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Sample records for supernumerary minute ring

  1. Identification of supernumerary ring chromosome 1 mosaicism using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Tuck-Muller, C M; Batista, D A; Wertelecki, W

    1995-03-27

    We report on a 15-year-old black boy with severe mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, and a supernumerary ring chromosome mosaicism. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a chromosome 1 painting probe (pBS1) identified the ring as derived from chromosome 1. The karyotype was 46,XY/47,XY,+r(1)(p13q23). A review showed 8 reports of ring chromosome 1. In 5 cases, the patients had a non-supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in partial monosomies of the short and/or long arm of chromosome 1. In 3 cases, the presence of a supernumerary ring resulted in partial trisomy of different segments of chromosome 1. In one of these cases the supernumerary ring was composed primarily of the centromere and the heterochromatic region of chromosome 1, resulting in normal phenotype. Our patient represents the third report of a supernumerary ring chromosome 1 resulting in abnormal phenotype.

  2. Supernumerary ring chromosome 20 characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, Irene M.; Otter, Mariëlle A.; Aronson, Daniël C.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Hennekam, Raoul C.M.; Leschot, Nico J.; Hoovers, Jan M.N.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a boy with mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay, in whom karyotyping showed an additional minute ring chromosome in 60% of metaphases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromere specific probe demonstrated that the ring chromosome contained the centromeric

  3. Selective cognitive impairment and tall stature due to chromosome 19 supernumerary ring.

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    Melis, Daniela; Genesio, Rita; Del Giudice, Ennio; Taurisano, Roberta; Mormile, Angela; D'Elia, Federica; Conti, Anna; Imperati, Floriana; Andria, Generoso; Nitsch, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) occur with a frequency of approximately 0.4 per 1000 newborns and are more frequent in the population with mental retardation and/or with dysmorphic signs. Small supernumerary chromosome rings (sSCR) usually occur as apart of a mosaic karyotype (Liehr et al., 2004). Chromosome 19 supernumerary rings are very rare. Almost all cases of sSMC19 have been reported on Thomas Liehr's website (http://www.med.uni-jena.de/fish/sSMC/19.htm#Start19). Of these cases, 14 were with phenotypic abnormalities and a clear characterization of the sSMC; two cases were suitable for comparison with our case with regard to their genetic content, but not with regard to the structure ofthe sSMC (Manvelyan et al., 2008). The phenotype, associated with partial trisomy 19q, includes facial dysmorphism, growth and mental retardation, macrocephaly, heart malformation and anomalies of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The phenotype associated with partial trisomy 19p is characterized by dysmorphic features, severe mental retardation, abnormalities of brain morphology and anomalies of the fingers (Tercanli et al., 2000; Qorri et al., 2002; Novelli et al., 2005; Vraneković et al., 2008). Herein, we report the phenotype and molecular cytogenetic analysis in a patient with the smallest de-novo constitutional ring extended from the p12 to q12 region of chromosome 19.

  4. Low grade mosaic for a complex supernumerary ring chromosome 18 in an adult patient with multiple congenital anomalies

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    Hoogeboom A Jeannette M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases have been reported of patients with a ring chromosome 18 replacing one of the normal chromosomes 18. Less common are patients with a supernumerary ring chromosomes 18. High resolution whole genome examination in patients with multiple congenital abnormalities might reveal cytogenetic abnormalities of an unexpected complexity. Results We report a 24 years old male patient with lower spinal anomalies, hypospadia, bifid scrotum, cryptorchism, anal atresia, kidney stones, urethra anomalies, radial dysplasia, and a hypoplastic thumb. Some of the anomalies overlap with the VACTERL association. Chromosome analysis of cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed an additional ring chromosome in 13% of the metaphases. Both parents had a normal karyotype, demonstrating the de novo origin of this ring chromosome. FISH analysis using whole chromosome paints showed that the additional chromosomal material was derived from chromosome 18. Chromosome analysis of cultured fibroblasts revealed only one cell with the supernumerary ring chromosome in the 400 analyzed. To characterize the ring chromosome in more detail peripheral blood derived DNA was analyzed using SNP-arrays. The array results indicated a 5 Mb gain of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18q10-q11.2. FISH analysis using BAC-probes located in the region indicated the presence of 6 signals on the r(18 chromosome. In addition, microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the unique supernumerary ring chromosome was paternally derived and both normal copies showed biparental disomy. Conclusions We report on an adult patient with multiple congenital abnormalities who had in 13% of his cells a unique supernumerary ring chromosome 18 that was composed of 6 copies of the 5 Mb gene rich region of 18q11.

  5. A Marfan syndrome-like phenotype caused by a neocentromeric supernumerary ring chromosome 15.

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    Quinonez, Shane C; Gelehrter, Thomas D; Uhlmann, Wendy R

    2017-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are abnormal chromosomes that cannot be characterized by standard banding cytogenetic techniques. A minority of sSMC contain a neocentromere, which is an ectopic centromere lacking the characteristic alpha-satellite DNA. The phenotypic manifestations of sSMC and neocentromeric sSMC are variable and range from severe intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies to a normal phenotype. Here we report a patient with a diagnosis of Marfan syndrome and infertility found to have an abnormal karyotype consisting of a chromosome 15 deletion and a ring-type sSMC likely stabilized by a neocentromere derived via a mechanism initially described by Barbara McClintock in 1938. Analysis of the sSMC identified that it contained the deleted chromosome 15 material and also one copy of FBN1, the gene responsible for Marfan syndrome. We propose that the patient's diagnosis arose from disruption of the FBN1 allele on the sSMC. To date, a total of 29 patients have been reported with an sSMC derived from a chromosomal deletion. We review these cases with a specific focus on the resultant phenotypes and note significant difference between this class of sSMC and other types of sSMC. Through this review we also identified a patient with a clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 who lacked a family history of the condition but was found to have a chromosome 17-derived sSMC that likely contained NF1 and caused the patient's disorder. We also review the genetic counseling implications and recommendations for a patient or family harboring an sSMC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the minutes of II Uruguayan Geological Congress have been included the following topics: structural geology, tectonic, sedimentology, stratigraphy, mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, paleontology, mineral prospecting, economic, regional and applied geology. (author)

  7. Years of annual ring formation of trees and elements of minute amount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Yukio

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the trunks of trees is briefly explained, and the effect of environmental factors such as light, rain, soil, temperature and so on and the effect of environmental pollution are conceivable. The examples of the research on the quantitative determination of the elements of minute amount contained in the annual rings of trees and their use as the living things for environmental pollution index are shown, and the problems are considered. The concentration of manganese contained in annual rings may be used as environmental pollution index. It was pointed out that cadmium accumulated in annual rings had a strong correlation with the decrease of annual ring width. K-40 once taken in annual rings moved radially in connection with physical and physiological actions. The authors have examined the distribution of the elements of minute amount in the trunks, using Japanese cedar, white fir and oak as the specimens. For the quantitative analysis of the elements of minute amount, thermal neutron radioactivation analysis was used, which can analyze many elements simultaneously by nondestructive method. The elements of minute amount in the trunks of Japanese cedar, the difference of the distribution according to the kinds of trees, and the movement of elements within trunks are reported. The application of PIXE method to this analysis is considered. (Kako, I.)

  8. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

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    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Supernumerary teeth in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Szkaradkiewicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. The prevalence rates of supernumerary teeth in the permanent dentition amounts 0.1-6.9%, and in deciduous dentition 0.4-0.8%. The presence of supernumerary teeth can be found in everyday dental practice.Case presentation: We describe 3 cases of patients with supernumerary teeth. First patient had supernumerary lateral incisor 12s, second - premolar fused, multicuspid, supernumerary deciduous tooth 64s of having several interconnected roots, and third - erupted odontoma between teeth 13 and 14. In all cases treatment involved the removal of the supernumerary tooth.Conclusions: The decision on proceeding with the supernumerary teeth should be based on the full clinical picture and interview. Early diagnosis and removal of supernumerary teeth allow to avoid or reduce possible complications.

  10. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

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    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  11. [Origin and morphological features of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in Turner syndrome].

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    Liu, Nan; Tong, Tong; Chen, Yue; Chen, Yanling; Cai, Chunquan

    2018-02-10

    OBJECTIVE To explore the origin and morphological features of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) in Turner syndrome. METHODS For 5 cases of Turner syndrome with a sSMC identified by conventional G-banding, dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to explore their origin and morphological features. RESULTS Among the 5 cases, 3 have derived from the X chromosome, which included 2 ring chromosomes and 1 centric minute. For the 2 sSMCs derived from the Y chromosome, 1 was ring or isodicentric chromosome, while the other was an isodicentric chromosome. CONCLUSION The sSMCs found in Turner syndrome have almost all derived from sex chromosomes. The majority of sSMCs derived from the X chromosome will form ring chromosomes, while a minority will form centric minute. While most sSMC derived from Y chromosome may exist as isodicentric chromosomes, and a small number may exist as rings. For Turner syndrome patients with sSMCs, dual-color FISH may be used to delineate their origins to facilitate genetic counseling and selection of clinical regime.

  12. Supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic patients

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    Mali, Santosh; Karjodkar, Freny Rashmiraj; Sontakke, Subodh; Sansare, Kaustubh [Nair Hospital Dental College, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-03-15

    Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth without associated syndrome is a rare phenomenon, as supernumerary teeth are usually associated with cleft lip and palate or other syndromes such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and so on. Five patients with supernumerary teeth visited our department. They had no familial history or other pathology, certain treatment protocols was modified due to the presence of supernumerary teeth. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth, if asymptomatic, need to have periodical radiographic observation. If they showed no variation as they impacted in the jaw, careful examination is necessary because they may develop into pathological status such as dentigerous cysts. The importance of a precise clinical history and radiographic examination for patients with multiple supernumerary teeth should be emphasized.

  13. Supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mali, Santosh; Karjodkar, Freny Rashmiraj; Sontakke, Subodh; Sansare, Kaustubh

    2012-01-01

    Hyperdontia or supernumerary teeth without associated syndrome is a rare phenomenon, as supernumerary teeth are usually associated with cleft lip and palate or other syndromes such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and so on. Five patients with supernumerary teeth visited our department. They had no familial history or other pathology, certain treatment protocols was modified due to the presence of supernumerary teeth. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth, if asymptomatic, need to have periodical radiographic observation. If they showed no variation as they impacted in the jaw, careful examination is necessary because they may develop into pathological status such as dentigerous cysts. The importance of a precise clinical history and radiographic examination for patients with multiple supernumerary teeth should be emphasized.

  14. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Suat; Batur, Abdussamet; Keskin, Zeynep; Koc, Abdulkadir; Firat Ozcan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys

  15. Bilateral Supernumerary Kidney: A Very Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Suat; Batur, Abdussamet; Keskin, Zeynep; Koc, Abdulkadir; Firat Ozcan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, bilateral supernumerary kidney is a very rare renal abnormality and there are five cases presented in the literature. It is difficult to diagnose supernumerary kidney and clinicians have not detected most cases preoperatively. Laboratory and imaging studies were acquired and carefully examined. The normal laboratory tests were found. Emergency ultrasonography was performed and they revealed no signs of parenchymal abnormality in both kidneys. Serial imaging study including enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed. An imaging study identified bilateral supernumerary kidney with expanded collecting systems. On each side, significant rotation anomaly was found. In addition, there were two different renal arteries originating from the aorta. This report presents radiological determinations of supernumerary kidney bilaterally in a young man. We think that CT commonly appears to be enough for the diagnosis of supernumerary kidneys. PMID:25780543

  16. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

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    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed.

  17. Fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast: case report

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    Délio Marques Conde

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Supernumerary breast tissue may be affected by the same diseases and alterations that compromise topical breast tissue. Nevertheless, reports of fibroadenoma in supernumerary breast tissue in the axillae are rare. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of fibroadenoma in an axillary supernumerary breast. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old woman was referred to the gynecology and obstetrics outpatient clinic at Hospital Estadual Sumaré, complaining of bilateral axillary masses. The patient reported cosmetic problems and local pain and discomfort. On physical examination, alterations compatible with bilateral axillary accessory breasts, without palpable nodules, were observed. Supplementary examinations (mammography and ultrasonography revealed a 1.1 cm mass in the right axillary breast. The patient underwent resection of the supernumerary breasts and histopathological examination revealed fibroadenoma of the right axillary breast tissue.

  18. The management of premolar supernumeraries in three orthodontic cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence, etiology and location of supernumerary teeth with emphasis on premolar supernumeraries and examines the management of supernumerary premolars of three patients undergoing orthodontics. These cases demonstrate that the management of premolars is assessed individually and treatments based on potential complications, which may occur during the orthodontic and surgical management of the dentition. Progress and posttreatment radiographs are recommended for the assessment of late forming supernumerary teeth.

  19. Tuberculate and odontoma type supernumerary teeth.

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    Tarján, Ildikó; Gyulai, Szabolcs G; Soós, Attila; Rózsa, Noémi

    2005-11-01

    An 8-and-a-half-year-old girl with supernumerary teeth of tuberculate and odontoma type is described. Treatment of the patient is carried out on conventional lines with a combination of surgical and orthodontic methods. The upper tuberculate type supernumerary teeth were extracted and, after surgical exposure, the upper permanent first incisors were aligned with removable appliances. After secondary dentition was completed, the lower odontoma type supernumerary tooth was removed surgically, and also the maxillary and mandibular first premolars were extracted because of severe crowding, and fixed orthodontic appliances were used to align the permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and treatment of this anomaly is necessary to avoid more serious consequences and to prevent severe orthodontic disturbances.

  20. Non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: report of a case with 6 supernumerary teeth

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    Taghibakhsh M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Multiple supernumerary teeth are rare and often found in association with syndromes such as Gardner, Cleidocranial dysplasia and cleft lip and palate, with a much less chance for isolated"nnon-syndromic cases. The aim of this study was to report a case with 6 supernumerary teeth without syndromic association."nCase Report: The patient was a 33 year-old female, referred to oral diseases and diagnosis department with chief complaint of sensitivity to cold and hot food in right upper premolar region. Oral examination revealed 5 erupted lingually supernumerary teeth (four in mandibular and one in maxillary premolar region, respectively. Further panoramic radiography clarified an extra impacted tooth in the palatal region of left premolar maxillary area. All extra teeth had been appeared since the age of 17 during one year, as the patient claimed. Medical history and thorough clinical and paraclinical examinations were not significant except for the hypothyroidism, since 5 years ago. No other family member noticed to be the case. Based on our findings, a diagnosis of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary teeth was established."nConclusion: A thorough examination of each patient presented with supernumerary teeth, including panoramic and intraoral radiographic images may provide valuable information regarding accompanying syndromes and unerupted teeth. Early diagnosis is an essential step for orthodontic or surgical decisions making, preventing or avoiding worsening complications such as malocclusion, adjacent normal teeth delayed eruption or rotation, diasthema, cystic lesions and resorption of contiguous teeth.

  1. Canaliculitis in supernumerary puncta and canaliculi

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    Ku Chui Yong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of supernumerary puncta and canaliculi presented with canaliculitis. A-59 year-old gentleman presented with painful swelling of the left lower lid for a week, which was associated with epiphora. The swelling was confined to the nasal aspect of the left lower lid (0.5¥0.5 mm with inflamed overlying skin. Two puncta (0.5 mm apart were noted. The outer punctum at the normal anatomical position was a cul-de-sac while the inner punctum it the caruncle was patent. We described the embryology leading to supernumerary puncta and canaliculi to explain the paradoxical patency of the abnormally located punctum as well as the pathomechanism leading to canaliculitis. The patient was treated with oral cloxacillin 500 mg, 6 hourly for 5 days; the cellulitis subsided after three days.

  2. Canaliculitis in supernumerary puncta and canaliculi.

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    Yong, Ku Chui; Kah, Tan Aik; Annuar, Faridah Hanom

    2011-07-01

    We report the first case of supernumerary puncta and canaliculi presented with canaliculitis. A-59 year-old gentleman presented with painful swelling of the left lower lid for a week, which was associated with epiphora. The swelling was confined to the nasal aspect of the left lower lid (0.5×0.5 mm) with inflamed overlying skin. Two puncta (0.5 mm apart) were noted. The outer punctum at the normal anatomical position was a cul-de-sac while the inner punctum it the caruncle was patent. We described the embryology leading to supernumerary puncta and canaliculi to explain the paradoxical patency of the abnormally located punctum as well as the pathomechanism leading to canaliculitis. The patient was treated with oral cloxacillin 500 mg, 6 hourly for 5 days; the cellulitis subsided after three days.

  3. Supernumerary teeth: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos Lopez, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) have been an anomaly of tooth development, this is refered to the increase in the number of pieces in the normal dentition. It can be unique, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, normal or altered form; appear erupted, impacted or retained. Both dentitions are affected, but is most common in the permanent. The literature review has covered and mentioned spanned supernumerary teeth, the definition, etiology, characteristics and classification according to number, position and shape; as diagnose, alterations or clinical sequelae - eruptive associated with them and possible treatments to be done when it occurs. The presence of mechanical accidents have been a frequent complication, within this, displacement of adjacent teeth has been the most common; is associated with different syndromes such as lip and palate cleft; however, they can not be related with pathologies; being mesiodens the most frequent. (author) [es

  4. Bilateral Supernumerary Teeth in Deciduous Dentition-A Rarity

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mondal, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition and more often seen in males. A supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent centr...

  5. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

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    Jung, Yun Hoa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape.

  6. Bilateral supernumerary teeth in deciduous dentition-a rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mondal, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition and more often seen in males. A supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent central incisors which will further alter occlusion and may compromise esthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. Here we discuss a case of bilateral supernumerary teeth in deciduous dentition in a female child.

  7. The effects of impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth on permanent incisors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic features associated with impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth, to determine the relationship between their characteristics and their effects on permanent incisors, and to investigate the types of orthodontic treatment that patients received after the extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth. The clinical records and radiographs of 193 patients whose impacted premaxillary supernumerary teeth were removed were retrospectively reviewed, and 241 impacted supernumerary teeth were examined. Cone-beam computed tomographic images and panoramic radiographs were examined to determine the number, location, sagittal position, orientation, and morphology of the supernumerary teeth. Their effects on permanent incisors and the orthodontic treatment received by patients after the extraction of the supernumeraries were also investigated. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently observed in the central incisor region, in the palatal position, in the inverted orientation, and were most commonly conical in shape. The most common complication was median diastema, followed by displacement and delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Ten (71.4%) of the 14 odontomas showed delayed eruption of the adjacent incisors. Displacement of the incisors was more frequently observed in association with supernumerary teeth with tuberculate or supplemental shapes. Orthodontic traction was most frequently performed after the removal of odontomas. In 32 cases (13.3%), permanent incisors erupted after the orthodontic creation of sufficient space. Median diastema was most common complication. The delayed eruption of incisors was common in supernumerary teeth with a vertical orientation and an odontoma shape

  8. Is the 6-minute pegboard and ring test valid to evaluate upper limb function in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of COPD?

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    Felisberto RM

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosimeire Marcos Felisberto,1 Cassia Fabiane de Barros,1 Kelly Cristina Albanezi Nucci,1 Andre Luis Pereira de Albuquerque,1 Elaine Paulin,2 Christina May Moran de Brito,1 Wellington Pereira Yamaguti1 1Hospital Sírio-Libanês, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil Background: The 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6-PBRT is a useful test for assessing the functional capacity of upper limbs in patients with stable COPD. Although 6-PBRT has been validated in stable patients, the possibility of a high floor effect could compromise the validity of the test in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to verify the convergent validity of 6-PBRT in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Patients who were hospitalized due to AECOPD and healthy elderly participants, voluntarily recruited from the community, were considered for inclusion. All participants underwent a 6-PBRT. Isokinetic evaluation to measure the strength and endurance of elbow flexors and extensors, handgrip strength (HGS, spirometry testing, the modified Pulmonary Functional Status Dyspnea Questionnaire (PFSDQ-M, the COPD assessment test (CAT, and symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue were all measured as comparisons for convergent validity. Good convergent validity was considered if >75% of these hypotheses could be confirmed (correlation coefficient>0.50. Results: A total of 17 patients with AECOPD (70.9±5.1 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of 41.8%±17.9% of predicted and 11 healthy elderly subjects were included. The HGS showed a significant strong correlation with 6-PBRT performance (r=0.70; p=0.002. The performance in 6-PBRT presented a significant moderate correlation with elbow flexor torque peak (r=0.52; p=0.03 and elbow extensor torque peak (r=0.61; p=0.01. The total muscular work of the 15

  9. Bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary premolars associated with unusual clinical complications

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    Zameer Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth in comparison to the normal dentition. Their prevalence varies between 0.1% and 3.8%. Supernumeraries are more common in permanent dentition and its incidence is higher in maxillary incisor region, followed by maxillary third molar and mandibular molar, premolar, canine, and lateral incisor. The prevalence of supernumerary premolars is between 0.075-0.26%, and they may occur in single or multiple numbers Bilateral occurrence is uncommon and large percentage of supernumerary premolars remains impacted, unerupted, and usually asymptomatic; radiograph plays an important role in diagnosis of these. The present paper reports a case of bilaterally impacted completely developed supernumerary premolars associated with common clinical complication in unusual manner along with taurodontism of the upper and lower molars.

  10. Non-syndrome multiple supernumerary teeth in Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umweni, A A; Osunbor, G E N

    2002-09-01

    The present study was carried out to ascertain frequency of multiple supernumerary teeth not associated with syndrome in Nigerians. A total of 13 patients comprising of 10 males (76.92%) and 3 female (23.07%) representing 0.098% of the study population had multiple supernumerary teeth. Multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated systemic diseases or syndrome are rare as reported by BLUMENTHAL (3) RUHLMAN and NEELY (17), KANTOR et al. (10) is not the case in this study. The maxillary region has the highest frequency of occurrence with 12 times (66.67%) followed by the mandibular premolar region with 4 times (22.22%) while maxillary premolar and mandibular anterior region shared (5.55%) respectively. The conical and tuberculate types of supernumerary teeth were found in the midline region, while the supplemental supernumerary teeth were more in the mandibular premolar region with 12 (70.58%) follow by maxillary midline 4 (23.52%) and the lower incisor region 1 (5.88%) which is in consonant with WINTER and BROOK (2), STAFNE (19) NAZIF, FUTALO ZULLO (15). The role of genetics in the aetiology of multiple supernumerary teeth as found in this study, the occurrence of supernumerary teeth on two brothers and a daughter to one of the affected brothers, tends, to suggest an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and the challenges to management by the orthodontists are discussed.

