumerary tooth with dilacerated root. On the basis of clinical and radiographic examination, the supernumerary tooth was diagnosed as multilobed mesiodens. Since patient expressed dissatisfaction with the presence of supernumerary tooth, it was decided to extract this mesiodens followed by orthodontic treatment for alignment of labially placed maxillary right permanent central incisor.

  6. Supernumerary and supplemental teeth: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, G; Nigrone, V; Longo, A; Cicciù, M

    2008-06-01

    This is to report the case of a ten year old child affected by a numeric dental anomaly showing the pathologic condition characterised by the simultaneous presence of supernumerary and supplemental teeth. The anomaly was analysed to plan the best surgical and orthodontic treatments. Dental history, clinical and instrumental examinations were made to perform a correct orthodontic examination and diagnosis. A young patient was affected by numeric dental anomaly in the upper jaw. We observed a high number of teeth, specifically two normally formed supplemental lateral permanent incisors and an unerupted mesiodens placed between the upper central incisors. Firstly, the supplemental lateral teeth were extracted. This surgical therapy and the application of a space maintainer were made to permit the eruption of the permanent canines. Then the mesiodens also underwent surgical treatment (i.e. extraction). Eventually, physiologic eruption of permanent teeth was allowed by the planned surgical-orthodontic treatment. Aim of the surgical-orthodontic treatment was extraction of the unerupted supernumerary teeth to obtain the physiologic eruption of the permanent ones. Orthodontic treatment is important to solve malocclusions and maintaining the space for the eruption of permanent teeth. Aesthetics and function are two important parameters in modern dentistry. All clinicians should try to make a correct and rational diagnosis for both simple and complex dental pathologies. Particularly in young children, invasive and surgical disinclusive techniques can be substituted by interceptive orthodontic treatments.

  7. Graphene with vacancies: Supernumerary zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Norman; Schindler, Johannes; Bera, Soumya; Solomon, Gemma C.; Evers, Ferdinand

    2016-08-01

    The density of states ϱ (E ) of graphene is investigated within the tight-binding (Hückel) approximation in the presence of vacancies. They introduce a nonvanishing density of zero modes nzm that act as midgap states, ϱ (E ) =nzmδ (E ) +smooth . As is well known, the actual number of zero modes per sample can, in principle, exceed the sublattice imbalance, Nzm≥|NA-NB| , where NA,NB denote the number of carbon atoms in each sublattice. In this paper, we establish a stronger relation that is valid in the thermodynamic limit and that involves the concentration of zero modes, nzm>|cA-cB| , where cA and cB denote the concentration of vacancies per sublattice; in particular, nzm is nonvanishing even in the case of balanced disorder, NA/NB=1 . Adopting terminology from benzoid graph theory, the excess modes associated with the current carrying backbone (percolation cluster) are called supernumerary. In the simplest cases, such modes can be associated with structural elements such as carbon atoms connected with a single bond, only. Our result suggests that the continuum limit of bipartite hopping models supports nontrivial "supernumerary" terms that escape the present continuum descriptions.

  8. Production of aneuhaploid and euhaploid sporocytes by meiotic restitution in fertile hybrids between durum wheat Langdon chromosome substitution lines and Aegilops tauschii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fertile F1 hybrids were obtained between durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Langdon (LDN) and its 10 disomic substitution (LDN DS) lines with Aegilops tauschii accession AS60 without embryo rescue. Selfed seedset rates for hybrids of LDN with AS60 were 36.87% and 49,45% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Similar or higher selfed seedset rates were observed in the hybrids of ID (1A), 1D (1B), 3D (3A), 4D (4B), 7D (TA), and 2D (2B) with AS60, while lower in hybrids of 3D (3B) + 3BL, 5D (5A) + 5AL, 5D (5B) + 5B and 6D (6B) + 6BS with AS60 compared with the hybrids of LDN with AS60. Observation of male gametogenesis showed that meiotic restitution, both first-division restitution (FDR) and single-division meiosis (SDM) resulted in the formation of functional unreduced gametes, which in turn produced seeds. Both euhaploid and aneuhaploid gametes were produced in Fi hybrids. This suggested a strategy to simultaneously transfer and locate major genes from the ancestral species T. turgidum or Ae. tauschii. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the aneuhaploid rates between the F1 hybrids of LDN and LDN DS lines with AS60, suggesting that meiotic pairing between the two D chromosomes in the hybrids of LDN DS lines with AS60 did not promote the formation of aneuhaploid gametes.

  9. Development of wheat-Aegilops speltoides recombinants and simple PCR-based markers for stem rust resistance genes on the 2S#1 chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild relatives of wheat are important but underutilized resources for new rust resistance genes because linked negative traits often hinder deployment of these genes in commercial wheats. Here we report reduced alien chromatin recombinants derived from E.R. Sears' wheat-Aegilops speltoides transloca...

  10. Clinical management of supernumerary teeth: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary tooth may closely resemble the teeth of the group to which it belongs, i.e. molars, premolars or anterior teeth, or it may bear little resemblancein size or shape to which it is associated. Many complications can be associated with supernumeraries, like impaction, delayed eruption or ectopic eruption of adjacent teeth, crowding, development of median diastema and eruption into floor of the nasal cavity. This may also cause the formation of follicular cysts with significant bone destruction. Early intervention to remove it is usually required to obtain reasonable alignment and occlusal relationship. This article will present the clinical management of an (i impacted supernumerary tooth impeding the eruption of maxillary central incisor and (ii erupted supernumerary tooth with midline diastema.

  11. Multiple Geminated Supernumerary Premolars: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Soin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide, with a resultant formation of either a large tooth with a bifid crown or two completely divided teeth throughout the crown and root. Geminated supernumerary premolar is a rarity and the possibility of multiple occurrences is even rarer. An exhaustive review of English literature and a PubMed search conducted using the terms “gemination’’ and “multiple geminated supernumerary” revealed no case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars. We report a case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars in a 23-year-old male.

  12. Multiple Geminated Supernumerary Premolars: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Atul; Sharma, Gaurav; Soin, Gayatri; Raina, Anudeep; Mutneja, Puneet; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide, with a resultant formation of either a large tooth with a bifid crown or two completely divided teeth throughout the crown and root. Geminated supernumerary premolar is a rarity and the possibility of multiple occurrences is even rarer. An exhaustive review of English literature and a PubMed search conducted using the terms “gemination” and “multiple geminated supernumerary” revealed no case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars. We report a case of multiple geminated supernumerary premolars in a 23-year-old male. PMID:26078889

  13. Rare occurrence of bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supernumerary teeth are present in addition to the normal complement of teeth in permanent or deciduous dentitions. Incidence is high in permanent dentition, affects both the gender. They are more common in males, with the male to female ratio of 2:1. When the supernumerary teeth are causing problems such as, extensive resorption of adjacent teeth, hindering the eruption or malposition of permanent teeth, early surgical intervention is recommended. Case Report: A case of bilaterally impacted supernumerary premolars was reported when an orthopentomograph view was taken which revealed the presence of additional teeth impacted in relation to 35-36 and 45-46. Surgical removal was done as they were resorbing the roots of teeth in their vicinity. Discussion: Literature reports increased occurrence of the supernumeraries in the maxilla but supernumerary premolars are more likely to develop in the mandible. Etiology of supernumerary teeth is ambiguous and is due to following conditions:atavism or reversion, heredity, aberrations during embryologic formation, progress zone, and unified etiologic explanation.

  14. The distal portion of the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Beecher, Brian S

    2012-07-01

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its developmental control is not completely known. We developed back-cross seven (BC(7)) near-isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. From the final back-cross, 46 BC(7)F(2) plants were isolated. These plants exhibited a complete and perfect association between kernel vitreosity (i.e. vitreous, non-vitreous or mixed) and Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness. Observed segregation of 10:28:7 fit a 1:2:1 Chi-square. BC(7)F(2) plants classified as heterozygous for both SKCS hardness and kernel vitreosity (n = 29) were selected and a single vitreous and non-vitreous kernel were selected, and grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. The resultant phenotypic ratios were, from non-vitreous kernels, 23:6:0, and from vitreous kernels, 0:1:28, soft:heterozygous:hard, respectively. Three of these BC(7)F(2) heterozygous plants were selected and 40 kernels each drawn at random, grown to maturity and subjected to SKCS analysis. Phenotypic segregation ratios were 7:27:6, 11:20:9, and 3:28:9, soft:heterozygous:hard. Chi-square analysis supported a 1:2:1 segregation for one plant but not the other two, in which cases the two homozygous classes were under-represented. Twenty-two paired BC(7)F(2):F(3) full sibs were compared for kernel hardness, weight, size, density and protein content. SKCS hardness index differed markedly, 29.4 for the lines with a complete 5DS, and 88.6 for the lines possessing the deletion. The soft non-vitreous kernels were on average significantly heavier, by nearly 20%, and were slightly larger. Density and protein contents were similar, however. The results provide strong genetic evidence that gene(s) on distal 5DS control not only kernel hardness but also the manner in which the endosperm develops, viz. whether it is vitreous or non-vitreous.

  15. Characterization of a gene from chromosome 1B encoding the large subunit of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat: evolutionary divergence and differential expression of Agp2 genes between leaves and developing endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneycroft, David; Hosein, Felicia; Thangavelu, Madan; Clark, Joanna; Vizir, Igor; Burrell, Michael M; Ainsworth, Charles

    2003-07-01

    A full-length genomic clone containing the gene encoding the large subunit of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (Agp2), was isolated from a genomic library prepared from etiolated shoots of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv, Chinese Spring). The coding region of this gene is identical to one of the cDNA clones previously isolated from a developing wheat grain cDNA library and is therefore an actively transcribed gene. The sequence represented by the cDNA spans 4.8 kb of the genomic clone and contains 15 introns. 2852 bp of DNA flanking the transcription start site of the gene was cloned upstream of the GUS (beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene. This Agp2::GUS construct and promoter deletions were used to study the pattern of reporter gene expression in both transgenic tobacco and wheat plants. Histochemical analysis of GUS expression in transgenic tobacco demonstrated that the reporter gene was expressed in guard cells of leaves and throughout the seed. In transgenic wheat, reporter gene expression was confined to the endosperm and aleurone with no expression in leaves. The cloned Agp2 gene was located to chromosome 1B by gene-specific PCR with nullisomic-tetrasomic lines. Northern analysis demonstrated that the Agp2 genes are differentially expressed in leaves and developing endosperm; while all three classes of Agp2 genes are transcribed in developing wheat grain endosperm, only one is transcribed in leaves. The differences between the Agp2 genes are discussed in relation to the evolution of hexaploid wheat.

  16. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  17. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg fertilize

  18. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg fertilize

  19. Expression of a Thatcher wheat adult plant stem rust resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2BL is enhanced by Lr34

    Science.gov (United States)

    An F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) spring wheat population derived from RL6071, a stem rust susceptible line and RL6058, a backcross line of Thatcher wheat with Lr34 that is highly resistant to stem rust, was evaluated for adult plant stem rust resistance in North Dakota in 1999, and in Kenya in 20...

  20. Identification and genetic mapping of the putative Thinopyrum intermedium-derived dominant powdery mildew resistance gene PmL962 on wheat chromosome arm 2BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive disease affecting the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Powdery mildew resistance was putatively transferred from Thinopyrum intermedium to the common wheat line L962, which conferred resistance to multiple Ch...

  1. Non-syndrome associated multiple supernumerary teeth: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Ullal

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple supernumerary teeth are usually associated with syndromes. On the contrary, multiple supernumerary teeth without association with any syndromes are very rare. This article presents a report of two cases with multiple supernumerary teeth not associated with any syndrome and emphasizes the routine advice of orthopantomogram whenever a single supernumerary tooth is detected irrespective of whether the patient has any syndrome or not.

  2. Whole-exome sequencing analysis of supernumerary teeth occurrence in Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Yano, Keisuke; Funatsu, Takahiro; Adel, Mohamed; Haga, Shugo; Maki, Koutaro; Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    A common disorder of human dentition is the existence of supernumerary teeth. Impacted supernumerary teeth occur most frequently in the maxillary incisor area and are termed mesiodens. We conducted whole-exome sequencing of non-syndromic Japanese individuals possessing supernumerary teeth to identify genes and/or loci involved in the pathogenesis of the condition.

  3. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  4. B chromosomes and sex in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, J P M; Schmid, M; Cabrero, J

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable elements found in many eukaryote genomes in addition to standard (A) chromosomes. In many respects, B chromosomes resemble sex chromosomes, so that a common ancestry for them has frequently been suggested. For instance, B chromosomes in grasshoppers, and other insects, show a pycnotic cycle of condensation-decondensation during meiosis remarkably similar to that of the X chromosome. In some cases, B chromosome size is even very similar to that of the X chromosome. These resemblances have led to suggest the X as the B ancestor in many cases. In addition, sex chromosome origin from B chromosomes has also been suggested. In this article, we review the existing evidence for both evolutionary pathways, as well as sex differences for B frequency at adult and embryo progeny levels, B chromosome effects or B chromosome transmission. In addition, we review cases found in the literature showing sex-ratio distortion associated with B chromosome presence, the most extreme case being the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosomes in some Hymenoptera. We finally analyse the possibility of B chromosome regularisation within the host genome and, as a consequence of it, whether B chromosomes can become regular members of the host genome.

  5. Late-Developing Supernumerary Premolars: Analysis of Different Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paduano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case series describes the different potential approaches to late-developing supernumerary premolars (LDSP. LDSP are supernumerary teeth (ST formed after the eruption of the permanent dentition; usually they develop in the premolar region of the upper and lower jaw. The choice to extract or to monitor the LDSP depends on many factors and has to be carefully planned due to the several risks that either the monitoring or the extraction could provoke. These four cases of LDSP showed different treatment plan alternatives derived from a scrupulous assessment of the clinical and radiographic information.

  6. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  7. Interstitial duplications of chromosome region 15q11q13 : Clinical and molecular characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, GR; White, LM; Bader, PJ; Johnson, D; Knoll, JHM

    1998-01-01

    Duplications of chromosome region 15q11q13 often occur as a supernumerary chromosome 15. Less frequently they occur as interstitial duplications [dup(15)]. We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of three patients with de novo dup(15). The patients, two males and one female (ages 3-21

  8. Interstitial duplications of chromosome region 15q11q13 : Clinical and molecular characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, GR; White, LM; Bader, PJ; Johnson, D; Knoll, JHM

    1998-01-01

    Duplications of chromosome region 15q11q13 often occur as a supernumerary chromosome 15. Less frequently they occur as interstitial duplications [dup(15)]. We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of three patients with de novo dup(15). The patients, two males and one female (ages 3-21

  9. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S.; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed. PMID:22888456

  10. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Bahadure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed.

  11. Supernumerary teeth in primary dentition and early intervention: a series of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadure, Rakesh N; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed.

  12. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  13. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  14. Determining the order of resistance genes against Stagonospora nodorum blotch, Fusarium head blight and stem rust on wheat chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal diseases of wheat occur every year in the U.S., leading to significant grain yield losses. Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust (SR) are caused by the fungi Stagonospora nodorum, Fusarium graminearum and Puccinia graminis, respectively. These leaf and he...

  15. Association study of wheat grain protein composition reveals that gliadin and glutenin composition are trans-regulated by different chromosome regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessis, Anne; Ravel, Catherine; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Martre, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Wheat grain storage protein (GSP) content and composition are the main determinants of the end-use value of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain. The accumulation of glutenins and gliadins, the two main classes of GSP in wheat, is believed to be mainly controlled at the transcriptional level through a network of transcription factors. This regulation network could lead to stable cross-environment allometric scaling relationships between the quantity of GSP classes/subunits and the total quantity of nitrogen per grain. This work conducted a genetic mapping study of GSP content and composition and allometric scaling parameters of grain N allocation using a bread wheat worldwide core collection grown in three environments. The core collection was genotyped with 873 markers for genome-wide association and 167 single nucleotide polymorphism markers in 51 candidate genes for candidate association. The candidate genes included 35 transcription factors (TFs) expressed in grain. This work identified 74 loci associated with 38 variables, of which 19 were candidate genes or were tightly linked with candidate genes. Besides structural GSP genes, several loci putatively trans-regulating GSP accumulation were identified. Seven candidate TFs, including four wheat orthologues of barley TFs that control hordein gene expression, were associated or in strong linkage disequilibrium with markers associated with the composition or quantity of glutenin or gliadin, or allometric grain N allocation parameters, confirming the importance of the transcriptional control of GSP accumulation. Genome-wide association results suggest that the genes regulating glutenin and gliadin compositions are mostly distinct from each other and operate differently.

  16. BILATERAL MOLARIFORM SUPERNUMERARY TEETH IN THE ANTERIOR MAXILLA: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cem ÖZDEN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are additional teeth besides the normal series and can be found in any region of the dental arch. Supernumerary teeth can be classified according to their form and locations. Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with supernumerary teeth may prevent or minimize complications. The treatment options depend on the type and position of the supernumerary tooth and its effect on the adjacent structures. Two male patients were referred to our clinic due to swelling in their maxillae and interrupted eruption of teeth. Upon radiological examination of the patients, impacted supernumerary teeth were found. Surgical removal of these teeth were perfomed and they were found to be molariform. We aim to present the two rare cases of molariform supernumerary teeth in this article.

  17. Múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares Multiple distomolars supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Rodríguez Romero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En una dentición normal, los dientes supernumerarios son aquellos descritos como adicionales a la serie. La etiología no esta clara. Se han descritos tanto en dentición primaria como en permanente, aunque son mas frecuentes en la dentición permanente. El objetivo de este informe es presentar un caso de una paciente con múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares. Cuartos molares bilaterales simétricos son sumamente raros.Supernumerary teeth are described as the teeth formed in excess of the number found in a normal dentition. The aetiology is not clear. Have been reported in both the primary and permanent dentition, although they are more prevalent in the permanent dentition. The purpose of this case report is to present a case of female patient with multiple distomolars supernumerary teeth. Bilateral symmetrical impacted fourth molars exceedingly uncommon.

  18. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation.

  19. An observational study of the frequency of supernumerary teeth in a population of 2000 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Leco Berrocal, María Isabel; Martín Morales, José F.; Martínez González, José María

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the epidemiological characteristics of supernumerary teeth, with an analysis of the associated clinical-eruptive complications. A longitudinal observational study was made of 2000 patients, with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, mechanical accidents and the presence of associated pathology. The presence of supernumerary teeth was recorded in 1.05% of the study subjects (mean age 20.2 years), with a greater freq...

  20. Mesiodens with an unusual morphology and multiple impacted supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Pavithra; Aravindha Babu, N

    2007-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are a relatively frequent disorder of odontogenesis characterized by an excess number of teeth. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. They can be supplemental (resembling natural teeth), conical, tuberculate or molariform. We present the case of a 19 year-old girl who presented with a mesiodens of an unusual morphology and multiple impacted supernumerary teeth not associated with any syndrome.

  1. Mesiodens with an unusual morphology and multiple impacted supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivatsan Pavithra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are a relatively frequent disorder of odontogenesis characterized by an excess number of teeth. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. They can be supplemental (resembling natural teeth, conical, tuberculate or molariform. We present the case of a 19 year-old girl who presented with a mesiodens of an unusual morphology and multiple impacted supernumerary teeth not associated with any syndrome.

  2. Short Communication A small B chromosome in the grasshopper Ommexecha virens (Ommexechidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T E; Silva-Neto, L C; Santos, J F; Loreto, V; Rieger, T T

    2015-12-21

    B chromosomes, also called supernumerary or accessory chromosomes, have been characterized as extra elements found in the karyotypes of different eukaryotic species. B chromosomes are nonvital and only occur in some individuals within a species. Moreover, the chromosomes contain silenced genes, and they exhibit heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. In the present study, we describe an extra chromosome in the grasshopper Ommexecha virens for the first time, using conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques, and we discuss the possible origin of the B chromosome.

  3. The Repetitive Sequence of Secale cereale Applied on Detection of Exogenous Chromosome of Wheat%黑麦重复序列在检测小麦品种中外源染色体的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春燕; 闫红飞; 杨文香; 孟庆芳; 刘大群

    2011-01-01

    A pair of PCR primers pSc20ht23/24 was designed based on sequence pSc20H.2 amplified by RAPD primer OPH20 in rye. The primers were used to amplify wheat leaf rust resistance near isogonic lines of TcLr45,derived fiom rye, and its susceptible background Thatcher. In addition, 42 wheat leaf mst resistance near isogonic lines and 103 wheat varieties were detected with the primers. A specific band size about 750 bp was amplified in TcLr45 by the primers pSc20ht23/24, and there were no bands amplified in Thatcher. This specific band was cloned and sequenced, the full length is 734 bp. The result fiom testing 42 wheat leaf rust resistance near isogonic lines showed that TcLr26 amplified the same size segment as TcLr45, but there was no amplification in TcLr25 derived fiom rye. The same size specific band was amplified in the Chinese Spring-Imperial addition lines fiom 1R to 7R except 5R addition line. All of the 13 wheat varieties of 1B/1R rye translocation line were amplified the same band as TcLr45 and TcLr26, and 16 of 90 wheat landraces amplified this band too. The results fiom pedigree analysis indicated that 6 of 16 varieties had the genetic background of rye, this SCAR marker can be used for detecting exogenous chromosome of rye except 5R in wheat.%本研究根据RAPD引物OPH20在黑麦中扩增出的特异序列pSc20H.2设计一对PCR引物pSc20ht-23/24,以来源于黑麦的小麦抗叶锈近等基因系材料TcLr45及感病对照Thatcher为亲本进行PCR扩增.并对42个小麦抗叶锈近等基因系及103个小麦品种材料进行检测.引物pSc20ht23/24在TcLr45中扩增出一条约750 bp的条带,而在Thatcher中无扩增条带.对该特异片段回收、克隆测序为734 bp.42个小麦抗叶锈近等基因系检测在TcLr26中扩增出与TcLr45相同的条带,而在同样来源于黑麦的小麦抗叶锈近等基因系TcLr25中未扩增出该条带:中国春-Imperial黑麦附加系1R-7R中除5R外均扩增出该条带;13个1B/1R易位系小

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic South Indian pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh T Anegundi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supernumerary teeth are one of the most widely reported and significant anomaly in patients affecting the primary and early mixed dentition. Aim: To describe the distribution and characteristics of the supernumerary teeth in South Indian population of paediatric patients. Design: In a 12 year retrospective study, a total of 63,569 patients up to the age of 14 years who visited our department between June 2003 and May 2013 were revised.790 cases of supernumerary teeth were found. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, site, status of dentition, number, position, orientation and type of supernumerary teeth. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi square test. Results: 790 subjects with supernumerary teeth (481 males and 309 females were detected, revealing male-female ratio of 1.55:1.The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (82.28%, the most common site was the anterior maxilla (92.53%region. Majority of patients had a single erupted supernumerary oriented straight in the arch. Patients in mixed dentition stage reported with maximum number of supernumerary teeth. Conclusions: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in non syndromicSouth Indian paediatric population is 1.24% with slight male predilection and conical mesiodens being the commonest.

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic South Indian pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anegundi, Rajesh T; Tegginmani, Veeresh S; Battepati, Prashant; Tavargeri, Anand; Patil, Shruthi; Trasad, Vijay; Jain, Garima

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are one of the most widely reported and significant anomaly in patients affecting the primary and early mixed dentition. To describe the distribution and characteristics of the supernumerary teeth in South Indian population of paediatric patients. In a 12 year retrospective study, a total of 63,569 patients up to the age of 14 years who visited our department between June 2003 and May 2013 were revised.790 cases of supernumerary teeth were found. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, site, status of dentition, number, position, orientation and type of supernumerary teeth. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi square test. 790 subjects with supernumerary teeth (481 males and 309 females) were detected, revealing male-female ratio of 1.55:1.The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (82.28%), the most common site was the anterior maxilla (92.53%)region. Majority of patients had a single erupted supernumerary oriented straight in the arch. Patients in mixed dentition stage reported with maximum number of supernumerary teeth. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in non syndromic South Indian paediatric population is 1.24% with slight male predilection and conical mesiodens being the commonest.

  6. Dentigerous cyst in a child associated with multiple inverted supernumerary teeth: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neeraj K

    2012-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts associated with supernumerary teeth are rare with most of them developing around a mesiodens in the anterior maxilla. Dentigerous cysts from multiple supernumerary teeth, especially with inverted tooth, are rare in other regions of the maxilla. We report a unique case of a dentigerous cyst in a child associated with multiple inverted supernumerary teeth and relevant review of literarature. Dentigerous cyst arising from multiple supernumerary teeth and not anterior maxillary mesiodens is quite uncommon. In a child, such findings associated with inverted tooth are still rare. Such cysts should be managed by excision as soon as possible.