  11. The radiographic localization of unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Lee, Chang Yul; You, Choong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the use of the vertical tube shift from a panoramic film and a periapical film to localize unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries. The total of 103 displaced maxillary incisors or embedded supernumeraries were examined in this study. The vertical tube shift technique with panoramic and periapical radiography by normal projection taken and compared to localize the position of the embedded maxillary incisors or supernumeraries by a radiologist and 5 general dentists. The gold standard used for the radiographic comparisons was the true position of the embedded tooth as confirmed by horizontal tube shift technique using three periapical radiographs. The general dentist examiners were instructed on the use of the modified acronym 'SLDOBU' by the radiologist as it pertains to panoramic radiographs as the principle of vertical tube shift. All of the embedded maxillary incisors and supernumeraries were successfully located using the vertical tube shift from a panoramic and a maxillary anterior periapical radiograph by the radiologist and 5 general dentists. The use of a panoramic film with a periapical film combination for a vertical tube shift can be useful to localize unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries.

  12. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  13. Bilateral Maxillary Central Incisor Impaction associated with Developing Supernumerary Premolars in the Mandibular Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of 15-year-old girl with bilaterally impacted supernumeraries in the premaxilla region associated with asymptomatic impacted developing supernumerary premolars in the mandibular arch. The supernumeraries of premaxilla region impeded the eruption of the permanent maxillary central incisors. The impacted supernumerary tooth was surgically removed and brackets bonded to the central incisors to apply orthodontic extrusive force which brought the central incisors down to their proper position in the dental arch.

  14. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R.; Kalaskar, Ashita R.

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. ...

  15. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  16. Supernumerary teeth in primary dentition and early intervention: a series of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadure, Rakesh N; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed.

  17. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Bahadure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernumerary teeth is important to prevent further complications in permanent dentition. Four cases of supernumerary teeth with mesiodens in upper and lower arch in primary dentition and their management have been discussed.

  18. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of. SA registrars (SARs). Methods.

  19. The detailed evaluation of supernumerary teeth with the aid of cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumen, E.C.; Yavuz, I.; Atakul, F.; Tumen, D.S.; Hamamci, N.; Berber, G.; Uysal, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a recently developed three-dimensional imaging system, cone beam computed tomography, in the detailed evaluation of supernumerary teeth. Two-hundred and twenty three patients with supernumerary teeth (68 females and 155 males) were included in this study. Patients ranged in age from 12 to 25 years. Supernumerary teeth were detected by clinical examination and traditional radiographies. Moreover, careful investigation for more details was made with the cone beam computed tomography. Supernumerary teeth which were detected with the examinations of the cone beam computed tomography images were classified according to the number, location, shape and eruption rate. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was determined to be 1.45% of the study population. Males were affected more than females in a ratio of 2.3:1. Supernumerary teeth were most frequently located in 86.2% of the cases in the maxilla; 10.1% in the mandible and 3.7% both in the maxilla and mandible. Supernumerary teeth were most commonly conical in shape (68.8%). One supernumerary tooth was present in 67.7% of the patients, 30.9% had two, and 1.4% had three supernumeraries. Definite and early diagnosis of the supernumerary teeth is very important. Detailed examinations and evaluations of these teeth with three-dimensional images is very beneficial in terms of treatment planning and preventing complications which may occur.

  20. A novel mutation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene results in the formation of supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Cai, Wenping; Jiang, Beizhan; Xu, Laijun; Liu, Shangfeng; Zhao, Shouliang

    2018-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are teeth that are present in addition to normal teeth. Although several hypotheses and some molecular signalling pathways explain the formation of supernumerary teeth, but their exact disease pathogenesis is unknown. To study the molecular mechanisms of supernumerary tooth-related syndrome (Gardner syndrome), a deeper understanding of the aetiology of supernumerary teeth and the associated syndrome is needed, with the goal of inhibiting disease inheritance via prenatal diagnosis. We recruited a Chinese family with Gardner syndrome. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of supernumerary teeth and colonic polyp lesion biopsies revealed that these patients exhibited significant pathological characteristics. APC gene mutations were detected by PCR and direct sequencing. We revealed the pathological pathway involved in human supernumerary tooth development and the mouse tooth germ development expression profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Sequencing analysis revealed that an APC gene mutation in exon 15, namely 4292-4293-Del GA, caused Gardner syndrome in this family. This mutation not only initiated the various manifestations typical of Gardner syndrome but also resulted in odontoma and supernumerary teeth in this case. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of human supernumerary teeth suggests that the APC gene is the key gene involved in the development of supernumerary teeth in humans. The mouse tooth germ development expression profile shows that the APC gene plays an important role in tooth germ development. We identified a new mutation in the APC gene that results in supernumerary teeth in association with Gardner syndrome. This information may shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of supernumerary teeth. Gene-based diagnosis and gene therapy for supernumerary teeth may become available in the future, and our study provides a high-resolution reference for treating other syndromes associated with supernumerary teeth. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of

  1. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Complications of Supernumerary Teeth in Nonsyndromic Pediatric Population of South India: A Clinical and Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syriac, Gibi; Joseph, Elizabeth; Rupesh, S; Philip, John; Cherian, Sunu Alice; Mathew, Josey

    2017-11-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the presence of more number of teeth over the normal dental formula and may occur in permanent as well as early mixed dentition. This study determined the prevalence, characteristics, and complications caused by supernumerary teeth in nonsyndromic South Indian pediatric population. Characteristics of supernumerary teeth determined by clinical and radiographic examination were recorded. The age, sex, number of supernumerary teeth, eruption status, morphology, position, orientation, and complications (if any) associated with supernumerary teeth were recorded for each patient who had supernumerary teeth. The data collected were statistically analyzed. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 45 subjects (1.1%), of which 34 (75.6%) were male and 11 (24.4%) were female. There was no association between the number of supernumerary teeth and the gender of the patient. The total number of supernumerary teeth among the affected 45 patients was 54. The average number of supernumerary teeth per person was 1.2. The number of supernumerary teeth was one in 35 cases, two in 8 cases, and 3 in 1 case. Of the 45 patients, 8 patients with supernumerary teeth were in deciduous dentition stage, 29 patients were in mixed dentition stage, and 8 patients were in permanent dentition stage. Most supernumerary teeth presented in the anterior maxilla. Morphologically, conical-shaped supernumerary teeth were the most common finding. 68.5% of supernumerary teeth presented with straight orientation and inverted orientation was seen in 24.1%. Complications seen in patients with supernumerary teeth were delayed or noneruption of adjacent tooth malposition or rotation of adjacent teeth, diastema formation, and formation of dentigerous cyst. Supernumerary teeth have an incidence of 1.1% in South Indian population and can cause many complications that can harm the developing occlusion. Knowledge about supernumerary teeth may help the dentist in early diagnosis and early

  2. Supernumerary Teeth in Primary Dentition and Early Intervention: A Series of Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadure, Rakesh N.; Thosar, Nilima; Jain, Eesha S.; Kharabe, Vidhi; Gaikwad, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stages. They are of great concern to the dentists and parents because of the eruption, occlusal, and esthetic problems they can cause. Supernumerary teeth occur more frequently in the permanent dentition but rarely in primary dentition. Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth but rarely seen in lower arch. Early recognition and diagnosis of supernume...

  3. Supernumerary Teeth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: The Dilemma of Early Versus Late Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarne, Ofer; Shapira, Yehoshua; Blumer, Sigalit; Finkelstein, Tamar; Schonberger, Shirley; Bechor, Naomi; Shpack, Nir

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region causing interference to the developing permanent incisors resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Two different opinions regarding the timing for surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth are presented. In this case report, three brothers with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region are presented, their surgical and orthodontic management and outcome are discussed.

  4. Múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares Multiple distomolars supernumerary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    F.J. Rodríguez Romero; S. Cerviño Ferradanes

    2009-01-01

    En una dentición normal, los dientes supernumerarios son aquellos descritos como adicionales a la serie. La etiología no esta clara. Se han descritos tanto en dentición primaria como en permanente, aunque son mas frecuentes en la dentición permanente. El objetivo de este informe es presentar un caso de una paciente con múltiples dientes supernumerarios distomolares. Cuartos molares bilaterales simétricos son sumamente raros.Supernumerary teeth are described as the teeth formed in excess of th...

  5. Genetics and presence of non-syndromic supernumerary teeth: A mystery case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khambete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of supernumerary teeth is well-recognized clinical phenomenon. However, it is uncommon to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. Presence of multiple supernumerary teeth is thought to have genetic component. We report a rare case where multiple supernumerary teeth were seen without presence of any other syndrome in 3 generations; father, son, and two grandsons. We also present a review of similar cases published in literature till date. The role of genetics in development of supernumerary teeth is highlighted.

  6. Three Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in a Patient with Developmental Delay, Mental Retardation, and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized three supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs simultaneously present in a 2-year- and 10-month-old male patient with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Peripheral blood chromosome analysis revealed two to three SMCs in 25/26 cells analyzed. The remaining one cell had one SMC. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH showed mosaicism for gains of 5q35.3, 15q11.2q13.3, and 18p11.21q11.1 regions. All three gains contain multiple OMIM genes. FISH studies indicated that one of the SMCs is a dicentric ring 15 with two copies of the 15q11.2q13.3 region including SNRPN/UBE3A and two copies of the 5q35.3 region. One of the der(18s contains the 18 centromere and 18p11.2 regions, while the other der(18 has a signal for the 18 centromere only. The phenotype of the patient is compared with that of patients with tetrasomy 15q11.2q13.3, trisomy 5q35.3, and trisomy 18p11.2. Our study demonstrates that aCGH and FISH analyses are powerful tools, which complement the conventional cytogenetic analysis for the identification of SMCs.

  7. Unexpected structural complexity of supernumerary marker chromosomes characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Anne V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs are structurally abnormal extra chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding techniques. In the past, SMCs have been characterized using a variety of different molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although these techniques can sometimes identify the chromosome of origin of SMCs, they are cumbersome to perform and are not available in many clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Furthermore, they cannot precisely determine the region or breakpoints of the chromosome(s involved. In this study, we describe four patients who possess one or more SMCs (a total of eight SMCs in all four patients that were characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results In at least one SMC from all four patients, array CGH uncovered unexpected complexity, in the form of complex rearrangements, that could have gone undetected using other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although array CGH accurately defined the chromosome content of all but two minute SMCs, fluorescence in situ hybridization was necessary to determine the structure of the markers. Conclusion The increasing use of array CGH in clinical cytogenetic laboratories will provide an efficient method for more comprehensive characterization of SMCs. Improved SMC characterization, facilitated by array CGH, will allow for more accurate SMC/phenotype correlation.

  8. Multiple supernumerary teeth and odontoma in the maxilla: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Sood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most supernumerary impacted teeth are located in the anterior maxillary region. They are classified according to their form and location. Their presence may give rise to a variety of clinical problems. The detection of supernumerary teeth is best achieved by thorough clinical and radiographic examination. Their management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. This article presents an overview of the diagnostic problems associated with multiple supernumerary impacted teeth and includes a discussion of the classification, diagnosis, and management of this difficult clinical entity.

  9. The Human Octopus: controlling supernumerary hands with the help of virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Aru, Jaan; Vasser, Madis; Zafra, Raul; Kulu, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the "human octopus" phenomenon where subjects controlled virtual supernumerary hands through hand tracking technology and virtual reality. Four experiments were developed to study how subjects (n=10) operate with different number and behaviour of supernumerary hands. The behaviours involved inserting movement delays to the virtual hands and adjusting their movement scale or position. It was found that having more hands to operate with does not necessarily mean higher success r...

  10. Agenesis of premolar associated with submerged primary molar and a supernumerary premolar: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. G. Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of submerged primary molar, agenesis of permanent successor with a supernumerary in the same place is very rare. The purpose of this article is to report a case of submerged mandibular left second primary molar with supernumerary tooth in the same region along with agenesis of second premolar in an 11-year-old girl, its possible etiological factors, and a brief discussion on treatment options.

  11. Taking minutes of meetings

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    aking Minutes of Meetings guides you through the entire process behind minute taking: arranging the meeting; writing the agenda; creating the optimum environment; structuring the meeting and writing notes up accurately. The minute-taker is one of the most important and powerful people in a meeting and you can use this opportunity to develop your knowledge, broaden your horizons and build credibility within the organization. Taking Minutes of Meetings is an easy to read 'dip-in, dip-out' guide which shows you how to confidently arrange meetings and produce minutes. It provides hands-on advice about the sections of a meeting as well as tips on how to create an agenda, personal preparation, best practice advice on taking notes and how to improve your accuracy. Brand new chapters of this 4th edition include guidance on using technology to maximize effectiveness and practical help with taking minutes for a variety of different types of meetings. The creating success series of books... With over one million copi...

  12. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF IMPACTED SUPERNUMERARY TEETH: A CONE BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPH (CBCT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GÜRLER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacted supernumerary teeth which were initially detected on panoramic radiographs by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, supernumerary teeth diagnosed on panoramic radiographs taken from patients who had admitted for routine dental treatment were evaluated using CBCT. Patients’ age, gender, systemic conditions as well as number of supernumerary teeth, unilateral-bilateral presence, anatomical localization (maxilla, mandible, anterior-premolar-molar, mesiodens-lateral-canine, parapremolar-paramolar-distomolar shape (rudimentary, supplemental, tuberculate, odontoma, position (palatal-lingual-buccal-labial-central, shortest distance between the tooth and adjacent cortical plate, complications and treatment were assessed. Results: A total of 47 impacted supernumerary teeth in 34 patients were investigated in this study. Of these, 33 (70.2% were unilateral and 14 (29.8% were bilateral. Only 1 supernumerary tooth was found in 27 patients (79.4% whereas 7 patients (20.6% had 2 or more supernumerary teeth. Most of the teeth located in the anterior region (74.4% of the jaws and maxilla (74.4%. Twenty teeth (42.5% were mesiodens, 11 (23.4% were lateral or canine, 14 (29.7% were parapremolar and 2(4.4% were distomolar. Twenty-seven teeth (57.4% were rudimentary, 15 (31.9% were supplemental and 5 (10.7% were odontoma in shape. The shortest distance between the supernumerary tooth and adjacent cortical plate varied between 0 to 2.5 mm with a mean of 0.66 mm. The most common clinical complaint was the non-eruption of permanent teeth (42.5%. All supernumerary teeth were removed under local anesthesia. Orthodontic traction was performed for those impacted permanent teeth if necessary. Conclusion: Impacted supernumerary teeth are usually in close proximity to cortical bone. Although this may facilitate surgical access, there is a risk of

  14. One minute paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    One-Minute Paper: A thinking centered assessment tool. Ashakiran ... achievement of objectives and learning ability of the students, to analyze the questioning pattern of ... factual information, rote memory and critical thinking. The aim of every teacher while teaching ... question prompts another higher order cognitive skill ...

  15. A Supernumerary Nipple-Like Clinical Presentation of Lymphangioma Circumscriptum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dustin; Kash, Natalie; Silapunt, Sirunya

    2018-01-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum is a superficially localized variant of lymphangioma. The characteristic clinical presentation is a "frogspawn" grouping of vesicles or papulovesicles on the proximal limb or limb girdle areas. Though most lymphangiomas develop congenitally, the lymphangioma circumscriptum subtype is known to present in adults. We report a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum on the left inframammary area of an African American female with an unusual supernumerary nipple-like clinical presentation. Our patient presented with a firm, smooth, hypopigmented papule, and the clinical diagnosis of keloid was made initially. However, she returned reporting growth of the lesion and was noted to have a firm, exophytic, lobulated, pink to skin-colored nodule. Histopathological examination demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of lymphangioma. The presentation as a firm, hypopigmented papule and later exophytic, lobulated, skin-colored nodule in our case represents a clinical presentation of lymphangioma circumscriptum not previously described in the literature. Correct diagnosis in lymphangioma circumscriptum is vital, as recurrence following surgical resection and secondary development of lymphangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma following treatment with radiation have been reported. Thus, it is important to consider lymphangioma circumscriptum in the differential of similar lesions in the future to allow appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

  16. Comprehensive therapy of a fusion between a mandibular lateral incisor and supernumerary tooth: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onçag, Ozant; Candan, Umit; Arikan, Fatih

    2005-08-01

    The term fusion is used to define a developmental anomaly characterised by the union of two adjacent teeth. In the case reported here, clinical and radiographic examinations suggested a unilateral fusion between the mandibular left permanent incisor and a super-numerary tooth. Radiographs showed that the fused teeth had two distinct pulp chambers and canals. A diagnosis of chronic periapical abscess of the supernumerary tooth was made. Before root canal therapy, a periodontal surgical procedure was performed to section the central incisor and its fused supernumerary. Also, odontoplasty was performed on the roots, to establish an anatomy consistent with a normal central incisor. Later, the chronic apical abscess on the supernumerary tooth was instrumented chemo-mechanically, root canal filling was performed and an anterior composite resin restoration was placed. The patient was evaluated for one year after root canal therapy. The tooth was asymptomatic, not exhibiting any pathological root resorption or alveolar resorption, and the anterior composite restoration was intact. Instead of extracting the supernumerary tooth, the application of endodontic, periodontal, and restorative procedures proved to be an alternative treatment.

  17. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  18. Supernumerary impacted teeth in a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Chikahiko; Kitanaka, Sachiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Katsushima, Yuriko; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome characteristically presents as anophthalmia or microphthalmia, with various extraocular symptoms, such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, brain anomaly, and esophageal abnormalities. In this report, we describe a patient with SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome complicated with a dental anomaly, multiple supernumerary impacted teeth, and persistence of deciduous teeth. Multiple supernumerary teeth are usually not solitary symptoms, but indicate systemic syndrome such as cleidocranial dysplasia. In odontogenesis, many transcriptional factors, such as BMPs, FGFs, and Wnts, play significant roles and SOX2 is known to interact with some of them. The role of SOX2 in dental development remains unknown, however, multiple supernumerary teeth can be considered as extraocular symptoms of SOX2 anophthalmia syndrome, rather than the coincidence of two rare diseases.

  19. Use of a Piezosurgery Technique to Remove a Deeply Impacted Supernumerary Tooth in the Anterior Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Kawakami, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Deeply impacted supernumerary teeth in the anterior maxillary cannot be generally removed by the conventional labial or palatal surgical approach because of the risk of damaging the surrounding soft tissues and the possibility of injuring the roots of adjacent permanent teeth. In piezosurgery, bony tissues are selectively cut, thereby avoiding the soft tissue damage caused by rotary cutting instruments. We report the case of a 15-year-old Japanese boy from whom a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxillary was safely removed through the floor of the nasal cavity. The surgical extraction was performed without damaging the nasal mucosa or adjacent structures such as the roots of the adjacent permanent teeth. Considering that piezosurgery limits the extent of surgical invasion, this technique can be practiced as a minimally invasive and safe surgical procedure for treating suitably selected cases with a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth. PMID:26779355

  20. Use of a Piezosurgery Technique to Remove a Deeply Impacted Supernumerary Tooth in the Anterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Sukegawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeply impacted supernumerary teeth in the anterior maxillary cannot be generally removed by the conventional labial or palatal surgical approach because of the risk of damaging the surrounding soft tissues and the possibility of injuring the roots of adjacent permanent teeth. In piezosurgery, bony tissues are selectively cut, thereby avoiding the soft tissue damage caused by rotary cutting instruments. We report the case of a 15-year-old Japanese boy from whom a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxillary was safely removed through the floor of the nasal cavity. The surgical extraction was performed without damaging the nasal mucosa or adjacent structures such as the roots of the adjacent permanent teeth. Considering that piezosurgery limits the extent of surgical invasion, this technique can be practiced as a minimally invasive and safe surgical procedure for treating suitably selected cases with a deeply impacted supernumerary tooth.

  1. Multiple Supernumerary Teeth in a Non-Syndromic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshgh Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple supernumerary teeth are a rare phenomenon. It occurs more often in patients with syndromes such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia and so on. This phenomenon in absence of such syndromes is rare. The purpose of this report was to introduce a case of non-syndromic multiple supernumerary impacted teeth.Case Report: A 29-year-old woman with no skeletal, metabolic, systemic and mental disorder was referred to oral and maxillofacial department of Mashhad dental school. In clinical evaluation, seven Permanent teeth were missing. In radiographic evaluation, there were a total of 15 impacted teeth which 7 of them were supernumerary.Conclusion: Missing or Excess of one or more teeth usually leads to occlusal and functional problems. In these cases, a complete clinical and radiographic examination accompanieal by a precise history should be performed to plan a suitable surgical-orthodontic-prosthetic treatment.

  2. Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth.

  3. Inactivation of IL11 signaling causes craniosynostosis, delayed tooth eruption, and supernumerary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Pekka; Morgan, Neil V; Fenwick, Aimée L

    2011-01-01

    Craniosynostosis and supernumerary teeth most often occur as isolated developmental anomalies, but they are also separately manifested in several malformation syndromes. Here, we describe a human syndrome featuring craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, delayed tooth eruption, and supernumerary...... teeth. We performed homozygosity mapping in three unrelated consanguineous Pakistani families and localized the syndrome to a region in chromosome 9. Mutational analysis of candidate genes in the region revealed that all affected children harbored homozygous missense mutations (c.662C>G [p.Pro221Arg], c...... for the treatment of craniosynostosis....

  4. CSEWG 2017 Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chadwick, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trkov, Andrej [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Dunn, M. [SprectraTech, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Neudecker, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-28

    These are the minutes of the 2017 Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). This meeting corresponds to the 50±1th anniversary of CSEWG. The uncertainty on the anniversary reflects the fact that CSEWG was formed in 1966 yet the first ENDF library was published in 1968. Despite the uncertainty on the date of the anniversary, this meeting is an especially auspicious one: this is the last meeting before the release of ENDF/B-VIII.0. This meeting is devoted both to closing out the last open issues before releasing the library and to looking toward the future. The careful reader should note that there are no closing statements in this meeting. This is in a way symbolic of the fact that since ENDF/B is always improving, our work here will never truly be done.

  5. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh R Kalaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning.

  6. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R; Kalaskar, Ashita R

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning.

  7. Clinical management of a fused upper premolar with supernumerary tooth: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Min Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available n dentistry, the term 'fusion' is used to describe a developmental disorder of dental hard tissues. In the permanent dentition, fusion of a normal tooth and a supernumerary tooth usually involves the incisors or canines. However, a few cases of fusion involving premolars have also been reported to date. We present a rare case in which fusion of the maxillary left second premolar and a supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old girl was diagnosed using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Alphard-3030, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd.. The tooth was bicuspidized after routine nonsurgical root canal treatment, and the separated teeth underwent appropriate restoration procedures. The second premolar and supernumerary tooth remained asymptomatic without any signs of inflammation after a follow-up period of 9 years. Identification of anatomical anomalies is important for treatment in cases involving fusion with supernumerary tooth, and therefore the microscopic examinations and CBCT are essential for the diagnosis. Fused teeth can be effectively managed by the comprehensive treatment which includes both endodontic and periodontal procedures.

  8. Nonsyndromic Bilateral Multiple Impacted Supernumerary Mandibular Third Molars: A Rare and Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siva Prasad Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A supernumerary tooth is that which is present additionally to the normal series and can be found in any region of the dental arch. An impacted tooth is defined as the one which is embedded in the alveolus, so that its eruption is prevented, or the tooth is locked in position by bone or the adjacent teeth. The occurrence of multiple supernumerary teeth in only one patient in the absence of an associated systemic condition or syndrome is considered as a rare phenomenon. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth in the lower molar region is rare. A prevalence of less than 2% of cases occurring in this region has been estimated. Their occurrence presents a clinical problem for orthodontists and oral surgeons. The cause, frequency, complications, and surgical operation of impacted teeth are always interesting subjects for study and research. An impacted tooth can result in caries, pulp disease, periapical and periodontal disease, temporomandibular joint disorder, infection of the fascial space, root resorption of the adjacent tooth, and even oral and maxillofacial tumours. The management of impacted wisdom teeth has changed over the past 20 years from removal of nonsymptomatic third molars to simple observation. The aim of this paper is to present a rare case of bilateral multiple impacted supernumerary mandibular third molars.

  9. Preoperative localization of supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Kano, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Uchida, Kazuharu; Yamada, Nobuo; Kawai, Machio; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The undetectable supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands have a high risk of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism, especially in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative image diagnosis, CT scan, echogram and 201 TlCl scintigram were very useful for detecting supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in our 132 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Among these methods the scintigraphy showed the highest detection rate of the glands located in the thyroid gland and those located between the thyroid gland and trachea. The echography was useful in detecting the glands in the thyroid gland, but could not offer easy visualization those located in the mediastinum. Even the ectopic parathyroid glands, weighing more than 500 mg were identifiable at about 90% when all the methods were applied routinely. In our experience, four patients had a supernumerary gland which was detected by the preoperative image diagnostic procedures at the initial surgery. One patient had a supernumerary gland in the mediastinum which was detected by image diagnosis after the initial operation and was removed at reoperation. (author)

  10. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-04-20

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on

  11. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Coleman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani, is a member of a group of >50 species known as the "Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI. Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique

  12. Surgical management of impacted incisors in associate with supernumerary teeth: a combine case report of spontaneous eruption and orthodontic extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D; Misra, J

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary permanent incisors impaction is not a frequent case in dental practice, but its treatment is challenging because of its importance to facial esthetics. Supernumerary teeth are the main cause of impaction of upper incisors. Supernumerary teeth when present can cause both esthetic and pathologic problems. Early detection of such teeth is most important if complications are to be avoided. In this reported case, the orthopantamogram of a 9-year-old boy revealed two impacted supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region, which was interfering with the eruption of the permanent central incisors. The impacted supernumerary teeth were surgically removed, 11 was repositioned in the arch as it was situated very high in the arch, close to the nasal floor. Twenty-one erupted spontaneously but orthodontic force was applied over 11 to bring it into the occlusion and alignment was achieved with 0.014 mm NiTi wire.

  13. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  14. Creating a Positive Classroom Culture: Minute by Minute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a peek into high school math teacher Ali Wright's typical school day, which includes time-tested strategies that she uses to build a positive culture in her classroom. Scheduled timeframes and activities include before school starts, five minutes before class, during announcements, during class, last five minutes of class,…

  15. Phantom Sensations, Supernumerary Phantom Limbs and Apotemnophilia: Three Body Representation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Body representation disorders continue to be mysterious and involve the anatomical substrate that underlies the mental representation of the body. These disorders sit on the boundaries of neurological and psychiatric diseases. We present the main characteristics of 3 examples of body representation disorders: phantom sensations, supernumerary phantom limb, and apotemnophilia. The dysfunction of anatomical circuits that regulate body representation can sometimes have paradoxical features. In the case of phantom sensations, the patient feels the painful subjective sensation of the existence of the lost part of the body after amputation, surgery or trauma. In case of apotemnophilia, now named body integrity identity disorder, the subject wishes for the disappearance of the existing and normal limb, which can occasionally lead to self-amputation. More rarely, a brain-damaged patient with 4 existing limbs can report the existence of a supernumerary phantom limb. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Multidisciplinary management of multiple maxillary anterior supernumerary teeth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Reddy, Sampath; Duddu, Mahesh; Reddy, Deepti

    2010-03-01

    Supernumerary teeth are a relatively frequent disorder of odontogenesis. They may occur alone or in multiple; be unilateral or bilateral; and appear in the maxilla, mandible, or both. Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth in the anterior maxilla between the two central incisors. This case report describes the treatment of maxillary central incisors displaced and impacted because of the presence of four mesiodens in a 12-year-old boy. After clinical and radiographic examination, surgical removal of the mesiodens and exposure of the maxillary right central incisor was performed. This resulted in a 14-mm space between the displaced central incisors. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was planned with cephalometric analysis. The central incisors were brought to the occlusal plane and aligned, and the space between the incisors was redistributed. Remaining minor spaces between the incisors were closed with composite resin buildup.

  17. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case re...

  19. Small supernumerary marker chromosome causing partial trisomy 6p in a child with craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Olaya; Del Campo, Miguel; Salido, Marta; Gener, Blanca; Astier, Laura; Del Valle, Jesús; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Solé, Francesc

    2007-05-15

    We report on a child with a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) causing partial trisomy 6p. The child showed a phenotype consisting of neonatal craniosynostosis, microcephaly, and borderline developmental delay. By molecular techniques the sSMC has been shown to contain approximately 16 Mb of genomic DNA from 6p21.1 to 6cen, being de novo and of maternal origin.

  20. Supernumerary Kidney Associated with Horseshoe Malformation: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Jamshidian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of supernumerary kidney associated with horseshoe malformation. A 35-year-old man presented complaining of vague and intermittent left flank pain from few months ago. Ultrasonography of urinary tract showed bilateral hydronephrosis and was suggestive of the horseshoe anomaly. Further evaluation with Intravenous urography showed three renal moieties consisting of a horseshoe kidney and a malrotated right kidney cephalad to and fused with the right moiety of horseshoe kidney.

  1. A review of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.

  2. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and clinical manifestations of a case with de novo mosaic ring chromosome 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jye-Siung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Clinical and molecular cytogenetic investigations of a newborn girl exhibiting facial dysmorphism with developmental delay. Methods Phenotypic evaluation was first applied to examine the proband's developmental status. Computed tomography and colour transcranial Doppler were used then to investigate her brain structure and function. Subsequently, chromosomal abnormalities were examined by karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to investigate size of fragments lost at the two distal ends of the ring chromosome 7. In addition, multicolour banding was applied to rule out structural rearrangement occurs in between the ring chromosome 7. Results The proband was born with mosaic supernumerary ring chromosome 7, without a normal karyotype detected in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. The distal arm of chromosome 7p (at least 255 kb from the telomere was part of an extra ring chromosome 7. In addition, the distal arm of 7q, at least 8 kb from the telomere, was missing. There was no other chromosomal rearrangement detected by multicolour banding. Interpretation This is the 19th reported case of complete ring chromosome 7 mosaicism and the first survived case with mosaic supernumerary ring 7 without a normal karyotype detected in the peripheral lymphocytes.

  4. Eruption of supernumerary permanent teeth in a sample of urban primary school population in Genoa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, G; Mondani, P M; Parodi, V

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study was to describe the incidence and distribution of hyperdontia in the primary school population in Genoa (Italy) and to check its influence on the development of orthodontic problems in children. The collected data should also help to find out what is the best age range among children to direct a program for early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and oral diseases related to hyperdontia. The participating children (total number 1577, 814 males and 763 females, between 6 and 10 years of age) chosen in 19 public primary schools in Genoa have been examined by the same specialist through year 2004. Erupted permanent teeth, presence, position and form of supernumerary teeth, malocclusion presence and class, presence of orthodontic devices, age and sex have been noted down for each child. The global percentage of hyperdontia was 0.38%, more frequent in males (0.49%) than in females (0.26%). The most common kind of supernumerary tooth was mesiodens (83%). A significant increase of hyperdontia prevalence (from 0.64% to 1.06%) was noticed in children 9 years old. The incidence of malocclusion among children presenting hyperdontia was 83.3%, while the global incidence of malocclusion was 40%. An orthodontic treatment had been planned and started for 20% of children presenting malocclusion. The study has revealed an incidence of hyperdontia much more frequent in males than in females (2:1). The most common site of eruption of supernumerary teeth is maxillary anterior region. Hyperdontia is strictly related with dental malocclusion. The best age range to direct a program of early diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion and hyperdontia is 9 years old children.

  5. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pedrassani

    Full Text Available This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state of Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  6. An EMG Interface for the Control of Motion and Compliance of a Supernumerary Robotic Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irfan; Spagnoletti, Giovanni; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel electromyographic (EMG) control interface to control motion and joints compliance of a supernumerary robotic finger. The supernumerary robotic fingers are a recently introduced class of wearable robotics that provides users additional robotic limbs in order to compensate or augment the existing abilities of natural limbs without substituting them. Since supernumerary robotic fingers are supposed to closely interact and perform actions in synergy with the human limbs, the control principles of extra finger should have similar behavior as human’s ones including the ability of regulating the compliance. So that, it is important to propose a control interface and to consider the actuators and sensing capabilities of the robotic extra finger compatible to implement stiffness regulation control techniques. We propose EMG interface and a control approach to regulate the compliance of the device through servo actuators. In particular, we use a commercial EMG armband for gesture recognition to be associated with the motion control of the robotic device and surface one channel EMG electrodes interface to regulate the compliance of the robotic device. We also present an updated version of a robotic extra finger where the adduction/abduction motion is realized through ball bearing and spur gears mechanism. We have validated the proposed interface with two sets of experiments related to compensation and augmentation. In the first set of experiments, different bimanual tasks have been performed with the help of the robotic device and simulating a paretic hand since this novel wearable system can be used to compensate the missing grasping abilities in chronic stroke patients. In the second set, the robotic extra finger is used to enlarge the workspace and manipulation capability of healthy hands. In both sets, the same EMG control interface has been used. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed control interface is intuitive and can

  7. Non-syndromic multiple impacted supernumerary teeth with peripheral giant cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG is a relatively frequent benign reactive lesion of the gingiva, originating from the periosteum or periodontal membrane following local irritation or chronic trauma. PGCG manifests as a red-purple nodule located in the region of the gingiva or edentulous alveolar margins. The lesion can develop at any age, although it is more common between the second and third decades of life, and shows a slight female predilection. PGCG is a soft tissue lesion that very rarely affects the underlying bone, although the latter may suffer superficial erosion. A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in almost any region of the dental arch. These teeth may be single, multiple, erupted or unerupted and may or may not be associated with syndrome. Usually, they cause one or the other problem in eruption or alignment of teeth, but may also present without disturbing the normal occlusion or eruption pattern. Management of these teeth depends on the symptoms. Presented here is a case of PGCG in relation to the lower left permanent first molar with three supernumerary teeth in the mandibular arch but no associated syndrome.

  8. Meiotic inheritance of a fungal supernumerary chromosome and its effect on sexual fertility in Nectria haematococca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaroodi, Hamid S; Taga, Masatoki

    2015-10-01

    PDA1-conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) of Nectria haematococca MP VI has long served as a model of supernumerary chromosomes in plant pathogenic fungi because of pathogenicity-related genes located on it. In our previous study, we showed the dosage effects of PDA1-CDC on pathogenicity and homoserine utilization by exploiting tagged PDA1-CDC with a marker gene. CDC content of mating partners and progenies analyzed by PCR, PFGE combined with Southern analysis and chromosome painting via FISH. In this study, we analyzed mode of meiotic inheritance of PDA1-CDC in several mating patterns with regard to CDC content and found a correlation between CDC content of parental strains with fertility of crosses. The results showed non-Mendelian inheritance of this chromosome followed by duplication or loss of the CDC in haploid genome through meiosis that probably were due to premature centromere division, not by nondisjunction as reported for the supernumerary chromosomes in other species. Correlation of CDC with fertility is the first time to be examined in fungi in this study. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii and branching pattern of the musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Basavaraj Angadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection by medical undergraduates, third head of the biceps brachii muscle was found on the left side of a 75-year-old male cadaver in a total of 48 arms dissected in Department of Anatomy Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. Biceps brachii is a muscle of arm having two heads hence the name. The most frequent variation of the muscle is in the number of heads with a prevalence range of 9.1-22.9%. The origin of the supernumerary head in this case was from the humerus, between the insertion of the coracobrachialis and the upper part of the origin of the brachialis, and also from the medial intermuscular septum. The supernumerary head joined the common belly. It was supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve which after emerging from brachialis pierced it near the middle and terminated by finally supplying the biceps belly. In our study, 2.08% (1 of 48 of male cadavers were found to have the third head of biceps. The incidence of this variation can be as much as 10% as, shown in previous studies on Indian population, as reported in standard textbooks of anatomy.

  10. A rare case of impacted supernumerary premolar causing resorption of mandibular first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Murali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with pain in today′s general practice has become a major concern and sometimes this pain is related to some rare causes. A male patient aged 26 years reported with pain in the lower left molar region (36 and then an intra-oral periapical radiograph (IOPA, and orthopantomograph was taken. IOPA revealed the presence of supernumerary premolar causing pressure and root resorption of 36. Also, there was missing 21 and proximal decay in 11. Eleven was treated endodontically, and then bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Lower anterior crowding was also present. The treatment plan was to extract 36 followed by orthodontic extrusion of the supernumerary premolar and also the correction of lower anterior crowding. Hidden approach (lingual orthodontics was used as the patient was insisting upon the braces not being seen outside during the course of the treatment. Later all ceramic bridge was done in relation to 11, 21 and 22. Orthodontic tooth extrusion techniques offer excellent treatment options for Partially Impacted tooth. It is a well-documented clinical method for extruding sound tooth material from within the alveolar socket by light forces. The use of lingual technique for forced eruption enhance acceptance of orthodontic treatment by adults. The treatment of a young adult patient illustrates the importance of treatment planning from one discipline to another, communication among team members and the benefits of working together in an interdisciplinary approach

  11. Recurrent epistaxis caused by an intranasal supernumerary tooth in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhafeeri, Hamed O; Kavarodi, Abdulmajid; Al Shaikh, Khalil; Bukhari, Ahmed; Al Hussain, Omair; El Baramawy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Male, 27. Recurrent epistaxis. Nasal bleeding. -. -. Pediatrics and Neonatology. Congenital defects/diseases. Recurrent epistaxis is a common disorder among children and young adults. We report an unusual cause, intranasal supernumerary tooth causing friction with Little's area of the nasal septum. A 22-year-old male presented with recurrent, mild, unilateral left-sided epistaxis once to twice per month for 3 years. This usually occurred after minor nasal trauma or rubbing his nose. The patient also suffered from recurrent tonsillitis. There was neither history of blood transfusion or nasal packing, nor a history suggestive of bleeding diathesis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed ivory white nasal mass antero-inferiorly in the left nasal cavity touching Little's area. There was no bleeding. Nasal endoscopy showed a white cylindrical bony mass 1 cm long arising from the floor of the nose, with no attachment to the nasal septum or the lateral wall of the nose. Examination of the right nasal cavity was unremarkable. Nasal teeth result from the ectopic eruption of supernumerary teeth and may cause a variety of symptoms including recurrent epistaxis. Their clinical and radiologic presentation is so characteristic that their diagnosis is not difficult. CT scan is helpful in planning management. Early extraction prevents further complications and prevents further attacks of epistaxis.

  12. The DECam Minute Cadence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, C.; Kilic, M.; Munn, J. A.; Gianninas, A.; Barber, S. D.; Dey, A.; Stetson, P. B.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first results from a minute cadence survey of a 3 deg2 field obtained with the Dark Energy Camera. We imaged part of the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey area over eight half-nights. We use the stacked images to identify 111 high proper motion white dwarf candidates with g≤ 24.5 mag and search for eclipse-like events and other sources of variability. We find a new g=20.64 mag pulsating ZZ Ceti star with pulsation periods of 11-13 min. However, we do not find any transiting planetary companions in the habitable zone of our target white dwarfs. Given the probability of eclipses of 1% and our observing window from the ground, the non-detection of such companions in this first field is not surprising. Minute cadence DECam observations of additional fields will provide stringent constraints on the frequency of planets in the white dwarf habitable zone.

  13. 5 experiments in 5 minutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Show, don't tell. When kids ask about your research, show, don't tell. We, the ambassadors of science, shouldn't be boring our nieces and nephews at family dinners with parameter distributions, we should make them excited about science. Getting people excited: show, don't tell. In 5 minutes, I will perform 5 experiments that anyone can do using everyday household items to get kids interested in science. Bring safety glasses.

  14. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elurbe, D.M.; Huynen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives

  15. The supernumerary cheek tooth in tabby/EDA mice-a reminiscence of the premolar in mouse ancestors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterková, Renata; Lesot, H.; Viriot, L.; Peterka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 219-225 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.002; GA ČR GA304/02/0448 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : supernumerary tooth * molar * odontogenesis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2005

  16. 60 minutes/our reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deakins, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    The prestigious CBS show 60 Minutes visited Illinois Power Company, an investor owned utility company building its first nuclear power plant, to do a story on the economics of nuclear construction. The company opened its doors to the show's producer and was astonished at the program that resulted. Illinois Power had filmed everything CBS filmed and subsequently prepared its own rebutal video tape showing unedited portions of interviews and factual information furnished CBS which they never used in the broadcast. The rebuttal tape has been distributed world wide and received coverage in leading newspapers and magazines. It has also been installed as a class study in major journalism and business schools

  17. Fibroadenoma in Axillary Supernumerary Breast in a 17-Year-Old Girl: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surd, Adrian; Mironescu, Aurel; Gocan, Horatiu

    2016-10-01

    Supernumerary breast or polymastia is a well documented anomaly of the breast, and commonly presents along the embryonic milk line extending between the axilla and groin. However, cases of polymastia have been recorded in the face, vulva, and perineum. The clinical significance of these anomalies include their susceptibility to inflammatory and malignant changes, and their association with other congenital anomalies of the urinary and cardiovascular systems. In this article we report a case of fibroadenoma that developed in the supernumerary breast of the right axilla in a 17-year-old girl. It is uncommon to find such palpable masses in young patients. Clinical and sonographic examination of both breasts revealed no abnormalities and no lymph nodes were detected in the axillae or the neck. No associated urologic or cardiovascular abnormalities were found, and the histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy samples showed a well-defined, capsulated intracanalicular type of fibroadenoma similar to that of eutopic mammary tissue. In this report, we describe a rare case of fibroadenoma in an accessory breast in a young woman. There are a fewer than 40 reports in the world about this subject, of which differential diagnoses include: cancer in axillary supernumerary breast, hidradenitis, axillary lymphadenomegaly, lipomas, anexial cutaneous neoplasia, cysts, and phylloides tumor. The combination of clinical examination, ultrasound, and cytology leads to adequate treatment, especially surgical. The diagnosis could be confused because of findings from cytology. In this case, because of the clinical and sonographic findings and multiple differential diagnosis, only the histopathological study was used to confirm the diagnosis. Despite its high sensitivity, cytology has low specificity and could create false positive results. However, atypical lesions can be seen in fibroadenomas, especially in younger patients, pregnant patients, and in patients who use hormonal

  18. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  19. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  20. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusion of a supernumerary tooth to right mandibular second molar: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Chao; Ren, Shuangshuang; Lin, Zintong; Miao, Leiying; Sun, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Gemination or fusion is a rare occurrence in the mandibular posterior teeth. The aim of this article is to describe the problems encountered and the strategy employed in treating such cases. A 34 years old patient came with the complaint of spontaneous and radiating pain in the right mandibular posterior region. The tooth in concern was an anomalous 'double' second mandibular molar diagnosed as having necrotic pulp with chronic apical abscess of endodontic origin. The present case emphasizes the importance of identifying anatomical anomalies during treatment of fused teeth with supernumerary tooth, and the need for the use of advanced imaging modalities like CBCT which is a critical aid in the diagnosis of such cases. Fused teeth can be managed quite efficiently by an overall combined treatment including both endodontic and periodontal therapy.