  7. 基于EST的普通小麦近缘物种第二部分同源群染色体特异分子标记%EST-based specific markers for homoeologous group 2 chromosomes of wheat relative species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃碧; 王海燕; 纪剑辉; 曹爱忠; 黄倬; 王秀娥

    2011-01-01

    There are lots of useful traits in wheat relative species, providing valuable gene resources for wheat improvement.In this research ,55 markers were designed based on the wheat EST sequences, which mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2B.Out of them, 19 markers amplified polymorphic loci in at least one relative species.Totally, 11 markers are specific for 2R chromosome of rye (Secale cereale 'BLANCO' , genome RR) ,8 markers for 2H chromosome of barley (Hordeum vulgare ' BETZES' , genome HH ), 5 markers for 2S1 chromosome of Aegilops longissima( genome S1S1) ,2 markers for 2Mg chromosome of Aegilops geniculata( genome, MgMg ) ,8 markers for 2Sp chromosome of Aegilops peregrina ( genome, SPSPUPUp ) and 3 markers for 2Up chromosome.These ESTderived markers are useful for identifying corresponding chromosomes or chromosome segments of wheat relatives.%小麦近缘属物种中具有许多优良性状,为小麦遗传改良提供非常重要的基因资源.根据定位在普通小麦2B染色体长臂上的EST(expressed sequence tag,EST)序列开发了55个标记,在普通小麦品种中国春、二倍体山羊草(Aegilops longissima,genome S1S1;Aegilops geniculata,genome M8M8)、四倍体山羊草(Aegilops peregrina,genome SpSpUpUp)、黑麦(Secale cereal'BLANCO',genome RR)、大麦(Hordeum yulgare,'BETZES',genome HH)及这些物种在中国春背景下的二体异附加系中进行PCR扩增.结果表明:19个标记(占34.5%)至少能够在1个近缘种中有特异性扩增,筛选出2R、2H、2S1、2Mg、2Sp和2Up染色体的特异标记分别为11、8、5、2、8和3个.这些基于EST序列开发的特异分子标记可以有效地检测和追踪导入小麦背景中的外源第二部分同源群染色体(片段).

  8. Genetics and presence of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: A mystery case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Khambete; Rahul Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Presence of supernumerary teeth is well-recognized clinical phenomenon. However, it is uncommon to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. Presence of multiple supernumerary teeth is thought to have genetic component. We report a rare case where multiple supernumerary teeth were seen without presence of any other syndrome in 3 generations; father, son, and two grandsons. We also present a review of similar cases published in literature till d...

  9. Fine mapping of the chromosome 5B region carrying closely linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widely effective and linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 were previously mapped in the short arm of chromosome 5B in two F3 populations (Aus28183/Aus27229 and Aus28187/Aus27229). The Aus28183/Aus27229 F3 population was advanced to generate an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population t...

  10. Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Nonsyndromic Nine Supernumerary Teeth and Leong's Tubercle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Christiane V; Soares, Andrea L; Braga, David N; Costa, Marcelo C

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth (ST) and Leong's tubercle are a condition with a very low prevalence and a multidisciplinary approach is required to restore function and aesthetics. So, this case report aimed at presenting a rare case of nonsyndromic nine supernumerary teeth and Leong's tubercle in a pediatric patient, without any evident familial history, showing its diagnosis and surgical management.

  11. Radiographic Follow-Up during Orthodontic Treatment for Early Diagnosis of Sequential Supernumerary Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga

    2016-01-01

    Most supernumerary teeth are impacted and asymptomatic. Objective. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of sequential development of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular premolar region, identified during orthodontic treatment. Reports. The first case describes the radiographic follow-up of a female patient that presented a supernumerary tooth at the age of 9 years and 10 months in the right mandibular premolar region, followed by a further supernumerary tooth in the left mandibular premolar region identified at the age of 11 years and 3 months. In the second case, the radiographic follow-up of a male patient demonstrated 3 supernumerary teeth in the premolar region at the age of 16 years. During orthognathic surgery planning at the age of 20 years and 5 months, a supplemental supernumerary tooth was found in the left mandibular region. Conclusion. Considering the late developing of supernumerary premolars, appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs of patients with previous experience of supernumerary teeth is essential for early diagnosis of supplemental premolars to prevent possible complications. PMID:27313911

  12. Prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha

    2014-04-01

    Dental impaction is a very frequent problem. Supernumerary teeth, or hyperdontia, are the presence of additional teeth to the normal series in the either of the dentition. The presence of impacted and/or supernumerary teeth can cause various complications. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population. The panoramic radiographic records of 4750 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 were examined for this retrospective study. The ages of the patients ranged from 8 to 72 years, with a mean of 34.6 years. A total of 798 (16.8%) patients presented with 1126 impacted teeth. Impacted canines were the most prevalent (9.7%), followed by impacted premolars (4.3%). Supernumerary teeth (1.6%) and impacted molars (1.2%) were less prevalent. Among the 842 impacted teeth, the most frequently affected teeth were the canines (56.7%), followed by premolars (27.8%), and supernumerary teeth (9.3%), while the prevalence of impacted molars was quite lower (6.2%). The most frequently impacted teeth were maxillary canines and the mesiodens were the most common supernumerary tooth. The early diagnosis of supernumerary and impacted teeth is essential to prevent malocclusion and malalignment of permanent teeth demonstrating the importance of panoramic radiographs in their detection. Key words:Impacted, supernumerary, prevalence, canines, mesiodens.

  13. Transmission Behavior of B Chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penitente, Manolo; Daniel, Sandro N; Senhorini, José A; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The population of Prochilodus lineatus found in the Mogi-Guaçu River is karyotypically polymorphic, carrying acrocentric, metacentric, and submetacentric B chromosomes. The analysis of each B chromosome frequency in this species revealed a variation in the distribution pattern, with the metacentric type having the highest frequency (73.30%), followed by submetacentric (25.22%) and acrocentric B chromosomes (1.48%). The transmission pattern of the supernumerary chromosomes was identified by controlled crosses, and it was shown that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes have a transmission pattern below the Mendelian rate (kB = 0.333 and kB = 0.385, respectively), but the metacentric variant has a cumulative transmission pattern (kB = 0.587). These results indicate that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes are undergoing an extinction process, while the metacentric B chromosomes appear to be accumulating in frequency with each generation.

  14. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a nonsyndromic Syrian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhan, Ahmad S; Nawaya, Fehmieh R; Arabi Katbi, Mohammad E; Al-Jawabra, Alaa S

    2015-12-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST), also known as hyperdontia, is a condition in which more than the normal number of teeth are present in the series. The prevalence of ST varies between and within different populations. These teeth may cause various complications. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ST in Damascus inhabitants, Syria. A cross-sectional study was carried out using retrospectively collected digital panoramic radiographs of 2753 patients (1047 males and 1706 females) ranging in age from 12.2 to 20.5 years between January 2012 and December 2014. These radiographs were obtained from private dental offices spread across Damascus, Syria. For each patient with ST, the demographic variables, number, location, type, position, morphology of ST, and complications were recorded. ST were detected in 39 patients (1.4%), of whom 25 (64.1%) were males and 14 (35.9%) were females, with a male to female ratio of 1.8 : 1 (PMesiodens was the most prevalent ST (39.1%), followed by supernumerary premolars (28.3%), supernumerary laterals (26.1%), distomolars (4.3%), and paramolars (2.2%). This series includes cases with one and two ST. Of the 46 ST detected, 56.5% had a conical morphology, 89.1% were in a vertical position, and 19.6% were erupted. ST caused displacement of the adjacent teeth in 17 cases (37.0%) and the impaction of the permanent teeth in five cases (10.9%). The prevalence of ST in Damascus inhabitants was found to be 1.4%; the most frequent type was mesiodens. A conical morphology was found to be the most common form of ST. Displacement of permanent teeth is the most frequent complication. Further studies should be carried out on more representative samples of both the public and the private sector patients.

  15. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary premolars: Clinicoradiographic report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Tanwar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth in both arches without any syndromic manifestation are extremely rare. Supernumerary teeth are commonly associated with Gardner’s syndrome, cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia and trichorhinopha-langeal syndrome. Five cases of non-syndromic multiple premolars of maxillary and mandibular arches in Indian patients are presented here. This case series reports three cases with multiple (9 in maximum, bilaterally impacted and erupted supernumerary teeth and two cases with supernumerary premolars in non-syndromic cases from Indian patients. Supernumerary teeth can be present in any region of the oral cavity. Although the occurrence of maxillary para-premolars is rare, radio-logical investigations play a major and decisive role in determining the management of such cases.

  16. The study of impacted and supernumerary teeth in young man by the full mouth roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hung Kyu [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1977-11-15

    The author has observed 906 full mouth roentgenograms in Korean young man who had the impacted and supernumerary teeth. Impacted and supernumerary teeth were analysed upon several items, such as incidences and positions in the dental arch . The results were as follows; 1. The incidences of impacted teeth were 59.05%, and the ratio of upper jaw to lower one was 1:3. 2. The frequency of the supernumerary teeth were 5.52%, and the ratio of maxilla to mandible was 49:1. 3. No significant differences between right and left side in both jaws, but incidence rate of the supernumerary teeth was 74% in the maxillary central incisor area. 4. The positions of impacted and supernumerary teeth were vertical and inverted shapes in maxilla, whereas horizontal a nd mesio-angular forms in mandible.

  17. Cystic Endometrioma with Coexisting Fibroma Originating in a Supernumerary Ovary in the Rectovaginal Pouch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Asumi; Kodama, Hiroko; Ogura, Kanako; Miwa, Ayako; Sugimori, Yayoi; Matuoka, Shozo; Matsumoto, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A supernumerary ovary is an exceedingly rare disorder, in which the structure containing ovarian tissue is located at some distance from the normally placed ovary. 16 cases of endometriosis or tumors originating in a supernumerary ovary have been published in the English literature, but no case of coexisting endometriosis and a tumor has been published. We present the case of a 40-year-old female with cystic endometrioma with coexisting fibroma originating in a supernumerary ovary in the rectovaginal pouch. The present case is the first to be reported with coexisting endometriosis and a tumor originating in a supernumerary ovary. Our experience with this case and the results of our previous studies of rectovaginal endometriosis indicated that the possibility of originating in a supernumerary ovary shall be examined in cases of cystic endometrioma in the rectovaginal pouch. PMID:28210515

  18. Múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares Multiple distomolars supernumerary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    F.J. Rodríguez Romero; S. Cerviño Ferradanes

    2009-01-01

    En una dentición normal, los dientes supernumerarios son aquellos descritos como adicionales a la serie. La etiología no esta clara. Se han descritos tanto en dentición primaria como en permanente, aunque son mas frecuentes en la dentición permanente. El objetivo de este informe es presentar un caso de una paciente con múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares. Cuartos molares bilaterales simétricos son sumamente raros.Supernumerary teeth are described as the teeth formed in excess of th...

  19. Polyploidy and b chromosomes in Alium flavum from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujošević M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most intriguing karyological features of the genus Allium are polyploidy and the frequent appearance of supernumerary or B chromosomes (Bs. Specimens of Allium flavum from natural populations at the Gornjačka Gorge in the vicinity of Gornjak Monastery, Serbia, were analyzed karyologically. All studied plants were tetraploid (2n = 32. One submetacentric B chromosome representing 1% of the genome, smaller than the smallest chromosomes of the standard set, was present in some plants. This is the first finding of Bs in tetraploid A. flavum. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173003

  20. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but also, in some cases, by inhaling wheat flour. Wheat can be found in many foods, including ... protein Soy sauce Some condiments, such as ketchup Meat products, such as hot dogs or cold cuts ...

  1. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  2. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING SHENGJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  3. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  4. Population Genetics of a Parasitic Chromosome : Experimental Analysis of PSR in Subdivided Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, John H.; Charlesworth, B.

    1992-01-01

    Nasonia vitripennis is a parasitoid wasp that harbors several non-Mendelian sex-ratio distorters. These include MSR (Maternal Sex Ratio), a cytoplasmic element that causes nearly all-female families, and PSR (Paternal Sex Ratio), a supernumerary chromosome that causes all-male families. As in other

  5. Autism and Hypoplastic Corpus Callosum in a Case of Monocentric Marker Chromosome 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic-Privrodski, Jadranka D.; Kavecan, Ivana I.; Obrenovic, Milan R.; Buonadonna, Lucia A.; Bukvic, Nenad M.

    2009-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy was diagnosed with autism, along with development delay, seizures, and hypoplastic corpus callosum. His karyotype was 47, XY, +mar.ish (15) (D15Z1+, SNRPN+, GABRB3+, PML-(de novo?). The supernumerary marker chromosome 15 with euchromatin was monosatellited and monocentric. Although

  6. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  7. Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Genetic Stocks of Hexaploid Wheat Using Seed Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tanweer Kumar; Imtiaz Ahmed Khan; Niaz Ali; Muhammad Amir Zia; Tahir Hameed; Sohaib Roomi; Ali Bahadur; Habib Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid specie, consist of three genomes AABBDD having 2n = 6x = 42 chromosomes. The wheat is a staple food of human beings due to its bread making quality which is composed of seed storage proteins of wheat especially High Molecular Weight Glutenins (HMW-GS). During present research, HMW-GS were analyzed in genetic stocks of common wheat consist of Nullisomic- tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of group 3 homoeologous chromosomes by Sodi...

  8. Genetics and presence of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: A mystery case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambete, Neha; Kumar, Rahul

    2012-10-01

    Presence of supernumerary teeth is well-recognized clinical phenomenon. However, it is uncommon to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. Presence of multiple supernumerary teeth is thought to have genetic component. We report a rare case where multiple supernumerary teeth were seen without presence of any other syndrome in 3 generations; father, son, and two grandsons. We also present a review of similar cases published in literature till date. The role of genetics in development of supernumerary teeth is highlighted.

  9. Genetics and presence of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: A mystery case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khambete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of supernumerary teeth is well-recognized clinical phenomenon. However, it is uncommon to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. Presence of multiple supernumerary teeth is thought to have genetic component. We report a rare case where multiple supernumerary teeth were seen without presence of any other syndrome in 3 generations; father, son, and two grandsons. We also present a review of similar cases published in literature till date. The role of genetics in development of supernumerary teeth is highlighted.

  10. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K

    2009-05-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  11. Spectral Karyotyping for identification of constitutional chromosomal abnormalities at a national reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anguiano Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spectral karyotyping is a diagnostic tool that allows visualization of chromosomes in different colors using the FISH technology and a spectral imaging system. To assess the value of spectral karyotyping analysis for identifying constitutional supernumerary marker chromosomes or derivative chromosomes at a national reference laboratory, we reviewed the results of 179 consecutive clinical samples (31 prenatal and 148 postnatal submitted for spectral karyotyping. Over 90% of the cases were requested to identify either small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs or chromosomal exchange material detected by G-banded chromosome analysis. We also reviewed clinical indications of those cases with marker chromosomes in which chromosomal origin was identified by spectral karyotyping. Our results showed that spectral karyotyping identified the chromosomal origin of marker chromosomes or the source of derivative chromosomal material in 158 (88% of the 179 clinical cases; the identification rate was slightly higher for postnatal (89% compared to prenatal (84% cases. Cases in which the origin could not be identified had either a small marker chromosome present at a very low level of mosaicism (

  12. Transmission rate variation among three B chromosome variants in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOLO PENITENTE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies were developed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836, describing an interesting system of small supernumerary chromosomes. The purpose of this work is to study the frequency and morphology of B chromosomes in individuals from the parental line and the inheritance patterns of these elements in individuals obtained from controlled crosses in the species P. lineatus. The transmission rate of B chromosomes revealed a kB=0.388 for the acrocentric type, a kB=0.507 for the metacentric type and a kB=0.526 for the submetacentric type. The obtained results raise hypothesis that B-acrocentric chromosomes are involved in an extinction process in this species, while the metacentric and submetacentric supernumerary elements comprises a neutral mechanism and follows a Mendelian transmission rate.

  13. Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

    2013-05-22

    Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in 2 cases of testicular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyan; Raca, Gordana; Laffin, Jennifer; Babaian, Kara N; Williams, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the underlying chromosomal abnormalities of testicular failure using molecular cytogenetic analysis. We report 2 cases of rare genetic anomalies that resulted in hypogonadism. The first patient presented with severe hypogonadism. Chromosome analysis revealed a mosaic 46,X,r(Y) (p11.3q11.23)/45,X karyotype, with a ring Y chromosome. A Y chromosome microdeletion assay showed a deletion in the azoospermia factor a region. The second patient presented with infertility and nonobstructive azoospermia. Cytogenetic and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed a 47,XY,+mar.ish i(15) (D15Z1++,SNRPN2,PML2) karyotype, with a small supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 15. These results emphasize the need for molecular cytogenetic evaluation in patients with testicular failure before using advanced reproductive techniques.

  15. The role of Aegilops species in the origin and improvement of common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Aegilops species participated in wheat evolution playing a major role in wheat domestication and therefore the genus Aegilops represents a big part of the additional gene pool determining important traits of wheat. Breeders have been using these genes for many years to produce improved cultivars. Wide crosses between its wild relatives are sources of desirable characteristics for genetic improvement of common wheat. Triticum aestivum evolution and methods for transfer of alien material into wheat, briefly reviewed in this article, include incorporation of the whole genomes, single chromosomes, small chromosomal segments, single genes and cytoplasm substitution in wheat.

  16. The Meiotic Behavior of an Alien Chromosome in Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Monosomic Addition Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-fen; LIANG Hong-xia; ZHAO Mao-lin

    2002-01-01

    By the combination of cytological analysis and using genomic in situ hybridization technique to identify an alien chromosome in wheat-Haynaldia villosa monosomic addition lines, we studied the meiotic behavior of the alien chromosome. The results indicated that the frequency of bivalent pairing was lower than the value expected in PMCs of two monosomic addition lines, the frequency of wheat chromosomes unpairing increased, and the wheat homologous chromosome pairing was interfered with by the added chromosome 6V at metaphase I. The chromosome 6V lagged in 20.3% -29.3% of PMCs, sister chromatids 6V early divided in 29.0% - 34.1% of PMCs, the single chromosome 6V in 18.2% - 26.1% of PMCs went to a pole randomly,the breakage frequency of chromosome 6V was 1.2% - 2.9%. Meanwhile, it was also found that several wheat chromosomes showed earlier division, lagging and breakage in a few PMCs. It revealed that the added chromosome 6V influenced the behavior of wheat chromosomes at anaphase. It was also found that the translocation was produced between 6V and wheat chromosomes in 1.2% of PMCs. It offered evidence for translocation between wheat and Haynaldia villosa 6V chromosomes.

  17. Similarities of omega gliadins from Triticum urartu to those encoded on chromosome 1A of hexaploid wheat and evidence for their post-translational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, F M; Vensel, W; Encarnacao, T; Chan, R; Kasarda, D D

    2004-05-01

    The omega-gliadins encoded on chromosome 1 of the A genome were purified from Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) cv. Butte86, nullisomic 1D-tetrasomic 1A of cv. Chinese Spring (CS N1DT1A), and the diploid T. urartu (2n=2 x=14, AA ). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadin extracts from CS nullisomic-tetrasomic (NT) lines confirmed the assignment to chromosome 1A. The purified omega-gliadins were characterized by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. The 1A-encoded omega-gliadins were smaller than 1B- or 1D-encoded omega-gliadins. The N-terminal amino acid sequences for 1A omega-gliadin mature peptides were nearly identical to those for the T. urartu omega-gliadins and were more similar to 1D omega-gliadin sequences than to sequences for T. monococum omega-gliadins, barley C-hordeins, or rye omega-secalins. They diverged greatly from the N-terminal sequences for the 1B omega-gliadins. The data suggest that T. urartu is the A-genome donor, and that post-translational cleavage by an asparaginyl endoprotease produces those omega-gliadins with N-terminal sequences beginning with KEL.

  18. Multiple supernumerary teeth and odontoma in the maxilla: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Sood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most supernumerary impacted teeth are located in the anterior maxillary region. They are classified according to their form and location. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. The detection of supernumerary teeth is best achieved by thorough clinical and radiographic examination. Their management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. This article presents an overview of the diagnostic problems associated with multiple supernumerary impacted teeth and includes a discussion of the classification, diagnosis, and management of this difficult clinical entity.

  19. Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted maxillary central incisor: Surgical and orthodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Yeluri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management.

  20. Co-occurrence of mosaic supernumerary isochromosome 18p and intermittent 2q13 deletions in a child with multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Ali, Akhtar; Rai, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-15

    The present study deals with karyotpye-phenotype correlations in a six month old child with multiple congenital abnormalities. Cytogenetic analysis revealed mosaicism of a small metacentric supernumerary marker chromosome with a karyotype mos 47,XY+mar[34]/46,XY[31]. Cytogenetic microarray result showed three copies of chromosome 18p (15,400 kb in size). Moreover, 255 kbp intermittent deletion of chromosome 2q13 involving RGPD5, RGPD6, LIMS3, and LIMS3-LOC440895 was also observed. Correlating microarray data with the mosaic karyotype, the marker chromosome was identified as mosaic isochromosome 18p and was found to be 32,600 kbp in size. Baby resembled clinical characteristics of trisomy chromosome 18p, isochromosome 18p and trisomy chromosome 18. The present study suggested that deletion of evolutionarily conserved developmental genes (RGPD5, RGPD and LIMS3) in the 2q13 region might have contributed to more severity in phenotype as compared to so far such reported cases of 18p trisomy's, as these are involved in nuclear-cytoplasm trafficking, signaling for tissue patterning and differentiation.

  1. Multiple translocation of the AVR-Pita effector gene among chromosomes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and related species.

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    Izumi Chuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation.

  2. Meiotic behavior and H3K4m distribution in B chromosomes of Characidium gomesi (Characiformes, Crenuchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Érica Alves; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y.; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Characidium gomesi Travasso, 1956 specimens from the Pardo River have up to four heterochromatic supernumerary chromosomes, derived from the sex chromosomes. To access the meiotic behavior and distribution of an active chromatin marker, males and females of Characidium gomesi with two or three B chromosomes were analyzed. Mitotic chromosomes were characterized using C-banding and FISH with B chromosome probes. Meiocytes were subjected to immunofluorescence-FISH assay using anti-SYCP3, anti-H3K4m, and B chromosomes probes. Molecular homology of supernumeraries was confirmed by FISH and by its bivalent conformation in individuals with two of these chromosomes. In individuals with three Bs, these elements formed a bivalent and a univalent. Supernumerary and sex chromosomes exhibited H3K4m signals during pachytene contrasting with their heterochromatic and asynaptic nature, which suggest a more structural role than functional of this histone modification. The implications of this result are discussed in light of the homology, meiotic nuclear organization, and meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chomatin. PMID:27551347

  3. Four miniature kidneys: supernumerary kidney and multiple organ system anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzian, Marjan; Sonstein, Joseph; Dadfarnia, Tahereh; Sreshta, J Nicholas; Hawkins, Hal K

    2014-05-01

    More than 350 years after Martius's first reported case in 1656, supernumerary kidney (SNK) continues to fascinate the world of medicine, generating new ideas in the domain of embryogenesis. Association of a normal kidney with a second or third ipsilateral smaller kidney is an extremely rare anomaly with only a total of 81 cases reported until today. We are reporting a case of SNK, clinically diagnosed as right hydronephrosis, associated with an ipsilateral ectopic ureter, a contralateral partially duplicated ureter, and a multiseptate gallbladder. Pathologic examination of the nephrectomy revealed 4 miniature kidneys, joining a dilated ureter through 4 separate conduits. Our patient is the first reported case of SNK with absent ipsilateral normal kidney, presence of more than 3 kidneys on 1 side, and associated anomaly in the gallbladder. This case represents a unique combination of rarities, suggesting insights in the domain of molecular embryology.

  4. Characterization and mapping of QTLs on chromosome 2D for grain size and yield traits using a mutant line induced by EMS in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guizhi; Zhang; Yingying; Wang; Ying; Guo; Yan; Zhao; Fanmei; Kong; Sishen; Li

    2015-01-01

    Production of mutants with altered phenotypes is a powerful approach for determining the biological functions of genes in an organism. In this study, a high-grain-weight mutant line M8008 was identified from a library of mutants of the common wheat cultivar YN15 treated with ethylmethane sulfonate(EMS). F2 and F2:3generations produced from crosses of M8008 × YN15(MY) and M8008 × SJZ54(MS) were used for genetic analysis. There were significant differences between M8008 and YN15 in plant height(PH), spike length(SL),fertile spikelet number per spike(FSS), grain width(GW), grain length(GL), GL/GW ratio(GLW), and thousand-grain weight(TGW). Most simple correlation coefficients were significant for the investigated traits, suggesting that the correlative mutations occurred in M8008. Approximately 21% of simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers showed polymorphisms between M8008 and YN15, indicating that EMS can induce a large number of mutated loci. Twelve quantitative trait loci(QTLs) forming QTL clusters(one in MY and two in MS) were detected. The QTL clusters coinciding with(MY population) or near(MS population) the marker wmc41 were associated mainly with grain-size traits, among which the M8008 locus led to decreases in GW, factor form density(FFD), and TGW and to increases in GLW. The cluster in the wmc25–barc168 interval in the MS population was associated with yield traits, for which the M8008 locus led to decreased PH, spike number per plant(SN), and SL.

  5. Characterization and mapping of QTLs on chromosome 2D for grain size and yield traits using a mutant line induced by EMS in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhi Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of mutants with altered phenotypes is a powerful approach for determining the biological functions of genes in an organism. In this study, a high-grain-weight mutant line M8008 was identified from a library of mutants of the common wheat cultivar YN15 treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS. F2 and F2:3 generations produced from crosses of M8008 × YN15 (MY and M8008 × SJZ54 (MS were used for genetic analysis. There were significant differences between M8008 and YN15 in plant height (PH, spike length (SL, fertile spikelet number per spike (FSS, grain width (GW, grain length (GL, GL/GW ratio (GLW, and thousand-grain weight (TGW. Most simple correlation coefficients were significant for the investigated traits, suggesting that the correlative mutations occurred in M8008. Approximately 21% of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers showed polymorphisms between M8008 and YN15, indicating that EMS can induce a large number of mutated loci. Twelve quantitative trait loci (QTLs forming QTL clusters (one in MY and two in MS were detected. The QTL clusters coinciding with (MY population or near (MS population the marker wmc41 were associated mainly with grain-size traits, among which the M8008 locus led to decreases in GW, factor form density (FFD, and TGW and to increases in GLW. The cluster in the wmc25–barc168 interval in the MS population was associated with yield traits, for which the M8008 locus led to decreased PH, spike number per plant (SN, and SL.

  6. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  7. Endoscopic Removal of a Supernumerary Premolar in the Mandible during a Dental Implant Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The surgical removal of supernumerary teeth is necessary in some cases, especially before the commencement of any orthodontic or implant treatment procedure. In the mandibular supernumerary premolar, a more conservative approach is required because of the presence of complications associated with conventional surgery due to the close proximity of the said premolar to the alveolar inferior and mental nerves, and the need for bone conservation for implant placement. The endoscopic surgical approach has been used for the removal of the maxillary supernumerary tooth, impacted third molar, and implants. In this case report, we present an endoscopically assisted surgical technique for the removal of an unerupted supernumerary premolar in the mandible associated with a dental implant placement procedure.

  8. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

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    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  9. Diagnosis and management of supernumerary (mesiodens): a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, G; Pakdaman, A

    2010-01-01

    Supernumerary tooth is one of the developmental problems in children. Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth present in the midline between the two central incisors. It usually results in oral problems such as malocclusion, food impaction, poor aesthetics, and cyst formation. The prevalence of mesiodens varies between 0.09% and 2.05% in different studies. This paper reviews current literature on etiology, prevalence, diagnosis, and management of this problem. Accordingly, early diagnosis and treatment is suggested to prevent orthodontic and pathologic complications.

  10. Coexistent partial anodontia and supernumerary tooth in the mandibular arch: A rare case

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    Das G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Coexistent partial anodontia and supernumerary tooth in the lower jaw is a very uncommon condition. Very few cases have been reported in the literature of this condition, etiology of which is still obscure. Presented here is a rare case of simultaneous presence of single supernumerary tooth together with missing permanent central incisor teeth in the lower jaw without any associated systemic condition or syndrome.

  11. 小麦-簇毛麦属间染色体易位系的高效诱导%High Induction of Intergeneric Chromosome Translocation Lines Between Wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚萍; 别同德; 陈佩度; 范绍强; 周元成; 张姝敏

    2011-01-01

    A set of materials with Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa translocation chromosomes were created using cv. ‘ Chinese Spring’ (CS)as female and Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid as male whose pollen was treated with 60Co-γ-ray in different dose. Then the set of materials were backcrossed with CS or self-crossed, H.villosa chromosome segments were reserved in M1 or BC1so that alien genes were transferred into wheat. The results showed that frequency of induced translocation chromosomes were significant different using different irradiation doses of 60Co-γ-ray. The plants with T. aestivum-H. villosa translocations induced by 12 Gy and 8 Gy hold 76. 7%and 50. 0% in M1 generation,respectively, and better translocations types were induced by 60Co-γ-ray with 12 Gy dose. 67.6% of these translocations were passed from M1 to BC1 ,and 96. 4% from BC1 to BC2. Alien whole chromosomes were rapidly lost, some pure translocations were obtained in BC2F2.%利用60Coγ射线以不同剂量照射硬粒小麦-簇毛麦双二倍体即将成熟的花粉,将其授于母本中国春,创造出一批包含小麦-簇毛麦易住染色体的材料,对这些材料用中国春进行连续回交或自交,可有效保留簇毛麦染色体片段,实现外源基因的转移.研究结果表明,60Coγ射线照射花粉后产生易位染色体的频率因剂量不同而有显著差异,12 Gy和8 Gy剂量照射后杂交的M1群体中,产生小麦-簇毛麦易位染色体的单株分别占调查总数的76.7%和50.0%,均显著高于用其他方法创造易住的频率,并且12 Gy较8 Gy产生了更优的易住类型;创制的易位染色体有67.6%可以从M1传递到BC1,BC1的易位染色体有96.4%可传递到BC,;在回交后代中,加以人为选择,整条簇毛麦染色体很快丢失,至BC2F2即有纯合易位株出现.

  12. Histological Evaluation and Management of Rare Case of Supernumerary “Ghost” Teeth

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    Dino Re

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are teeth that exceed the normal dental formula. Their prevalence in the permanent dentition is 1–14% and they occur more frequently in maxilla with a sex ratio of 2 : 1 in favor of males. They are often associated with syndromes but there are examples of nonsyndromic multiple supernumerary teeth reported in the literature. CBCT is usually the best exam for radiographic diagnosis and treatment planning, because it provides 3D information about location and morphology of supernumerary teeth. This paper reports a rare case of four supernumerary teeth in a nonsyndromic 9-year-old boy. The peculiarity of this case is that two more exceeding teeth were found during surgical procedure. After extraction, all the teeth underwent a histological undecalcified processing for light microscopical examination. The two “ghost” supernumerary teeth seemed to be primordial dental germs, possibly resulting from an altered odontogenic process. After supernumerary teeth extraction, X-rays and exfoliation monitoring are recommended, since permanent retained teeth often erupt naturally or, at least, improve their condition. Radiographic follow-up is also useful in order to assess the formation of further teeth due to the hyperactivity of the dental lamina.

  13. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

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    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  14. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabob, M Nazargi; Anbuselvan, G J; Kumar, B Senthil; Raja, S; Kothari, Sucitha

    2012-08-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%). Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  15. The post-natal fate of supernumerary ribs in rat teratogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, G A

    1988-04-01

    A common occurrence in rat teratology studies, supernumerary ribs, have been considered to be indicative of teratogenicity by some authors but not to be so indicative by others. As a teratogenic event is, by definition a permanent change, a study to follow the fate of supernumerary ribs in the development of adulthood of the rat was undertaken. An established teratogen in the rat, aspirin, was used to increase the frequency of supernumerary ribs. Even though aspirin treatment of the dams doubled the initial frequency of supernumerary ribs the results show that over the first 60 days post-partum their frequency in both control and treated groups decline to essentially zero. This decline in frequency of supernumerary ribs is complemented by an increase in the proportion of foetuses with a fully developed transverse process on the first lumbar vertebra. The proposal that supernumerary ribs in the rat are a result of developmental delays in a labile region of the axial skeleton and not a manifestation of a teratogenic event is presented.

  16. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  17. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duílio M Z de A Silva

    Full Text Available Supernumerary (B chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  18. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Duílio M Z de A; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  19. Origin and evolution of B chromosomes in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia latifasciata based on integrated genomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Guilherme T; Conte, Matthew A; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Carvalho, Robson F; Vicari, Marcelo R; Kocher, Thomas D; Martins, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15% of eukaryotes contain supernumerary B chromosomes. When present, B chromosomes frequently represent as much as 5% of the genome. Despite thousands of reports describing the distribution of supernumeraries in various taxa, a comprehensive theory for the origin, maintenance, and evolution of B chromosomes has not emerged. Here, we sequence the complete genomes of individual cichlid fish (Astatotilapia latifasciata) with and without B chromosomes, as well as microdissected B chromosomes, to identify DNA sequences on the B. B sequences were further analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. We find that the B chromosome contains thousands of sequences duplicated from essentially every chromosome in the ancestral karyotype. Although most genes on the B chromosome are fragmented, a few are largely intact, and we detect evidence that at least three of them are transcriptionally active. We propose a model in which the B chromosome originated early in the evolutionary history of Lake Victoria cichlids from a small fragment of one autosome. DNA sequences originating from several autosomes, including protein-coding genes and transposable elements, subsequently inserted into this proto-B. We propose that intact B chromosome genes involved with microtubule organization, kinetochore structure, recombination and progression through the cell cycle may play a role in driving the transmission of the B chromosome. Furthermore, our work suggests that karyotyping is an essential step prior to genome sequencing to avoid problems in genome assembly and analytical biases created by the presence of high copy number sequences on the B chromosome.

  20. 小麦-黑麦染色体代换易位系创新材料的选育及抗病性研究%Development and Disease Resistance Survey of New Wheat-rye Chromosomal Substitution-translocation Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒焕麟; 杨家秀; 杨足君; 李光蓉

    2000-01-01

    Under the condition of wheat stripe rust epidemic induced by spreader lines. 5 wheat-rye substitutiontranslocation lines including NR98117- 9S are developed from the accession of “Currency/Xiaoyan 6//Chuanyu 12/3/A302” through the treatment of wheat-alien direct hybridization backcrossing together with open-pollination These lines exhibited not only the better agronomical traits than their wheat parents Xiaoyan 6 and Chuanyu 12, but also high resistance to wheat stripe rust mixed races and race CYR - 31. Therefore, the above lines can be utilized as important parents to Sichuan wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance. In addition, the reliability of indirect selection in the process of wheat breeding for the development of wheat - rye chromosomal substitution-translocation lines is also discussed in the present paper.%利用小麦-异源直接杂交法回交结合开放授粉处理,在诱发材料制造的条锈病流行条件下,从组合Curren-cy/小偃6号//川育12号/3/A302中选育出小麦-黑麦染色体代换易位系NR98117-9S等5个小麦材料。这些材料大都具有与亲本小麦品种小偃6号及川育12号不相上下的农艺性状,对条锈生理小种条中31和混合菌种表现高抗,可作为四川小麦抗条锈病育种的亲本加以利用。文中还讨论了小麦育种中的间接选择在创制小麦黑麦染色体代换易位系上的可行性。

  1. INVESTIGATION OF IMPACTED SUPERNUMERARY TEETH: A CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPH (CBCT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GÜRLER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacted supernumerary teeth which were initially detected on panoramic radiographs by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, supernumerary teeth diagnosed on panoramic radiographs taken from patients who had admitted for routine dental treatment were evaluated using CBCT. Patients’ age, gender, systemic conditions as well as number of supernumerary teeth, unilateral-bilateral presence, anatomical localization (maxilla, mandible, anterior-premolar-molar, mesiodens-lateral-canine, parapremolar-paramolar-distomolar shape (rudimentary, supplemental, tuberculate, odontoma, position (palatal-lingual-buccal-labial-central, shortest distance between the tooth and adjacent cortical plate, complications and treatment were assessed. Results: A total of 47 impacted supernumerary teeth in 34 patients were investigated in this study. Of these, 33 (70.2% were unilateral and 14 (29.8% were bilateral. Only 1 supernumerary tooth was found in 27 patients (79.4% whereas 7 patients (20.6% had 2 or more supernumerary teeth. Most of the teeth located in the anterior region (74.4% of the jaws and maxilla (74.4%. Twenty teeth (42.5% were mesiodens, 11 (23.4% were lateral or canine, 14 (29.7% were parapremolar and 2(4.4% were distomolar. Twenty-seven teeth (57.4% were rudimentary, 15 (31.9% were supplemental and 5 (10.7% were odontoma in shape. The shortest distance between the supernumerary tooth and adjacent cortical plate varied between 0 to 2.5 mm with a mean of 0.66 mm. The most common clinical complaint was the non-eruption of permanent teeth (42.5%. All supernumerary teeth were removed under local anesthesia. Orthodontic traction was performed for those impacted permanent teeth if necessary. Conclusion: Impacted supernumerary teeth are usually in close proximity to cortical bone. Although this may facilitate surgical access, there is a risk of

  2. The genome of Nectria haematococca: Contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.C.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhou, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Coutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Barker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnár, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, E.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the "Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportuni

  3. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a critical regulator for pre-harvest sprouting in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat u...

  5. Transposable elements in a marginal plant population: temporal fluctuations provide new insights into genome evolution of wild diploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyayev Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How new forms arise in nature has engaged evolutionary biologists since Darwin's seminal treatise on the origin of species. Transposable elements (TEs may be among the most important internal sources for intraspecific variability. Thus, we aimed to explore the temporal dynamics of several TEs in individual genotypes from a small, marginal population of Aegilops speltoides. A diploid cross-pollinated grass species, it is a wild relative of the various wheat species known for their large genome sizes contributed by an extraordinary number of TEs, particularly long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons. The population is characterized by high heteromorphy and possesses a wide spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities including supernumerary chromosomes, heterozygosity for translocations, and variability in the chromosomal position or number of 45S and 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA sites. We propose that variability on the morphological and chromosomal levels may be linked to variability at the molecular level and particularly in TE proliferation. Results Significant temporal fluctuation in the copy number of TEs was detected when processes that take place in small, marginal populations were simulated. It is known that under critical external conditions, outcrossing plants very often transit to self-pollination. Thus, three morphologically different genotypes with chromosomal aberrations were taken from a wild population of Ae. speltoides, and the dynamics of the TE complex traced through three rounds of selfing. It was discovered that: (i various families of TEs vary tremendously in copy number between individuals from the same population and the selfed progenies; (ii the fluctuations in copy number are TE-family specific; (iii there is a great difference in TE copy number expansion or contraction between gametophytes and sporophytes; and (iv a small percentage of TEs that increase in copy number can actually insert at novel locations and

  6. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  7. Detection of the Molecular Marker and Chromosomal Segment linked to Un-reduced Gamete Gene in Common Wheat%小麦未减数配子基因的连锁标记及染色体区段检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇春兰; 赵来宾; 刘梦; 郝明; 甯顺腙; 袁中伟; 刘登才; 张连全

    2016-01-01

    六倍体普通小麦(Triticumaestivum L., AABBDD,2n =42)由四倍体小麦(T. turgidum, AABB,2n =28)与节节麦(Aegilops tauschiiCosson, DD,2n=14)天然杂交,然后通过染色体自动加倍形成。加倍过程主要受四倍体小麦未减数配子基因控制,且不同四倍体小麦存在不同的遗传效应。本研究利用位于3B 染色体上未减数配子基因QTug.sau-3B的连锁SSR标记Xgpw1146和高通量DArTseq分子标记,筛选出可能转入四倍体小麦未减数配子基因的人工合成小麦改良后代。在105份改良材料中检测出17份具有四倍体小麦的Xgpw1146等位位点,表明四倍体小麦的未减数配子基因可能转入了这17份材料。利用DArTseq高通量标记技术分析人工合成小麦SHW-L1的88份改良后代,发现含四倍体小麦Xgpw1146等位位点的材料均具有来自SHW-L1、且可能包含Xgpw1146的一个染色体区段,表明未减数配子基因临近区域以一个区段传递到改良后代。这些人工合成小麦改良材料在加倍单倍体育种中有重要的应用潜力。%Hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivumL., AABBDD, 2n= 42) arose from spontaneous chromosome doubling of the hybrid betweenT. turgidumandAegilops tauschiiCosson. The process of chromosomes doubling is mainly determined by unreduced gametes (UG) genes inT. turgidum. The genetic effects on the UG production may vary amongT. turgidum lines. In this study, a SSR marker close to the UG geneQTug.sau-3B(Xgpw1146) and high throughput DArTseq genotyping technique were used to screen the UG gene in common wheat lines transferred fromT. turgidum via synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) as a bridge. Out of the analyzed 105 SHW-derived elite lines, 17 had theXgpw1146 allele fromT. turgidum, indicating that the UG gene was probably transferred into these wheat lines. According to the DArTseq genotyping data on 88 lines derived from the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, all these lines with theT. turgidumXgpw1146 allele

  8. Mesiodens--diagnosis and management of a common supernumerary tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kathleen A; Folwarczna, Magdalena A

    2003-06-01

    Mesiodentes are the most common supernumerary teeth, occurring in 0.15% to 1.9% of the population. Given this high frequency, the general dentist should be knowledgeable about the signs and symptoms of mesiodentes and appropriate treatment. The cause of mesiodentes is not fully understood, although proliferation of the dental lamina and genetic factors have been implicated. Mesiodentes can cause delayed or ectopic eruption of the permanent incisors, which can further alter occlusion and appearance. It is therefore important for the clinician to diagnose a mesiodens early in development to allow for optimal yet minimal treatment. Treatment options may include surgical extraction of the mesiodens. If the permanent teeth do not erupt in a reasonable period after the extraction, surgical exposure and orthodontic treatment may be required to ensure eruption and proper alignment of the teeth. In some instances, fixed orthodontic therapy is also required to create sufficient arch space before eruption and alignment of the incisor(s). Early diagnosis allows the most appropriate treatment, often reducing the extent of surgery, orthodontic treatment and possible complications. This paper outlines the causes and modes of presentation of mesiodentes, and presents guidelines for diagnosis and management of nonsyndromic mesiodentes.

  9. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of New Wheat-Dasypyrum breviaristatum Derivatives with Post-Harvest Re-Growth Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Guangrong; Li, Donghai; Gao, Dan; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2015-11-27

    A novel Dasypyrum species, Dasypyrum breviaristatum, serves as a valuable source of useful genes for wheat improvement. The development and characterization of new wheat-D. breviaristatum introgression lines is important to determine the novel gene(s) on specific chromosome(s). We first used multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the individual D. breviaristatum V(b) chromosomes in a common wheat-D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid, TDH-2. The FISH patterns of D. breviaristatum chromosomes were different from those of D. villosum chromosomes. Lines D2146 and D2150 were selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat-D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid TDH-2, and they were characterized by FISH and PCR-based molecular markers. We found that D2150 was a monosomic addition line for chromosome 5V(b) of D. breviaristatum, while D2146 had the 5V(b)L chromosome arm translocated with wheat chromosome 5AS. Molecular marker analysis confirmed that the introduced D. breviaristatum chromosome 5V(b)L translocation possessed a duplicated region homoeologous to 5AS, revealing that the 5AS.5V(b)L translocation may not functionally compensate well. The dwarfing and the pre-harvest re-growth habits observed in the wheat-D. breviaristatum chromosome 5V(b) derivatives may be useful for future development of perennial growth wheat lines.

  10. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  11. [Comparative molecular cytogenetic characterization of partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupin, P Yu; Divashuk, M G; Belov, V I; Glukhova, L I; Aleksandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2011-04-01

    The chromosomal composition of the Zernokormovaya 169, Istra 1, Ostankinskaya, and Otrastayushchaya 38 cultivars of octoploid partial wheat-wheatgrass hybrids was studied using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Differentiation of wheatgrass chromosomes by the distribution of the GISH signal along the chromosome was revealed. The wheatgrass chromosomes of the hybrid cultivars studied in the work differed in the type of differentiation, centromeric index, and absolute size. The cytogenetic distinctions of these chromosomes revealed by us can be used in making crosses and in studying the transmission through gametes of additional wheatgrass chromosomes.

  12. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  13. Mirror imaging of impacted and supernumerary teeth in dizygotic twins: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Michele; Altieri, Federica; Giordano, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth found in the premaxilla. It might be discovered by the clinical examination by chance on a radiograph or as the cause of an unerupted maxillary central incisor. The genetic transmission of supernumerary and impacted teeth is poorly understood. Mirror imaging in twins has been reported frequently in relation to several unilateral dental anomalies including mesiodens. This phenomenon is the appearance of an asymmetrical feature or anomaly occurring on the right side of one twin but on the left side of the other twin. The event of mesiodens mirror imaging in monozygotic twins has been described in literature. This is the first reported case of mesiodens mirror images in dizygotic twins. The de-scribed mesiodens caused the eruption failure of maxillary permanent incisors. The super-numerary teeth were removed to facilitate the spontaneous eruption of the impacted perma-nent maxillary incisors. Studies related to supernumerary teeth can be useful to clinicians in the early diagnosis of this anomaly. Clinical and radiographic examinations provide a correct therapeutic approach. Key words:Supernumerary teeth, twins, dental development.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and clinical manifestations of a case with de novo mosaic ring chromosome 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jye-Siung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Clinical and molecular cytogenetic investigations of a newborn girl exhibiting facial dysmorphism with developmental delay. Methods Phenotypic evaluation was first applied to examine the proband's developmental status. Computed tomography and colour transcranial Doppler were used then to investigate her brain structure and function. Subsequently, chromosomal abnormalities were examined by karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to investigate size of fragments lost at the two distal ends of the ring chromosome 7. In addition, multicolour banding was applied to rule out structural rearrangement occurs in between the ring chromosome 7. Results The proband was born with mosaic supernumerary ring chromosome 7, without a normal karyotype detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. The distal arm of chromosome 7p (at least 255 kb from the telomere was part of an extra ring chromosome 7. In addition, the distal arm of 7q, at least 8 kb from the telomere, was missing. There was no other chromosomal rearrangement detected by multicolour banding. Interpretation This is the 19th reported case of complete ring chromosome 7 mosaicism and the first survived case with mosaic supernumerary ring 7 without a normal karyotype detected in the peripheral lymphocytes.

  15. Molecular Cytogenetic Mapping of Satellite DNA Sequences in Aegilops geniculata and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Dal-Hoe; Tiwari, Vijay K; Hřibová, Eva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides an efficient system for cytogenetic analysis of wild relatives of wheat for individual chromosome identification, elucidation of homoeologous relationships, and for monitoring alien gene transfers into wheat. This study is aimed at developing cytogenetic markers for chromosome identification of wheat and Aegilops geniculata (2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) using satellite DNAs obtained from flow-sorted chromosome 5Mg. FISH was performed to localize the satellite DNAs on chromosomes of wheat and selected Aegilops species. The FISH signals for satellite DNAs on chromosome 5Mg were generally associated with constitutive heterochromatin regions corresponding to C-band-positive chromatin including telomeric, pericentromeric, centromeric, and interstitial regions of all the 14 chromosome pairs of Ae. geniculata. Most satellite DNAs also generated FISH signals on wheat chromosomes and provided diagnostic chromosome arm-specific cytogenetic markers that significantly improved chromosome identification in wheat. The newly identified satellite DNA CL36 produced localized Mg genome chromosome-specific FISH signals in Ae. geniculata and in the M genome of the putative diploid donor species Ae. comosa subsp. subventricosa but not in Ae. comosa subsp. comosa, suggesting that the Mg genome of Ae. geniculata was probably derived from subsp. subventricosa.

  16. Multiple Supernumerary Teeth in a Non-Syndromic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshgh Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple supernumerary teeth are a rare phenomenon. It occurs more often in patients with syndromes such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia and so on. This phenomenon in absence of such syndromes is rare. The purpose of this report was to introduce a case of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary impacted teeth.Case Report: A 29-year-old woman with no skeletal, metabolic, systemic and mental disorder was referred to oral and maxillofacial department of Mashhad dental school. In clinical evaluation, seven Permanent teeth were missing. In radiographic evaluation, there were a total of 15 impacted teeth which 7 of them were supernumerary.Conclusion: Missing or Excess of one or more teeth usually leads to occlusal and functional problems. In these cases, a complete clinical and radiographic examination accompanieal by a precise history should be performed to plan a suitable surgical-orthodontic-prosthetic treatment.

  17. Sequential supernumerary teeth development in a non-syndromic patient; report of a rare case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafarian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated impacted supernumerary teeth are quite rare, but they can be seen associated with several syndromes such as cleidocranial dysostosis or Gardner's syndrome. This article aims to discuss a case of sequential formation of supernumerary teeth with no other associated disease or syndrome. A 17-year-old Iranian male with 8 impacted supernumerary teeth was referred to the department of pediatric dental clinic at Shahid Beheshti Medical University in Tehran with a history of several impacted unerupted teeth. Repeated and periodical clinical and radiographic examinations revealed newly formed teeth buds in unusual dental ages. All extra teeth were associated with generalized enamel hypoplasia to some degree on their relative permanent adjacent teeth. The patient did not have any record of a systemic disease or any syndromic condition to relate his dental problem to. This rare condition involved repeated and continued formation of extra teeth out of the normal numbers and dental age evident in serial radiographs.

  18. Use of a Piezosurgery Technique to Remove a Deeply Impacted Supernumerary Tooth in the Anterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sukegawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeply impacted supernumerary teeth in the anterior maxillary cannot be generally removed by the conventional labial or palatal surgical approach because of the risk of damaging the surrounding soft tissues and the possibility of injuring the roots of adjacent permanent teeth. In piezosurgery, bony tissues are selectively cut, thereby avoiding the soft tissue damage caused by rotary cutting instruments. We report the case of a 15-year-old Japanese boy from whom a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxillary was safely removed through the floor of the nasal cavity. The surgical extraction was performed without damaging the nasal mucosa or adjacent structures such as the roots of the adjacent permanent teeth. Considering that piezosurgery limits the extent of surgical invasion, this technique can be practiced as a minimally invasive and safe surgical procedure for treating suitably selected cases with a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth.