  2. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the lower limb: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2011-07-01

    Anatomical history over centuries includes description of a wide variety of malformations involving the lower limbs. This article offers an organized review of these diverse abnormalities, including new understanding of mechanisms through recent discoveries in genetics and molecular biology. In 19th century Europe, a number of unique anomalies were reported, as well as evidence of foot amputations occurring in ancient Peruvian culture. Embryologically, the limbs develop early, with the lower limb being recognizable for the first time at stage 13 of development. By stage 23, the toes are clearly defined and by birth, although the legs appear bowed, the tibia and fibula are straight. Removal of the apical ectodermal ridge results in cessation of limb development, conversely, a second apical ectodermal ridge results in duplication of distal structures. Supernumerary limbs have been documented to occur as part of a teratoma with unique morphology and accompanying blood supply. Additionally, many examples of polydactyly occur in the foot postulating that deletion of chromosome 22q11 is involved in postaxial polydactyly. Such deletions occur near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated q11.2 (i.e., on the long arm of one of the pair of chromosomes 22) and this syndrome is also referred to as DiGeorge syndrome, which has a prevalence estimated at 1:4,000. Absence of the lower limbs has also been noted, with hypoplasia of the fibula being the most common manifestation of congenital bone absences in the lower limb. In addition to fibular aplasia, cases of tibial aplasia have been reported. This article is important for surgeons attempting correctional repair of lower limb anomalies, as well as providing analysis of the historical, anatomical and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the lower limb. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Mechanical Working Group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This documents contains the minutes and viewgraphs from the October 27--28, 1992 meeting on the subject of power generation and delivery systems for military applications. Attendees represented the US Air Force and NASA. The thermal management panel reported on the capillary pump loop test facility, thermal control systems and compressors, and the oxygen heat pipe flight experiment. The aerospace power panel reported on the integrated power unit for the more electric airplane, the solar dynamic power system, the modular high temperature gas cooled reactor-gas-turbine program, the multi-megawatt CBC power system, and analytical modeling for heat pipe performance. The terrestrial power panel reported on a free piston stirling engine power generation system, fuel cell vehicles, and the advanced gas turbine project.

  4. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  5. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  6. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  7. Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebru Tirali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly.

  8. Combined Orthodontic-surgical Treatment for Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Multiple Impacted Permanent and Supernumerary Teeth: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dai Juan And Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a combined orthodontic and surgical treatment for a 14-year-old boy with severe skeletal class III deformity and dental problem. His upper posterior primary teeth in the left side were over-retained and 6 maxillary teeth (bilateral central incisors and canines, left first and second premolars) were impacted, together with 5 supernumerary teeth in both arches. The treatment protocol involved extraction of all the supernumerary and deciduous teeth, surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of the impacted teeth, a bimaxillary orthognathic approach including Lefort I osteotomy. Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and genioplasty was performed to correct skeletal problem. After treatment, all of the impacted teeth were brought to proper alignment in the maxillary arch. A satisfied profile and good posterior occlusion was achieved. Treatment mechanics and consideration during different stages are discussed.

  9. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  10. The Cryogenic Storage Ring CSR

    OpenAIRE

    von Hahn, Robert; Becker, Arno; Berg, Felix; Blaum, Klaus; Breitenfeldt, Christian; Fadil, Hisham; Fellenberger, Florian; Froese, Michael; George, Sebastian; Göck, Jürgen; Grieser, Manfred; Grussie, Florian; Guerin, Elisabeth A.; Heber, Oded; Herwig, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion a...

  11. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth.

  12. Psychological study of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer participants' attitudes toward the destiny of their supernumerary embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laruelle, C; Englert, Y

    1995-05-01

    To study the motivations underlying IVF-ET participants' choice to donate or destroy their supernumerary embryos. Couples' opinions are studied through a questionnaire and a psychological interview. Two hundred couples about to undergo IVF-ET. The fertility unit of an academic hospital. Couples' choice for supernumerary embryos' destiny; opinions on embryo status, on importance of genetic lineage in the filial bonding, on gamete donation, and on multiple pregnancy risk. Donation is the most frequent choice but destruction is tolerated by almost all the couples (92%). Couples considering the embryo as a child choose destruction as frequently as donation but refuse experimentation on the embryo. Donation is highest among couples who stress education more than genetic lineage in parental bonding. This is confirmed by the choice of the couples requiring donor gametes. Couples express differing attitudes toward risks of twins and risks of triplets: twins are much more desired than triplets, which are frequently refused. Couples' opinions on the respective importance of genetic lineage and education in defining parental bonding are more determinant in their decision to destroy or to donate their supernumerary embryos than their opinions on the in vitro embryo status, which only determines their attitude toward experimentation.

  13. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  14. Laparoscopic appendicectomy using endo-ring applicator and fallope rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Iyoob V; Maliekkal, Joji I

    2009-01-01

    Wider adoption of laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) is limited by problems in securing the appendiceal base as well as the cost and the duration compared with the open procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a new method for securing the appendiceal base in LA, so as to make the entire procedure simpler and cheaper, and hence, more popular. Twenty-five patients who were candidates for appendicectomy (emergency as well as elective) and willing for the laparoscopic procedure were selected for this study. Ports used were 10 mm at the umbilicus, 5 mm at the lower right iliac fossa, and 10 mm at the left iliac fossa. Extremely friable, ruptured, or turgid organs of diameters larger than 8 mm were excluded from the study. The mesoappendix was divided close to the appendix by diathermy. Fallope rings were applied to the appendiceal base using a special ring applicator, and the appendix was divided and extracted through the lumen of the applicator. The procedure was successful in 23 (92%) cases, and the mean duration of the procedure was 20 minutes (15-32 minutes). There were no procedural complications seen during a median follow-up of two weeks. The equipment and rings were cheaper when compared with that of the standard methods of securing the base of the appendix. LA using fallope rings is a safe, simple, easy-to-learn, and economically viable method. (author)

  15. Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. I. Supernumerary ossicle variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanihara, T; Ishida, H

    2001-06-01

    Four supernumerary ossicle variations-the ossicle at the lambda, the parietal notch bone, the asterionic bone, and the occipitomastoid bone-were examined for laterality differences, intertrait correlations, sex differences, and between group variations in the samples from around the world. Significant laterality differences were not detected in almost all samples. In some pairs of traits, significant association of occurrence were found. Several geographic samples were sexually dimorphic with respect to the asterionic bone and to a lesser extent for the parietal notch bone. East/Northeast Asians including the Arctic populations in general had lower frequencies of the 4 accessory ossicles. Australians, Melanesians and the majority of the New World peoples, on the other hand, generally had high frequencies. In the western hemisphere of the Old World, Subsaharan Africans had relatively high frequencies. Except for the ossicle at the lambda, the distribution pattern in incidence showed clinal variation from south to north. Any identifiable adaptive value related to environmental or subsistence factors may be expressed in such clinal variation. This may allow us to hypothesise that not only mechanical factors but a founder effect, genetic drift, and population structure could have been the underlying causes for interregional variation and possible clines in the incidences of the accessory ossicles.

  16. Reliability of horizontal and vertical tube shift techniques in the localisation of supernumerary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, S K; Anthonappa, R P; King, N M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of the vertical tube shift technique (VTST) and horizontal tube shift technique (HTST) for the localisation of unerupted supernumerary teeth (ST) in the anterior region of the maxilla. A convenience sample of 83 patients who attended a major teaching hospital because of unerupted ST was selected. Only non-syndromic patients with ST and who had complete clinical and radiographic and surgical records were included in the study. Ten examiners independently rated the paired set of radiographs for each technique. Chi-square test, paired t test and kappa statistics were employed to assess the intra- and inter-examiner reliability. Paired sets of 1660 radiographs (830 pairs for each technique) were available for the analysis. The overall sensitivity for VTST and HTST was 80.6 and 72.1% respectively, with slight inter-examiner and good intra-examiner reliability. Statistically significant differences were evident between the two localisation techniques (p HTST in the anterior region of the maxilla.

  17. Ownership and Agency of an Independent Supernumerary Hand Induced by an Imitation Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, Luke; Mehring, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To study body ownership and control, illusions that elicit these feelings in non-body objects are widely used. Classically introduced with the Rubber Hand Illusion, these illusions have been replicated more recently in virtual reality and by using brain-computer interfaces. Traditionally these illusions investigate the replacement of a body part by an artificial counterpart, however as brain-computer interface research develops it offers us the possibility to explore the case where non-body objects are controlled in addition to movements of our own limbs. Therefore we propose a new illusion designed to test the feeling of ownership and control of an independent supernumerary hand. Subjects are under the impression they control a virtual reality hand via a brain-computer interface, but in reality there is no causal connection between brain activity and virtual hand movement but correct movements are observed with 80% probability. These imitation brain-computer interface trials are interspersed with movements in both the subjects' real hands, which are in view throughout the experiment. We show that subjects develop strong feelings of ownership and control over the third hand, despite only receiving visual feedback with no causal link to the actual brain signals. Our illusion is crucially different from previously reported studies as we demonstrate independent ownership and control of the third hand without loss of ownership in the real hands.

  18. Selfish supernumerary chromosome reveals its origin as a mosaic of host genome and organellar sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Mihaela Maria; Klemme, Sonja; Banaei-Moghaddam, Ali Mohammad; Blattner, Frank R; Macas, Jiří; Schmutzer, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Gundlach, Heidrun; Wicker, Thomas; Šimková, Hana; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Kubaláková, Marie; Bauer, Eva; Haseneyer, Grit; Fuchs, Jörg; Doležel, Jaroslav; Stein, Nils; Mayer, Klaus F X; Houben, Andreas

    2012-08-14

    Supernumerary B chromosomes are optional additions to the basic set of A chromosomes, and occur in all eukaryotic groups. They differ from the basic complement in morphology, pairing behavior, and inheritance and are not required for normal growth and development. The current view is that B chromosomes are parasitic elements comparable to selfish DNA, like transposons. In contrast to transposons, they are autonomously inherited independent of the host genome and have their own mechanisms of mitotic or meiotic drive. Although B chromosomes were first described a century ago, little is known about their origin and molecular makeup. The widely accepted view is that they are derived from fragments of A chromosomes and/or generated in response to interspecific hybridization. Through next-generation sequencing of sorted A and B chromosomes, we show that B chromosomes of rye are rich in gene-derived sequences, allowing us to trace their origin to fragments of A chromosomes, with the largest parts corresponding to rye chromosomes 3R and 7R. Compared with A chromosomes, B chromosomes were also found to accumulate large amounts of specific repeats and insertions of organellar DNA. The origin of rye B chromosomes occurred an estimated ∼1.1-1.3 Mya, overlapping in time with the onset of the genus Secale (1.7 Mya). We propose a comprehensive model of B chromosome evolution, including its origin by recombination of several A chromosomes followed by capturing of additional A-derived and organellar sequences and amplification of B-specific repeats.

  19. Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

    2011-04-01

    The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits.

  20. The pattern of a specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg can be explained with the "boundary model" of appendage formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Gerhard; Brenneis, Georg

    2016-02-01

    A malformed adult female specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg in the right body half is described concerning external and internal structures. The specimen was maintained in our laboratory culture after an injury in the right trunk region during a late postembryonic stage. The supernumerary leg is located between the second and third walking legs. The lateral processes connecting to these walking legs are fused to one large structure. Likewise, the coxae 1 of the second and third walking legs and of the supernumerary leg are fused to different degrees. The supernumerary leg is a complete walking leg with mirror image symmetry as evidenced by the position of joints and muscles. It is slightly smaller than the normal legs, but internally, it contains a branch of the ovary and a gut diverticulum as the other legs. The causes for this malformation pattern found in the Pycnogonum individual are reconstructed in the light of extirpation experiments in insects, which led to supernumerary mirror image legs, and the "boundary model" for appendage differentiation.

  1. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Minute Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-minute average of Level 1 data

  2. Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements

  3. 1-3-7 minute intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Lee, Myung Hee

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous urography (IVU) as it is used widely today was probably started in early 1950's after the introduction of triiodobenzoic acid compounds as contrast media. This long cherished traditional method consists of taking radiograms at 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the injection of contrast medium. There are a few modifications of this standard urographic examination such as five minute IVU (Woodruff, 1959), minute-sequence pyelogram (Maxwell et al., 1964), drip infusion pyelography (Schencker, 1964) and nephrotomography (Evans et al., 1955). The present study has been undertaken to test if the conventional standard IVU can be more rapidly performed without losing essential informational contents of urograms. In this new clinical trial, urograms were taken at the end of 1, 3 and 7 minutes instead of 5, 15 and 25 minutes after the intravenous injection of contrast medium. We injected 40 ml of meglumine diatrizoate solution within 30 seconds using an 18G iv needle. (The amount of injected contrast medium has been reduced recently to ordinary single dose of 20 ml for subjects weighing less than 8 kg). Upon viewing the 7 minute film in front of an automatic processor, the examination was terminated after obtaining an upright view unless any further radiogram was indicated. As shown in Tables and Figures, our new 1-3-7 minute method has been proven to provide us with as much essential and useful information as conventional 5-15-25 minute urography. Thus, we were able to finish one examination within 10 minutes without losing any necessary diagnostic information. In some of patients with obstructive uropathy such as stone the examination was extended as long as it was desired. Side reactions were occasional nausea, flushing and rare mild vomiting which never prevented the examination

  4. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  5. Kayser-Fleischer Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Contacts Lab Tracker/Copper Calculator Stories Programs & Research ... About Everything you need to know about Wilson Disease Kayser-Fleischer Rings Definition Kayser-Fleischer Ring: Clinical sign. Brownish-yellow ring visible around the corneo- ...

  6. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  7. U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data is digital data set DSI-3260, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is precipitation data. The primary source...

  8. Algebra success in 20 minutes a day

    CERN Document Server

    LearningExpress, LLC

    2014-01-01

    Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with algebra essentials, this handy guide covers vital algebra skills that apply to real-world scenarios. Whether you're new to algebra or just looking for a refresher, Algebra Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. All lessons can be completed in just 20 minutes a day, for a manageable and non-intimidating learning experience.

  9. Localization of ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands in patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism: surgical description and correlation with preoperative ultrasonography and Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Mangussi-Gomes, João Paulo; Rocha, Lillian Andrade da; Ohe, Monique Nakayama; Rosano, Marcello; das Neves, Murilo Catafesta; Santos, Rodrigo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is an expected metabolic consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Ectopic and/or supernumerary parathyroid glands (PT) may be the cause of surgical failure in patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy (PTX). To define the locations of ectopic and supernumerary PT in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism and to correlate intraoperative findings with preoperative tests. A retrospective study was conducted with 166 patients submitted to PTX. The location of PT during surgery was recorded and classified as eutopic or ectopic. The preoperative localizations of PT found by ultrasonography (USG) and Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) were subsequently compared with intraoperative findings. In the 166 patients studied, 664 PT were found. Five-hundred-seventy-seven (86.4%) glands were classified as eutopic and 91(13.6%) as ectopic. Eight supernumerary PT were found. The most common sites of ectopic PT were in the retroesophageal and thymic regions. Taken together, USG and MIBI did not identify 56 (61.5%) ectopic glands. MIBI was positive for 69,7% of all ectopic glands located in the mediastinal and thymic regions. The presence of ectopic and supernumerary PT in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism is significant. Although preoperative imaging tests did not locate most of ectopic glands, MIBI may be important for identifying ectopic PT in the mediastinal and thymic regions.

  10. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  11. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  12. Four small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6, 8, 11 and 12 in a patient with minimal clinical abnormalities: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ahmed B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are still a problem in cytogenetic diagnostic and genetic counseling. This holds especially true for the rare cases with multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Most such cases are reported to be clinically severely affected due to the chromosomal imbalances induced by the presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Here we report the first case of a patient having four different small supernumerary marker chromosomes which, apart from slight developmental retardation in youth and non-malignant hyperpigmentation, presented no other clinical signs. Case presentation Our patient was a 30-year-old Caucasian man, delivered by caesarean section because of macrosomy. At birth he presented with bilateral cryptorchidism but no other birth defects. At age of around two years he showed psychomotor delay and a bilateral convergent strabismus. Later he had slight learning difficulties, with normal social behavior and now lives an independent life as an adult. Apart from hypogenitalism, he has multiple hyperpigmented nevi all over his body, short feet with pes cavus and claw toes. At age of 30 years, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 50,XY,+min(6(:p11.1-> q11.1:,+min(8(:p11.1->q11.1:,+min(11(:p11.11->q11:,+min(12(:p11.2~12->q10:, leading overall to a small partial trisomy in 12p11.1~12.1. Conclusions Including this case, four single case reports are available in the literature with a karyotype 50,XN,+4mar. For prenatally detected multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes in particular we learn from this case that such a cytogenetic condition may be correlated with a positive clinical outcome.

  13. Geometry success in 20 minutes a day

    CERN Document Server

    LLC, LearningExpress

    2014-01-01

    Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day: Covers all vital geometry skills, from the basic building blocks of geometry to ratio, proportion, and similarity to trigonometry and beyond Provides hundreds of practice exercises in test format Applies geometr

  14. Mile-A-Minute (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise Binion; William Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, formerly Polygonum perfoliatum, L.) is an annual vine in the Polygonaceae or Buckwheat family. It is native to eastern Asia including India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Burma, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Siberia, the Philippines, New Guinea, the Malay peninsula and the...

  15. Revascularization of an impacted, immature dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor associated with odontoma and a supernumerary tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To intentionally replant an impacted immature permanent maxillary central incisor in the mixed dentition period followed by revascularization in order to achieve apical root closure. A 9-year-old boy presented with retained maxillary left primary incisors. Radiographic evaluation revealed the presence of a supernumerary tooth and an odontoma associated with an impacted permanent maxillary left central incisor, having root dilaceration. Treatment included surgical removal of mesiodens and odontoma. The impacted dilacerated permanent central incisor was removed and intentionally replanted, followed by revascularization of pulp. During the follow-up, root end closure with narrowing of canal space was observed, patient has been asymptomatic and the tooth remains vital. Revascularization of the immature reimplanted tooth showed continued root development and thickening of the lateral dentinal walls through deposition of new hard tissue and narrowing of the canal space.

  16. Rainbows, supernumerary rainbows and interference effects in the angular scattering of chemical reactions: an investigation using Heisenberg's S matrix programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiao; Xiahou, Chengkui; Connor, J N L

    2018-01-03

    In earlier research, we have demonstrated that broad "hidden" rainbows can occur in the product differential cross sections (DCSs) of state-to-state chemical reactions. Here we ask the question: can pronounced and localized rainbows, rather than broad hidden ones, occur in reactive DCSs? Further motivation comes from recent measurements by H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2016, 120, 6712, of a "bulge" in a reactive DCS, which they conjecture is a rainbow. Our theoretical approach uses a "weak" version of Heisenberg's scattering matrix program (wHSMP) introduced by X. Shan and J. N. L. Connor, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 8392. This wHSMP uses four general physical principles for chemical reactions to suggest simple parameterized forms for the S matrix; it does not employ a potential energy surface. We use a parameterization in which the modulus of the S matrix is a smooth-step function of the total angular momentum quantum number, J, and (importantly) its phase is a cubic polynomial in J. We demonstrate for a Legendre partial wave series (PWS) the existence of pronounced rainbows, supernumerary rainbows, and other interference effects, in reactive DCSs. We find that reactive rainbows can be more complicated in their structure than the familiar rainbows of elastic scattering. We also analyse the angular scattering using Nearside-Farside (NF) PWS theory and NF PWS Local Angular Momentum (LAM) theory, including resummations of the PWS. In addition, we apply full and NF asymptotic (semiclassical) rainbow theories to the PWS - in particular, the uniform Airy and transitional Airy approximations for the farside scattering. This lets us prove that structure in the DCSs are indeed rainbows, supernumerary rainbows as well as other interference effects.

  17. The origin of the supernumerary subunits and assembly factors of complex I: A treasure trove of pathway evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elurbe, Dei M; Huynen, Martijn A

    2016-07-01

    We review and document the evolutionary origin of all complex I assembly factors and nine supernumerary subunits from protein families. Based on experimental data and the conservation of critical residues we identify a spectrum of protein function conservation between the complex I representatives and their non-complex I homologs. This spectrum ranges from proteins that have retained their molecular function but in which the substrate specificity may have changed or have become more specific, like NDUFAF5, to proteins that have lost their original molecular function and critical catalytic residues like NDUFAF6. In between are proteins that have retained their molecular function, which however appears unrelated to complex I, like ACAD9, or proteins in which amino acids of the active site are conserved but for which no enzymatic activity has been reported, like NDUFA10. We interpret complex I evolution against the background of molecular evolution theory. Complex I supernumerary subunits and assembly factors appear to have been recruited from proteins that are mitochondrial and/or that are expressed when complex I is active. Within the evolution of complex I and its assembly there are many cases of neofunctionalization after gene duplication, like ACAD9 and TMEM126B, one case of subfunctionalization: ACPM1 and ACPM2 in Yarrowia lipolytica, and one case in which a complex I protein itself appears to have been the source of a new protein from another complex: NDUFS6 gave rise to cytochrome c oxidase subunit COX4/COX5b. Complex I and its assembly can therewith be regarded as a treasure trove for pathway evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Minute Temperature Fluctuations Detected in Eta Bootis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A group of astronomers from the Aarhus University (Denmark) and the European Southern Observatory (2) have for the first time succeeded in detecting solar-type oscillations in another star. They observed the temperature of the bright northern star Eta Bootis during six nights with the 2.5-metre Nordic Optical Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos observatory on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) and were able to show that it varies periodically by a few hundredths of a degree. These changes are caused by pressure waves in the star and are directly dependent on its inner structure. A detailed analysis by the astronomers has shown that the observed effects are in good agreement with current stellar models. This is a most important, independent test of stellar theory. The Sun is an Oscillating Star About twenty years ago, it was discovered that the nearest star, our Sun, oscillates like the ringing of a bell with a period of about 5 minutes. The same phenomenon is known in the Earth, which begins to vibrate after earthquakes; in this way seismologists have been able to discern a layered structure in the Earth's interior. The recent impacts of a comet on Jupiter most likely had a similar effect on that planet. The observed solar oscillations concern the entire gaseous body of the Sun, but we can of course only observe them on its surface. It has been found that each mode moves the surface up and down by less than 25 metres; the combined motion is very complicated, because there are many different, simultaneous modes, each of which has a slightly different period. The exact values of these periods are sensitive to the speed of sound in the Sun's interior, which in turn depends on the density of the material there. Thus, by measuring the periods of solar oscillations, we may probe the internal structure of the Sun, that is otherwise inaccessible to observations. Why does the Sun oscillate and what is the cause of these oscillations ? We do not know yet, but it is

  19. An N-body Integrator for Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    2011-04-01

    A planetary ring that is disturbed by a satellite's resonant perturbation can respond in an organized way. When the resonance lies in the ring's interior, the ring responds via an m-armed spiral wave, while a ring whose edge is confined by the resonance exhibits an m-lobed scalloping along the ring-edge. The amplitude of these disturbances are sensitive to ring surface density and viscosity, so modelling these phenomena can provide estimates of the ring's properties. However a brute force attempt to simulate a ring's full azimuthal extent with an N-body code will likely fail because of the large number of particles needed to resolve the ring's behavior. Another impediment is the gravitational stirring that occurs among the simulated particles, which can wash out the ring's organized response. However it is possible to adapt an N-body integrator so that it can simulate a ring's collective response to resonant perturbations. The code developed here uses a few thousand massless particles to trace streamlines within the ring. Particles are close in a radial sense to these streamlines, which allows streamlines to be treated as straight wires of constant linear density. Consequently, gravity due to these streamline is a simple function of the particle's radial distance to all streamlines. And because particles are responding to smooth gravitating streamlines, rather than discrete particles, this method eliminates the stirring that ordinarily occurs in brute force N-body calculations. Note also that ring surface density is now a simple function of streamline separations, so effects due to ring pressure and viscosity are easily accounted for, too. A poster will describe this N-body method in greater detail. Simulations of spiral density waves and scalloped ring-edges are executed in typically ten minutes on a desktop PC, and results for Saturn's A and B rings will be presented at conference time.

  20. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  1. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  2. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-20

    radioactive gas and debris from reaching the atmosphere, thereby complying with the test ban treaty. distance from the source point to the surface was...percent of the active data recorded on film is also important in the event of excessive radioactive release. The weighing of the experiments is arbitrary...in a water-base Polution . S41 ’ The caldera 245 feet In diameter and 17 feet deep formed at +23 minutes (figure 4.2). There was consistent

  3. The elements of grammar in 90 minutes

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An eminent scholar explains the essentials of English grammar to those who never studied the basics as well as those who need a refresher course. Inspired by Strunk & White's classic The Elements of Style, this user-friendly guide focuses exclusively on grammar, explaining the individual parts of speech and their proper arrangement in sentence form. A modest investment of 90 minutes can provide readers of all ages with simple but important tools that will improve their communication skills. Dover (2011) original publication.

  4. Rings in drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard D; MacCoss, Malcolm; Lawson, Alastair D G

    2014-07-24

    We have analyzed the rings, ring systems, and frameworks in drugs listed in the FDA Orange Book to understand the frequency, timelines, molecular property space, and the application of these rings in different therapeutic areas and target classes. This analysis shows that there are only 351 ring systems and 1197 frameworks in drugs that came onto the market before 2013. Furthermore, on average six new ring systems enter drug space each year and approximately 28% of new drugs contain a new ring system. Moreover, it is very unusual for a drug to contain more than one new ring system and the majority of the most frequently used ring systems (83%) were first used in drugs developed prior to 1983. These observations give insight into the chemical novelty of drugs and potentially efficient ways to assess compound libraries and develop compounds from hit identification to lead optimization and beyond.

  5. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's ...

  6. The Six Minute Walk Test Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, M.

    2017-12-01

    Background and Purpose: Heart failure is the leading cause of death and often alters or severely restricts human mobility, an essential life function. Motion capture is an emerging tool for analyzing human movement and extremity articulation, providing quantitative information on gait and range of motion. This study uses BioStamp mechanosensors to identify differences in motion for the duration of the Six Minute Walk Test and signature patterns of muscle contraction and posture in patients with advanced heart failure compared to healthy subjects. Identification and close follow up of these patterns may allow enhanced diagnosis and the possibility for early intervention before disease worsening. Additionally, movement parameters represent a new family of potential biomarkers to track heart failure onset, progression and therapy. Methods: Prior to the Six Minute Walk Test, BioStamps (MC10) were applied to the chest, upper and lower extremities of heart failure and healthy patients and data were streamed and recorded revealing the pattern of movement in three separate axes. Conjointly, before and after the Six Minute Walk Test, the following vitals were measured per subject: heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, dyspnea and leg fatigue (self-reported with Borg scale). During the test, patients were encouraged to walk as far as they can in 6 minutes on a 30m course, as we recorded the number of laps completed and oxygen saturation every minute. Results and Conclusions: The sensors captured and quantified whole body and regional motion parameters including: a. motion extent, position, acceleration and angle via incorporated accelerometers and gyroscopes; b. muscle contraction via incorporated electromyogram (EMG). Accelerometry and gyroscopic data for the last five steps of a healthy and heart failure patient are shown. While significant differences in motion for the duration of the test were not found, each category of patients had a distinct

  7. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  8. Familial ring (18) mosaicism in a 23-year-old young adult with 46,XY,r(18) (::p11→q21::)/46,XY karyotype, intellectual disability, motor retardation and single maxillary incisor and in his phenotypically normal mother, karyotype 47,XX,+r(18)(::p11→q21::)/46,XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sevim; Tümer, Celal; Karaca, Ciğdem; Bartsch, Oliver

    2011-05-01

    We report on a 23-year-old man with craniofacial findings of the holoprosencephaly spectrum disorder (microcephaly, hypotelorism, depressed nasal bridge, single median maxillary central incisor), fusion of C2-C3 vertebrae, intellectual disability, and severe sleep apnea. Chromosome analysis of blood lymphocytes showed 75% ring (18) cells and 25% normal cells, karyotype mos 46,XY,r(18)(::p11→q21::)[75]/46,XY[25]. His mother was phenotypically normal except for a double ureter and bifid renal pelvis as in his son. She had a supernumerary ring (18) in 10% of blood lymphocytes, karyotype mos 47,XX,+r(18)(::p11→q21::)[10]/46,XX[90]. Familial ring (18) is a rare cytogenetic abnormality. This is the first report of a mother with a supernumerary ring (18) and a son with ring (18) mosaicism. Interestingly, the son showed a true mosaicism (mixoploidy) of ring (18) and normal cells. The mother's 46,XX cells could be easily explained by mitotic instability and ring loss during cell division. However, the coexistence of ring (18) and normal cells in the son is unusual. Possibly, during early postzygotic divisions of a 47,XY,+r(18) zygote, two (possibly subsequent) genetic events could have occurred, one when one normal chromosome 18 was lost (resulting in a cell line with ring 18), and one when the ring 18 was lost (resulting in a cell line without ring, "escape to normal"). Alternatively, the zygote of the son could have been 46,XY,r(18), and postzygotic loss of the ring 18 could have resulted in monosomy 18 cells followed by duplication of chromosome 18 in these cells (a rare mechanism for cell survival previously described as "compensatory" isodisomy). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. How 60 Minutes ticked off Illinois Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A November 60 Minutes broadcast on CBS television asserting that costs are out of control at the Illinois Power Co's(IP) Clinton nuclear power project because of management incompetence triggered a series of rebuttals and counter-rebuttals. A review of the events and correspondence during the planning stage and after the broadcast explores the question of construction cost overruns and the economic impact the broadcast had on IP's investors, employees, and customers. A parallel filming by IP was aired to show how the CBS edited the interview with IP officials. IP personnel feel betrayed by what they consider misconceptions and errors in the broadcast and are unhappy that an employee morale problem was worsened. Counter-arguments by both parties indicate a disagreement on both facts and interpretations

  10. Calorimetry measurements in less than 20 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.; Cremers, T.

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a new series of 10 watt Bulk Plutonium Assay Calorimeters (BPAC10). The calorimeter measures bulk samples of plutonium bearing material in containers up to 5in. in diameter and 7in. high. The average measurement time is 19.7 minutes compared to 2--9 hours for the same sample measured in a water bath calorimeter. Measurement precision in the range of 1--10 watts is 1% to 0.1% and it is 0.010 watt for sample power less than 1 watt. BPAC10 series calorimeters are in use in two plutonium facilities at the EG ampersand G Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory TA55 Plutonium Facility. The paper presents a description of the calorimeter, discusses operating experience at Los Alamos, and presents a comparison of data on typical samples measured with both types of calorimeters. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2012-02-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  12. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K

    2010-09-01

    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  13. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.

  14. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  15. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  16. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  17. Physics of quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2014-01-01

    Presents the new class of materials of quantum rings. Provides an elemental basis for low-cost high-performance devices promising for electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum information processing. Explains the physical properties of quantum rings to cover a gap in scientific literature. Presents the application of most advanced nanoengineering and nanocharacterization techniques. This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is possible on the basis of modern characterization methods of nanostructures, such as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. A high level of complexity is demonstrated to be needed for a dedicated theoretical model to adequately represent the specific features of quantum rings. The findings presented in this book contribute to develop low-cost high-performance electronic, spintronic, optoelectronic and information processing devices based on quantum rings.

  18. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  19. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  20. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. von; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2016-06-15

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm{sup −3} is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10{sup −14} mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  1. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Elahe; Burdet, Etienne; Bouri, Mohamed; Bleuler, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  2. Control of a Supernumerary Robotic Hand by Foot: An Experimental Study in Virtual Reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Abdi

    Full Text Available In the operational theater, the surgical team could highly benefit from a robotic supplementary hand under the surgeon's full control. The surgeon may so become more autonomous; this may reduce communication errors with the assistants and take over difficult tasks such as holding tools without tremor. In this paper, we therefore examine the possibility to control a third robotic hand with one foot's movements. Three experiments in virtual reality were designed to assess the feasibility of this control strategy, the learning curve of the subjects in different tasks and the coordination of foot movements with the two natural hands. Results show that the limbs are moved simultaneously, in parallel rather than serially. Participants' performance improved within a few minutes of practice without any specific difficulty to complete the tasks. Subjective assessment by the subjects indicated that controlling a third hand by foot has been easy and required only negligible physical and mental efforts. The sense of ownership was reported to improve through the experiments. The mental burden was not directly related to the level of motion required by a task, but depended on the type of activity and practice. The most difficult task was moving two hands and foot in opposite directions. These results suggest that a combination of practice and appropriate tasks can enhance the learning process for controlling a robotic hand by foot.

  3. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Wang, Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie, Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-12-16

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 microM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  4. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Wang Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl 4 in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 μM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  5. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  6. On the Laurent polynomial rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.

    1985-02-01

    We describe some properties of the Laurent polynomial rings in a finite number of indeterminates over a commutative unitary ring. We study some subrings of the Laurent polynomial rings. We finally obtain two cancellation properties. (author)

  7. 5-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earth topography five minute grid (ETOPO5) is a gridded data base of worldwide elevations derived from several sources at a resolution of 5 minutes of latitude and...

  8. Coexistence of a pectoralis quartus muscle, a supernumerary head of biceps brachii muscle and an accessory head of flexor digitorum profundus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Halim; Kim, Jinu; Yoon, Sang-Pil

    2018-05-26

    Although anatomical variations in the upper limb are frequent, coexistence of multiple combined variations is rare. During a routine educational dissection at Jeju National University Medical School, three muscular variations were found in a 75-year-old Korean male cadaver, in which a supraclavicular cephalic vein was also found in ipsilateral upper extremity during skinning (Go et al., 2017). Here we describe characteristics of the pectoralis quartus muscle, the supernumerary head of biceps brachii muscle and an accessory head of flexor digitorum profundus muscle, and discuss their coexistence from morphological and embryological points of view.

  9. Bragg grating writing in PMMA microstructured polymer optical fibers in less than 7 minutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate fiber Bragg grating (FBG) writing in PMMA microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers (mPOFs) using UV Phase Mask technique with writing times shorter than 10 min. The shortest writing time was 6 minutes and 50 seconds and the longest writing time was 8 min and 50 sec. The FBGs were...... written in a 125 x00B5;m PMMA mPOF having 3-rings of holes, the reflection peaks were centred at 632.6 nm and have a reflectivity as high as 26 dB. We also demonstrate how the writing dynamics depends on the intensity of the writing beam....

  10. Heavy ion storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented. 35 refs

  11. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  12. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  13. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  14. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  15. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  16. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  17. The rings of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.; Mink, D.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the observation of five brief occultations of the star SAO 158687 which occurred both before and after its occultation by Uranus on March 10, 1977. The events were observed with a three-channel occultation photometer, attached to a 91-cm telescope. The observations indicate that at least five rings encircle the planet Uranus. Possible reasons for the narrowness of the Uranus rings are discussed.

  18. A 30-Minute, but Not a 10-Minute Nighttime Nap is Associated with Sleep Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J.; Centofanti, Stephanie A.; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21–35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00–07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. Results: The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P inertia and helped to mitigate short-term performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. Citation: Hilditch CJ, Centofanti SA, Dorrian J, Banks S. A 30-minute, but not a 10-minute nighttime nap is associated with sleep inertia. SLEEP 2016;39(3):675–685. PMID:26715234

  19. Neutron activation studies of trace elements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tout, R.E.; Gilboy, W.B.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    The levels of twelve elements most of which are either considered essential to plant growth or have been detected in air filter samples in an air pollution survey have been monitored in three transverse sections of trees, two elms (ring-porous trees) and one cedar (a conifer). An irradiation time of 10 minutes and a waiting time of 1 minute were selected followed by a 10-minute count. The activated samples were placed on a specially shaped perspex disc situated on a 45-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The gamma-ray spectra were subsequently analysed on a 6600 computer, using the library program 'SAMPO' to which subroutines have been added for peak identification and for calculating the mass of elements present. All irradiations were carried out using a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . Two dimensional distributions of the elements around the tree rings of the section and radially from ring to ring, have been obtained to see if tree rings can be analysed for use as a record of historical pollution. Definite movement of most of these elements between the two main parts of the xylem has occured in all three trees. This makes it seem unlikely that any pollution products taken up from the atmosphere would be retained in the same ring in which they were originally accumulated. Exceptions may occur in the sapwood rings, where a few elements, especially Cl, show directional peaks which do not persist in the heartwood. (T.G.)

  20. Some Aspects of Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Herstein, IN

    2011-01-01

    S. Amitsur: Associative rings with identities.- I.N. Herstein: Topics in ring theory.- N. Jacobson: Representation theory of Jordan algebras.- I. Kaplansky: The theory of homological dimension.- D. Buchsbaum: Complexes in local ring theory.- P.H. Cohn: Two topics in ring theory.- A.W. Goldie: Non-commutative localisation.

  1. Ring correlations in random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Mahdi; Thorpe, M F

    2016-12-01

    We examine the correlations between rings in random network glasses in two dimensions as a function of their separation. Initially, we use the topological separation (measured by the number of intervening rings), but this leads to pseudo-long-range correlations due to a lack of topological charge neutrality in the shells surrounding a central ring. This effect is associated with the noncircular nature of the shells. It is, therefore, necessary to use the geometrical distance between ring centers. Hence we find a generalization of the Aboav-Weaire law out to larger distances, with the correlations between rings decaying away when two rings are more than about three rings apart.

  2. Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Malehmir, Alireza; Troll, Valentin R; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; Juhlin, Christopher; Ask, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Carbonatites are rare, carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that make up a minute portion of the crust only, yet they are of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although they occur in all continents and from Archaean to present, the deeper plumbing system of carbonatite ring-complexes is usually poorly constrained. Here, we show that carbonatite ring-complexes can be explained by caldera-style volcanism. Our geophysical investigation of the Alnö carbonatite ring-complex in central Sweden identifies a solidified saucer-shaped magma chamber at ~3 km depth that links to surface exposures through a ring fault system. Caldera subsidence during final stages of activity caused carbonatite eruptions north of the main complex, providing the crucial element to connect plutonic and eruptive features of carbonatite magmatism. The way carbonatite magmas are stored, transported and erupt at the surface is thus comparable to known emplacement styles from silicic calderas.

  3. Mapping Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Pilorz, S. H.; Deau, E.

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and quick temperature responses are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid, coherent particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias (Ferrari et al. 2005). Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded millions of spectra of Saturn's rings since its arrival at Saturn in 2004 (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 (16.7 and 1000 µm) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks in this wavelength range. FP1 spectra can be used to infer ring temperatures. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The thermal budget of the rings is dominated by the solar radiation absorbed by its constituent particles. When ring particles enter Saturn's shadow this source of energy is abruptly cut off. As a result, ring particles cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. [OR minute myth : Guidelines for calculation of DRG revenues per OR minute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschle, R M; Hinz, J; Bleeker, F; Sliwa, B; Popov, A; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2016-02-01

    The economic situation in German Hospitals is tense and needs the implementation of differentiated controlling instruments. Accordingly, parameters of revenue development of different organizational units within a hospital are needed. This is particularly necessary in the revenue and cost-intensive operating theater field. So far there are only barely established productivity data for the control of operating room (OR) revenues during the year available. This article describes a valid method for the calculation of case-related revenues per OR minute conform to the diagnosis-related groups (DRG).For this purpose the relevant datasets from the OR information system and the § 21 productivity report (DRG grouping) of the University Medical Center Göttingen were combined. The revenues defined in the DRG browser of the Institute for Hospital Reimbursement (InEK) were assigned to the corresponding process times--incision-suture time (SNZ), operative preparation time and anesthesiology time--according to the InEK system. All full time stationary DRG cases treated within the OR were included and differentiated according to the surgical department responsible. The cost centers "OR section" and "anesthesia" were isolated to calculate the revenues of the operating theater. SNZ clusters and cost type groups were formed to demonstrate their impact on the revenues per OR minute. A surgical personal simultaneity factor (GZF) was calculated by division of the revenues for surgeons and anesthesiologists. This factor resembles the maximum DRG financed personnel deployment for surgeons in German hospitals.The revenue per OR minute including all cost types and DRG was 16.63 €/min. The revenues ranged from 10.45 to 24.34 €/min depending on the surgical field. The revenues were stable when SNZ clusters were analyzed. The differentiation of cost type groups revealed a revenue reduction especially after exclusion of revenues for implants and infrastructure. The calculated GZF over

  5. The Rings of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Filacchione, G.; Marouf, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    One could become an expert on Saturn's iconic rings pretty easily in the early 1970s, as very little was known about them beyond the distinction between the A, B, and C rings, and the Cassini Division or "gap" between rings A and B (Alexander, 1962; Bobrov, 1970). Water ice was discovered spectroscopically on the ring particle surfaces, and radar and microwave emission observations proved that the particles must be centimeters to meters in size, consisting primarily, not just superficially, of water ice (Pollack, 1975). While a 2:1 orbital resonance with Mimas had long been suspected of having something to do with the Cassini Division, computers of the time were unable to model the subtle dynamical effects that we now know to dominate ring structure. This innocent state of affairs was exploded by the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981. Spectacular images revealed filigree structure and odd regional color variations, and exquisitely detailed radial profiles of fluctuating particle abundance were obtained from the first stellar and radio occultations, having resolution almost at the scale of single particles. Voyager-era understanding was reviewed by Cuzzi et al. (1984) and Esposito et al. (1984). While the Voyager data kept ring scientists busy for decades, planning which led to the monumentally successful NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini mission, which arrived in 2004, had been under way even before Voyager got to Saturn. A review of pre-Cassini knowledge of Saturn's Rings can be found in Orton et al. (2009). This chapter will build on recent topical and process-specific reviews that treat the gamut of ring phenomena and its underlying physics in considerable detail (Colwell et al., 2009; Cuzzi et al., 2009; Horányi et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2009; Esposito, 2010; Tiscareno, 2013b; Esposito, 2014). We will follow and extend the general organization of Cuzzi et al. (2010), the most recent general discussion of Saturn's rings. For brevity and the benefit of the

  6. Three minute versus six minute adenosine infusion in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, G.; Naojee, S.A.; Croasdale, J.; Johnson, G.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Buscombe, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacological stress imaging techniques are used widely in clinical nuclear cardiology for evaluation of ischemic heart disease. Adenosine is often used but is expensive and causes significant side effects .The aim of this retrospective review was to study the tolerance and efficacy, of adenosine infusion of a 3 minute (min) versus the conventional 6 min stress protocol and to assess the cost efficiency of the 3 min protocol. Three hundred thirty one patients had myocardial scintigraphy using adenosine as a stressing agent. Blood pressure, heart rate and ECG were recorded at baseline and during the test. Symptoms (flushing, headache, chest pain, dyspnoea, neck pain) were recorded throughout the adenosine infusion. All the patients had had either 6 min or 3 min adenosine infusion at 140 mg/kg per minute. 169 of them had side effects. Flushing (32% at 3 min vs 50 % at 6 min, p<0.05), headache (11.5% at 3 min vs 7 % at 6 min p-not significant-ns), chest pain (8% at 3 min vs 13 % at 6 min, ns), dyspnoea (7% at 3 min vs %10 at 6 min, ns), ECG changes (10% at 3 min vs 28% at 6 min, p<0.05), neck pain (4.5% at 3 min vs 9% at 6 min, ns), abdominal discomfort (3% at 3 min vs 3% at 6 min, ns) and fall in blood pressure (6% at 3 min vs 8.5% at 6 min, ns). The change in heart rate was not significant with either protocol. The 6 min and 3 min infusions of adenosine had similar accuracy (73% vs 70%) for the detection of coronary artery disease. The patients tolerated the 3 min protocol better with only 40% of the patients having minimal side effects compared with 60% for the 6 mon protocol. The 3 min protocol is also cost effective as it uses less adenosine and therefore reduces total costs by 40 US$ per patient. (author)

  7. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  8. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  9. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  10. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  11. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  12. The covariant chiral ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourget, Antoine; Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-23

    We construct a covariant generating function for the spectrum of chiral primaries of symmetric orbifold conformal field theories with N=(4,4) supersymmetry in two dimensions. For seed target spaces K3 and T{sup 4}, the generating functions capture the SO(21) and SO(5) representation theoretic content of the chiral ring respectively. Via string dualities, we relate the transformation properties of the chiral ring under these isometries of the moduli space to the Lorentz covariance of perturbative string partition functions in flat space.

  13. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  14. The Saturnian rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1975-09-01

    The structure of the Saturnian rings is traditionally believed to be due to resonances caused by Mimas (and possibly other satellites). It is shown that both theoretical and observational evidence rule out this interpretation. The increased observational accuracy on one hand and the increased understanding of the cosmogonic processes on the other makes it possible to explain the structure of the ring system as a product of condensation from a partially corotating plasma. In certain respects the agreement between theory and observations is about 1%. (Auth.)