  19. Management of Delayed Eruption of Permanent Maxillary Incisor associated with the Presence of Supernumerary Teeth: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Rajni; Singh, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema

    2011-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. Clinically, supernumerary teeth are able to cause different local disorders. It is important for the dentist to be aware of the clinical complications of supernumerary teeth, the most common being the delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Early diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent the need for more complex surgical and orthodontic treatment. This case report highlights the problem of delayed eruption of permanent maxillary left central incisor in a 9-year-old boy due to two supernumerary teeth, one tuberculate type and other impacted inverted mesiodens. PMID:27678238

  20. The dynamics of supernumerary tooth development are differentially regulated by Sprouty genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagronova-Churava, Svatava; Spoutil, Frantisek; Vojtechova, Simona; Lesot, Herve; Peterka, Miroslav; Klein, Ophir D; Peterkova, Renata

    2013-07-01

    In mice, a toothless diastema separates the single incisor from the three molars in each dental quadrant. In the prospective diastema of the embryo, small rudimentary buds are found that are presumed to be rudiments of suppressed teeth. A supernumerary tooth occurs in the diastema of adult mice carrying mutations in either Spry2 or Spry4. In the case of Spry2 mutants, the origin of the supernumerary tooth involves the revitalization of a rudimentary tooth bud (called R2), whereas its origin in the Spry4 mutants is not known. In addition to R2, another rudimentary primordium (called MS) arises more anteriorly in the prospective diastema. We investigated the participation of both rudiments (MS and R2) in supernumerary tooth development in Spry2 and Spry4 mutants by comparing morphogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, size and Shh expression in the dental epithelium of MS and R2 rudiments. Increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis were found in MS and R2 at embryonic day (ED) 12.5 and 13.5 in Spry2(-/-) embryos. Apoptosis was also decreased in both rudiments in Spry4(-/-) embryos, but the proliferation was lower (similar to WT mice), and supernumerary tooth development was accelerated, exhibiting a cap stage by ED13.5. Compared to Spry2(-/-) mice, a high number of Spry4(-/-) supernumerary tooth primordia degenerated after ED13.5, resulting in a low percentage of supernumerary teeth in adults. We propose that Sprouty genes were implicated during evolution in reduction of the cheek teeth in Muridae, and their deletion can reveal ancestral stages of murine dental evolution. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An epidemiological study on supernumerary teeth: a survey on 5,000 people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dara Kalyan; Gopal, K Saraswathy

    2013-07-01

    The formation of dental tissues is a highly delicate and complex phenomenon. Any alteration in this process leads to various dental anomalies which affect the tooth number, size, shape and structure. Supernumerary teeth are one such anomaly which affects the tooth number. Supernumerary teeth can give rise to various complications and pathologies or they may have a familial / syndromic association. They may occur along with other dental anomalies. Thus, such teeth have a definite clinical significance. The aim of the following study was to know the prevalence of the supernumerary teeth and the distribution of the cases according to the age, sex, jaw, region, eruption status, and the position. A total of 5000 patients were examined for a period of 1 year's duration and they were divided into different groups. Group I consisted of individuals who were aged between 5-20 years, Group II consisted of individuals who were aged between 21-40 years, and Group III consisted of individuals who were aged 41 years and above. The dental examination was conducted by using a mouth mirror and a probe, to determine the presence of supernumerary teeth. All the cases with supernumerary teeth were further observed and the details were recorded in a prepared porforma. These cases were also subjected to general physical examinations (to rule out any syndromes) and radiographic examinations. Photographs were also made. Although supernumerary teeth is an unusual anomaly, it is not as rare as was previously reported. The identification of this anomaly could provide a hint towards the possibility of complications, pathologies, other dental anomalies, syndromes and a familial association.

  2. Endodontic management of a supernumerary tooth fused to the maxillary permanent lateral Incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash A Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to present the endodontic management of a supernumerary tooth fused to the maxillary left lateral incisor. Such anomalies pose a challenge even to the most experienced clinician in treating these teeth. This report described a case of 21-year-old male patient with a classic case of complete fusion of maxillary left lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth. A modified access preparation was made and two separate root canal orifices were identified. Both root canal systems were prepared separately and obturated efficiently until accepted lengths. This reported case highlights the importance of clinical and radiographic correlation in arriving to a definitive diagnosis.

  3. Unusual Case of a Talon Cusp on a Supernumerary Tooth in Association with a Mesiodens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Babaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is an accessory cusp similar to a projection, extending from the cingulum or cemento-enamel junction to the incisal edge. It occurs on labial or palatal surfaces of primary or permanent anterior teeth in both arches. This accessory cusp can occur as an isolated entity or in association with other dental anomalies. Occurrence of a talon cusp on supernumerary teeth is rare and uncommon. This paper reports an unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with mesiodens.

  4. Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth.

  5. Dentigerous cyst associated with ectopic canine and a supernumerary tooth: a rare occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ashwini; Lambade, Pravin

    2013-07-01

    Amongst the cysts of the jaw dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts, which is associated with the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. DC is more commonly seen with mandibular third molar and maxillary canine and rarely other teeth are involved. These cysts seldom associate with supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of large dentigerous cyst associated with supernumerary teeth and an ectopic canine, which is a rare presentation along with its management.

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Supernumerary (Mesiodens: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meighani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary tooth is one of the developmental problems in children. Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth present in the midline between the two central incisors. It usually results in oral problems such as malocclusion, food impaction, poor aesthetics, and cyst formation. The prevalence of mesiodens varies between 0.09% and 2.05% in different studies.This paper reviews current literature on etiology, prevalence, diagnosis, and management of this problem. Accordingly, early diagnosis and treatment is suggested to preventorthodontic and pathologic complications.

  7. Unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with a mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Sanadi, Firoza; Melkundi, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp similar to a projection, extending from the cingulum or cemento-enamel junction to the incisal edge. It occurs on labial or palatal surfaces of primary or permanent anterior teeth in both arches. This accessory cusp can occur as an isolated entity or in association with other dental anomalies. Occurrence of a talon cusp on supernu-merary teeth is rare and uncommon. This paper reports an unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with mesiodens.

  8. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  9. Similar Sister Chromatid Arrangement in Mono- and Holocentric Plant Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Veit; Zelkowski, Mateusz; Klemme, Sonja; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Due to the X-shape formation at somatic metaphase, the arrangement of the sister chromatids is obvious in monocentric chromosomes. In contrast, the sister chromatids of holocentric chromosomes cannot be distinguished even at mitotic metaphase. To clarify their organization, we differentially labelled the sister chromatids of holocentric Luzula and monocentric rye chromosomes by incorporating the base analogue EdU during replication. Using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and 3D rendering, we found that holocentric sister chromatids attach to each other at their contact surfaces similar to those of monocentrics in prometaphase. We found that sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are distributed homogeneously along the whole holocentric chromosomes of Luzula, and that their occurrence is increased compared to monocentric rye chromosomes. The SCE frequency of supernumerary B chromosomes, present additionally to the essential A chromosome complement of rye, does not differ from that of A chromosomes. Based on these results, models of the sister chromatid arrangement in mono- and holocentric plant chromosomes are presented.

  10. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  11. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  12. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  13. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  14. Genetic rearrangements of six wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P addition lines revealed by molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Han

    Full Text Available Agropyron cristatum (L. Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat-A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering.

  15. Origin of B chromosomes in the genus Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) and the limits of chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A Silva, Duílio M Z; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Penitente, Manolo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryote genomes are frequently burdened with the presence of supernumerary (B) chromosomes. Their origin is frequently investigated by chromosome painting, under the hypothesis that sharing the repetitive DNA sequences contained in the painting probes is a sign of common descent. However, the intragenomic mobility of many anonymous DNA sequences contained in these probes (e.g., transposable elements) adds high uncertainty to this conclusion. Here we test the validity of chromosome painting to investigate B chromosome origin by comparing its results for seven B chromosome types in two fish species genus Astyanax, with those obtained (1) by means of the physical mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H1 histone genes, the As51 satellite DNA and the (AC)15 microsatellite, and (2) by comparing the nucleotide sequence of one of these families (ITS regions from ribosomal DNA) between genomic DNA from B-lacking individuals in both species and the microdissected DNA from two metacentric B chromosomes found in these same species. Intra- and inter-specific painting suggested that all B chromosomes that were assayed shared homologous DNA sequences among them, as well as with a variable number of A chromosomes in each species. This finding would be consistent with a common origin for all seven B chromosomes analyzed. By contrast, the physical mapping of repetitive DNA sequences failed to give support to this hypothesis, as no more than two B-types shared a given repetitive DNA. Finally, sequence analysis of the ITS regions suggested that at least some of the B chromosomes could have had a common origin.

  16. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  17. Asymmetric Centriole Numbers at Spindle Poles Cause Chromosome Missegregation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco R. Cosenza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer and correlates with the presence of extra centrosomes, which originate from centriole overduplication. Overduplicated centrioles lead to the formation of centriole rosettes, which mature into supernumerary centrosomes in the subsequent cell cycle. While extra centrosomes promote chromosome missegregation by clustering into pseudo-bipolar spindles, the contribution of centriole rosettes to chromosome missegregation is unknown. We used multi-modal imaging of cells with conditional centriole overduplication to show that mitotic rosettes in bipolar spindles frequently harbor unequal centriole numbers, leading to biased chromosome capture that favors binding to the prominent pole. This results in chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. Rosette mitoses lead to viable offspring and significantly contribute to progeny production. We further show that centrosome abnormalities in primary human malignancies frequently consist of centriole rosettes. As asymmetric centriole rosettes generate mitotic errors that can be propagated, rosette mitoses are sufficient to cause chromosome missegregation in cancer.

  18. 携带抗白粉病基因Pm21的小麦-簇毛麦小片段易位染色体在不同小麦背景中的传递率及遗传稳定性%Transmission and Genetic Stability of No-homoeologous Small Fragment Wheat-Haynaldia villosa Translocation Chromosomes with Pm21 in Various Cultivar Backgrounds of Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 肖进; 袁春霞; 徐涛; 于春艳; 孙昊杰; 陈佩度; 王秀娥

    2016-01-01

    抗白粉病基因Pm21来自小麦近缘种簇毛麦。小麦–簇毛麦小片段顶端易位系NAU418(T1AS×1AL-6VS)和小片段中间插入易位系NAU419(T4BS×4BL-6VS-4BL)携带Pm21,高抗白粉病,是小麦抗病育种新种质。为了对其育种利用提供依据,以NAU418和NAU419为亲本分别与来源于不同生态区的郑麦9023等12个小麦品种杂交,杂种F1再分别与来源于不同生态区的农艺亲本进行正、反回交,研究两种易位染色体在不同小麦背景中的遗传稳定性及其通过雌雄配子的传递规律。DNA分子原位杂交结果表明,在杂种F1花粉母细胞减数分裂中期I (Pollen Mother Cell, PMC MI),两种易位染色体分别可以与对应的小麦染色体配对形成棒状二价体。正、反交结果分析表明, NAU418中的小片段顶端易位染色体 T1AS×1AL-6VS 通过雌配子和雄配子的传递率分别为8.00%~50.98%和7.89%~45.07%, NAU419中的小片段中间插入易位染色体 T4BS×4BL-6VS-4BL通过雌配子和雄配子的传递率分别为29.17%~52.38%和7.69%~47.06%。表明2个易位系中的易位染色体都可以通过雌、雄配子传递,但是其通过雄配子的传递率均显著低于通过雌配子的传递率。%The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 comes from a diploid wheat related species, Haynaldia villosa. Two Pm21-carrying small fragment translocation lines, the terminal translocation line NAU418 and the small interstitial translocation line NAU419, have been developed. Both lines are highly resistant to powdery mildew and serve as new genetic resources for improvement of disease resistance. For understanding the transmission rate of the translocation chromosomes through male and female gametes and the genetic stabilities in different wheat genetic backgrounds, the two translocations were crossed to 12 com-mon wheat varieties from different wheat growing areas of China. The F1 hybrids were then backcrossed as reciprocally. Chro-mosome configurations of

  19. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  20. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  1. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bueno

    Full Text Available Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes.

  2. Clinical management of a fused upper premolar with supernumerary tooth: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Min Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available n dentistry, the term 'fusion' is used to describe a developmental disorder of dental hard tissues. In the permanent dentition, fusion of a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth usually involves the incisors or canines. However, a few cases of fusion involving premolars have also been reported to date. We present a rare case in which fusion of the maxillary left second premolar and a supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old girl was diagnosed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Alphard-3030, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd.. The tooth was bicuspidized after routine nonsurgical root canal treatment, and the separated teeth underwent appropriate restoration procedures. The second premolar and supernumerary tooth remained asymptomatic without any signs of inflammation after a follow-up period of 9 years. Identification of anatomical anomalies is important for treatment in cases involving fusion with supernumerary tooth, and therefore the microscopic examinations and CBCT are essential for the diagnosis. Fused teeth can be effectively managed by the comprehensive treatment which includes both endodontic and periodontal procedures.

  3. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Arme

  4. Multiple crown size variables of the upper incisors in patients with supernumerary teeth compared with controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalaf, K.; Smith, R. N.; Elcock, C.; Brook, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: As part of ongoing studies of the aetiology of dental anomalies the aims of this study were to identify multiple components of tooth size of the upper permanent incisors in 34 patients with supernumerary teeth and to compare them with those in a control group to determine whether the presence

  5. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Arme

  6. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh R Kalaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning.

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratson, T

    2013-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are more frequently located in the premaxillary region. Mesiodentes are the most common supernumerary teeth, occurring in 0.15% to 1.9% of the population. Supernumerary teeth are frequently diagnosed in a random radiograph, or after clinical symptoms appear. The majority of the complications consist of delayed or ectopic eruption of the permanent incisors. It is important for the clinician to be aware of the phenomenon and its implications, in order to diagnose it as early as possible. Extraction of the supernumerary teeth in the late mixed dentition, will minimize the chances of damaging the adjacent permanent teeth, but will reduce the possibility of spontaneous eruption of an impacted permanent incisor. Extraction in the early mixed dentition can expedite the eruption of the permanent incisor, although it may involve sedation or general anesthesia, due to lack of cooperation in the young patient. Because to the risk of uneruption of the permanent impacted incisor, exposure of the teeth and bonding a ligature or bracket at the same procedure, and providing a possibility for the dentist to make the incisor erupt after the first operation, should the incisor not erupt spontaneously. Treating these cases require the cooperation of pediatric dentist, orthodontic and dental surgeon, and sometimes the involvement of an anesthesiologist.

  8. Nonsyndromic Bilateral Multiple Impacted Supernumerary Mandibular Third Molars: A Rare and Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siva Prasad Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is that which is present additionally to the normal series and can be found in any region of the dental arch. An impacted tooth is defined as the one which is embedded in the alveolus, so that its eruption is prevented, or the tooth is locked in position by bone or the adjacent teeth. The occurrence of multiple supernumerary teeth in only one patient in the absence of an associated systemic condition or syndrome is considered as a rare phenomenon. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth in the lower molar region is rare. A prevalence of less than 2% of cases occurring in this region has been estimated. Their occurrence presents a clinical problem for orthodontists and oral surgeons. The cause, frequency, complications, and surgical operation of impacted teeth are always interesting subjects for study and research. An impacted tooth can result in caries, pulp disease, periapical and periodontal disease, temporomandibular joint disorder, infection of the fascial space, root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and even oral and maxillofacial tumours. The management of impacted wisdom teeth has changed over the past 20 years from removal of nonsymptomatic third molars to simple observation. The aim of this paper is to present a rare case of bilateral multiple impacted supernumerary mandibular third molars.

  9. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R.; Kalaskar, Ashita R.

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning. PMID:22114457

  10. Microsatellite-based molecular diversity of bread wheat germplasm and association mapping of wheat resistance to the Russian wheat aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J H; Bai, Y; Haley, S D; Lapitan, N L V

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity of a set of 71 wheat accessions, including 53 biotype 2 Russian wheat aphid (RWA2)-resistant landraces and 18 RWA2 susceptible accessions, was assessed by examining molecular variation at multiple microsatellite (SSR) loci. Fifty-one wheat SSR primer pairs were used, 81 SSR loci were determined, and 545 SSR alleles were detected. These SSR loci covered all the three genomes, 21 chromosomes, and at least 41 of the 42 chromosome arms. Diversity values averaged over SSR loci were high with mean number of SSR alleles/locus = 6.7, mean Shannon's index (H) = 1.291, and mean Nei's gene diversity (He) = 0.609. The three wheat genomes ranked as A > D > B and the homoeologous groups ranked as 7 > 3 > 1 > 2 > 6 > 5 > 4 based on the number of alleles per locus. Xgwm136 on chromosome arm 1AS is the most polymorphic SSR locus with the largest number of observed and effective alleles and the highest H and He. Among all 2485 pairs of wheat accessions, genetic distance (GD) ranged from 0.054 to 1.933 and averaged 0.9832. A dendrogram based on GD matrix showed that all the wheat accessions could be grouped into distinct clusters. Most of the susceptible cultivars (13/18) were clustered into groups that contains all or mostly susceptible accessions. Most of the U.S. cultivars belong to a group that is distinguishable from all the different RWA2 resistant groups. Diversity analysis was also conducted separately for subgroups containing 53 RWA2-resistant accessions and 18 RWA2-susceptible accessions. Association mapping revealed 28 SSR loci significantly associated with leaf chlorosis, and 8 with leaf rolling. New chromosome regions associated with RWA2 resistance were detected, and indicated existence of new RWA resistance genes located on chromosomes of all other homoeologous groups in addition to the groups 1 and 7 in bread wheat. This information is helpful for development of mapping populations for RWA2 resistance genes from different phylogenetic groups, and for

  11. Changes in Root Hydraulic Conductivity During Wheat Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Xing ZHAO; Xi-Ping DENG; Lun SHAN; Ernst STEUDLE; Sui-Qi ZHANG; Qing YE

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms of water uptake by plant roots should be vital for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). In the present study, we have demonstrated correlations between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics during evolution using six wheat evolution genotypes (solution culture) with different ploidy chromosome sets (Triticum boeoticum Bioss., T. monococcum L.: 2n = 2x = 14; T. dicoccides Koern., T. dicoccon (Schrank) Schuebl.: 2n = 4x = 28;T. vulgare Vill., T. aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan No. 6: 2n = 6x = 42). The experimental results showed that significant correlations were found between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics of the materials with the increase in ploidy chromosomes (2x→6x) during wheat evolution. Hydraulic conductivity of the wheat root system at the whole-plant level was increased with chromosome ploidy during evolution, which was positively correlated with hydraulic conductivity of single roots, whole plant biomass,root average diameter, and root growth (length, area), whereas the root/shoot ratio had an inverse correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of root system with increasing chromosome ploidy during wheat evolution. Therefore, it is concluded that that the water uptake ability of wheat roots was strengthened from wild to modern cultivated species during evolution, which will provide scientific evidence for genetic breeding to improve the WUE of wheat by genetic engineering.

  12. Wheat induced urticaria

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    Uppal Monica

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  13. Combination of null alleles with 7+9 allelic pair at Glu-B1 locus on the long arm of group 1 chromosome improves wheat dough functionality for tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deletion of one or more high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) alleles reduces gluten strength in a way that may be beneficial for tortilla quality. Wheat lines in which one or more of the HMW-GS alleles were absent from Glu-A1, Glu-B1 or Glu-D1 locus (deletion lines) were compared with non...

  14. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  15. Surgical management of impacted incisors in associate with supernumerary teeth: A combine case report of spontaneous eruption and orthodontic extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary permanent incisors impaction is not a frequent case in dental practice, but its treatment is challenging because of its importance to facial esthetics. Supernumerary teeth are the main cause of impaction of upper incisors. Supernumerary teeth when present can cause both esthetic and pathologic problems. Early detection of such teeth is most important if complications are to be avoided. In this reported case, the orthopantamogram of a 9-year-old boy revealed two impacted supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region, which was interfering with the eruption of the permanent central incisors. The impacted supernumerary teeth were surgically removed, 11 was repositioned in the arch as it was situated very high in the arch, close to the nasal floor. Twenty-one erupted spontaneously but orthodontic force was applied over 11 to bring it into the occlusion and alignment was achieved with 0.014 mm NiTi wire.

  16. Dynamics of DNA replication during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat.

  17. Dynamics of DNA Replication during Premeiosis and Early Meiosis in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat. PMID:25275307

  18. Dynamics of DNA replication during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat.

  19. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  20. Chromosome isolation by flow sorting in Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Molnár

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of flow cytometry for chromosome sorting in two wild diploid wheats Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. Flow karyotypes obtained after the analysis of DAPI-stained chromosomes were characterized and content of chromosome peaks was determined. Peaks of chromosome 1U could be discriminated in flow karyotypes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. biuncialis and the chromosome could be sorted with purities exceeding 95%. The remaining chromosomes formed composite peaks and could be sorted in groups of two to four. Twenty four wheat SSR markers were tested for their position on chromosomes of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. comosa using PCR on DNA amplified from flow-sorted chromosomes and genomic DNA of wheat-Ae. geniculata addition lines, respectively. Six SSR markers were located on particular Aegilops chromosomes using sorted chromosomes, thus confirming the usefulness of this approach for physical mapping. The SSR markers are suitable for marker assisted selection of wheat-Aegilops introgression lines. The results obtained in this work provide new opportunities for dissecting genomes of wild relatives of wheat with the aim to assist in alien gene transfer and discovery of novel genes for wheat improvement.

  1. Expansion of the Rib Head: A Novel Computed Tomographic Feature of Supernumerary Intrathoracic Ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakus, Ismail Mikdat; Atceken, Zeynep; Ariyurek, Orhan Macit

    2017-02-01

    Intrathoracic ribs are very rare congenital anomalies. Approximately 50 cases have been reported in the literature till date. They are usually present on the right side, between the third and eighth ribs without sex predominance. They may originate from a vertebral body or the proximal or distal part of a rib. In most cases, they are asymptomatic, but they may be associated with developmental abnormalities of ribs and vertebrae. The diagnosis is important to prevent further investigation or intervention. Here we present two rare cases with supernumerary intrathoracic rib and describe a novel sign, namely expansion of the rib head. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest supernumerary intrathoracic rib, reported in the literature, on the left side originating from the head of the second rib, which could have been misdiagnosed as osteochondroma due to its atypical features.

  2. Supernumerary Nipples, Congenital Scoliosis, Spina Bifida, Diastematomyelia, and Crossed Renal Ectopia in a child

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    Kiran Panthee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supernumerary nipples are common anomalies which may be associated with several systemic disorders, particularly urinary tract abnormalities.   Case report: Here we report a case of a 4½ year old male presenting to the pediatric out patient clinic with fever for three days and recurrent sinopulmonary infections. The child had supernumerary nipples over the right side with deformed thoracic cage, congenital scoliosis, diastematomyelia, crossed renal ectopia, and spina bifida. All the conditions present together did not match any syndrome reported till date.   Conclusion: This was a rare syndrome and did not match fully with any known syndromes till date. This case warranted further investigation for its definite diagnosis but we do not have resources to that extent.

  3. Recurrent epistaxis caused by an intranasal supernumerary tooth in a young adult

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dhafeeri, Hamed O.; Kavarodi, Abdulmajid; Shaikh, Khalil Al; Bukhari, Ahmed; Hussain, Omair Al; Baramawy, Ahmed El

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Recurrent epistaxis Symptoms: Nasal bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Recurrent epistaxis is a common disorder among children and young adults. We report an unusual cause, intranasal supernumerary tooth causing friction with Little’s area of the nasal septum. Case Report: A 22-year-old male presented with recurrent, mild, unilateral left-sided epistaxis once t...

  4. Bilateral fusion of mandibular second molars with supernumerary teeth: case report

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    Nunes Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is a developmental anomaly characterized by the union of two adjacent teeth. In this article we report a rare case of bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular second molars with supernumerary teeth. The rarity with which this entity appears, along with its complex characteristics, often make it difficult to treat. The endodontic management of one tooth is described, as well as the successful treatment of a periradicular lesion.

  5. Chromosomal variation in Argentine populations of Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; García, Gabriela Verónica; Ferro, Juan Martín; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The genus Akodon Meyen, 1833 is one of the most species-rich among sigmodontine rodents and has great chromosome variability. Akodon montensis has a relatively broad distribution in South America, and Argentine populations are located in the southernmost region of its range. Brazilian populations have important chromosomal variability, but cytogenetic data from Argentina are scarce. We performed a chromosome characterization of natural populations of Akodon montensis using conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NORs and base-specific fluorochromes. A total of 31 specimens from five localities of Misiones Province, in Argentina, were analyzed. The 2n=24 chromosomes was the most frequently observed karyotype. However, five individuals presented 25 chromosomes due to a supernumerary B-chromosome; and one individual had 2n=26 due to one B plus a trisomy for chromosome 11. Additionally, two XY females and two variants of the X chromosomes were found. C-positive centromeric bands occurred in all chromosomes; additional C-bands were observed in some autosomes, the X, Y and B chromosomes. Ag-NORs were observed in five autosomes, and the B chromosome was frequently marked. Fluorochrome banding was similar among karyotypes of the analyzed populations. Comparisons of cytogenetic data among populations of Argentina and Brazil showed the presence of high intraspecific variability in Akodon montensis and some differences among regions.