  15. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  16. Econometric Assessment of "One Minute" Paper as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an econometric testing of one-minute paper used as a tool to manage and assess instruction in my statistics class. One of our findings is that the one minute paper when I have tested it by using an OLS estimate in a controlled Vs experimental design framework is found to statistically significant and effective in enhancing…

  17. One-Minute Paper: A thinking centered assessment tool | Ashakiran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A versatile assessment technique used in classroom for quick and simple feedback is 'One-Minute paper'. It provides real-time feedback from class and enables the teacher to find out if students have recognized the main points in a class session. The objectives of the study were to employ one-minute paper for ...

  18. Alterations in the morphology of skeletal myofibres after 90 minutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in the morphology of skeletal myofibres after 90 minutes of ischaemia and '- 3 hours of reperfusion. M.A. Gregory, M. Mars. Abstract. Morphometric, light and electron microscopic methods were employed to determine whether skeletal myofibres were damaged by 90 minutes of tourniquet-mediated ischaemia.

  19. 3-minute Stephen Hawking. His life, theories and influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Paul; Dixon, Gail

    2013-01-01

    3-minutes Stephen Hawking offers a compact introduction to life and work of this impressing scientist. This book is devided into three parts: Hawking's life, his theories, his influence. Each part offers fascinating reading material for one hour. The partial themes of this book are served up in practical 3-minute portions.

  20. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  1. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  2. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  3. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  4. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  5. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  6. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  7. Algebras, rings and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Kirichenko, V V

    Provides both the classical aspects of the theory of groups and their representations as well as a general introduction to the modern theory of representations, including the representations of quivers and finite partially ordered sets. This volume provides the theory of semiprime Noetherian semiperfect and semidistributive rings.

  8. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  9. Propellers in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, M.; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical studies and simulations have demonstrated the effects caused by objects embedded in planetary rings. Even if the objects are too small to be directly observed, each creates a much larger gravitational imprint on the surrounding ring material. These strongly depend on the mass of the object and range from "S" like propeller-shaped structures for about 100m-sized icy bodies to the opening of circumferential gaps as in the case of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis and their corresponding Encke and Keeler Gaps. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission many of these smaller objects (~data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We show evidence that B ring seems to harbor two distinct populations of propellers: "big" propellers covering tens of degrees in azimuth situated in the densest part of B ring, and "small" propellers in less dense inner B ring that are similar in size and shape to known A ring propellers. The population of "big" propellers is exemplified with a single object which is observed for 5 years of Cassini data. The object is seen as a very elongated bright stripe (40 degrees wide) in unlit Cassini images, and dark stripe in lit geometries. In total we report observing the feature in images at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. In UVIS occultations we observe this feature as an optical depth depletion in 14 out of 93 occultation cuts at corrotating longitudes compatible with imaging data. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap located at r=112,921km embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at Kepler speed appropriate for its radial location. Radial offsets of the gap locations in UVIS occultations are consistent with an asymmetric propeller shape. The asymmetry of the observed shape is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient, as the feature is located at an edge between

  10. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  11. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  12. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  13. Photospheric Origin of Three-minute Oscillations in a Sunspot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jongchul; Lee, Jeongwoo; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Song, Donguk [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyungsuk; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-10

    The origin of the three-minute oscillations of intensity and velocity observed in the chromosphere of sunspot umbrae is still unclear. We investigated the spatio-spectral properties of the 3 minute oscillations of velocity in the photosphere of a sunspot umbra as well as those in the low chromosphere using the spectral data of the Ni i λ 5436, Fe i λ 5435, and Na i D{sub 2} λ 5890 lines taken by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. As a result, we found a local enhancement of the 3 minute oscillation power in the vicinities of a light bridge (LB) and numerous umbral dots (UDs) in the photosphere. These 3 minute oscillations occurred independently of the 5 minute oscillations. Through wavelet analysis, we determined the amplitudes and phases of the 3 minute oscillations at the formation heights of the spectral lines, and they were found to be consistent with the upwardly propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere with energy flux large enough to explain the chromospheric oscillations. Our results suggest that the 3 minute chromospheric oscillations in this sunspot may have been generated by magnetoconvection occurring in the LB and UDs.

  14. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  15. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  16. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...

  17. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  18. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  19. Ovarian dysgenesis in an alpaca with a minute chromosome 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Elizabeth; Kutzler, Michelle; Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    A 4-year-old female alpaca (Lama pacos [LPA]) was presented to the Oregon State Veterinary Teaching Hospital for failure to display receptive behavior to males. Although no abnormalities were found on physical examination, transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract revealed uterine hypoplasia and ovarian dysgenesis. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a normal female 74,XX karyotype with 1 exceptionally small (minute) homologue of autosome LPA36. Chromosome analysis by Giemsa staining and DAPI- and C-banding revealed that the minute LPA36 was submetacentric, AT-rich, and largely heterochromatic. Because of the small size and lack of molecular markers, it was not possible to identify the origin of the minute. There is a need to improve molecular cytogenetic tools to further study the phenomenon of this minute chromosome and its relation to female reproduction in alpacas and llamas. © The American Genetic Association. 2012. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  1. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  2. Six-minute-walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polkey, Michael I; Spruit, Martijn A; Edwards, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes other than spirometry are required to assess nonbronchodilator therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Estimates of the minimal clinically important difference for the 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD) have been derived from narrow cohorts using nonblinded intervention....

  3. Smiles count but minutes matter: responses to classroom exercise breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Pate, Russell R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the subjective responses of teachers and students to classroom exercise breaks, and how responses varied by duration. This mixed-methods experimental study included focus groups with teachers (N = 8) and 4(th)- and 5(th)-grade students (N = 96). Students participated in 5-, 10-, and 20-minute exercise breaks and 10 minutes of sedentary activity. In an additional exploratory analysis, video-tapes of each condition were coded and compared for positive affect. Students and teachers discussed multiple benefits, but teachers discussed barriers to implementing regular breaks of 5-minutes or more. Students exhibited higher positive affect during each exercise condition. Classroom exercise breaks are an enjoyable way to increase physical activity, but additional support may be needed to encourage teachers to implement breaks of 5 minutes or longer.

  4. Jobs within a 30-minute transit ride - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This mapping service summarizes the total number of jobs that can be reached within 30 minutes by transit. EPA modeled accessibility via transit by calculating total...

  5. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  6. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  7. Small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from proximal p-arm of chromosome 2: identification by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasan Trcić, Ruzica; Hitrec, Vlasta; Letica, Ljiljana; Cuk, Mario; Begović, Davor

    2003-08-01

    Conventional cytogenetics detected an interstitial deletion of proximal region of p-arm of chromosome 2 in a 6-month-old boy with a phenotype slightly resembling Down's syndrome. The deletion was inherited from the father, whose karyotype revealed a small ring-shaped marker chromosome, in addition to interstitial deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization identified the marker, which consisted of the proximal region of the p-arm of chromosome 2, including a part of its centromere. This case shows that molecular cytogenetic analysis can reveal the mechanism of the formation of the marker chromosome.

  8. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  9. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  11. Ring-constrained Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    . This new operation has important applications in decision support, e.g., placing recycling stations at fair locations between restaurants and residential complexes. Clearly, RCJ is defined based on a geometric constraint but not on distances between points. Thus, our operation is fundamentally different......We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q...

  12. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  13. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana; Vasilakopoulos, Thodoris C.; Jeong, Youncheol; Lee, Hyojoon; Rogers, Simon A.; Sakellariou, Georgios; Allgaier, Jü rgen B.; Takano, Atsushi; Brá s, Ana Rita E; Chang, Taihyun; Gooß en, Sebastian; Pyckhout-Hintzen, Wim; Wischnewski, Andreas; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, Dieter R.; Rubinstein, Michael H.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  16. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  17. Exploring Market State and Stock Interactions on the Minute Timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Bo; Ouyang, Fang-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A stock market is a non-stationary complex system. The stock interactions are important for understanding the state of the market. However, our knowledge on the stock interactions on the minute timescale is limited. Here we apply the random matrix theory and methods in complex networks to study the stock interactions and sector interactions. Further, we construct a new kind of cross-correlation matrix to investigate the correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes within one trading day. Based on 50 million minute-to-minute price data in the Shanghai stock market, we discover that the market states in the morning and afternoon are significantly different. The differences mainly exist in three aspects, i.e. the co-movement of stock prices, interactions of sectors and correlation between the stock interactions at different minutes. In the afternoon, the component stocks of sectors are more robust and the structure of sectors is firmer. Therefore, the market state in the afternoon is more stable. Furthermore, we reveal that the information of the sector interactions can indicate the financial crisis in the market, and the indicator based on the empirical data in the afternoon is more effective.

  18. Parameters of mitotic recombination in minute mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrus, A.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 16 Minutes, representing 12 loci distributed over all the chromosome arms and including 3 pairs of alleles and 4 deficiencies, has been studied with respect to several developmental and recombinational parameters. Cell marker mutants located in most of the chromosome arms were used to assess (1) spontaneous and x-ray-induced mitotic recombination frequencies of each Minute, and (2) clone sizes of the different cell marker clones. These parameters were analyzed both in the wing disc and in the abdominal histoblasts. Whereas spontaneous frequencies are not affected by the presence of the Minutes studied, the different Minutes characteristically increase the frequency of recombination clones arising after x irradiation. The recombinant clones which are M + /M + are significantly larger than clones in the same fly which retain the M + /M condition. This is particularly striking in clones in the wing disc, slightly so in clones in the tergites. The occurrence of mitotic recombination in the fourth chromosome is reported for the first time. Chaeta length and developmental delay correlates with the recombinational parameters in different ways. Possible causal interrelationships of the different traits of the Minute syndrome are discussed. (U.S.)

  19. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X-R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Guo Wu, Rui-Hua Wei, Ai-Hua Liu, Xiao-Xu Zhou, Guo-Ling Sun, Xiao-Rong LiTianjin Medical University Eye Center, Tianjin, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery.Methods: We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15. In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15. The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit.Results: Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01, and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.Keywords: pars plana vitrectomy, contact lens, silicone ring, cataract surgery

  20. NRL ion ring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Drobot, A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Marsh, S.J.; Pasour, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment is under way to form a storng proton ring using the 200 ka, 1.2 MeV, 50 nsec hollow proton beam recently generated at NRL. The 5 m long magnetic field configuration consists of a magnetic cusp, a compressing magnetic field, a gate field and a magnetic mirror. The midplane value of the magnetic mirror is such that the major radius of the ring will be about 10 cm. The degree of field reversal that will be achieved with 5 x 10 16 protons per pulse from the existing beam depends upon the field reversal is possible with the 600 kA proton beam that would be generated from the low inductance coaxial triode coupled to the upgraded Gamble II generator. The propagation and trapping of an intense proton beam in the experimental magnetic field configuration is investigated numerically. The results show that the self magnetic has a very pronounced effect on the dynamics of the gyrating protons

  1. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  2. The 15-minute family interview: a family health strategy tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Lobato dos Santos Ribeiro Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 15-minute family interview is a condensed form of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM that aims to contribute to the establishment of a therapeutic relationship between nurses and family and to implement interventions to promote health and suffering relief, even during brief interactions. This study investigated the experience of nurses from the Family Health Strategy (FHS who used the 15-minute interview on postpartum home. The qualitative research was conducted in three stages: participants' training program, utilization of the 15-minute family interview by participants, and interviews with nurses. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The thematic analysis revealed two main themes: dealing with the challenge of a new practice and evaluating the assignment. This work shows that this tool can be used to deepen relationships between nurses and families in the Family Health Strategy.

  3. Magnetization of two coupled rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y; Luck, J M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the persistent currents and magnetization of a mesoscopic system consisting of two clean metallic rings sharing a single contact point in a magnetic field. Many novel features with respect to the single-ring geometry are underlined, including the explicit dependence of wavefunctions on the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes, the complex pattern of two-fold and three-fold degeneracies, the key role of length and flux commensurability, and in the case of commensurate ring lengths the occurrence of idle levels which do not carry any current. Spin-orbit interactions, induced by the electric fields of charged wires threading the rings, give rise to a peculiar version of the Aharonov-Casher effect where, unlike for a single ring, spin is not conserved. Remarkably enough, this can only be realized when the Aharonov-Bohm fluxes in both rings are neither integer nor half-integer multiples of the flux quantum

  4. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  5. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  6. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  7. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  8. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  9. Ground Movement in SSRL Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunikumar, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Users of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) are being affected by diurnal motion of the synchrotron's storage ring, which undergoes structural changes due to outdoor temperature fluctuations. In order to minimize the effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, especially on the vertical motion of the ring floor, scientists at SSRL tried three approaches: painting the storage ring white, covering the asphalt in the middle of the ring with highly reflective Mylar and installing Mylar on a portion of the ring roof and walls. Vertical motion in the storage ring is measured by a Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS), which calculates the relative height of water in a pipe that extends around the ring. The 24-hr amplitude of the floor motion was determined using spectral analysis of HLS data, and the ratio of this amplitude before and after each experiment was used to quantitatively determine the efficacy of each approach. The results of this analysis showed that the Mylar did not have any significant effect on floor motion, although the whitewash project did yield a reduction in overall HLS variation of 15 percent. However, further analysis showed that the reduction can largely be attributed to a few local changes rather than an overall reduction in floor motion around the ring. Future work will consist of identifying and selectively insulating these local regions in order to find the driving force behind diurnal floor motion in the storage ring.

  10. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  11. Rotating ring-ring electrode theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kellyb, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  12. The Rotating Ring-Ring Electrode. Theory and Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Ligthart, H.; Kelly, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    A model is presented for the rotating ring-ring electrode. Although the electrode is defined by four characteristic lengths, it is shown that the collection efficiency depends on only two dimensionless parameters. A simple relationship between these and the corresponding parameters for the rotating

  13. The six-minute walk test in paediatric populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke de Groot

    2011-01-01

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a self-paced, submaximal exercise test used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic diseases (Chang 2006, Solway et al 2001). It has been used widely in adults, and is being utilised increasingly in paediatric populations; it has been used

  14. Sing, Play, and Create: All in 20 Minutes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Young teachers often struggle with pacing and the ability to cover more than one or two songs and activities in a single 30-minute general music class. Included in this article are lesson activities that show it is not only possible to include many of the National Standards in a single lesson, but also possible to sing, play, and create in every…

  15. 39 CFR 6.5 - Minutes of meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minutes of meetings. 6.5 Section 6.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE...) or 39 U.S.C. 410(c). ...

  16. [Six-minute walk test in children with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Anleu, Israel Didier; Baños-Mejía, Benjamín Omar; Galicia-Amor, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Background: neuromuscular diseases affect the motor unit. When they evolve, respiratory complications are common; the six-minute walk test plays an important role in the assessment of functional capacity. Methods: prospective, transversal, descriptive and observational study. We studied seven children with a variety of neuromuscular diseases and spontaneous ambulation. We tested their lung function, and administered a six-minute walk test and a test of respiratory muscle strength to these children. Results: the age was 9.8 ± 2.4 years. All patients were males. Forced vital capacity decreased in three patients (42.8 %), forced expiratory volume during the first second (2.04 ± 1.4 L) and peak expiratory flow (4.33 ± 3.3 L/s) were normal. The maximum strength of respiratory muscles was less than 60 % of predicted values. The distance covered in the six-minute walk test was lower when compared with healthy controls (29.9 %). Conclusions: the six-minute walk test can be a useful tool in early stages of this disease, since it is easy to perform and well tolerated by the patients.

  17. Measurement of spin motions in a storage ring outside the stable polarization direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Badano, L.; Bravar, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro

    1993-06-01

    Polarized, stored beams are becoming a more and more important tool in nuclear and high energy physics. In order to measure the beam polarization in a storage ring the polarization vector of the stored beams has to aim, revolution for revolution, over a period of seconds to minutes, into the same, so-called ''stable'' direction. In this paper measurements at the Indiana University cooler ring (IUCF) are described in which for the first time in a storage ring oscillations of the polarization vector around this stable direction have been measured. The existence and the dynamics of such oscillations are, for instance, important for a new proposed technique for polarizing stored hadron beams

  18. Damping rings for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, John M; Zimmermann, Frank; Owen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Linear Colider (CLIC) is designed to operate at 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy with a total luminosity of 10^35 cm^-2 s^-1. The overall system design leads to extremely demanding requirements on the bunch trains injected into the main libac at frequency of 100 Hz. In particular, the emittances of the intense bunches have to be about an order of magnitude smaller than presently achieved. We describe our approach to finding a damping ring design capable of meeting these requirements. Besides lattice design, emittance and damping rate considerations, a number of scattering and instability effects have to be incorporated into the optimisation of parameters. Among these, intra-bem scattering and the electron cloud effect are two of the most significant.

  19. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  20. How Jupiter's Ring Was Discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James; Kerr, Richard

    1985-01-01

    "Rings" (by astronomer James Elliot and science writer Richard Kerr) is a nontechnical book about the discovery and exploration of ring systems from the time of Galileo to the era of the Voyager spacecraft. One of this book's chapters is presented. (JN)

  1. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  2. Fusión de un tercer molar mandibular con un cuarto molar supernumerario Fusion of mandibular third molar with supernumerary fourth molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. López Carriches

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La fusión dental es la unión de dos gérmenes dentales normalmente separados, mientras que la geminación se define como el intento de división de un único germen dental. La fusión y geminación de molares es poco frecuente en la dentición permanente. Describimos un caso clínico de un tercer molar inferior derecho fusionado a un cuarto molar supernumerario en un paciente varón de 36 años que ha presentado repetidos episodios de pericoronaritis. Tras el estudio radiológico se realiza la exodoncia del cordal semiincluido bajo anestesia local. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica al respecto.Dental fusion is the union of two tooth buds that normally are separated, while gemination is defined as an attempt by a single tooth bud to divide. The fusion and gemination of molars is uncommon in permanent teeth. We report a clinical case of a right lower third molar fused to a supernumerary fourth molar in a 36-year-old male patient with repeated episodes of inflammation. After the radiologic study, the semi-impacted third molar was extracted under local anesthesia. The literature was reviewed.

  3. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  4. Comparison of disposable sutureless silicone ring and traditional metal ring in 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Wei, Rui-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Xu; Sun, Guo-Ling; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, interventional, comparative case series was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring for corneal contact lens stabilization during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. We developed a ring consisting of a single silicone component with three footplates along the ring margin to fit cannulae for holding conventional contact lenses. Thirty eyes from 30 patients with cataract and vitreoretinal disease were included, and divided into two matched groups according to disease type and ring used. In Group A, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a disposable sutureless silicone lens ring (n = 15). In Group B, we used a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system and a conventional metal lens ring (n = 15). The main outcome measures were: time required for vitrectomy preparation, rate of intraoperative corneal limbus bleeding, and limbus scar rate at the final follow-up visit. Thirty cases were successfully completed. The average vitrectomy preparation time was less in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01), and the average preparation time saved was 3.94 minutes. None of the Group A patients had intraoperative bleeding or postoperative scarring, whereas all 15 Group B cases had bleeding and five had scarring. There was a statistically significant difference between Group A and Group B for these complications (P ≤ 0.05). This report demonstrates the advantages of using a sutureless silicone ring during combined 23-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. Using this method could allow extra time for the surgeon to pay more attention to complex vitreoretinal procedures.

  5. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  6. Individual renal plasma flow determination in 2 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, J.U.; Hamway, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for determining effective renal plasma flow, using the renal counts 1 to 2 minutes after injection and applying background subtraction as a ratio to the total amount of radioactivity injected intravenously with appropriate correction for kidney depth. It appears that this simple approach for determination of effective renal plasma flow within a matter of 2 minutes is accurate and reliable, and should be useful for a number of applications when it is important to determine total and individual renal plasma flow. The approach is recommended as a screening procedure in lieu of the determination of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, with the additional advantages of gross morphology and determination of individual renal plasma flow in an absolute as well as relative manner

  7. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  8. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  9. Tinkering at the main-ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-08-23

    To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

  10. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  11. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...

  13. Polarized particles in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Kondratenko, A.M.; Serednyakov, S.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Tumajkin, G.M.; Shatunov, Yu.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams on the VEPP-2M and SPEAK storage rings are described. Possible methods of producing polarized particle beams in storage rings as well as method of polarization monitoring are counted. Considered are the processes of radiation polarization of electrons and positrons. It is shown, that to preserve radiation polarization the introduction of regions with a strong sign-variable magnetic field is recommended. Methods of polarization measurement are counted. It is suggested for high energies to use dependence of synchrotron radiation power on transverse polarization of electrons and positrons. Examples of using polarizability of colliding beams in storage rings are presented

  14. Researches on the Piston Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  15. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  16. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  17. SMARANDACHE NON-ASSOCIATIVE RINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2002-01-01

    An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...

  18. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  19. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  20. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  1. Cosmic rings from colliding galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitton, S

    1976-11-18

    Research on two ring galaxies has led to the proposal of an interaction model to account for the rings. It is envisaged that this class of galaxy is created when a compact galaxy crashes through the disc of a spiral galaxy. The results of a spectroscopic investigation of the galaxy known as the Cartwheel and of another ring galaxy 11 NZ 4 are discussed. The general picture of ring galaxies which emerges from these studies of a massive starry nucleus with a necklace of emitting gas and some spokes and along the spin axis of the wheel a small companion galaxy that is devoid of interstellar gas. An explanation of these properties is considered.

  2. Ring lasers - a brief history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Used these days in inertial navigation, ring lasers are also used in recording the tiniest variations in the Earth's spin, as well in detecting earthquakes and even the drift of continents. How did it all begin?

  3. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  4. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  5. Synlig læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Introduktionen af John Hatties synlig læring i den danske skoleverden møder stadig meget kritik. Mange lærere og pædagoger oplever synlig læring som en tornado, der vil opsuge og ødelægge deres særlige danske udgave af den kontinentale dannelsestænkning, didaktik og pædagogik. Spørgsmålet er om...

  6. The circular RFQ storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features used in a conventional storage ring and an ion trap, and is basically a linear RFQ bend on itself. In summary the advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  7. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  8. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  9. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  10. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Emergency cesarean section and the 30-minute rule: definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Charles W; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2009-03-01

    We explored the role that lack of a standard definition and heterogeneity in patient selection criteria in the literature might have on the apparent inability to routinely begin an emergency cesarean section in less than 30 minutes. A review of the literature on emergency cesarean delivery was performed. Although there are some similarities in definitions and the criteria used for patient selection in multiple studies, the variability in the definitions could be responsible for some of the apparent timeliness performance deficiency in the literature. A standard definition and directions for future research are suggested.