  6. Existence of inelastic supernumerary nuclear rainbow in 16O+12C scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Ogloblin, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The existence of a supernumerary nuclear rainbow in inelastic scattering is reported. This is done by studying inelastic 16O scattering from 12C, exciting the 2+ (4.44 MeV) state of 12C and elastic scattering at the incident energies in the range 124-200 MeV, using the coupled channels method. An extended double folding potential is used. This is derived from realistic wave functions for 12C and 16O calculated with a microscopic α cluster model and a finite-range density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. Excitations to the 2+ (4.44 MeV), 3- (9.64 MeV), and 4+ (14.08 MeV) states of 12C, and the 3- (6.13 MeV) and 2+ (6.92 MeV) states of 16O are included in the coupled channels calculations. The emergence of the supernumerary bow is understood by the properties of both the Luneburg-lens-like potential in the internal region and diffuse attraction in the outer region. The existence of a supernumerary rainbow for inelastic scattering in addition to the existence of a dynamically created secondary rainbow and a dynamically refracted primary rainbow for elastic scattering, which are not observed in meteorological rainbows, further deepens the understanding of nuclear rainbows.

  7. Under your nose: a rare finding during dissection provides insights into maxillary supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, C; Townsend, G C; Ghabriel, M; Brook, A H

    2014-09-01

    A supernumerary tooth was found during anatomical dissection. The position of this tooth, still impacted in the maxilla, and the associated pathology make this a rare case. During dissection by dental students of the sagittally-sectioned head of a cadaver, a supernumerary tooth was identified in the mid-palatal area. Further dissection revealed a swelling with a thin bony covering related to the crown of the tooth. The maxilla was removed en bloc and radiographic examination, CT scanning, electron microscopy and histology were undertaken. The tooth had a crenulated occlusal surface and a single root. It was 25 mm posterior to the root apex of the permanent upper central incisor. The swelling, confirmed by radiographs and CT imaging to be associated with the crown, occupied approximately one-third of the maxillary sinus. The 3D shape of the cystic lesion was visualized by a composite digital movie. The crown form, position of the tooth and the associated dentigerous cyst suggested it was a palatally developing supernumerary premolar which had been displaced to the palatal midline by the expanding cyst. This rare case highlights the learning and teaching opportunities available during dissection, showing important variations in both development and clinical anatomy. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  8. The Multidisciplinary Management of Fused Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a Supernumerary Tooth in Cleft Lip Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yagci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options.

  9. 低磷对小麦代换系幼苗根系保护酶活性和丙二醛含量的影响及染色体效应%Effects of Phosphorus Deficiency Stress on Protective Enzyme Activities,MDA Content and Chromosome of Wheat Substitution Lines Seedling Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米少艳; 靖姣姣; 白志英; 李存东

    2013-01-01

      以中国春-Synthetic 6x染色体代换系及其亲本为材料,通过测定不同磷处理条件下根系抗氧化酶SOD、POD活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,研究低磷胁迫对小麦代换系酶活性的影响,并对耐低磷胁迫特性的基因进行染色体定位。结果表明,低磷胁迫下,小麦代换系苗期根系SOD和POD活性显著升高,丙二醛含量降低。 Synthetic 6x的3A、4A、5A和7A染色体上可能存在诱导根系SOD活性增强的基因,5A、1D和2D染色体上可能存在诱导根系POD活性增强的基因,1A、2A、4B、6B和7D染色体上可能存在抑制根系MDA含量增高的基因。%The effects of phosphorus deficiency stress on enzyme activity in wheat was studied by determining antioxidant enzymes SOD,POD activities and MDA content and locating the gene controlling antioxidant enzymes SOD,POD activities and MDA content at the roots of the seedling stage using wheat substitution lines between Chi -nese Spring(CS)and Synthetic 6x.The results showed that SOD and POD activities increased ,MDA content reduced under phosphorus deficiency stress .This explains that the increased of antioxidant enzyme activity might reduce MDA content and lower membrane lipid peroxidation level ,to improve their resistance.The genes promoting SOD activity might be located on 3A,4A,5A and 7A chromosome of Synthetic 6x;and the genes promoting POD activity might be located on 5A,1D and 2D chromosome,while the genes inhibiting content might be located on 5A,2D,5D and 7D chromosome of Synthetic 6x.

  10. Geographical Barriers Impeded the Spread of a Parasitic Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inmaculada Manrique-Poyato

    Full Text Available Parasitic supernumerary (B chromosomes show high capability to spread across populations. But the existence of abrupt discontinuities in their distribution demands an explanation. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans plorans harbour supernumerary chromosomes in all natural populations hitherto analyzed from the Circum-Mediterranean region, with the single exception of the headwaters of the Iberian Segura River and several of its tributaries. To ascertain the causes of this distribution pattern, we analyze here the genetic structure of five natural populations collected in this zone (two +B and three -B, by means of ISSR markers. We found significant population structure, with two kinds of populations coinciding with +B and -B ones, separated by strong barriers to gene flow. This gives strong support to the hypothesis that the non-B populations precede B origin, and that B-carrying individuals from coastal zones have been able to colonize upstream areas, until geographical barriers (usually narrow canyons and arid areas surrounding them impeded their advance.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  12. Chromosome localization and regulation role in phosphorous uptake of phosphate transporter gene TaPht1; 4 under Pi deprivation in wheat%磷转运蛋白基因TaPht1;4的染色体定位及其在低磷下与小麦吸磷能力的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 郭程瑾; 路文静; 李小娟; 肖凯

    2014-01-01

    不同磷吸收效率6个小麦品种TaPht1;4的表达水平以及单株干重、全磷含量、磷累积量和磷效率研究表明,缺磷下各小麦品种表现为随品种磷吸收效率提高,TaPht1;4表达水平也随之增高。表明TaPht1;4表达水平与低磷下小麦品种磷素吸收能力和干物质积累具有紧密联系。【结论】小麦高亲和PT基因TaPht1;4定位在3B长臂。低磷条件下,3BS的单株干重和磷累积量较CS显著降低。丰、缺磷下,不同磷吸收效率小麦品种TaPht1;4表达水平与植株干重和单株磷累积量密切相关。 TaPht1;4能显著增强小麦在低磷下磷素吸收能力,可作为小麦品种耐低磷能力的参考分子评价指标。%[Objectives]The acquisition of inorganic phosphate ( Pi) and the Pi translocation across the organs and tissues in plants is mediated by phosphate transporters ( PTs) located at the cytoplasmic membranes. The PTs with high-affinity property play critical roles in mediating the Pi absorption by plants under the Pi-limited condition. Currently, the molecular characterization and biological functions of PTs in wheat were few reported. In this study, using Chinese spring ( CS) and its ditelosimic lines of B chromosome as materials, the localization on chromosome as well as expression patterns of TaPht1; 4, a high-affinity PT gene in wheat, was systematically studied under sufficient-and deficient-Pi conditions. In addition, the relationship between the expression levels of TaPht1;4 and the plant phosphorus use efficiencies across various wheat cultivars under supply of lower phosphorous was determined to provide molecular basis for evaluation of phosphorus use efficiency across wheat cultivars and guidance on genetic improvement for high phosphorus usage in wheat.[Methods]The hydroponic culture method was used to cultivate seedlings of Chinese spring ( CS) and its ditelosimic lines of B chromosome. The roots and leaves of all tested materials were separately harvested

  13. The influence of sex chromosome aneuploidy on brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Roozbeh; Daly, Eileen M; Cutter, William J; Murphy, Declan G M; Robertson, Dene M W; DeLisi, Lynn E; Mackay, Clare E; Barrick, Thomas R; Crow, Timothy J; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-05

    The cognitive deficits present in individuals with sex chromosome aneuploidies suggest that hemispheric differentiation of function is determined by an X-Y homologous gene [Crow (1993); Lancet 342:594-598]. In particular, females with Turner's syndrome (TS) who have only one X-chromosome exhibit deficits of spatial ability whereas males with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) who possess a supernumerary X-chromosome are delayed in acquiring words. Since spatial and verbal abilities are generally associated with right and left hemispheric function, such deficits may relate to anomalies of cerebral asymmetry. We therefore applied a novel image analysis technique to investigate the relationship between sex chromosome dosage and structural brain asymmetry. Specifically, we tested Crow's prediction that the magnitude of the brain torque (i.e., a combination of rightward frontal and leftward occipital asymmetry) would, as a function of sex chromosome dosage, be respectively decreased in TS women and increased in KS men, relative to genotypically normal controls. We found that brain torque was not significantly different in TS women and KS men, in comparison to controls. However, TS women exhibited significantly increased leftward brain asymmetry, restricted to the posterior of the brain and focused on the superior temporal and parietal-occipital association cortex, while KS men showed a trend for decreased brain asymmetry throughout the frontal lobes. The findings suggest that the number of sex chromosomes influences the development of brain asymmetry not simply to modify the torque but in a complex pattern along the antero-posterior axis.

  14. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  15. B chromosomes of Aegilops speltoides are enriched in organelle genome-derived sequences.

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    Alevtina Ruban

    Full Text Available B chromosomes (Bs are dispensable components of the genome exhibiting non-Mendelian inheritance. Chromosome counts and flow cytometric analysis of the grass species Aegilops speltoides revealed a tissue-type specific distribution of the roughly 570 Mbp large B chromosomes. To address the question whether organelle-to-nucleus DNA transfer is a mechanism that drives the evolution of Bs, in situ hybridization was performed with labelled organellar DNA. The observed B-specific accumulation of chloroplast- and mitochondria-derived sequences suggests a reduced selection against the insertion of organellar DNA in supernumerary chromosomes. The distribution of B-localised organellar-derived sequences and other sequences differs between genotypes of different geographical origins.

  16. Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition among patients attending a dental college in South Kerala: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supernumerary teeth are excess number of teeth formed as a result of disturbances occurring during odontogenesis. The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition among patients attending a dental college in South Kerala. Materials and Methods: In this study, 11,141 subjects attending the out-patient department of PMS College of Dental Science and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were examined for supernumerary teeth like mesiodens, paramolars, distomolars, third premolars, second laterals, and odontomes during the period May 2012-May 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical committee for the study. Results: The study showed a prevalence of 0.39% and a sex distribution of M:F equal to 2:1. The incidence of supernumerary teeth found was as follows: mesiodens (0.14%, paramolars (0.13%, third premolar (0.04%, distomolar (0.03%, extralateral (0.02%, and odontome (0.03%. The male:female gender predilection was as follows: mesiodens (3:1, paramolars (1.3:1, third premolar (4:1, distomolar (1:2, and odontome (2:1. Conclusion: This study showed a 0.39% prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this population.

  17. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  18. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  19. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies

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    Martins Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse plant and animal species have B chromosomes, also known as accessory, extra or supernumerary chromosomes. Despite being widely distributed among different taxa, the genomic nature and genetic behavior of B chromosomes are still poorly understood. Results In this study we describe the occurrence of B chromosomes in the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens. One or two large B chromosome(s occurring in 39.6% of the analyzed individuals (both male and female were identified. To better characterize the karyotype and assess the nature of the B chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was performed using probes for telomeric DNA repeats, 18S and 5S rRNA genes, SATA centromeric satellites, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs enriched in repeated DNA sequences. The B chromosomes are enriched in repeated DNAs, especially non-active 18S rRNA gene-like sequences. Conclusion Our results suggest that the B chromosome could have originated from rDNA bearing subtelo/acrocentric A chromosomes through formation of an isochromosome, or by accumulation of repeated DNAs and rRNA gene-like sequences in a small proto-B chromosome derived from the A complement.

  20. Characterization of wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica small segment translocation line with enhanced kernels per spike and stripe rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xu, Li-Li; Qi, Wei-Liang; Tang, Yao; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs), a distant wild relative of common wheat, possesses rich potentially valuable traits, such as disease resistance and more spikelets and kernels per spike, that could be useful for wheat genetic improvement. Development of wheat - P. huashanica translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat breeding. In the present study, a wheat - P. huashanica small segmental translocation line, K-13-835-3, was isolated and characterized from the BC1F5 population of a cross between wheat - P. huashanica amphiploid PHW-SA and wheat cultivar CN16. Cytological studies showed that the mean chromosome configuration of K-13-835-3 at meiosis was 2n = 42 = 0.10 I + 19.43 II (ring) + 1.52 II (rod). GISH analyses indicated that chromosome composition of K-13-835-3 included 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of wheat - P. huashanica translocation chromosomes. FISH results demonstrated that the small segment from an unidentified P. huashanica chromosome was translocated into wheat chromosome arm 5DS, proximal to the centromere region of 5DS. Compared with the cultivar wheat parent CN16, K-13-835-3 was highly resistant to stripe rust pathogens prevalent in China. Furthermore, spikelets and kernels per spike in K-13-835-3 were significantly higher than those of CN16 in two growing seasons. These results suggest that the desirable genes from P. huashanica were successfully transferred into CN16 background. This translocation line could be used as novel germplasm for high-yield and, eventually, resistant cultivar breeding.

  1. Genomic dissection of drought resistance in durum wheat x wild emmer wheat recombinant inbreed line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Abbo, Shahal; Yakir, Dan; Korol, Abraham B; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2009-07-01

    Drought is the major factor limiting wheat productivity worldwide. The gene pool of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, harbours a rich allelic repertoire for morpho-physiological traits conferring drought resistance. The genetic and physiological bases of drought responses were studied here in a tetraploid wheat population of 152 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs), derived from a cross between durum wheat (cv. Langdon) and wild emmer (acc# G18-16), under contrasting water availabilities. Wide genetic variation was found among RILs for all studied traits. A total of 110 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were mapped for 11 traits, with LOD score range of 3.0-35.4. Several QTLs showed environmental specificity, accounting for productivity and related traits under water-limited (20 QTLs) or well-watered conditions (15 QTLs), and in terms of drought susceptibility index (22 QTLs). Major genomic regions controlling productivity and related traits were identified on chromosomes 2B, 4A, 5A and 7B. QTLs for productivity were associated with QTLs for drought-adaptive traits, suggesting the involvement of several strategies in wheat adaptation to drought stress. Fifteen pairs of QTLs for the same trait were mapped to seemingly homoeologous positions, reflecting synteny between the A and B genomes. The identified QTLs may facilitate the use of wild alleles for improvement of drought resistance in elite wheat cultivars.

  2. Supernumerary, ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum presenting with recurrent haemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Anam

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ectopic eruption of teeth in non-dental sites is a rare phenomenon and can present in a variety of ways such as chronic or recurrent sinusitis, sepsis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, headaches, ostiomeatal complex disease and facial numbness. However, presentation of such patients with recurrent haemoptysis has not been described in the literature so far. We have described a case of an ectopic, supernumerary molar tooth in the maxillary antrum in a patient who initially presented with haemoptysis. Case presentation A 45-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of episodic haemoptysis. A pedunculated growth from the inferior nasal turbinate was seen with fibre-optic visualization. Although the patient was empirically started on antibiotic and anti-allergic therapy, there was no improvement after a few weeks and the patient had recurrent episodes of haemoptysis. Fibre-optic visualization was repeated showing bilateral osteomeatal erythema. Computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated complete opacification of the left maxillary antrum along with a focal area of density comparable to bone. An ectopic, supernumerary molar tooth was found in the left maxillary antrum on endoscopic examination and subsequently removed. In addition, copious purulent discharge was seen. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with a 10-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. On follow-up, he reported resolution of symptoms. Conclusion Recurrent haemoptysis has not been described as a presentation for a supernumerary, ectopic tooth in literature before. We recommend that in patients with sinusitis-type of opacification of maxillary antrum and whose condition is refractory to conventional medical treatment, consideration should be given to the investigation of possible underlying anomalies as the cause of such symptoms. Presence of foreign bodies and ectopic teeth in paranasal sinuses can be reliably excluded with the use

  3. Supernumerary, ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum presenting with recurrent haemoptysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Taimur; Khalid, Umair; Hameed, Anam; Ghaffar, Shehzad

    2010-11-11

    Ectopic eruption of teeth in non-dental sites is a rare phenomenon and can present in a variety of ways such as chronic or recurrent sinusitis, sepsis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, headaches, ostiomeatal complex disease and facial numbness. However, presentation of such patients with recurrent haemoptysis has not been described in the literature so far. We have described a case of an ectopic, supernumerary molar tooth in the maxillary antrum in a patient who initially presented with haemoptysis. A 45-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of episodic haemoptysis. A pedunculated growth from the inferior nasal turbinate was seen with fibre-optic visualization. Although the patient was empirically started on antibiotic and anti-allergic therapy, there was no improvement after a few weeks and the patient had recurrent episodes of haemoptysis. Fibre-optic visualization was repeated showing bilateral osteomeatal erythema. Computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated complete opacification of the left maxillary antrum along with a focal area of density comparable to bone. An ectopic, supernumerary molar tooth was found in the left maxillary antrum on endoscopic examination and subsequently removed. In addition, copious purulent discharge was seen. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with a 10-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. On follow-up, he reported resolution of symptoms. Recurrent haemoptysis has not been described as a presentation for a supernumerary, ectopic tooth in literature before. We recommend that in patients with sinusitis-type of opacification of maxillary antrum and whose condition is refractory to conventional medical treatment, consideration should be given to the investigation of possible underlying anomalies as the cause of such symptoms. Presence of foreign bodies and ectopic teeth in paranasal sinuses can be reliably excluded with the use of appropriate radiological imaging and endoscopic examination.

  4. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  5. Multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars in a non-syndromic patient with associated orthokeratised odontogenic cyst- A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant O Kasat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple supernumerary teeth are very rare, accounting for less than 1% of cases. They are commonly associated with syndromes like Gardner′s syndrome and cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth have a predilection to occur in the mandibular premolar region. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising about 10% of the cases that had been previously implied as odontogenic keratocysts. More than half of the cases of OOC are associated with impacted tooth; but not a single case of OOC associated with supernumerary teeth is reported. Hence, the purpose of this article is to report the first case of multiple supernumerary mandibular premolars associated with OOC in a 35-year-old male and to review the literature associated with multiple bilateral supernumerary mandibular premolars.

  6. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lianquan; LIU Dengcai; YAN Zehong; ZHENG Youliang

    2005-01-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  7. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with repeated fetal loss: An Indian retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenny J Sheth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common occurrence and a matter of concern for couples planning the pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities, mainly balanced rearrangements, are common in couples with repeated miscarriages. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies causing repeated spontaneous miscarriages and provide detailed characterization of a few structurally altered chromosomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cytogenetic study was carried out on 4859 individuals having a history of recurrent miscarriages. The cases were analyzed using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization wherever necessary. Results: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 170 individuals (3.5%. Translocations were seen in 72 (42.35% cases. Of these, reciprocal translocations constituted 42 (24.70% cases while Robertsonian translocations were detected in 30 (17.64% cases. 7 (4.11% cases were mosaic, 8 (4.70% had small supernumerary marker chromosomes and 1 (0.6% had an interstitial microdeletion. Nearly, 78 (1.61% cases with heteromorphic variants were seen of which inversion of Y chromosome (57.70% and chromosome 9 pericentromeric variants (32.05% were predominantly involved. Conclusions: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated miscarriages. Characterization of variants/marker chromosome enable calculation of a more precise recurrent risk in a subsequent pregnancy thereby facilitating genetic counseling and deciding further reproductive options.

  9. Double dens invaginatus in an impacted molariform supernumerary tooth: An unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anegundi R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a relatively rare developmental anomaly affecting usually the permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Various factors have been put forward regarding its pathogenesis. Involvement of crown/root has been reported as the coronal and radicular variety of dens invaginatus. One of the rarest variant is the Double dens invaginatus and only a few cases have been reported in the literature.This article focuses on a case of double dens invaginatus in an impacted maxillary anterior supernumerary tooth, the associated complications and its management

  10. A comparison between various radiological techniques in the localization and analysis of impacted and supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: An increasing number of different types of commercial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT devices are available for three-dimensional (3D imaging in the field of dental and maxillofacial radiology. When removing impacted or supernumerary teeth, surgical teams often operate adjacent significant anatomical structures such as nerves, vessels, adjacent teeth roots, and paranasal sinuses. It is therefore important to choose the appropriate surgical approach to avoid iatrogenic damage to the essential anatomical neighbouring structures. CBCT, also called digital volume tomography (DVT, can visualize impacted and supernumerary teeth in all standard planes, as well as multisectional 3D views. These devices have shown to be highly beneficial in the assessment of small bony lesions and maxillofacial injuries. However, it is still necessary to determine the effectiveness of such devices in the assessment of impacted and supernumerary teeth, in comparison to the conventional radiological methods of intraoral X-rays and panoramic X-rays. Materials and Methods: During a period of 2 years, a total of 61 patients of whom majority had impacted teeth or supernumerary elements in the frontal maxillary region were studied with CBCT and treated at the St. Olavs University Hospital. Patients were referred to our Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with both conventional and digital intraoral X-rays and/or panoramic X-rays. None had any acute infections or odontogenic abscesses, and most presented with asymptomatic impacted tooth. A comparison between the preoperative conventional and the CBCT images, the resulting diagnoses, and the intraoperative findings as "gold standard" were made and recorded in a compiled scoring sheet. The objects of interest were researched with the magnification method. Each patient was identified only with a patient number. Results: In contrast to the conventional X-rays, the pre-surgical evaluation with

  11. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pedrassani

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  12. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrassani, Daniela; Wendt, Hamilton; Rennau, Erley Alexandre; Pereira, Samuel Tibes; Wendt, Simone Balão Taques

    2014-03-01

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  13. Mandibular midline supernumerary tooth associated with agenesis of permanent central incisors: a diagnostic conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Gaurav; Parashar, Vijay P; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant hypo-hyperdontia is a rare mixed numeric anomalous condition. The presence of this condition in the same area of dental arch and specifically in the mandibular anterior region is reported very infrequently. This case report presents a case of 20 years old male with congenitally missing permanent mandibular central incisors in conjunction with a mandibular midline supernumerary tooth. Only 3 cases have been documented in English literature till date. The article focuses on the review of mandibular mesiodens and the clarity regarding the usage of the terminology "mesiodens".

  14. Pindborg tumor arising in association with an impacted supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waingade, Manjushri; Gawande, Pushkar; Aditya, Amita; Medikeri, Raghavendra S

    2014-06-01

    Pindborg tumor/Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor (CEOT) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor which shows locally aggressive behavior and accounts for less than 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The most frequent location is the mandibular premolar and molar area; less frequently the lesion is found in the maxilla. Since histopathology remains the main method for definitive diagnosis, this lesion presents an enigma to a clinician when lesions occur in atypical locations. The authors report a case of CEOT in the maxillary anterior region associated with an impacted supernumerary tooth (mesiodens).

  15. Prevalence and characterıstıcs of supernumerary teeth in a child population from Central Anatolıa - Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Volkan; Ozgul, Betul Memis; Firdevs, Tulga O Z

    2013-12-01

    This article aimed to characterize the incidence of supernumerary teeth in Turkish children according to sex, location, number and morphology and to explore possible correlations between these variables. The study population comprised 7,551 non-syndromic patients aged 3-16 years who applied for routine check-ups at the Ankara University Department of Pediatric Dentistry between January 2009 and January 2010. The population included children in deciduous, mixed and permanent dentition. Both clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted. Demographic variables (age, sex) as well as number, location (maxilla or mandible), position, type and morphology of supernumeraries were recorded for all patients with supernumerary teeth. Supernumerary teeth with odontomes were also noted. Of the 7,551 patients examined, supernumerary teeth were detected in 74 patients (0.98%). Of these, 48 were male and 26 were female (male-to-female ratio: 1.84:1). A total of 84 supernumerary teeth were detected, 80 (95.2%) of which were permanent teeth and 4 (4.8%) of which were deciduous teeth (n=4). Most supernumerary teeth (n=59, 70.2%) were located in the maxillary arch. The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (36.9%), followed by supernumerary teeth located in the maxillary incisor region (33.3%), the mandibular premolar region (17.9%), the mandibular molar region (5.9%), the mandibular incisor region (4.8%) and the mandibular canine region (1.2%). The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was found to be 0.98% and mesiodens was the most frequent type.

  16. 多发性多生牙1例%A case report of multiple supernumerary teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华

    2013-01-01

      多生牙的发生率占正常人群的1%~3%。多生牙常见于恒牙列,数目一般多见于1~3颗,5颗以上非常罕见。%Incidence of supernumerary teeth in total normal population is 1%-3%. Supernumerary teeth are com-mon in the permanent dentition, and 1-3 teeth are common, but more than 5 teeth are rare.

  17. Wheat syntenome unveils new evidences of contrasted evolutionary plasticity between paleo- and neoduplicated subgenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Guizard, Sébastien; Flores, Raphael; Foucrier, Séverine; Bidet, Yannick; Quraishi, Umar Masood; Alaux, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Fahima, Tzion; Budak, Hikmet; Keller, Beat; Salvi, Silvio; Maccaferri, Marco; Steinbach, Delphine; Feuillet, Catherine; Quesneville, Hadi; Salse, Jérôme

    2013-12-01

    Bread wheat derives from a grass ancestor structured in seven protochromosomes followed by a paleotetraploidization to reach a 12 chromosomes intermediate and a neohexaploidization (involving subgenomes A, B and D) event that finally shaped the 21 modern chromosomes. Insights into wheat syntenome in sequencing conserved orthologous set (COS) genes unravelled differences in genomic structure (such as gene conservation and diversity) and genetical landscape (such as recombination pattern) between ancestral as well as recent duplicated blocks. Contrasted evolutionary plasticity is observed where the B subgenome appears more sensitive (i.e. plastic) in contrast to A as dominant (i.e. stable) in response to the neotetraploidization and D subgenome as supra-dominant (i.e. pivotal) in response to the neohexaploidization event. Finally, the wheat syntenome, delivered through a public web interface PlantSyntenyViewer at http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/synteny-wheat, can be considered as a guide for accelerated dissection of major agronomical traits in wheat.

  18. Mapping of a BYDV resistance gene from Thinopyrum intermedium in wheat background by molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增艳; 辛志勇; 马有志; 陈孝; 徐琼芳; 林志珊

    1999-01-01

    The wheat line H960642 is a homozygous wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium translocation line with resistance to BYDV by genomie in situ hybridization (GISH) and RFLP analysis. The genomie DNA of Th. intermedium was used as a probe, and eonunon wheat genomie DNA as a blocking in GISH experiment. The results showed that the chromosome segments of Th. intermedium were transferred to the distal end of a pair of wheat chromosomes. RFLP analysis indicated that the transloeation line H960642 is a T7DS·7DL-7XL translocation by using 8 probes mapped on the homoeologous group 7 in wheat. The tranalocation breakpoint is located between Xpsr680 and Xpsr965 about 90—99 cM from the centromere. The RFLP markers psr680 and psr687 were closoly linked with the BYDV resistance gene. The gene is located on the distal end of 7XL around Xpsr680 and Xpsr687.

  19. [Tropical turtles chromosomes: Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus (Testudines: Kinosternidae/Emydidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Yasui, George Shigueki; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin

    2014-06-01

    Mexico is a biodiverse country in several taxa as reptiles, that include several species of freshwater and marine turtles. Eventhough most of this group species are under protection, Tabasco State has nine native freshwater turtles, like Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus that are very important in traditional dishes. This has resulted in a critical level of their populations, together with little biological knowledge for their conservation. Therefore, this study was dedicated to turtle cytogenetics. The study was conducted using the conventional methods for cytogenetics. The results showed the modal diploid and haploid number for K. leucostomum of 2n = 56 (2n = 56+3 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 28 chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis, respectively. In T. scripta 2n = 50 chromosomes (2n = 50+2 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 25 chromosomes were also characterized. Whereas in S. triporcatus we only report the 2 = 54 chromosomes (2n = 54+2 microchromosomes "B"). The karyological formula for K. leucostomum was integrated by 12 metacentric-submetacentric chromosomes "msm"/"A"+22 subtelocentric-telocentric chromosomes "stt"/"B"+22 telocentric chromosomes "T"/"C" with fundamental number (FN) of 90 chromosome arms. While T. scripta karyotype was integrated by 32 "msm/"A"+10 "stt"/"B"+8"T/"C" chromosomes, with FN of 92 arms. S. triporcatus karyotype formula was built up by 20 chromosomes "msm"/"A"+34 chromosomes "T"/"C" with FN of 74. The variation in chromosome classification, the fundamental number and the presence of supernumerary microchromosomes "B" in the studied species, were evidence of a particular chromosome cytotypes in Tabasco. We considered that the presence of microchromosomes "B" probably has different origins, and they may be very important as a pattern for the formation or separation of new species. This study also showed the absence of heterologous chromosomes between the females and males karyotypes from the studied

  20. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2010-12-01

    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  1. SNP Discovery for mapping alien introgressions in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Results The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. Conclusion This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and

  2. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  3. In search for significant cognitive features in Klinefelter syndrome through cross-species comparison of a supernumerary X chromosome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, H; Swaab, H; de Sonneville, L M J; van Rijn, S; van Engeland, H; Kas, M J H

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral characterization of animals that carry genetic disorder abnormalities in a controlled genetic and environmental background may be used to identify human deficits that are significant to understand underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Here, we studied whether previously reported obje

  4. Chromosome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  5. Supernumerary Formation of Olfactory Glomeruli Induced by Chronic Odorant Exposure: A Constructivist Expression of Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leija, Pablo; Blanco-Hernández, Eduardo; Drucker-Colín, Rene; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Vidaltamayo, Roman

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that sensory experience instructs the remodelling of neuronal circuits during postnatal development, after their specification has occurred. The story is less clear with regard to the role of experience during the initial formation of neuronal circuits, whether prenatal or postnatal, since this process is now supposed to be primarily influenced by genetic determinants and spontaneous neuronal firing. Here we evaluated this last issue by examining the effect that postnatal chronic exposure to cognate odorants has on the formation of I7 and M72 glomeruli, iterated olfactory circuits that are formed before and after birth, respectively. We took advantage of double knock-in mice whose I7 and M72 primary afferents express green fluorescent protein and β-galactosidase, correspondingly. Our results revealed that postnatal odorant chronic exposure led to the formation of permanent supernumerary I7 and M72 glomeruli in a dose and time dependent manner. Glomeruli in exposed mice were formed within the same regions of olfactory bulb and occupy small space volumes compared to the corresponding single circuits in non-exposed mice. We suggest that local reorganization of the primary afferents could participate in the process of formation of supernumerary glomeruli. Overall, our results support that sensory experience indeed instructs the permanent formation of specific glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb by means of constructivist processes. PMID:22511987

  6. Non-syndromic multiple impacted supernumerary teeth with peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG is a relatively frequent benign reactive lesion of the gingiva, originating from the periosteum or periodontal membrane following local irritation or chronic trauma. PGCG manifests as a red-purple nodule located in the region of the gingiva or edentulous alveolar margins. The lesion can develop at any age, although it is more common between the second and third decades of life, and shows a slight female predilection. PGCG is a soft tissue lesion that very rarely affects the underlying bone, although the latter may suffer superficial erosion. A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. These teeth may be single, multiple, erupted or unerupted and may or may not be associated with syndrome. Usually, they cause one or the other problem in eruption or alignment of teeth, but may also present without disturbing the normal occlusion or eruption pattern. Management of these teeth depends on the symptoms. Presented here is a case of PGCG in relation to the lower left permanent first molar with three supernumerary teeth in the mandibular arch but no associated syndrome.

  7. Analyses of 1100 supernumerary teeth in a nonsyndromic Turkish population: A retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket, C; Çakır-Özkan, N; Şener, İ; Bulut, E; Baştan, A İ

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiological features of supernumerary teeth (ST), record the related complications, and discuss different forms of treatment. A total of 111,293 patients were examined over a 3-year period. The patients' ages and genders, in addition to the number, morphology, location, position, shape, developmental stage, and eruption status of ST and associated complications, were recorded. Among the 111,293 patients, there were 851 (0.76%) patients with 1100 ST. Of these patients, 478 (56.2%) were males, and 373 (43.8%) were females, with a mean age of 22.71. Most of the 1100 ST were located in the maxilla, 437 (39.72%) were a conical shape, with 82.81% of these including a fully developed tooth. A mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (n=284, 33.37%), followed by distomolars (n=204, 23.97%) and parapremolars (n=146, 17.16%). Among the 1100 ST, 422 (38.36%) were associated with complications. No previous studies in the literature have examined in detail so many cases with ST. The demographic profile of the patients with ST presented herein provides useful additional epidemiological information.

  8. A rare case of impacted supernumerary premolar causing resorption of mandibular first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Murali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with pain in today′s general practice has become a major concern and sometimes this pain is related to some rare causes. A male patient aged 26 years reported with pain in the lower left molar region (36 and then an intra-oral periapical radiograph (IOPA, and orthopantomograph was taken. IOPA revealed the presence of supernumerary premolar causing pressure and root resorption of 36. Also, there was missing 21 and proximal decay in 11. Eleven was treated endodontically, and then bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Lower anterior crowding was also present. The treatment plan was to extract 36 followed by orthodontic extrusion of the supernumerary premolar and also the correction of lower anterior crowding. Hidden approach (lingual orthodontics was used as the patient was insisting upon the braces not being seen outside during the course of the treatment. Later all ceramic bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Orthodontic tooth extrusion techniques offer excellent treatment options for Partially Impacted tooth. It is a well-documented clinical method for extruding sound tooth material from within the alveolar socket by light forces. The use of lingual technique for forced eruption enhance acceptance of orthodontic treatment by adults. The treatment of a young adult patient illustrates the importance of treatment planning from one discipline to another, communication among team members and the benefits of working together in an interdisciplinary approach

  9. Cytogenetic characterization and B chromosome diversity in direct-developing frogs of the genus Oreobates (Brachycephaloidea, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Juan Martín; Taffarel, Alberto; Cardozo, Darío; Grosso, Jimena; Puig, María Pía; Suárez, Pablo; Akmentins, Mauricio Sebastián; Baldo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oreobates Jiménez de la Espada, 1872 is a large group of South American frogs with terrestrial reproduction and direct development, located in the superfamily Brachycephaloidea. About 260 brachycephaloidean species have been cytogenetically studied so far, at least with standard techniques. However, this information represents fewer than 17% species of the family Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008, where the genus Oreobates is included. In the present work, using a diversity of standard and molecular techniques, we describe the karyotype of Oreobates barituensis Vaira & Ferrari, 2008, Oreobates berdemenos Pereyra, Cardozo, Baldo & Baldo, 2014 and Oreobates discoidalis (Peracca, 1895), from northwestern Argentina. The three species analyzed showed a diploid karyotype with 2n = 22 biarmed chromosomes, fundamental number (FN) = 44, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) located pericentromerically on pair 7, and a centromeric and pericentromeric C-banding pattern. We observed variations in the chromosome number in Oreobates barituensis due the presence of two morphs of B chromosomes, one medium-sized telocentric (BT) and another subtelocentric and smaller (Bst). Both B chromosomes are mitotically stable and were recorded in all somatic and germinal cells analyzed. The BT chromosome occurred at a maximum of one per individual (2n = 22+BT), and the other one was observed single (2n = 22 + Bst) or as a pair in two doses (2n = 22 + 2BT). We additionally observed other supernumerary chromosomes in the three species analyzed, all of them euchromatic, small, dot-shaped and with instability during mitoses, showing a frequency of occurrence below 50% in studied specimens. The occurrence of polymorphic and spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements and supernumerary chromosomes is a recurrent feature reported in frogs with terrestrial habits (Brachycephaloidea and Hemiphractidae Peters, 1862), which suggests that Brachycephaloidea may be a promising group for

  10. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  12. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  13. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  14. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1984-01-01

    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...

  15. Development and validation of high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms for wheat streak mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can cause significant yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of North America. A recently identified WSMV resistance gene, Wsm2, was mapped to chromosome 3BS in germplasm line ‘CO960293–2’. Effective genetic markers tightly linked to the gene ...

  16. Lead- induced genotoxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes induced in cytogenetic parameters from root meristems of Triticum aestivum cv. Maruca seedlings have been studied after treatment with lead acetate and lead nitrate solutions, at four concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μM containing 2.07, 5.18, 10.36, respectively 20.72 μg ml-1 Pb2+. Lead induced mitosis disturbances in root meristematic cells of wheat seedlings, expressed mainly in decrease of mitotic index and changes in preponderance of division phases. This heavy metal has genotoxic effects, expressed in the occurrence of many chromosomal aberrations in all Pb2+ treated variants. Pb2+ nitrate shows a more pronounced genotoxic potential than lead acetate trihydrate.

  17. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

  18. Clinical Report of 1 Cases of Monozygotic Twins Supernumerary Teeth%单卵双胞胎兄弟额外牙1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春敏

    2014-01-01

    额外牙是指牙数目异常,其发生可能来自形成过多的牙蕾,也可能是牙胚分裂而成。临床上最多见的是上前牙区单颗多生牙。单卵双胞胎同患多生牙未见报道,同时含有2颗或多颗多生牙者更少见。近日笔者遇到一对双胞胎兄弟,因上前牙区多生牙影响美观前来就诊,由此正确的诊断及时拔除额外牙具有临床意义。%Supernumerary tooth is tooth abnormalities, which may be derived from the formation of excessive tooth bud, may also be split into tooth germ. Clinical go up to see at most is the anterior teeth area single supernumerary teeth. Monozygotic twins with supernumerary teeth is not reported, while containing two or more supernumerary teeth are more rare. I recently met a pair of twin brothers, because to supernumerary teeth appearance came to visit, report as fol ows now.Because the forward supernumerary teeth af ect the appearance to come round to see a doctor, the clinical significance of the correct diagnosis and timely removal of supernumerary teeth. Report as fol ows now.

  19. Development of T. aestivum L.-H. californicum alien chromosome lines and assignment of homoeologous groups of Hordeum californicum chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuhui; Yuan, Jingya; Wang, Zhangjun; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhixi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Qi, Zengjun; Xu, Weigang; Hu, Lin; Wang, Xiu-E

    2014-08-20

    Hordeum californicum (2n = 2x = 14, HH) is resistant to several wheat diseases and tolerant to lower nitrogen. In this study, a molecular karyotype of H. californicum chromosomes in the Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS)-H. californicum amphidiploid (2n = 6x = 56, AABBDDHH) was established. By genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive DNA clones (pTa71, pTa794 and pSc119.2) as probes, the H. californicum chromosomes could be differentiated from each other and from the wheat chromosomes unequivocally. Based on molecular karyotype and marker analyses, 12 wheat-alien chromosome lines, including four disomic addition lines (DAH1, DAH3, DAH5 and DAH6), five telosomic addition lines (MtH7L, MtH1S, MtH1L, DtH6S and DtH6L), one multiple addition line involving H. californicum chromosome H2, one disomic substitution line (DSH4) and one translocation line (TH7S/1BL), were identified from the progenies derived from the crosses of CS-H. californicum amphidiploid with common wheat varieties. A total of 482 EST (expressed sequence tag) or SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers specific for individual H. californicum chromosomes were identified, and 47, 50, 45, 49, 21, 51 and 40 markers were assigned to chromosomes H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7, respectively. According to the chromosome allocation of these markers, chromosomes H2, H3, H4, H5, and H7 of H. californicum have relationship with wheat homoeologous groups 5, 2, 6, 3, and 1, and hence could be designated as 5H(c), 2H(c), 6H(c), 3H(c) and 1H(c), respectively. The chromosomes H1 and H6 were designated as 7H(c) and 4H(c), respectively, by referring to SSR markers located on rye chromosomes.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat-rye 1R addition line with multiple spikelets and resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wujuan; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-04-01

    Alien addition lines are important for transferring useful genes from alien species into common wheat. Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for improving wheat disease resistance, yield, and environment adaptation. A new wheat-rye addition line, N9436B, was developed from the progeny of the cross of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) cultivar Shaanmai 611 and rye (Secale cereal L., 2n = 2x = 14, RR) accession Austrian rye. We characterized this new line by cytology, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular markers, and disease resistance screening. N9436B was stable in morphology and cytology, with a chromosome composition of 2n = 42 + 2t = 22II. GISH investigations showed that this line contained two rye chromosomes. GISH, FISH, and molecular maker identification suggested that the introduced R chromosome and the missing wheat chromosome arms were 1R chromosome and 2DL chromosome arm, respectively. N9436B exhibited 30-37 spikelets per spike and a high level of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) isolate E09 at the seedling stage. N9436B was cytologically stable, had the trait of multiple spikelets, and was resistant to powdery mildew; this line should thus be useful in wheat improvement.

  1. Cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m) chromosomes of Triticum monococcum and the A chromosomes of Triticum aestivum using microsatellite DNA repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Mária; Mikó, Péter; Farkas, András; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Molnár, István

    2017-02-01

    The cytomolecular discrimination of the A(m)- and A-genome chromosomes facilitates the selection of wheat-Triticum monococcum introgression lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the commonly used DNA probes Afa family, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 showed that the more complex hybridisation pattern obtained in T. monococcum relative to bread wheat made it possible to differentiate the A(m) and A chromosomes within homoeologous groups 1, 4 and 5. In order to provide additional chromosomal landmarks to discriminate the A(m) and A chromosomes, the microsatellite repeats (GAA)n, (CAG)n, (CAC)n, (AAC)n, (AGG)n and (ACT)n were tested as FISH probes. These showed that T. monococcum chromosomes have fewer, generally weaker, simple sequence repeat (SSR) signals than the A-genome chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. A differential hybridisation pattern was observed on 6A(m) and 6A chromosomes with all the SSR probes tested except for the (ACT)n probe. The 2A(m) and 2A chromosomes were differentiated by the signals given by the (GAA)n, (CAG)n and (AAC)n repeats, while only (GAA)n discriminated the chromosomes 3A(m) and 3A. Chromosomes 7A(m) and 7A could be differentiated by the lack of (GAA)n and (AGG)n signals on 7A. As potential landmarks for identifying the A(m) chromosomes, SSR repeats will facilitate the introgression of T. monococcum chromatin into wheat.

  2. Fibroadenoma in Axillary Supernumerary Breast in a 17-Year-Old Girl: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surd, Adrian; Mironescu, Aurel; Gocan, Horatiu

    2016-10-01

    Supernumerary breast or polymastia is a well documented anomaly of the breast, and commonly presents along the embryonic milk line extending between the axilla and groin. However, cases of polymastia have been recorded in the face, vulva, and perineum. The clinical significance of these anomalies include their susceptibility to inflammatory and malignant changes, and their association with other congenital anomalies of the urinary and cardiovascular systems. In this article we report a case of fibroadenoma that developed in the supernumerary breast of the right axilla in a 17-year-old girl. It is uncommon to find such palpable masses in young patients. Clinical and sonographic examination of both breasts revealed no abnormalities and no lymph nodes were detected in the axillae or the neck. No associated urologic or cardiovascular abnormalities were found, and the histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy samples showed a well-defined, capsulated intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma similar to that of eutopic mammary tissue. In this report, we describe a rare case of fibroadenoma in an accessory breast in a young woman. There are a fewer than 40 reports in the world about this subject, of which differential diagnoses include: cancer in axillary supernumerary breast, hidradenitis, axillary lymphadenomegaly, lipomas, anexial cutaneous neoplasia, cysts, and phylloides tumor. The combination of clinical examination, ultrasound, and cytology leads to adequate treatment, especially surgical. The diagnosis could be confused because of findings from cytology. In this case, because of the clinical and sonographic findings and multiple differential diagnosis, only the histopathological study was used to confirm the diagnosis. Despite its high sensitivity, cytology has low specificity and could create false positive results. However, atypical lesions can be seen in fibroadenomas, especially in younger patients, pregnant patients, and in patients who use hormonal

  3. Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huneau Cecile

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs, 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2 and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0. Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat

  4. Supernumerary rainbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj; Sawicki, Pawel

    2000-01-01

    Late in the afternoon of July 19, 1999, we were able to photograph some very unusual rainbows in the sky over Boulder, Colorado. The picture here shows a primary rainbow, a fainter secondary bow above it, and several pastel-shaded rainbows inside the primary one. While we think we counted as many as four concurrent rainbows in that afternoon, only three of them show up in developed prints.

  5. Structural Changes of 2V Chromosome of Haynaldia villosa Induced by Gametocidal Chromosome 3C of Aegilops triuncialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quan-zhan; CAO Ai-zhong; QI Zeng-jun; ZHANG Wei; CHEN Pei-du

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa (2n =2X = 14, VV), a relative of wheat, plays important roles in wheat improvement mainly owing to its disease resistance. Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 has been successfully transferred into wheat by Cytogenetie Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, China, and is widely used in the current wheat breeding programs. In this research, our objective is to further transfer and utilize the beneficial genes such as eye-spot resistance, yellow rust resistance, and gene of the tufted bristles on the glume ridge (a remarkable morphology) mapped on 2V of Haynaldia villosa. A disomic addition line with gametocidal chromosome 3C ofAegilops triuncialis added in Norin-26 was crossed to the wheat-H, villosa disomic substitution 2V(2D) and the hybrid F1 was then self-crossed. Chromosome C-banding, genomie in situ hybridization (GISH), and meiotic analysis in combination with molecular markers were applied to detect the chromosome variations derived from hybrids F2 and F3. To date, four translocations including one small segmental translocation T6BS.6BL-2VS, two whole arm translocations (preliminarily designed as T3DS·2VL and T2VS·7DL) and one intercalary translocation T2VS·2VL-W-2VL, one deletion Del. 2VS·2VL-, one monotelosomic Mt2VS, and one iso- chromosome 2VS·2VS line have been developed and characterized. One wheat SSR marker Xwmc25-120 tagging 2VS and one wheat STS marker NAU/STSBCD135-1 (2BL) tagging 2VL were successfully used to confirm the alien chromosome segments involved in the seven lines. The tufted bristles on the glume ridge appeared in lines T2VS·7DL, Mt2VS, 2VS·2VS as well as the parent DS2V(2D), whereas in T3DS·2VL, this trait did not appear. The gene controlling the tufted bristles was located on 2VS. Gametocidal chromosome 3C of Aegilops triuncialis could successfully induce chromosome 2V structural changes.

  6. The PDI genes of wheat and their syntenic relationship to the esp2 locus of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua C; Appels, Rudi; Bhave, Mrinal

    2006-04-01

    The storage protein polymers in the endosperm, stabilised by disulphide bonds, determine a number of processing qualities of wheat dough. The enzyme protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), involved in the formation of disulphide bonds, is strongly suggested to play a role in the formation of wheat storage protein bodies. Reports of the rice mutant esp2 exhibiting aberrant storage protein deposition in conjunction with a lack of PDI expression provided strong indications of a direct role for PDI in storage protein deposition. The potential significance of wheat PDI prompted the present studies into exploring any orthology between wheat PDI genes and rice PDI and esp2 loci. By designing allele-specific (AS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers, two of the three wheat PDI genes could be genetically mapped to group 4 chromosomes and showed close association with GERMIN genes. Physical mapping led to localisation of wheat PDI genes to chromosomal "bins" on the proximal section of chromosome 4AL and distal sections of 4BS and 4DS. Identification of the putative PDI gene of rice and its comparison to the esp2 locus revealed that they were present at similar positions on the short arm of chromosome 11. Analysis of a large section of the PDI-containing section of rice chromosome 11S revealed a number of putative orthologues from The Institute for Genomic Research Triticum aestivum Gene Index database, of which five had been mapped, each localising to group 4 chromosomes, many in good agreement with our mapping results. The results strongly suggest a close linkage between the esp2 marker and the PDI gene of rice and an orthology between the PDI loci of rice and wheat and predict quantitative-trait loci involved in storage protein deposition at the PDI loci.

  7. A small (sSMC) chromosome 22 due to a maternal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 22: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhofir, F E P; Kooper, A J A; Winarni, T I; Smits, A P T; Faradz, S M H; Hamel, B C J

    2010-01-01

    We report on a boy with partial trisomies for chromosomes 8 and 22 caused by the presence of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC), a der(22)t(8;22)(p22;q11.21), inherited from a t(8;22)(p22;q11.21) translocation carrier mother. He has mild mental retardation, unability to speak distinct words and several minor anomalies i.e. high forehead and hairline, telecanthus, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, nail hypoplasia, toe position anomaly and 5th finger clinodactyly. He has two maternal uncles and one maternal aunt with mental retardation. G-banding technique showed 47,XY,+mar whilst his mother's karyotype showed a balanced reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 8 and 22. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique with probes for centromere 22 and 8pter were used to detect the origin of marker chromosome and confirmed the marker chromosome in the proband showing to be extra chromosomal material originated from chromosome 8 and 22. Additional genome wide microarray analysis, using the Affymetrix Nspl 250K SNP array platform was performed to further characterize the marker chromosome and resulted in a der(22)t(8;22)(p22;q11.21). Furthermore, cytogenetic analysis of three affected family members showed the same unbalanced translocation, due to 3:1 meiotic segregation. This indicated the viability of this unbalanced pattern and combined with the recurrent miscarriages by the proband's mother, the mechanism of transmitting extrachromosomal material is probably not a random process. Since, there is no similar translocation (8p;22q) reported and the chromosomal translocation largely exists of additional 8p22-8pter we compare the clinical outcomes with reported cases of 8p22-8pter triplication, although there is a part of genetic material derived from chromosome 22 present. This unique familial chromosome translocation case from Indonesia will give insight in the underlying mechanism of this recurrent chromosomal abnormality

  8. Genetic evidence for differential selection of grain and embryo weight during wheat evolution under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Guy; Oksenberg, Adi; Peleg, Zvi

    2015-09-01

    Wheat is one of the Neolithic founder crops domesticated ~10 500 years ago. Following the domestication episode, its evolution under domestication has resulted in various genetic modifications. Grain weight, embryo weight, and the interaction between those factors were examined among domesticated durum wheat and its direct progenitor, wild emmer wheat. Experimental data show that grain weight has increased over the course of wheat evolution without any parallel change in embryo weight, resulting in a significantly reduced (30%) embryo weight/grain weight ratio in domesticated wheat. The genetic factors associated with these modifications were further investigated using a population of recombinant inbred substitution lines that segregated for chromosome 2A. A cluster of loci affecting grain weight and shape was identified on the long arm of chromosome 2AL. Interestingly, a novel locus controlling embryo weight was mapped on chromosome 2AS, on which the wild emmer allele promotes heavier embryos and greater seedling vigour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL for embryo weight in wheat. The results suggest a differential selection of grain and embryo weight during the evolution of domesticated wheat. It is argued that conscious selection by early farmers favouring larger grains and smaller embryos appears to have resulted in a significant change in endosperm weight/embryo weight ratio in the domesticated wheat. Exposing the genetic factors associated with endosperm and embryo size improves our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of wheat under domestication and is likely to be useful for future wheat-breeding efforts.