  12. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  13. Sea level oscillations over minute timescales: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibic, Ivica; Sepic, Jadranka

    2016-04-01

    Sea level oscillations occurring over minutes to a few hours are an important contributor to sea level extremes, and a knowledge on their behaviour is essential for proper quantification of coastal marine hazards. Tsunamis, meteotsunamis, infra-gravity waves and harbour oscillations may even dominate sea level extremes in certain areas and thus pose a great danger for humans and coastal infrastructure. Aside for tsunamis, which are, due to their enormous impact to the coastlines, a well-researched phenomena, the importance of other high-frequency oscillations to the sea level extremes is still underrated, as no systematic long-term measurements have been carried out at a minute timescales. Recently, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established Sea Level Monitoring Facility portal (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org), making 1-min sea level data publicly available for several hundred tide gauge sites in the World Ocean. Thereafter, a global assessment of oscillations over tsunami timescales become possible; however, the portal contains raw sea level data only, being unchecked for spikes, shifts, drifts and other malfunctions of instruments. We present a quality assessment of these data, estimates of sea level variances and contributions of high-frequency processes to the extremes throughout the World Ocean. This is accompanied with assessment of atmospheric conditions and processes which generate intense high-frequency oscillations.

  14. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  15. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  16. Study for ILC Damping Ring at KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, J.W.; Fukuma, H.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Koiso, H.; Masuzawa, M.; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Y.; Oide, Katsunobu; Suetsugu, Y.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    ILC damping ring consists of very low emittance electron and positron storage rings. It is necessary for ILC damping ring to study electron cloud effects in such low emittance positron ring. We propose a low emittance operation of KEKB to study the effects.

  17. Maintenance of Minute Circulation Volume during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Levit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize procedures to maintain minute circulation volume at different stages of orthotopic liver transplantation. Subjects and methods. In the period 2005—2010, Sverdlovsk Regional Clinical Hospital One performed 32 orthotopic liver transplantations, including one retransplantation. The patients’ ASA class was (4—5. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. The mean duration of surgery was 8.1 (range 5.8—10.5 hours. The investigators applied anesthesia based on iso-fluorane 0.6—0.9 MAC (by monitoring the anesthesia depth index with cerebral state index (CSI-40-60, as well as extended central hemodynamic monitoring (prepulmonary hemodilution. All the operations were made via portofemoroaxillary bypass, by using a centrifugal Biopump. Eight surgical stages were identified: 1 run-in (after tracheal intubation; 2 liver mobilization; 3 partial bypass; 4 complete bypass (hepatectomy, a liver-free period; 5 reperfusion; 6 a postreperfusion period (bypass end; 7 biliary repair; 8 the end of an operation. The concentrations of blood parameters, electrolytes, acid-base balance, and the levels of lactate and glucose were examined. The data were processed statistically. Central hemodynamics was monitored by prepulmonary thermodilution, by calculating cardiac index (CI, stroke index, and total peripheral vascular resistance index (TPVRI at the stages: liver mobilization, postreperfusion period (bypass end, and the end of surgery. Results. Even during partial bypass, there was a significant drop in mean blood pressure (MBP as compared to the baseline levels (p<0.05. Reperfusion was also accompanied by a significant decrease in MBP and an increase in heart rate. At the end of reperfusion and in the postreperfusion period, TPVRI was halved (689.2±68.0 as compared to the baseline levels. In the postreperfusion period, central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were significantly increased by 32 and 21%, respectively

  18. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  19. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  20. Pure subrings of the rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    Pure subrings of finite rank in the Z-adic completion of the ring of integers and in its homomorphic images are considered. Certain properties of these rings are studied (existence of an identity element, decomposability into a direct sum of essentially indecomposable ideals, condition for embeddability into a csp-ring, etc.). Additive groups of these rings and conditions under which these rings are subrings of algebraic number fields are described. Bibliography: 12 titles.

  1. Clinical significance of computed tomographic arteriography for minute hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, H; Matsui, O; Suzuki, M; Ida, M; Kitagawa, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) can clearly demonstrate minute hepatocellular carcinoma (H.C.C.) more than 2 cm in diameter as an enhanced mass lesion. In this case the precise localization of H.C.C. becomes so obvious that CTA plays an important role to evaluate its resectability. However, H.C.C. of the size from 2 cm to 1 cm indiameter, which is visualized with celiac and infusion hepatic angiography, becomes more difficult in detection, and particularly H.C.C. of less than 1 cm in diameter can hardly be recognized, nor be diagnosed as a malignant nodule by CTA, therefore it appears that in these sizes of H.C.C. the detectability of CTA is not superior to the hepatic angiography.

  2. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  3. Attributes measurements by calorimetry in 15 to 30 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Perry, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the early portion of the power-history data collected with both of the IAEA's air-cooled bulk calorimeters has demonstrated that such calorimeters can measure the power from preheated containers of plutonium oxide with an accuracy of 2 to 5% in 15 to 30 minutes. Material accountancy at plutonium facilities has a need for such a capability for measurement of Pu scrap. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could use just two calorimeters and a gamma-ray assay system for reliable variables and attributes measurements of plutonium mass during a two-day physical-inventory verification (PIV) at a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication facility. The assay results would be free of the concerns about sample moisture, impurities, and geometry that previously have limited the accuracy of assays based on neutron measurements

  4. Minutes of the fourth SALE program participants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This report is a documentation of the presentations made to the Fourth Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (S.A.L.E.) Program Participants Meeting at Argonne, Illinois, July 8-9, 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and was coordinated by the S.A.L.E. Program of the New Brunswick Laboratory. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum through which administration of the Program and methods appropriate to the analysis of S.A.L.E. Program samples could be discussed. The Minutes of the Meeting is a collection of presentations by the speakers at the meeting and of the discussions following the presentations. The presentations are included as submitted by the speakers. The discussion sections were transcribed from tape recordings of the meeting and were edited to clarify and emphasize important comments. Seventeen papers have been abstracted and indexed

  5. A modified RIA for minute albumin in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panzao; Hao Xiuhua; Xiao Shuqing; Li Zhenjia

    1989-01-01

    A modified radioimmunoassay for minute albuminuria using a solid phase radioiodination technique (Iodogen), and a precipitating reagent (PR) separation was described. The results of RIA and EIA of albumin are compared with each other (r = 0.925). Aliquots of 100μl diluted urine (1:20-1:100) are incubated at 4 deg C overnight with 100μl 125 I-labelled albumin and 100μl antiserum. Separation with 500 μl PR is very successful. The concentration of standard albumin ranges from 50 to 3200 ng/ml. The sensitivity of detection is 5 ng of albumin. The coefficients of inter-assay and intr-assay variation are 3.2-8.2% and 13.0-14.5% respectively. In 70 normal individuals the range of urinary albumin is 1.2-17.8 mg/24h

  6. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  7. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  8. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  9. Creation and validation of a simulator for corneal rust ring removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, Zale; Tabanfar, Reza; Alexander, Ashley; Simpson, Sarah; Baxter, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    To create and validate a simulation model for corneal rust ring removal. Rust rings were created on cadaveric eyes with the use of small particles of metal. The eyes were mounted on suction plates at slit lamps and the trainees practiced rust ring removal. An inexperienced cohort of medical students and first year ophthalmology residents (n=11), and an experienced cohort of senior residents and faculty (n=11) removed the rust rings from the eyes with the use of a burr. Rust ring removal was evaluated based on removal time, percentage of rust removed and incidence of corneal perforation. A survey was administered to participants to determine face validity. Time for rust ring removal was longer in the inexperienced group at 187±93 seconds (range of 66-408 seconds), compared to the experienced group at 117±54 seconds (range of 55-240 seconds) (p=0.046). Removal speed was similar between groups, at 4847±4355 pixels/minute and 7206±5181 pixels/minute in the inexperienced and experienced groups, respectively (p=0.26). Removal percentage values were similar between groups, at 61±15% and 69±18% (p=0.38). There were no corneal perforations. 100% (22/22) of survey respondents believed the simulator would be a valuable practice tool, and 89% (17/19) felt the simulation was a valid representation of the clinical correlate. The corneal rust ring simulator presented here is a valid training tool that could be used by early trainees to gain greater comfort level before attempting rust ring removal on a live patient. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P; Roussos, E; Kotova, A; Cooper, J F; Mitchell, D G; Krupp, N; Paranicas, C

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  11. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  12. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  13. New Main Ring control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  15. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  16. Superconducting proton ring for PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, E.

    1979-01-01

    A powerful new facility for colliding beam physics could be provided by adding a proton storage ring in the range of several hundred GeV to the electron-positron storage ring PETRA at DESY. This can be achieved in an economic way utilizing the PETRA tunnel and taking advantage of the higher magnetic fields of superconducting magnets which would be placed above or below the PETRA magnets. A central field of 4 Tesla in the bending magnets corresponds to a proton energy of 225 GeV. (orig.)

  17. Supersymmetric rings in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Redi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of BPS string-like objects obtained by lifting monopole and dyon solutions of N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills theory to five dimensions. We present exact traveling wave solutions which preserve half of the supersymmetries. Upon compactification this leads to macroscopic BPS rings in four dimensions in field theory. Due to the fact that the strings effectively move in six dimensions the same procedure can also be used to obtain rings in five dimensions by using the hidden dimension

  18. Damping ring designs and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Decking, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The luminosity performance of a future linear collider (LC) will depend critically on the performance of the damping rings. The design luminosities of the current LC proposals require rings with very short damping times, large acceptance, low equilibrium emittance and high beam intensity. We discuss the design strategies for lattices achieving the goals of dynamical stability, examine the challenges for alignment and coupling correction, and consider a variety of collective effects that threaten to limit beam quality. We put the design goals in context by referring to the experience of operating facilities, and outline the further research and development that is needed

  19. Dendro-analysis: the study of trace elements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilboy, W.B.; Tout, R.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1976-01-01

    In attempts to study environmental contamination over long time scales into the past, the levels of trace and minor elements in individual tree rings have been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Most measurements so far have been done on elm tree samples which are widely available due to a current epidemic of Dutch Elm disease in southern England. Samples taken from every growth ring were individually activated for ten minutes in a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 in the 100 kW London University research reactor. The activated samples were counted for ten minutes on a 42 cm 3 Ge(Li) gamma ray detector. These procedures enabled the following radioisotopes to be monitored for a large number of samples: 19 0, 24 Na, 27 Mg, 28 Al, 38 Cl, 42 K, 49 Ca, 56 Mn, 66 Cu, 80 Br, 87 /sup m/Sr, 41 Ar, 128 I, 139 Ba. Some of the above isotopes show striking systematic variations both from ring to ring in a radial direction, and also around individual rings. Results are described in detail for samples taken from trees grown in various locations and assesses the potential of this technique for studying past environmental conditions

  20. Thermal micropressure sensor for pressure monitoring in a minute package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S. N.; Mizuno, K.; Fujiyoshi, M.; Funabashi, H.; Sakata, J.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal micropressure sensor suitable for pressure measurements in the range from 7x10 -3 to 1x10 5 Pa has been fabricated by forming a titanium (Ti) thin-film resistor on a floating nondoped silica glass membrane, with the sensing area being as small as 60 μmx60 μm. The sensor performance is raised by: (1) increasing the ratio of gaseous thermal conduction in the total thermal conduction by sensor structure design; (2) compensating the effect of ambient-temperature drift by using a reference resistor located close to the sensing element but directly on the silicon substrate; and (3) utilizing an optimized novel constant-bias Wheatstone bridge circuit. By choosing a proper bias voltage, which can be found by simple calculation, the circuit extracts information on gaseous thermal conduction from the directly measurable total heat loss of the heated sensing element. The sensor was enclosed in a metal package with a capacity of about 0.5 ml by projection welding and was successfully applied to monitoring the pressure in the minute space

  1. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  2. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s -1 radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M sun tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M sun carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10 -22 , about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  3. Examination techniques for non-magnetic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metala, M.J.; Kilpatrick, N.L.; Frank, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Until the introduction of 18Mn18Cr rings a few years ago, most non-magnetic steel rings for generator rotors were made from 18Mn5Cr alloy steel, which is highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of water. This, the latest in a series of papers on the subject of non-magnetic rings by the authors' company, provides a discussion of nondestructive examination of 18Mn5Cr rings for stress corrosion distress. With rings on the rotor, fluorescent penetrant, ultrasonic and special visual techniques are applied. With rings off the rotor, the fluorescent penetrant technique is used, with and without stress enhancement

  4. Ring diagrams and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Ring diagrams at finite temperatures carry most infrared-singular parts among Feynman diagrams. Their effect to effective potentials are in general so significant that one must incorporate them as well as 1-loop diagrams. The author expresses these circumstances in some examples of supercooled phase transitions

  5. WR stars with ring nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that most of usually apparently single nitrogen WR stars with ring emission nebulae around them (WN + Neb) are a probable product of the evolution of a massive close binary with initial masses of components exceeding approximately 20 solar masses. (Auth.)

  6. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  7. Characteristic of Rings. Prime Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the characteristic of rings and its basic properties are formalized [14], [39], [20]. Classification of prime fields in terms of isomorphisms with appropriate fields (ℚ or ℤ/p are presented. To facilitate reasonings within the field of rational numbers, values of numerators and denominators of basic operations over rationals are computed.

  8. Ring laser frequency biasing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A ring laser cavity including a magnetically saturable member for differentially phase shifting the contradirectional waves propagating in the laser cavity, the phase shift being produced by the magneto-optic interaction occurring between the light waves and the magnetization in the cavity forming component as the light waves are reflected therefrom is described

  9. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  10. Progressiv læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    SAMMENFATNING I denne evalueringsrapport præsenterer Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling ved Aarhus Universitet (herefter NCK) og Rambøll Management Consulting (herefter Rambøll) den værktøjsspecifikke evaluering af Progressiv Læring som pædagogisk værktøj for de ni implementeringsskoler i s...

  11. Wands of the Black Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0001-7701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P017; GA AV ČR KJB1019403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : algebraic classification * Petrov classification * black ring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2005

  12. Substitution of matrices over rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given commutative ring with an identity element, we define and study the substitution of a matrix with entries in into a matrix polynomial or rational function over . A Bezout-type remainder theorem and a "partial-substitution rule" are derived and used to obtain a number of results. The

  13. Exercises in modules and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, TY

    2009-01-01

    This volume offers a compendium of exercises of varying degree of difficulty in the theory of modules and rings. All exercises are solved in full detail. Each section begins with an introduction giving the general background and the theoretical basis for the problems that follow.

  14. On commutativity theorems for rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. S. Abujabal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with unity. It is proved that if R satisfies the polynomial identity [xny−ymxn,x]=0(m>1,n≥1, then R is commutative. Two or more related results are also obtained.

  15. Change Ringing - communicating climate change through contemporary classical music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ravi; Osborn, Laurence; Shenai, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Change Ringing is a collaborative artwork by artist Peter Shenai and composer Laurence Osborn that forms around a playable sculpture and a large-scale composition. The sculpture incorporates a set of six bronze bells designed and cast by artist Peter Shenai. Their shapes are mathematically derived from graphic statistical representations of summer temperatures at seventeen-year intervals over the course of the twentieth century. Arranged according to the chronology of their corresponding data sets and struck in order, the bells voice a series of inharmonic spectra that communicate sonically the story of climate change during the twentieth century. This series forms the basis for Laurence Osborn's twenty-five minute composition, scored for string orchestra and the bells themselves. In Change Ringing, an artwork that combines music, sculpture, performance, and ritual, we want to move audiences and, in doing so, facilitate their engagement with ideas that are highly relevant today. We believe that the medium of musically organized sound, so often wrongly dismissed as "abstract" and non-referential, can be a more than adequate reflection of lived human experience in the 21st Century, and we work in the hope that Change Ringing will connect with contemporary audiences on the most fundamental level.

  16. Minute Ventilation Limitations of Two Field Transport Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Horn, Gregory; Shalov, Samuel; Abes, Alvin Angelo; Van Decar, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of transport ventilator performance impacts patient safety. This study compared minute ventilation (V E ) of the MOVES and Uni-Vent 731 when ventilating the VentAid Training Test Lung with compliance (C) ranging from 0.02 to 0.10 L/cm H 2 O and three different airway resistances (R) (none, Rp5, or Rp20). Tidal volume (V T ) was 800 ± 25 mL. Respiratory rate was increased to ventilator's maximum or until auto-PEEP > 5 cm H 2 O. Respiratory parameters were recorded with the RSS 100HR Research Pneumotach. Data were reported as median (interquartile range). Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of the Uni-Vent and MOVES ranged from 22.3 (22.2-22.5) to 82.6 (82.2-83.2) and 20.8 (20.6-20.9) to 50.6 (50.2-50.9) cm H 2 O, respectively. V E of the Uni-Vent and MOVES ranged from 17.7 (17.7-17.7) to 31.5 (31.5-31.5) and 11.3 (10.5-11.3) to 20.2 (19.7-20.5) L/min, respectively. Linear regression demonstrated strong, negative correlation of V E with PIP for the MOVES (V E [L/min] = 26 - 0.31 × PIP [cm H 2 O], r = -0.97) but weak, positive correlation for the Uni-Vent (r = 0.05). Uni-Vent V E exceeded MOVES V E under each test condition (p = 0.0002). If patient V E requirements exceed those predicted by the MOVES regression equation, then using the Uni-Vent should be considered. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. 21 CFR 870.3800 - Annuloplasty ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An annuloplasty ring is a rigid or flexible ring implanted around the mitral or tricuspid heart valve for reconstructive treatment of valvular insufficiency. (b) Classification. Class II (special...

  18. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  19. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  20. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  1. Mathematical simulation of bearing ring grinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltunov, I. I.; Gorbunova, T. N.; Tumanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    The paper suggests the method of forming a solid finite element model of the bearing ring. Implementation of the model allowed one to evaluate the influence of the inner cylindrical surface grinding scheme on the ring shape error.

  2. Dynamics of long ring Raman fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergey V.; Melnikov, Leonid A.; Mazhirina, Yulia A.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical model for dynamics of long fiber ring Raman laser is proposed. The model is based on the transport equations and Courant-Isaacson-Rees numerical method. Different regimes of a long ring fiber Raman laser are investigated.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. Prolonged seizure episodes known as non-convulsive status epilepticus also appear to be characteristic of ring chromosome ... K, Takahashi Y. Ring chromosome 20 and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. A new epileptic syndrome. Brain. 1997 Jun;120 ( ...

  4. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  5. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  6. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...

  7. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing; Arcak, Murat; Salama, Khaled N.

    2010-01-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  8. Pre-emptive penile ring block with sucrose analgesia reduces pain response to neonatal circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Rodriguez, Christian F; Toussaint, Thomas; Sherlock, Douglas J; Fogel, Joshua; Hsu, Chaur-Dong

    2014-04-01

    To compare retrospective use of oral sucrose (SUC) vs oral sucrose plus lidocaine ring block (SUC + RB) in the management of pain during neonatal circumcision. A retrospective review of medical records of newborns circumcised using the "Neonatal Infant Pain Scale" was done. With regard to pain, the SUC group had a significantly greater percentage of those with pain than the SUC + RB group at 1 minute (77.7% vs 69.4%; P = .01) and 5 minutes (65.7% vs 55.7%; P = .004). There was no significant pain difference at 30 minutes. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, those in the SUC group had significantly greater odds for pain at 1 minute than those in the SUC + RB group (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-2.02; P = .03). No significant difference was noted at 5 minutes. Each of the SUC and SUC + RB groups had significant decreases in pain percentages at 5 minutes and 30 minutes (P analgesia. In addition, for post-term neonates, we recommend greater focus on pain levels, including considering higher dosages of pain medications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  10. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2000-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  11. Beam dynamic issues in TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we study general requirements on impedances of the linear collider TESLA damping ring design. Quantitative consideration is performed for 17-km long ''dog-bone'' ring. Beam dynamics in alternative options of 6.3 and 2.3-km long damping rings is briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. IAG ring test animal proteins 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Voet, van der H.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG – International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants

  13. IAG ring test animal proteins 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Rhee, van de N.E.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the ring test was RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The

  14. IAG ring test animal proteins 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the the ring study was to provide the

  15. Self-gravitation in Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.; Lukkari, J.

    1982-01-01

    In a ring-shaped collisional system self-gravitation reduces the equilibrium values of the geometric and optical thickness. In Saturn's rings both effects are appreciable. The previously found discrepancy between the calculated profile and the observed profile of the rings is chiefly caused by the omission of self-gravitation. (Auth.)

  16. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  17. Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Multiple 60-Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © ... funded study found that multiple 60-minute massages per week were more effective than fewer or shorter ...

  18. USGS 1:12000 (Quarter 7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a mathematically generated grid in which each polygon represents one quarter of a standard USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle. The result is a 3 3/4 minute...

  19. Fourth-generation storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number

  20. Magic Ring: A Finger-Worn Device for Multiple Appliances Control Using Static Finger Gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ultimate goal for Ubiquitous Computing is to enable people to interact with the surrounding electrical devices using their habitual body gestures as they communicate with each other. The feasibility of such an idea is demonstrated through a wearable gestural device named Magic Ring (MR, which is an original compact wireless sensing mote in a ring shape that can recognize various finger gestures. A scenario of wireless multiple appliances control is selected as a case study to evaluate the usability of such a gestural interface. Experiments comparing the MR and a Remote Controller (RC were performed to evaluate the usability. From the results, only with 10 minutes practice, the proposed paradigm of gestural-based control can achieve a performance of completing about six tasks per minute, which is in the same level of the RC-based method.

  1. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Georgsen, Marianne

    I denne rapport tilbyder vi et indblik i det gennemførte projekt, og forfatterne har valgt nogle forhold ud, som belyses og diskuteres, mens andre ikke berøres eller diskuteres nævneværdigt i denne rapport. Det skyldes blandt andet projektets mange facetter, som dækker både læring, teknologi, pæd...