  9. Paradental cyst associated with supernumerary tooth fused with third molar: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusion is the union of two tooth buds that are normally separated. Fusion is more frequent in deciduous teeth, particularly in the anterior region. The etiology of fusion is not known. It has been suggested that the pressure of adjacent dental follicles produces their contact and fusion before calcification. There is no difference between men and women in incidence. The term paradental cyst means that such type of cysts that are close proximity with the root of a tooth. A history of recurrent pericoronitis is reported usually and there is often the presence of a communication between the periodontal pocket and the cyst. We present a rare case report where in partially erupted mandibular third molar is fused horizontally with a supernumerary tooth with paradental cyst.

  10. Paradental cyst associated with supernumerary tooth fused with third molar: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A Ravi; Reddy, P Sreenivas; Rajanikanth, M

    2012-01-01

    Fusion is the union of two tooth buds that are normally separated. Fusion is more frequent in deciduous teeth, particularly in the anterior region. The etiology of fusion is not known. It has been suggested that the pressure of adjacent dental follicles produces their contact and fusion before calcification. There is no difference between men and women in incidence. The term paradental cyst means that such type of cysts that are close proximity with the root of a tooth. A history of recurrent pericoronitis is reported usually and there is often the presence of a communication between the periodontal pocket and the cyst. We present a rare case report where in partially erupted mandibular third molar is fused horizontally with a supernumerary tooth with paradental cyst. PMID:22434950

  11. Cleidocranial dysplasia presenting with retained deciduous teeth and impacted permanent and supernumerary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Ikkanur Puttaranganaik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleidocranial dysplasia is a disease that occurs secondary to a dominant autosomal inheritance. There is no predilection for any genre or ethnic group. As there is a delay in the eruption and/or absence of permanent teeth, the patients usually report to a dental surgeon for replacement of the missing teeth. This condition is characterized by several cranial malformations and underdevelopment, absence of clavicles, and multiple impacted supernumerary and permanent teeth. The diagnosis of the condition is usually based on the presence of the above-mentioned main features and on clinical and familial evidence. Here we report a rare case of cleidocranial dysplasia in a male patient, having most of the characteristic features of this syndrome.

  12. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated.

  13. Removal of Supernumerary Teeth Utilizing a Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Surgical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Chanwoo; Bae, Doohwan; Choi, Byungho; Kim, Jihun

    2017-05-01

    Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery. This report describes 2 cases of removal of a mesiodens-1 from a child and 1 from an adolescent-using a surgical guide; these would have been difficult to remove with conventional surgical methods. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Atypical supernumerary phantom limb and phantom limb pain in two patients with pontine hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Jeong, Yong Seol; Chon, Jinmann; Bark, Jihea

    2011-06-01

    Phantom limbs are usually observed after amputation of extremities. In patients after a stroke, a similar but rarely occurring phenomenon consisting of the patient experiencing the presence of an additional limb has been described. This phenomenon, generally called supernumerary phantom limb (SPL), may be caused by lesions in the right or left cerebral hemisphere, but has been predominantly reported in patients who have had a right hemispheric stroke. We report two cases of atypical SPL and phantom limb pain (PLP) after pontine hemorrhage. The patients were treated conservatively and their symptoms lasted more than 1 month. This is the first report of SPLs after left pontine hemorrhage, and phantom perception and pain lasted longer than those in previously observed cases. Our results indicate that SPL may be more common than reported; therefore, thorough examinations are essential for the care of stroke patients.

  15. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Cloutier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX. We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.

  16. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; ElInati, Elias; Nussenzweig, André; Tóth, Attila; Turner, James M A

    2015-10-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.

  17. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Addition, Substitution and Translocation Lines with a Novel Source of Resistance to Wheat Fusarium Head Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Bao Qi; Xiang Guo; Jun Li; Bao Liu; Fangpu Han

    2012-01-01

    Thinopyrum elongatum (2n =2x =14,EE),a wild relative of wheat,has been suggested as a potentially novel source of resistance to several major wheat diseases including Fusarium Head Blight (FHB).In this study,a series of wheat (cv.Chinese Spring,CS) substitution and ditelosomic lines,including Th.elongatum additions,were assessed for Type Ⅱ resistance to FHB.Results indicated that the lines containing chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum gave a high level of resistance to FHB,wherein the infection did not spread beyond the inoculated floret.Furthermore,it was determined that the novel resistance gene(s) of 7E was located on the short-arm (7ES) based on sharp difference in FHB resistance between the two 7E ditelosomic lines for each arm.On the other hand,Th.elongatum chromosomes 5E and 6E likely contain gene(s) for susceptibility to FHB because the disease spreads rapidly within the inoculated spikes of these lines.Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis revealed that the alien chromosomes in the addition and substitution lines were intact,and the lines did not contain discernible genomic aberrations.GISH and multicolor-GISH analyses were further performed on three translocation lines that also showed high levels of resistance to FHB.Lines TA3499 and TA3695 were shown to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving fragments of 7D plus a segment of the 7E,while line TA3493 was found to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving the D- and A-genome chromosomes of wheat.Thus,this study has established that the short-arm of chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum harbors gene(s) highly resistant to the spreading of FHB,and chromatin of 7E introgressed into wheat chromosomes largely retained the resistance,implicating the feasibility of using these lines as novel material for breeding FHB-resistant wheat cultivars.

  18. West syndrome associated with mosaic duplication of FOXG1 in a patient with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Jun; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hosoki, Kana; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Akasaka, Noriyuki; Ohashi, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Yu; Saitoh, Shinji

    2011-10-01

    FOXG1 on chromosome 14 has recently been suggested as a dosage-sensitive gene. Duplication of this gene could cause severe epilepsy and developmental delay, including infantile spasms. Here, we report on a female patient diagnosed with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and West syndrome who carried a small supernumerary marker chromosome. A chromosomal analysis revealed mosaicism of 47,XX, + mar[8]/46,XX[18]. Spectral karyotyping multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the marker chromosome was derived from chromosome 14. A DNA methylation test at MEG3 in 14q32.2 and microsatellite analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 14 confirmed that the patient had maternal uniparental disomy 14 as well as a mosaic small marker chromosome of paternal origin containing the proximal long arm of chromosome 14. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis conclusively defined the region of the gain of genomic copy numbers at 14q11.2-q12, encompassing FOXG1. The results of the analyses of our patient provide further evidence that not only duplication but also a small increase in the dosage of FOXG1 could cause infantile spasms.

  19. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  20. MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等

    1995-01-01

    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  1. Dicentric Chromosome Formation and Epigenetics of Centromere Formation in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhi Gao; James Birchler; Fangpu Han

    2012-01-01

    Plant centromeres are generally composed of tandem arrays of simple repeats that form a complex chromosome locus where the kinetochore forms and microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.Each chromosome has one centromere region,which is essential for accurate division of the genetic material.Recently,chromosomes containing two centromere regions (called dicentric chromosomes)have been found in maize and wheat.Interestingly,some dicentric chromosomes are stable because only one centromere is active and the other one is inactivated.Because such arrays maintain their typical structure for both active and inactive centromeres,the specification of centromere activity has an epigenetic component independent of the DNA sequence.Under some circumstances,the inactive centromeres may recover centromere function,which is called centromere reactivation.Recent studies have highlighted the important changes,such as DNA methylation and histone modification,that occur during centromere inactivation and reactivation.

  2. Dicentric chromosome formation and epigenetics of centromere formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Gao, Zhi; Birchler, James; Han, Fangpu

    2012-03-20

    Plant centromeres are generally composed of tandem arrays of simple repeats that form a complex chromosome locus where the kinetochore forms and microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. Each chromosome has one centromere region, which is essential for accurate division of the genetic material. Recently, chromosomes containing two centromere regions (called dicentric chromosomes) have been found in maize and wheat. Interestingly, some dicentric chromosomes are stable because only one centromere is active and the other one is inactivated. Because such arrays maintain their typical structure for both active and inactive centromeres, the specification of centromere activity has an epigenetic component independent of the DNA sequence. Under some circumstances, the inactive centromeres may recover centromere function, which is called centromere reactivation. Recent studies have highlighted the important changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, that occur during centromere inactivation and reactivation.

  3. Development of EST-PCR Markers for the Chromosome 4VofHaynaldia villosaand Their Application in Identification of 4V Chromosome Structural Aberrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ren-hui; WANG Hai-yan; JIA Qi; XIAO Jin; YUAN Chun-xia; ZHANG Ya-jun; HU Qing-shan; WANG Xiu-e

    2014-01-01

    EST-PCR based molecular markers speciifc for alien chromosomes are not only useful for the detection of the introgressed alien chromatin in the wheat background, but also provide evidence of the syntenic relationship between homoeologous chromosomes. In the present study, in order to develop high density and evenly distributed molecular markers on chromosome 4V ofHaynaldia villosa, a total of 607 primer pairs were designed according to the EST sequences, which were previously located in 23 different bins of wheat chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. By using theTriticum durum-H. villosaamphiploid and T. aestivum-H. villosa alien chromosome lines involving chromosome 4V, it was found that 9.23% of the tested primers could amplify speciifc bands for chromosome 4V. Thirty and twenty-six speciifc markers could be assigned to chromosome arms 4VS and 4VL, respectively. These 4V speciifc markers provided efifcient tools for the characterization of structural variation involving the chromosome 4V as well as for the selection of useful genes located on chromosome 4V in breeding programs.

  4. Chromosomes in the flow to simplify genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Safář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Simková, Hana

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear genomes of human, animals, and plants are organized into subunits called chromosomes. When isolated into aqueous suspension, mitotic chromosomes can be classified using flow cytometry according to light scatter and fluorescence parameters. Chromosomes of interest can be purified by flow sorting if they can be resolved from other chromosomes in a karyotype. The analysis and sorting are carried out at rates of 10(2)-10(4) chromosomes per second, and for complex genomes such as wheat the flow sorting technology has been ground-breaking in reducing genome complexity for genome sequencing. The high sample rate provides an attractive approach for karyotype analysis (flow karyotyping) and the purification of chromosomes in large numbers. In characterizing the chromosome complement of an organism, the high number that can be studied using flow cytometry allows for a statistically accurate analysis. Chromosome sorting plays a particularly important role in the analysis of nuclear genome structure and the analysis of particular and aberrant chromosomes. Other attractive but not well-explored features include the analysis of chromosomal proteins, chromosome ultrastructure, and high-resolution mapping using FISH. Recent results demonstrate that chromosome flow sorting can be coupled seamlessly with DNA array and next-generation sequencing technologies for high-throughput analyses. The main advantages are targeting the analysis to a genome region of interest and a significant reduction in sample complexity. As flow sorters can also sort single copies of chromosomes, shotgun sequencing DNA amplified from them enables the production of haplotype-resolved genome sequences. This review explains the principles of flow cytometric chromosome analysis and sorting (flow cytogenetics), discusses the major uses of this technology in genome analysis, and outlines future directions.

  5. Tetrasomy 13q31.1qter due to an inverted duplicated neocentric marker chromosome in a fetus with multiple malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Véronique; Aboura, Azzedine; Tosca, Lucie; Guediche, Narjes; Mas, Anne-Elisabeth; L'Herminé, Aurore Coulomb; Druart, Luc; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) lacking alpha satellite DNA or endogenous centromere regions are rare and contain fully functional centromeres, called neocentromeres. We report on a woman with a 14-week gestation pregnancy with a cystic hygroma and cerebellar hypoplasia at ultrasound examination. Cytogenetic studies showed a karyotype 47,XY,+mar dn. This sSMC was observed in chorionic villi, lung, and muscle tissue. Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization showed a gain from 13q31.1 to 13qter region. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with pan alpha satellite probe and probes specific for chromosome 13 showed a marker corresponding to an inversion duplication of the 13q distal chromosomal region without alpha satellite DNA sequence, suggesting the presence of a neocentromere. Examination of the fetus showed dysmorphic features, cystic cervical hygroma, postaxial polydactyly of the right hand and left foot with short fingers, malrotation of the gut, and a micropenis with hypospadias. Genotype-phenotype correlation in tetrasomy 13q is discussed according to the four 13q chromosomal breakpoints reported (13q32, 13q31, 13q21, 13q14) for chromosome 13 supernumerary markers.

  6. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN CULTURES: COMMON WHEAT, EINKORN AND SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years in Bulgaria there is an increasing interest in organic production of healthy cereals einkorn and spelt. Typical for them is that they are unpretentious to the soil, resistant to major diseases and pests occurring in cereals. Einkorn and spelt are considered the most ancient types of wheat today and now they are perceived as healthy food. They are distinguished from ordinary wheat in the following parameters: higher percentage of protein; greater amount of fiber, minerals and vitamins /twice higher contents of Vitamin A; vitamins B; calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and others/; they do not contain cholesterol. They outmach the common wheat in the content of selenium and antioxidants, the amount of gluten is minimized. It does not cause allergic reactions in people suffering from celiac disease /in which the specific protein is not digested, in this case - gluten/. The reason for this property is the content of only 14 chromosomes as opposed to 28 in the common wheat and 42 in the modern types of wheat, which makes it easy to assimilate. Because of the hard shell flakes the grain of einkorn does not absorb harmful substances from soil /eg heavy metals/ which is a problem in modern wheat varieties. This article examines the energy and nutritional qualities of those cereals and the possibility einkorn and spelled to be an alternative in agricultural production - both in crop and animal husbandry.

  7. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  8. Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebru Tirali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly.

  9. Sarjeev′s supernumerary tooth notation system: A universally compatible add-on to the Two-Digit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjeev Singh Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To give notation for quadrants, tooth position, and the type of supernumerary teeth for both permanent and deciduous dentition. Tooth numbering provides dentists with an essential shortcut in clinical record keeping. Materials and Methods: Three systems are favored worldwide: the Zsigmondy/Palmer system, the Universal system, and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI Two-Digit system. Histories of all tooth-numbering methods were traced and the strengths and deficiencies of each system were reviewed. The FDI Two-Digit system is widely used throughout the world, except USA, and is the only method that makes the visual sense, cognitive sense, and computer sense. Conclusion: On review it was noticed that all tooth notation systems in vogue have a drawback as they do not provide any information or notations for supernumerary teeth such as paramolar, distomolar, mesiodens, and fused teeth.

  10. Sarjeev's supernumerary tooth notation system: a universally compatible add-on to the Two-Digit system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Sonkurla, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    To give notation for quadrants, tooth position, and the type of supernumerary teeth for both permanent and deciduous dentition. Tooth numbering provides dentists with an essential shortcut in clinical record keeping. Three systems are favored worldwide: the Zsigmondy/Palmer system, the Universal system, and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) Two-Digit system. Histories of all tooth-numbering methods were traced and the strengths and deficiencies of each system were reviewed. The FDI Two-Digit system is widely used throughout the world, except USA, and is the only method that makes the visual sense, cognitive sense, and computer sense. On review it was noticed that all tooth notation systems in vogue have a drawback as they do not provide any information or notations for supernumerary teeth such as paramolar, distomolar, mesiodens, and fused teeth.

  11. Management of fused supernumerary teeth in children using guided tissue regeneration: long-term follow up of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christopher B; Johnston, Timothy; Desai, Mala; Peake, Gregory G

    2002-01-01

    Surgical separation of supernumerary teeth fused to permanent incisor teethhas typically given rise to residual post surgical periodontal defects, induding loss of attachment and deep periodontal pocketing with persistent inflammation. Other complications include devitalisation of the retained tooth section, ankylosis, external and replacement resorption. A unique technique of using guided tissue regeneration has been successfully employed to promote periodontal healing, after 2 cases of surgical removal of a supernumerary tooth fused to a permanent maxillary lateral incisor tooth. In the first case, a 2-stage guided tissue regeneration technique was completed with a nonresorbable Gor-Tex membrane, and was followed up after 9 years. The second case was completed using a resorbable Vicryl membrane, in a single-stage guided tissue regenerative technique; and was followed up after 5 years.

  12. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance.

  13. Number of chromosomes and chromosome rearrangement of Norway spruce Picea abies (L. H. Karst. in the forests of Rilo-Rhodope mountain in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative investigations of chromosome numbers and chromosome rearrangements in populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. growing in the territory of State Forest Service «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa», «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte» in Rila-Rhodope mountain region (Bulgaria. Populations are located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive 92/43. It was found that diploid set of seed progeny of P. abies from the 4 populations studied includes 24 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24. Mixoploidy (2n = 24, 36; 2n = 24, 48; 2n = 24, 36, 48 was detected in some germinating seeds of all studied populations of P. abies. Metaphase cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Garmen» and «Eleshnitsa» contain supernumerary, or B-chromosomes, while the variability of their number and occurrence was observed. In cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte», B-chromosomes are not revealed. Some chromosome rearrangements such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of P. abies from populations of «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa» and «Dobrinishte». Probably occurrence of mixoploids, B chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements in P. abies populations growing in Rila-Rhodope mountain region is connected with adaptation of trees to the extreme environmental conditions and such a serious factor that presently forests in the studied region located in the zone of natural radioactivity and in the past, the region of study was subjected to substantial anthropogenic pressure due to uranium extraction industry.

  14. Resistance to brown leaf rust of hybrids between wheat and amphiploids wheat-thinopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to a brown leaf rust in 56 chromosomal partial аmphiploids (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp. Z.-W. Liu and R.-C. Wang, РА 2 (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth and D.R. Devey, H79/9-9 (Triticum aestivum L. × Elymus sp., Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Albatross odesskiy, Fantaziya odesskaya, Zhatva Altaya and their hybrids, F2-F4 were studied at artificial infection in field infectious nursery in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The investigated varieties of wheat have shown a high susceptibility to pathogen. Amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 also are susceptible to pathogen, but in a lesser degree, than the wheat. Good resistance was shown only by amphiploid Н79/9-9, but its hybrid with wheat Albatross Odessa appeared is susceptible to pathogen. The hybrids with amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 have shown a various degree of resistance to brown leaf rust. Hybrid Zhatva Altaya × РА 2 within three years stably showed 8 point resistance to disease. The reasonsfor different resistance of amphiploids and its hybrids with wheat are discussed.

  15. CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES IN INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smogavec

    2009-08-01

    Conclusions Chromosomal analysis is an important method in diagnostic procedures of infertility, because chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions. Sex chromosome aneuploidies are highly correlated to infertility of females and males.

  16. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  17. New wheat-rye 5DS-4RS·4RL and 4RS-5DS·5DL translocation lines with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Ren, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Fu, Tihua; Tang, Zongxiang

    2014-11-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2 n = 6 × = 42, genomes AABBDD). Rye (Secale cereale L., 2 n = 2 × = 14, genome RR) offers a rich reservoir of powdery mildew resistant genes for wheat breeding program. However, extensive use of these resistant genes may render them susceptible to new pathogen races because of co-evolution of host and pathogen. Therefore, the continuous exploration of new powdery mildew resistant genes is important to wheat breeding program. In the present study, we identified several wheat-rye addition lines from the progeny of T. aestivum L. Mianyang11 × S. cereale L. Kustro, i.e., monosomic addition lines of the rye chromosomes 4R and 6R; a disomic addition line of 6R; and monotelosomic or ditelosomic addition lines of the long arms of rye chromosomes 4R (4 RL) and 6R (6 RL). All these lines displayed immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, we concluded that both the 4 RL and 6 RL arms of Kustro contain powdery mildew resistant genes. It is the first time to discover that 4 RL arm carries powdery mildew resistant gene. Additionally, wheat lines containing new wheat-rye translocation chromosomes were also obtained: these lines retained a short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) on which rye chromosome 4R was fused through the short arm 4 RS (designated 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL; 4 RL stands for the long arm of rye chromosome 4R); or they had an extra short arm of rye chromosome 4R (4 RS) that was attached to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) (designated 4 RS-5 DS · 5 DL; 5 DL stands for the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D). These two translocation chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably, and the wheat lines containing 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL chromosome also displayed immunity to powdery mildew. The materials obtained in this study can be used for wheat powdery mildew resistant breeding program.

  18. A Pair of Maternal Chromosomes Derived from Meiotic Nondisjunction in Trisomy 21 Affects Nuclear Architecture and Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Sayaka; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Banno, Kimihiko; Tsuji, Ayumi; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Hirata, Katsuya; Kawatani, Keiji; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji; Taniguchi, Hidetoshi; Arahori, Hitomi; Wada, Kazuko; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ozono, Keiichi

    2017-04-10

    Eukaryotic genomes are organised into complex higher-order structures within the nucleus, and the three-dimensional arrangement of chromosomes is functionally important for global gene regulation. The existence of supernumerary chromosome 21 in Down syndrome may perturb the nuclear architecture at different levels, which is normally optimised to maintain the physiological balance of gene expression. However, it has not been clearly elucidated whether and how aberrant configuration of chromosomes affects gene activities. To investigate the effects of trisomy 21 on nuclear organisation and gene expression, we performed three-dimensional fluorescent imaging analysis of chromosome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which enabled identification of the parental origin of the three copies of chromosome 21. We found that two copies of maternal chromosomes resulting from meiotic nondisjunction had a higher tendency to form an adjacent pair and were located relatively distant from the nuclear membrane, suggesting the conserved interaction between these homologous chromosomes. Transcriptional profiling of parental-origin-specific corrected disomy 21 iPSC lines indicated upregulated expression of the maternal alleles for a group of genes, which was accompanied by a fluctuating expression pattern. These results suggest the unique effects of a pair of maternal chromosomes in trisomy 21, which may contribute to the pathological phenotype.

  19. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Raz; Nave, Moran; Barad, Omer; Baruch, Kobi; Twardziok, Sven O; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hale, Iago; Mascher, Martin; Spannagl, Manuel; Wiebe, Krystalee; Jordan, Katherine W; Golan, Guy; Deek, Jasline; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Himmelbach, Axel; MacLachlan, Ron P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Fritz, Allan; Ben-David, Roi; Budak, Hikmet; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham; Faris, Justin D; Hernandez, Alvaro; Mikel, Mark A; Levy, Avraham A; Steffenson, Brian; Maccaferri, Marco; Tuberosa, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta; Ceriotti, Aldo; Kashkush, Khalil; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao; Eilam, Tamar; Sela, Hanan; Sharon, Amir; Ohad, Nir; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Ronen, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Pozniak, Curtis J; Akhunov, Eduard D; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2017-07-07

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. RFLP Tagging of a Gene Pm12 for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾继增; T.E.Miller; S.M.Reader; M.D.Gale

    1994-01-01

    A dominant gene, Pml2, conferring the resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) has been transferred to wheat from Aegilops speltoides. Sixteen RFLP probes were used to test Line 31 and its parents, showing that Line 31 is a 6B/6S translocation lines. The linkage analysis by five probes indicates that Pm12 is located on the chromosome 6B/6S, and tightly flanked by an RFLP marker α-Amy-1 (1.1 cM), identified by RFLP and isozyme analysis. This approach is equally applicable to the identification of other transferred alien genes and the segments of alien chromosome introgressed into wheat.

  1. Repetitive DNA Sequences in Wheat and Its Relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; LI Da-yong

    2001-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences form a large portion of eukaryote genomes. Using wheat ( Triticum )as a model, the classification, features and functions of repetitive DNA sequences in the Tritieeae grass tribe is reviewed as well as the role of these sequences in genome differentiation, control and regulation of homologous chromosome synapsis and pairing. Transposable elements, as an important portion of dispersed repetitives,may play an essential role in gene mutation of the host. Dynamic models for change of copy number and sequences of the repetitive family are also presented after the models of Charlesworth et al. Application of repetitive DNA sequences in the study of evolution, chromosome fingerprinting and marker assisted gene transfer and breeding are described by taking wheat as an example.

  2. A wheat homologue of PHYTOCLOCK 1 is a candidate gene conferring the early heading phenotype to einkorn wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nasuda, Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray mutant showing an early flowering phenotype has been identified in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), for which a major QTL for heading time was previously mapped in the telomeric region on the long arm of chromosome 3A. Recent advances in Triticeae genomics revealed that the gene order in this region is highly conserved between wheat and barley. Thus, we adopted a hypothetical gene order in barley, the so-called GenomeZipper, to develop DNA markers for fine mapping the target gene in wheat. We identified three genes tightly linked to the early heading phenotype. PCR analysis revealed that early-flowering is associated with the deletion of two genes in the mutant. Of the two deleted genes, one is an ortholog of the LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX)/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (PCL1) gene found in Arabidopsis, which regulates the circadian clock and flowering time. We found distorted expression patterns of two clock genes (TOC1 and LHY) in the einkorn pcl1 deletion mutant as was reported for the Arabidopsis lux mutant. Transcript accumulation levels of photoperiod-response related genes, a photoperiod sensitivity gene (Ppd-1) and two wheat CONSTANS-like genes (WCO1 and TaHd1), were significantly higher in the einkorn wheat mutant. In addition, transcripts of the wheat florigen gene (WFT) accumulated temporally under short-day conditions in the einkorn wheat mutant. These results suggest that deletion of WPCL1 leads to abnormally higher expression of Ppd-1, resulting in the accumulation of WFT transcripts that triggers flowering even under short-day conditions. Our observations from gene mapping, gene deletions, and expression levels of flowering related genes strongly suggest that WPCL1 is the most likely candidate gene for controlling the early flowering phenotype in the einkorn wheat mutant.

  3. Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of Chinese wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cedric E.May; 辛志勇

    1996-01-01

    Nucleolus organizer regions (Nor loci) of a range of Chinese wheat landraces and cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) were analysed using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Only two allelic variants of the Nor-B1 locus were found on chromosome 1B (Nor-B1a and Nor-B1g), while Nor-B1g was probably introduced from North America in the early 1960s. The even more recent introduction of the rye allele Nor-R1 in the early 1980s was also revealed. Eight allelic variants of the Nor-B2 locus on chromosome 6B (Nor-B2a, b, d, f, h, o, p and s) were identified. A Chinese origin for the a, d, f, o, p and s alkies is evident although the d allele was successfully introduced into Australian wheats in the early 1900s. Nor-B2h and Nor-B2b are again very recent introductions into Chinese wheat breeding programs, the former from CIMMYT wheats and the latter in association with the introduction of the 1RS/1BL translocation from Europe. On the basis of the presence of different combinations of Nor-B1 and Nor-B2 alleles

  4. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  5. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  6. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  7. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  8. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  9. Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

    2011-04-01

    The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits.

  10. An EMG Interface for the Control of Motion and Compliance of a Supernumerary Robotic Finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an electromyographic (EMG control interface for a supernumerary robotic finger. This novel wearable robot can be used to compensate the missing grasping abilities in chronic stroke patients or to augment human healthy hand so to enhance its grasping capabilities and workspace. The proposed EMG interface controls the motion of the robotic extra finger and its joint compliance. In particular, we use a commercial EMG armband for gesture recognition to be associated with the motion control of the robotic device and surface one channel EMG electrodes interface to regulate the compliance of the robotic device. We also present an updated version of a robotic extra finger where the adduction/abduction motion is realized through ball bearing and spur gears mechanism. We validated the proposed interface with two sets of experiments related to compensation and augmentation. In the first set of experiments, different bi-manual tasks have been performed with the help of the robotic device and simulating a paretic hand. In the second set, the robotic extra finger is used to enlarge the workspace and manipulation capability of healthy hands. In both the sets, the same EMG control interface has been used. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed control interface is intuitive and can successfully be used for both compensation and augmentation purposes. The proposed approach can be exploited also for the control of different wearable devices that has to actively cooperate with the human limbs.

  11. Zika virus causes supernumerary foci with centriolar proteins and impaired spindle positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Benita; Diop, Fodé; Ferraris, Pauline; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Busso, Coralie; Missé, Dorothée

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. Although ZIKV can impair cell cycle progression and provoke apoptosis, which probably contributes to disease aetiology through depletion of neural progenitor cells, additional cellular mechanisms may be important. Here, we investigated whether ZIKV infection alters centrosome number and spindle positioning, because such defects are thought to be at the root of inherited primary autosomal recessive microcephaly (MCPH). In addition to HeLa cells, in which centrosome number and spindle positioning can be well monitored, we analysed retinal epithelial cells (RPE-1), as well as brain-derived microglial (CHME-5) and neural progenitor (ReN) cells, using immunofluorescence. We established that ZIKV infection leads to supernumerary foci containing centriolar proteins that in some cases drive multipolar spindle assembly, as well as spindle positioning defects in HeLa, RPE-1 and CHME-5 cells, but not in ReN cells. We uncovered similar phenotypes in HeLa cells upon infection with dengue virus (DENV-2), another flavivirus that does not target brain cells and does not cause microcephaly. We conclude that infection with Flaviviridae can increase centrosome numbers and impair spindle positioning, thus potentially contributing to microcephaly in the case of Zika. PMID:28100662

  12. Multiple, supernumerary retained teeth in the course of cleido-cranial dysplasia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bogumił; Martula-Gala, Katarzyna; Brodowski, Robert; Zych, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Cleido-cranial dysplasia, often referred to as Scheuthauer-Marie-Sainton syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. Patients with cleido-cranial dysplasia are characterized by short stature, frequent varus or valgus hip, kyphoscoliosis, underdevelopment of the scapulas and the sternum, incorrect number of ribs. The most characteristic feature is unilateral or bilateral, partial or total underdevelopment of clavicles. Mental development is not affected in this syndrome. Malocclusion, occlusal irregularities, multiple supernumerary teeth, impacted teeth, and persistent milk teeth are found in the stomatognathic system. Teeth often have abnormal anatomy. Gothic palate, cleft hard and soft palate are diagnosed. The aim of this paper is to present a case of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with irregularities in the masticatory system involving an additional number of retained teeth. The boy was referred by an orthodontist for surgical and orthodontic team therapy. The case presented confirms the observations of other authors that only the multi-specialty collaboration of a pediatrician, a geneticist, an orthopedist, an orthodontist, a maxillofacial surgeon, an implant prosthetic surgeon and a physiotherapist can provide proper diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Aydemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention.

  14. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bashford

    Full Text Available To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects' real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands.

  15. Characteristics and sequelae of erupted supernumerary teeth: A study of 218 cases among Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Chandra; Jayawardena, Chantha; Nagarathne, Nandani; Perera, Kanthi

    2016-12-19

    In the present study, we investigated the characteristics and sequelae of erupted supernumerary teeth (ST) in a sample of Sri Lankan children. Data were recorded from patients' clinical records, radiographs, models, and extracted teeth. The sample consisted of 239 ST from 218 patients. The mean age of the sample was 9.08 ± 2.47 years. The male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. The majority (42.66%) of patients with ST were in aged 8-10 years. Many (94.94%) of the ST were located in the premaxilla (incisor), followed by the canine (4.22%), premolar (0.42%), and molar (0.42%) regions. The most common shape of ST teeth was conical. Malocclusion (59.83%) was the major problem associated with ST, and the clinical impact was highest on the 8-10-year age group. A strong association was observed between patients' age and clinical impact to the dentition (χ(2) =42.09, P=.000). Because the majority of ST can lead to malocclusion, especially in mixed dentition, awareness, early detection, and timely clinical intervention of ST are recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  17. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Rumex papillaris, a dioecious plant with an XX/XY(1)Y (2) sex chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Schwarzacher, Trude; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2009-01-01

    Rumex papillaris Boiss, & Reut., an Iberian endemic, belongs to the section Acetosa of the genus Rumex whose main representative is R. acetosa L., a species intensively studied in relation to sex-chromosome evolution. Here, we characterize cytogenetically the chromosomal complement of R. papillaris in an effort to enhance future comparative genomic approaches and to better our understanding of sex chromosome structure in plants. Rumex papillaris, as is common in this group, is a dioecious species characterized by the presence of a multiple sex chromosome system (with females 2n = 12 + XX and males 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2)). Except for the X chromosome both Y chromosomes are the longest in the karyotype and appear heterochromatic due to the accumulation of at least two satellite DNA families, RAE180 and RAYSI. Each chromosome of pair VI has an additional major heterochromatin block at the distal region of the short arm. These supernumerary heterochromatic blocks are occupied by RAE730 satellite DNA family. The Y-related RAE180 family is also present in an additional minor autosomal locus. Our comparative study of the chromosomal organization of the different satellite-DNA sequences in XX/XY and XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species demonstrates that of active mechanisms of heterochromatin amplification occurred and were accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements giving rise to the multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) chromosome systems observed in Rumex. Additionally, Y(1) and Y(2) chromosomes have undergone further rearrangements leading to differential patterns of Y-heterochromatin distribution between Rumex species with multiple sex chromosome systems.

  18. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Forneris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by H. irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of H. irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes. In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of H. irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B. All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

  19. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  20. Wheat Production and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgilany Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  1. Genotypic variation in tetraploid wheat affecting homoeologous pairing in hybrids with Aegilops peregrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, H; Feldman, M

    2001-12-01

    The Ph1 gene has long been considered the main factor responsible for the diploid-like meiotic behavior of polyploid wheat. This dominant gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 5B (5BL), suppresses pairing of homoeologous chromosomes in polyploid wheat and in their hybrids with related species. Here we report on the discovery of genotypic variation among tetraploid wheats in the control of homoeologous pairing. Compared with the level of homoeologous pairing in hybrids between Aegilops peregrina and the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), significantly higher levels of homoeologous pairing were obtained in hybrids between Ae. peregrina and CS substitution lines in which chromosome 5B of CS was replaced by either 5B of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides line 09 (TTD09) or 5G of Triticum timopheevii ssp. timopheevii line 01 (TIMO1). Similarly, a higher level of homoeologous pairing was found in the hybrid between Ae. peregrina and a substitution line of CS in which chromosome arm 5BL of line TTD140 substituted for 5BL of CS. It appears that the observed effect on the level of pairing is exerted by chromosome arm 5BL of T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, most probably by an allele of Ph1. Searching for variation in the control of homoeologous pairing among lines of wild tetraploid wheat, either T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides or T timopheevii ssp. armeniacum, showed that hybrids between Ae. peregrina and lines of these two wild wheats exhibited three different levels of homoeologous pairing: low, low intermediate, and high intermediate. The low-intermediate and high-intermediate genotypes may possess weak alleles of Ph1. The three different T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides pairing genotypes were collected from different geographical regions in Israel, indicating that this trait may have an adaptive value. The availability of allelic variation at the Ph1 locus may facilitate the mapping, tagging, and eventually the isolation of this important gene.

  2. The pattern of a specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg can be explained with the "boundary model" of appendage formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Gerhard; Brenneis, Georg

    2016-02-01

    A malformed adult female specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg in the right body half is described concerning external and internal structures. The specimen was maintained in our laboratory culture after an injury in the right trunk region during a late postembryonic stage. The supernumerary leg is located between the second and third walking legs. The lateral processes connecting to these walking legs are fused to one large structure. Likewise, the coxae 1 of the second and third walking legs and of the supernumerary leg are fused to different degrees. The supernumerary leg is a complete walking leg with mirror image symmetry as evidenced by the position of joints and muscles. It is slightly smaller than the normal legs, but internally, it contains a branch of the ovary and a gut diverticulum as the other legs. The causes for this malformation pattern found in the Pycnogonum individual are reconstructed in the light of extirpation experiments in insects, which led to supernumerary mirror image legs, and the "boundary model" for appendage differentiation.

  3. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  4. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  5. The effect of wheat-rye translocation 1BL.1RS in a different quality genetic background on biological traits in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 139 varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., predominantly Serbian winter wheat varieties originated in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, has been examined for presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. Two genotype groups consisted of varieties possessing and lacking the translocation have been compared. Stem rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew as well as, winter hardiness were studied. The influence of 1BL/1RS translocation was also studied in a light of wheat seed storage protein (glutenin and gliadin genetic background composition. Genotypes having the translocation appeared to be more tolerant to stem rust, and leaf rust, but more susceptible to powdery mildew. These effects were slightly modified depending on the examined genetic background, but the effect of the rye 1RS translocated chromosome arm was the main cause for the observed differences.

  6. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  7. Differentiation and evolutionary relationships in Erythrinus erythrinus (Characiformes, Erythrinidae): occurrence and distribution of B chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, N F; Cioffi, M B; Troy, W P; Martinez, J F; Moreira-Filho, O; Bertollo, L A C

    2014-02-14

    Erythrinus erythrinus, a Neotropical fish species of the Erythrinidae family, has a wide distribution in South America. Previous cytogenetic analysis showed that this species presents extensive karyotype diversity, with 4 karyomorphs (A-D) described herein. This study investigated the karyotypic structure of 2 new populations of E. erythrinus from the Brazilian Pantanal region, in order to improve the knowledge of the chromosomal diversity in this species. Both populations showed typical characteristics of karyomorph A, with 2n=54 chromosomes (6m+2st+46a), without differentiation between males and females. In addition, identical supernumerary B chromosomes, appearing as double-minute chromosomes, were also found in both populations. These findings suggest the presence of mitotic instability in view of their high intra- and inter-individual numerical variation. The presence of these chromosomes is likely a basal characteristic for this group, since the same kind of Bs also occurs in some other populations and karyomorphs of E. erythrinus. As such, they are important markers of biodiversity found in this nominal species, which probably corresponds to a species complex.

  8. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Hao; Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  9. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyang Kang

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A, 14 B-genome (1B-7B, 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R, and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  10. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  11. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  12. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  13. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  14. Supernumerary breast. A case Presentation Mama supernumeraria. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Guerra Cabrera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations of the breast appear in 10 % of the population. The existence of mammary tissue at any line of the breast is classified according to Kajava’s categories into eight classes which differ one from the other in the presence or absence of the areola of the breast, nipple and glandular tissue. This report presents a case of a puerpera who had delivered her child seven days before her attendance to hospital. She presented with discharge from her both axillae. On physical examination, a supernumerary nipple with milky secretion out from it was found in her right axilla and secretion throughout the contralateral axilla through the skin pores, with absence of nipple and areola in that axillary region. The echographic study revealed the presence of bilateral ectopic mammary tissue. This case belongs to Kajava’s class IV classification in the left axilla and a variery of Type I in the right axilla. In facing a mammary malformation, a conservative attitude seems to be the most appropriate although esthetics requires surgery. To keep into account the presence of supernumerary breasts will be a need for the prevention of breast cancer. This case has been presented due to all these reasons and the unusual features of this case.Las malformaciones congénitas de la mama aparecen hasta en un 10 % de la población. La existencia de tejido mamario en algún punto de las líneas mamarias se clasifica, según Kajava, en 8 clases, que se diferencian por la presencia o no de areola mamaria, pezón y tejido glandular. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con secreción por ambas axilas en su séptimo día de puerperio. En la exploración se detectó un pezón supernumerario en axila derecha con secreción láctea a través de este y secreción a través de la axila contra lateral por los poros de la piel, con ausencia de pezón y de areola. El estudio ecográfico demostró la presencia de tejido mamario ectópico bilateral. Este caso pertenece

  15. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Peer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs being hosted in South African (SA training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of SA registrars (SARs. Methods. SNRs and SARs completed an online survey in 2012. Results. Seventy-three registrars responded; 42 were SARs and 31 were SNRs. Of the SNRs 47.8% were self-funded, 17.4% were funded through private organisations, and 34.8% were funded by governments. Average annual income was ZAR102 349 (range ZAR680 - 460 000. Funding was considered insufficient by 61.0%. Eighty-seven percent intended to return to their home countries. Personal sacrifices were deemed worthwhile from academic (81.8% and social (54.5% perspectives, but not financially (33.3%. Only a small majority were satisfied with the orientation provided and with assimilation into their departments. Almost half experienced challenges relating to cultural and social integration. Almost all SARs supported having SNRs. SNRs reported xenophobia from patients (23.8% and colleagues (47.8%, and felt disadvantaged in terms of learning opportunities, academic support and on-call allocations. Conclusions. SNRs are fee-paying students and should enjoy academic and teaching support equal to that received by SARs. Both the university and the teaching hospitals must take steps to improve the integration of SNRs and ensure that they receive equal access to academic support and clinical teaching, and also need to take an interest in their financial wellbeing. Of particular concern are perceptions of xenophobia from SA medical colleagues.

  16. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  17. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  19. Mammalian X chromosome inactivation evolved as a dosage-compensation mechanism for dosage-sensitive genes on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessia, Eugénie; Makino, Takashi; Bailly-Bechet, Marc; McLysaght, Aoife; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2012-04-03

    How and why female somatic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) evolved in mammals remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that XCI is a dosage-compensation mechanism that evolved to equalize expression levels of X-linked genes in females (2X) and males (1X), with a prior twofold increase in expression of X-linked genes in both sexes ("Ohno's hypothesis"). Whereas the parity of X chromosome expression between the sexes has been clearly demonstrated, tests for the doubling of expression levels globally along the X chromosome have returned contradictory results. However, changes in gene dosage during sex-chromosome evolution are not expected to impact on all genes equally, and should have greater consequences for dosage-sensitive genes. We show that, for genes encoding components of large protein complexes (≥ 7 members)--a class of genes that is expected to be dosage-sensitive--expression of X-linked genes is similar to that of autosomal genes within the complex. These data support Ohno's hypothesis that XCI acts as a dosage-compensation mechanism, and allow us to refine Ohno's model of XCI evolution. We also explore the contribution of dosage-sensitive genes to X aneuploidy phenotypes in humans, such as Turner (X0) and Klinefelter (XXY) syndromes. X aneuploidy in humans is common and is known to have mild effects because most of the supernumerary X genes are inactivated and not affected by aneuploidy. Only genes escaping XCI experience dosage changes in X-aneuploidy patients. We combined data on dosage sensitivity and XCI to compute a list of candidate genes for X-aneuploidy syndromes.

  20. Esthetic and endodontic management of fused maxillary lateral incisor and supernumerary teeth with all ceramic restoration after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranmeet Kaur Khurana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Double or fusion of the teeth is a primary developmental anomaly union of two independently developing primary or permanent teeth. The tooth fusion may contribute to various significant problems such as crowding, caries and periodontal diseases. Fused teeth require an interdisciplinary approach combining the endodontic, esthetic and prosthetic treatments. All ceramic restoration meets the requirement of better appearance, biocompatibility and long life. By using restorative therapy esthetic and functional criteria were satisfied. Management of a case of fusion of a maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth is presented.

  1. Supernumerary teeth and pseudarthrosis of the mandible in a young male from the mediaeval cemetery in Stenjevec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Bedić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological analysis of a young adult male from the mediaeval Stenjevec skeletal series revealed supernumerary teeth on both sides of the mandible, and an un-united subcondylar fracture of the mandible. The first condition is a developmental abnormality, while subcondylar fractures are one of the most frequent fractures of the mandible. Although, the osteological collection of the Department of Archaeology of the Croatian academy of Sciences and Arts consists of nearly 5,500 skeletons, this is the first documented case that exhibits these conditions in Croatian archaeological skeletal series.

  2. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  3. Introgression of a New Stem Rust Resistance Gene from Aegilops markgrafii into Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a prior study, we reported that an Alcedo/Aegilops markgrafii disomic addition line, AIII(D) (2n=44), was resistant to three races of the Ug99 lineage and five North American races of stem rust pathogen in wheat and the resistance originated from the alien chromosome. In this study, our objectiv...

  4. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Nidhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  5. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  6. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy...

  7. Rmg8, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in Hexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Vu Lan; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is one of the major diseases of wheat in South America. We identified a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of P. oryzae in common wheat 'S-615', and designated it "resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 8" (Rmg8). Rmg8 was assigned to chromosome 2B through molecular mapping with simple-sequence repeat markers. To identify an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, Triticum isolate Br48 (avirulent on S-615) was crossed with 200R29 (virulent on S-615), an F1 progeny derived from a cross between an Eleusine isolate (MZ5-1-6) and Br48. Segregation analysis of their progeny revealed that avirulence of Br48 on S-615 was conditioned by a single gene, which was designated AVR-Rmg8. AVR-Rmg8 was closely linked to AVR-Rmg7, which corresponded to Rmg7 located on chromosome 2A of tetraploid wheat.

  8. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  9. Engineering of plant chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion.

  10. Multiple Impacted Permanent and Supernumerary Teeth in the Anterior Mandible of Nonsyndromic Case: A Systematic Review and Multidisciplinary Approach to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Gawande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple impacted permanent and supernumerary teeth have been associated with the syndromes and metabolic disorders. Approximately, 75% of all the supernumerary teeth are impacted and are asymptomatic. Consequently, most such teeth constitute casual findings in the context of routine X-ray studies. Lack of eruptive force and rotation of tooth buds may cause multiple impactions, and additional examinations may be necessary to exclude systemic and metabolic conditions. We present a rare nonsyndromic case with 11 multiple impacted teeth in the anterior mandible, with systematic literature review and multidisciplinary management.

  11. Intraspecific Polymorphisms of Cytogenetic Markers Mapped on Chromosomes of Triticum polonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kwiatek

    Full Text Available Triticum genus encloses several tetraploid species that are used as genetic stocks for expanding the genetic variability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the T. aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and T. durum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB karyotypes were well examined by chromosome staining, Giemsa C-banding and FISH markers, other tetraploids are still poorly characterized. Here, we established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH patterns on chromosomes of 20 accessions of T. polonicum species using different repetitive sequences from BAC library of wheat 'Chinese Spring'. The chromosome patterns of Polish wheat were compared to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB Triticum species: T. durum, T. diccocon and T. turanicum, as well. A combination of pTa-86, pTa-535 and pTa-713 probes was the most informative among 6 DNA probes tested. Probe pTa-k374, which is similar to 28S rDNA sequence enabled to distinguish signal size and location differences, as well as rDNA loci elimination. Furthermore, pTa-465 and pTa-k566 probes are helpful for the detection of similar organized chromosomes. The polymorphisms of signals distribution were observed in 2A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A and 7B chromosomes. Telomeric region of the short arm of 6B chromosome was the most polymorphic. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of T. polonicum genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for wheat. Collection and characterization of this germplasm can contribute to the wheat biodiversity safeguard.

  12. Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137

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    Curt A McCartney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat.

  13. Syntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species Brachypodium and rice as revealed by COS markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, István; Šimková, Hana; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Goram, Richard; Cseh, András; Vrána, Jan; Farkas, András; Doležel, Jaroslav; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Griffiths, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.

  14. Syntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species Brachypodium and rice as revealed by COS markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Molnár

    Full Text Available Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  16. A High-Density Consensus Map of Common Wheat Integrating Four Mapping Populations Scanned by the 90K SNP Array

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    Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Gao, Fengmei; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Zhai, Shengnan; Qu, Yanying; Xia, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    A high-density consensus map is a powerful tool for gene mapping, cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating genetic maps from four recombinant inbred line populations. The populations were each genotyped using the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect SNP assay. A total of 29,692 SNP markers were mapped on 21 linkage groups corresponding to 21 hexaploid wheat chromosomes, covering 2,906.86 cM, with an overall marker density of 10.21 markers/cM. Compared with the previous maps based on the wheat 90K SNP chip detected 22,736 (76.6%) of the SNPs with consistent chromosomal locations, whereas 1,974 (6.7%) showed different chromosomal locations, and 4,982 (16.8%) were newly mapped. Alignment of the present consensus map and the wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) Chromosome Bin Map enabled assignment of 1,221 SNP markers to specific chromosome bins and 819 ESTs were integrated into the consensus map. The marker orders of the consensus map were validated based on physical positions on the wheat genome with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 (4D) to 0.97 (1A, 4B, 5B, and 6A), and were also confirmed by comparison with genetic position on the previously 40K SNP consensus map with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 (6D) to 0.99 (6A). Chromosomal rearrangements reported previously were confirmed in the present consensus map and new putative rearrangements were identified. In addition, an integrated consensus map was developed through the combination of five published maps with ours, containing 52,607 molecular markers. The consensus map described here provided a high-density SNP marker map and a reliable order of SNPs, representing a step forward in mapping and validation of chromosomal locations of SNPs on the wheat 90K array. Moreover, it can be

  17. On the Origin and Evolution of the Extant System of B Chromosomes in Oryzomyini Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Karen; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; do Nascimento Moreira, Camila; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous supernumerary chromosomes (Bs) are recognized in the oryzomyines Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus, N. squamipes, Oligoryzomys flavescens and Sooretamys angouya, representing about 10% of all known B-containing rodent species. They provide an outstanding model for understanding the origin, evolution and diversity of Bs in a phylogenetic context. Therefore, whole chromosome-specific probes were generated from flow-sorted Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) autosomes 11 and 25+26 and chromosomes X, Y and Bs. Hybridizations were performed on male metaphases of 15 Oryzomyini species of which 3 are B-containing species. The results reveal that among the species sampled, 12 of them, belonging to a monophyletic Oryzomiyini subclade, are positive for an anonymous Oryzomyini shared heterochromatic region (OSHR) on both sex chromosomes. The OSHR is also present on Bs of Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus and N. squamipes but not on Bs of O. flavescens and S. angouya. Two distinct additional OSHR/autosome associations are observed on S. angouya. The three species that are OSHR negative belong to an outgroup. Molecular dating suggests that the OSHR originated between 7.8 and 3 Mya on ancestral sex chromosomes. A tentative explanation for the OSHR-positive nature of B regions in three species could be that transposable elements (TEs) from this specific sex chromosome region may have invaded existing B chromosomes. The presence of the OSHR on entire Xp and Yp adjacent to interstitial telomeric sequences at pericentromeric positions, as observed in Drymoreomys albimaculatus, show a similar organization as on B chromosomes in Nectomys squamipes. The diversity of the Oryzomyini Bs in number, size, morphology and genetic content may be explained by the independent origin of B chromosomes in different subgroups of species, with Bs in Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys squamipes and N. rattus sharing the OSHR with sex chromosomes, and those in Oligoryzomys

  18. Advances in Localization and Molecular Markers of Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun

    2004-01-01

    Genetic resistance is the most economical method of reducing yield losses caused by wheat leaf rust. To identify the leaf rust resistance genes in commonly used parental germplasm and released cultivars become very important for utilizing the genetic resistance tc wheat leaf rust fully. Up to date, about 90 leaf rust resistance genes have been found,of which 51 genes have been located and mapped to special chromosomes, and 56 genes have been designated officially according to the standards set forth in the Catalogue of Gene Symbols for wheat. Twenty-four wheat leaf rust resistance genes have been developed for their molecular markers. It is very important to isolate, characterize, and map leaf rust resistance genes due to the resistance losses of the genes caused by the pathogen continuously.

  19. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  20. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...