  2. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  3. Two superconducting storage rings: ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of the design and the status of the ISABELLE storage ring project at the present time are reported. It brings up to date the results reported at the National Particle Accelerator Conference in March 1977. The most significant change since that time has been an upgrading of the energy of the overall facility, and acceptance of the project by the Department of Energy

  4. ring og it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Antologien er et bidrag til didaktiske diskussioner om brug af f.eks. programpakker til sprogundervisning, præsentationsprogrammel og konferencesystemer på de videregående uddannelser. Antologien diskuterer ideen om, at multimediale medier og internettet kan understøtte læring, undervisning og ...... samarbejde ud fra konkrete eksempler på it-anvendelser, hvor fokus er på potentialer, barrierer og faldgruber....

  5. Six-minute walking distance and decrease in oxygen saturation during the six-minute walk test in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Hegeman, Anneke K.; van der Krieke-van der Horst, Merel; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of the 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), transcutaneous saturation (tcSO2) and heart rate (HR) obtained during the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: This was an observational study with forty-seven

  6. Carbon-14 in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, W.F.; Suess, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees, dendrochronologically dated to have grown in the third and fourth century B.C. The first series of measurements showed that bomb-produced radiocarbon was incorporated in wood at a time when it was converted from sapwood to heartwood, whenever radiocarbon from bomb testing was present in the atmosphere. The second series showed that wood more than 2000 years old and grown on two different continents at different altitudes had, within the limits of experimental error, the same radiocarbon content. This work and other experimental evidence, obtained in part by other laboratories, show that tree rings reflect the average radiocarbon content of global atmospheric carbon dioxide accurately within several parts per mil. In rare cases, deviations of up to 10 parts per thousand may be possible. This means that a typical single radiocarbon date for wood or charcoal possesses an intrinsic uncertainty (viz., an estimated ''one-sigma error'' in addition to all the other errors) of the order of +-50 years. This intrinsic uncertainty is independent of the absolute age of the sample. More accurate dates can, in principle, be obtained by the so-called method of ''wiggle matching.''

  7. Ring enhancement in recurrent gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogashiwa, Motohide; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Akai, Keiichiro

    1981-01-01

    The clinical courses,CT scans, and postmortem reports for 6 glioma patients treated by surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy were reviewed. They underwent reoperation and/or retreatment with radiation or chemotherapy for recurrent tumors. CT scans taken at the time of recurrence or about one month prior to death showed ring enhancement of varied size and form after intensive treatment. The cases were examined histologically in correlation with the CT features and divided into two groups based on the pathological findings in the centers surrounded by areas of ring enhancement. The 1st group demonstrated a large necrotic area in the center, and the 2nd group, a cystic tumor. Tumor cells were found to have spread throughout the high-density areas around the necrotic area or cyst. However, gross differentiation between tumor and necrosis was difficult. In addition to an increase in cellularity, all cases demonstrated vascular proliferation, and dilatation of vessels in the sulci or sulci adjacent to gyri invaded by the tumor. The contrast enhancement corresponded well with the vascular proliferation in these areas. It is concluded that vascular proliferation or dilatation of vessels in and around the tumor is an important factor in demonstrating high-density areas in ring enhancement, while a cyst or necrosis in the tumor center is revealed as a low-density area in the CT scan of recurrent gliomas. (author)

  8. Ring enhancement in recurrent gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogashiwa, M; Takeuchi, K; Akai, K [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1981-08-01

    The clinical courses,CT scans, and postmortem reports for 6 glioma patients treated by surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy were reviewed. They underwent reoperation and/or retreatment with radiation or chemotherapy for recurrent tumors. CT scans taken at the time of recurrence or about one month prior to death showed ring enhancement of varied size and form after intensive treatment. The cases were examined histologically in correlation with the CT features and divided into two groups based on the pathological findings in the centers surrounded by areas of ring enhancement. The 1st group demonstrated a large necrotic area in the center, and the 2nd group, a cystic tumor. Tumor cells were found to have spread throughout the high-density areas around the necrotic area or cyst. However, gross differentiation between tumor and necrosis was difficult. In addition to an increase in cellularity, all cases demonstrated vascular proliferation, and dilatation of vessels in the sulci or sulci adjacent to gyri invaded by the tumor. The contrast enhancement corresponded well with the vascular proliferation in these areas. It is concluded that vascular proliferation or dilatation of vessels in and around the tumor is an important factor in demonstrating high-density areas in ring enhancement, while a cyst or necrosis in the tumor center is revealed as a low-density area in the CT scan of recurrent gliomas.

  9. Evidence for Quantisation in Planetary Ring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    WAYTE, RICHARD

    2017-01-01

    Absolute radial positions of the main features in Saturn's ring system have been calculated by adapting the quantum theory of atomic spectra. Fine rings superimposed upon broad rings are found to be covered by a harmonic series of the form N α A(r)1/2, where N and A are integers. Fourier analysis of the ring system shows that the spectral amplitude fits a response profile which is characteristic of a resonant system. Rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also obey the same rules. Involvement o...

  10. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  11. Experimental Observations of Vortex Ring Interaction with the Fluid Adjacent to a Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    minute. The water enters the inlet tank from a distribution manifold pipe and rises vertically through a 15 cm. thick plastic sponge. The flow then passes...parts exposed to water are made from PVC plastic to resist corrosion. The generator was designed to have interchangeable parts which allow the generation...of vortex rings over a range of caracteristics . The motor speed is continuously variable up to a speed of 7400 rpm. Cams with stroke lengths of 0.64

  12. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  13. Plasma-ring, fast-opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a fast-opening switch concept based on magnetically confined plasma rings, PROS (for Plasma Ring Opening Switch). In PROS, the plasma ring, confined by Bθ /sub and B/poloidal /sub fields of a compact torus, provide a low mass, localized conduction path between coaxial electrodes. To operate the switch, driver current is passed across the electrodes through the ring, storing inductive energy in external inductance and between the electrodes on the driver side of the ring. The ring is accelerated away from the driver by the field of the driver current and passes over a load gap transferring the current to the load. The authors distinguish two configurations in PROS, straight PROS where the electrodes are coaxial cylinders, and cone PROS with conical electrodes. In straight PROS ring acceleration takes place during the inductive store period as in foil switches, but with the localized ring providing the current path. Increased performance is predicted for the cone PROS (see figure) which employs compression of the ring in the cone during the inductive store period. Here, the B/θ /sub field of the driver forces the ring towards the apex of the cone but the force is in near balance with the opposing component of the radial equilibrium force of the ring along the cone. As a result, the ring undergoes a slow, quasistatic compression limited only by resistive decay of the ring field. Slow compression allows inductive storage with low-power drivers (homopoloar, magneto cumulative generators, high C-low V capacitor banks, etc.). Near the apex of the cone, near peak compression, the ring is allowed to enter a straight coaxial section where, because of low-mass, it rapidly accelerates to high velocity and crosses the load gap

  14. Measurement of spin motions in a storage ring outside the stable polarization direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; McPherson, J.; Olchowski, F.; Onel, Y.; Badano, L.; Conte, M.; Bravar, A.; Penzo, A.; Hall, J.; Kreiser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Polarized, stored beams are becoming a more and more important tool in nuclear and high energy physics. In order to measure the beam polarization in a storage ring the polarization vector of the stored beam has to aim, revolution for revolution, over a period of seconds to minutes, into the same, so-called open-quote stableclose quotes, direction. In this paper measurements at the Indiana University Cooler Ring (IUCF) are described in which for the first time in a storage ring oscillations of the polarization vector around this stable direction have been measured. The existence and the dynamics of such oscillations are, for instance, important for a new proposed technique for polarizing stored hadron beams

  15. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  16. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Liang, Cai; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  17. Variations in Ring Particle Cooling across Saturn's Rings with Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Déau, E.; Altobelli, N.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded over two million of spectra of Saturn's rings in the far infrared since arriving at Saturn in 2004. CIRS records far infrared radiation between 10 and 600 cm-1 ( 16.7 and 1000 μ {m} ) at focal plane 1 (FP1), which has a field of view of 3.9 mrad. Thermal emission from Saturn’s rings peaks in this wavelength range. Ring temperatures can be inferred from FP1 data. By tracking how ring temperatures vary, we can determine the thermal inertia of the rings. Previous studies have shown that the rings' thermal inertia, a measure of their response to changes in the thermal environment, varies from ring to ring. Thermal inertia can provide insight into the physical structure of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths. Low thermal inertia and rapidly changing temperatures are suggestive of ring particles that have more porous or fluffy regoliths or that are riddled with cracks. Solid particles can be expected to have higher thermal inertias. Ferrari et al. (2005) fit thermal inertia values of 5218 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their B ring data and 6412 {Jm)-2 {K}-1 {s}-1/2 to their C ring data. In this work we focus on CIRS observations of the shadowed portion of Saturn's rings. The rings’ thermal budget is dominated by its absorption of solar radiation. As a result, ring particles abruptly cool as they traverse Saturn's shadow. From these shadow observations we can create cooling curves at specific locations across the rings. We will show that the rings' cooling curves and thus their thermal inertia vary not only from ring to ring, but by location within the individual rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  18. Einstein Ring in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, Rémi Cabanac and his European colleagues have discovered an amazing cosmic mirage, known to scientists as an Einstein Ring. This cosmic mirage, dubbed FOR J0332-3557, is seen towards the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), and is remarkable on at least two counts. First, it is a bright, almost complete Einstein ring. Second, it is the farthest ever found. ESO PR Photo 20a/05 ESO PR Photo 20a/05 Deep Image of a Region in Fornax (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 434 pix - 60k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 867 pix - 276k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1859 x 2015 pix - 3.8M] ESO PR Photo 20b/05 ESO PR Photo 20b/05 Zoom-in on the Newly Found Einstein Ring (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 575 pix - 168k] [Normal - JPEG: 630 x 906 pix - 880k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 20a/05 is a composite image taken in two bands (B and R) with VLT/FORS1 of a small portion of the sky (field-of-view 7x7' or 1/15th of the area of the full moon). The faintest object seen in the image has a magnitude 26, that is, it is 100 million times fainter than what can be observed with the unaided eye. The bright elliptical galaxy on the lower-left quadrant is a dwarf galaxy part of a large nearby cluster in the Fornax constellation. As for all deep images of the sky, this field shows a variety of objects, the brightest ponctual sources being stars from our Galaxy. By far the field is dominated by thousands of faint background galaxies the colours of which are related to the age of their dominant stellar population, their dust content and their distance. The newly found Einstein ring is visible in the top right part of the image. ESO PR Photo 20b/05 zooms-in on the position of the newly found cosmic mirage. ESO PR Photo 20c/05 ESO PR Photo 20c/05 Einstein Ring in Distant Universe (FORS/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 584 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1168 pix - 292k] [Full Res - JPEG: 1502 x 2192 pix - 684k] Caption of ESO PR Photo 20c/05: The left image is magnified and centred

  19. Database for the Geologic Map of the Skykomish River 30-Minute by 60-Minute Quadrangle, Washington (I-1963)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Booth, D.B.; Waitt, R.B.; Whetten, J.T.; Zartman, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    This digital map database has been prepared from the published geologic map of the Skykomish River 30- by 60-minute quadrangle by the senior author. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. From the eastern-most edges of suburban Seattle, the Skykomish River quadrangle stretches east across the low rolling hills and broad river valleys of the Puget Lowland, across the forested foothills of the North Cascades, and across high meadowlands to the bare rock peaks of the Cascade crest. The Straight Creek Fault, a major Pacific Northwest structure which almost bisects the quadrangle, mostly separates unmetamorphosed and low-grade metamorphic Paleozoic and Mesozoic oceanic rocks on the west from medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks on the east. Within the quadrangle the lower grade rocks are mostly Mesozoic melange units. To the east, the higher-grade terrane is mostly the Chiwaukum Schist and related gneisses of the Nason terrane and invading mid-Cretaceous stitching plutons. The Early Cretaceous Easton Metamorphic Suite crops out on both sides of the Straight Creek fault and records it's dextral displacement. On the south margin of the quadrangle, the fault separates the lower Eocene Swauk Formation on the east from the upper Eocene and Oligocene(?) Naches Formation and, farther north, its correlative Barlow Pass Volcanics the west. Stratigraphically equivalent rocks of the Puget Group crop out farther to the west. Rocks of

  20. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  1. Interaction of ring dark solitons with ring impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of ring dark solitons/vortexes with the ring-shaped repulsive and attractive impurities in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated numerically. Very rich interaction phenomena are obtained, i.e., not only the interaction between the ring soliton and the impurity, but also the interaction between vortexes and the impurity. The interaction characters, i.e., snaking of ring soliton, quasitrapping or reflection of ring soliton and vortexes by the impurity, strongly depend on initial ring soliton velocity, impurity strength, initial position of ring soliton and impurity. The numerical results also reveal that ring dark solitons/vortexes can be trapped and dragged by an adiabatically moving attractive ring impurity

  2. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  3. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected

  4. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  5. Ring with changeable radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collica, C.; Epifano, L.; Farella, R.

    1976-01-01

    A ring for housing a disc of radiation measuring material is described comprising a band having a circular shape and a housing integral with the band. The housing comprises a hollow cylindrical section substantially normal to the band surface and terminating in an inwardly disposed annular flange which defines a substantially circular aperture. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a retaining protrusion formed on the inside of the cylindrical section and spaced from the annular flange is provided to retain a plurality of discs mounted in the housing in layered fashion

  6. Ring magnet firing angle control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, M.J.; Lewis, L.G.; Rabe, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A device is provided for controlling the firing angles of thyratrons (rectifiers) in a ring magnet power supply. A phase lock loop develops a smooth ac signal of frequency equal to and in phase with the frequency of the voltage wave developed by the main generator of the power supply. A counter that counts from zero to a particular number each cycle of the main generator voltage wave is synchronized with the smooth AC signal of the phase lock loop. Gates compare the number in the counter with predetermined desired firing angles for each thyratron and with coincidence the proper thyratron is fired at the predetermined firing angle

  7. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  8. The analysis of the possibility of using 10-minute rainfall series to determine the maximum rainfall amount with 5 minutes duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Bartosz; Wartalska, Katarzyna; Wdowikowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    Modern scientific research in the area of heavy rainfall analysis regarding to the sewerage design indicates the need to develop and use probabilistic rain models. One of the issues that remains to be resolved is the length of the shortest amount of rain to be analyzed. It is commonly believed that the best time is 5 minutes, while the least rain duration measured by the national services is often 10 or even 15 minutes. Main aim of this paper is to present the difference between probabilistic rainfall models results given from rainfall time series including and excluding 5 minutes rainfall duration. Analysis were made for long-time period from 1961-2010 on polish meteorological station Legnica. To develop best fitted to measurement rainfall data probabilistic model 4 probabilistic distributions were used. Results clearly indicates that models including 5 minutes rainfall duration remains more appropriate to use.

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Ring-Satellite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand dynamical processes related to the evolution of size distribution of particles in planetary rings and application of theoretical results to explain features in the present rings of giant planets. We studied velocity evolution and accretion rates of ring particles in the Roche zone. We developed a new numerical code for the evolution of ring particle size distribution, which takes into account the above results for particle velocity evolution and accretion rates. We also studied radial diffusion rate of ring particles due to inelastic collisions and gravitational encounters. Many of these results can be also applied to dynamical evolution of a planetesimal disk. Finally, we studied rotation rates of moonlets and particles in planetary rings, which would influence the accretional evolution of these bodies. We describe our key accomplishments during the past three years in more detail in the following.

  10. Foundations of commutative rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fanggui

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the basics and recent developments of commutative algebra. A glance at the contents of the first five chapters shows that the topics covered are ones that usually are included in any commutative algebra text. However, the contents of this book differ significantly from most commutative algebra texts: namely, its treatment of the Dedekind–Mertens formula, the (small) finitistic dimension of a ring, Gorenstein rings, valuation overrings and the valuative dimension, and Nagata rings. Going further, Chapter 6 presents w-modules over commutative rings as they can be most commonly used by torsion theory and multiplicative ideal theory. Chapter 7 deals with multiplicative ideal theory over integral domains. Chapter 8 collects various results of the pullbacks, especially Milnor squares and D+M constructions, which are probably the most important example-generating machines. In Chapter 9, coherent rings with finite weak global dimensions are probed, and the local ring of weak gl...

  11. A first course in noncommutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, T Y

    2001-01-01

    A First Course in Noncommutative Rings, an outgrowth of the author's lectures at the University of California at Berkeley, is intended as a textbook for a one-semester course in basic ring theory. The material covered includes the Wedderburn-Artin theory of semisimple rings, Jacobson's theory of the radical, representation theory of groups and algebras, prime and semiprime rings, local and semilocal rings, perfect and semiperfect rings, etc. By aiming the level of writing at the novice rather than the connoisseur and by stressing th the role of examples and motivation, the author has produced a text that is suitable not only for use in a graduate course, but also for self- study in the subject by interested graduate students. More than 400 exercises testing the understanding of the general theory in the text are included in this new edition.

  12. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  13. A muon storage ring for neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Neuffer, D.

    1988-01-01

    A muon storage ring can provide electron and muon neutrino beams of precisely knowable flux. Constraints on muon collection and storage-ring design are discussed. Sample muon storage rings are presented and muon and neutrino intensities are estimated. Experimental use of the ν-beams, detector properties, and possible variations are described. Future directions for conceptual designs are outlined. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Storage rings, internal targets and PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1986-11-01

    Storage rings with internal targets are described, using PEP as an example. The difference between electrons and heavier particles such as protons, antiprotons, and heavy ions is also discussed because it raises possibilities of bypass insertions for more exotic experiments. PEP is compared to other rings in various contexts to verify the assertion that it is an ideal ring for many fundamental and practical applications that can be carried on simultaneously

  15. Saturn’s ring temperatures at equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Ferrari, C.; Morishima, R.

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the thermal emission of Saturn's rings is challenging due to the numerous heating sources as well as the structural properties of the disk and of the particles that are closely related. At equinox, however, the main rings are externally heated by Saturn alone and the problem is somewhat simplified. We test the abilities of our current models to reproduce the temperatures observed with the Cassini CIRS instrument around equinox in August 2009. A simple semi-analytic model which includes mutual shadowing effects can mostly explain the radial profile of the equinox ring temperatures, except the model predicts lower temperatures than those observed for the A ring. The temperature variation at a given saturnocentric radius is primarily caused by observational geometry variations relative to Saturn. The observed temperature increases with decreasing Saturn-ring-observer angle. In addition, we found evidence that the leading hemispheres of particles are warmer than the trailing hemispheres at least for the C ring and probably for the A and B rings as well. This is explained if some fraction of particles has spin rates lower than the synchronous rotation rate as predicted by N-body simulations. The spin model for a monolayer ring (Ferrari, C., Leyrat, C., 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 447, 745-760) can fit the temperature variations with spacecraft longitude observed in the C ring with currently known thermal properties and a mixing of slow and fast rotators. The multilayer model (Morishima, R., Salo, H., Ohtsuki, K., 2009, Icarus 201, 634-654) can reproduce the temperatures of the B and C rings but gives A ring temperatures that are significantly lower than those observed as does the simple semi-analytic model. More advanced models which take into account self-gravity wakes may explain the A ring temperature behavior.

  16. Ring recognition in the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ososkov, G.; Hoehne, C.

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms of ring recognition, a standalone ring finder (using only RICH information) and an algorithm based on the information from vertex tracks are described. The fake ring problem and its solution using a set of two-dimensional cuts or an artificial neural network are discussed. Results of a comparative study are given. All developed algorithms were tested on large statistics of simulated events and were then included into the CBM framework for common use

  17. On Semiprime Noetherian PI-Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Katsuo

    2000-01-01

    Let R be a semiprime Noetherian PI-ring and Q(R) the semisimple Artinian ring of fractions of R. We shall prove the following conditions are equivalent: (1) the Krull dimention of R is at most one, (2) Any ring between R and Q(R) is again right Noetherian, (3) Let a, b be central regular elements of Q(R). Then the subring R + aR[b] of Q(R) is right Noetherian.

  18. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing the frictio......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing...... the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... available is reflected in the friction absorbed in the bearing. The following properties will be measured: Oil fillm thickness - along liner (axial variation), oil film thickness - along piston ring (circumferential variation), piston tilt, temperature of piston rings and liner, pressure at piston lands...

  19. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  20. Influence of topology in a quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, A.L. Silva; Chesman, C.; Furtado, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we study the quantum rings in the presence of a topological defect. We use geometric theory of defects to describe one and two-dimensional quantum rings in the presence of a single screw dislocation. In addition we consider some potential in a two dimensional ring and calculate their energy spectrum. It is shown that the energy spectrum depend on the parabolic way on the burgers vectors of the screw dislocation. We also show that the presence of a topological defect introduces a new contribution for the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the quantum ring

  1. Topological matter, integrable models and fusion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeschansky, D.; Warner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    We show how topological G k /G k models can be embedded into the topological matter models that are obtained by perturbing the twisted N = 2 supersymmetric, hermitian symmetric, coset models. In particular, this leads to an embedding of the fusion ring of G as a sub-ring of the perturbed, chiral primary ring. The perturbation of the twisted N = 2 model that leads to the fusion ring is also shown to lead to an integrable N = 2 supersymmetric field theory when the untwisted N = 2 superconformal field theory is perturbed by the same operator and its hermitian conjugate. (orig.)

  2. Corneal iron ring after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Gürelik, G; Adigüzel, U; Akpinar, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1999-05-01

    To report the incidence and course of corneal iron deposition after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Gazi University, Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey. Between January 1995 and December 1997, 62 eyes had PRK to correct hyperopia. Nine eyes developed corneal iron ring 5 to 8 months (mean 6.25 months +/- 1.3 [SD]) after PRK for hyperopia. The rings persisted during the mean follow-up of 19 +/- 11.09 months. The ring-shaped iron deposition after PRK for hyperopia must be differentiated from the Fleischer ring. Our results suggest that the slitlamp findings of peripheral corneal iron deposition in hyperopic PRK patients correlate with achieved correction.

  3. Status of the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.M.; Davies-White, W.A.; Delahaye, J.P.

    1985-06-01

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 10 10 particles/pulse (design 5 x 10 10 ) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Correlation between solid gastric emptying and endoscopy after silastic ring vertical gastroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.C.; Brunetto, S.Q.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Sansana, C.R.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Pareja, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Bariatric surgeries have been used in the treatment of obese patients. Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) consists of creating a gastric pouch which will lead to changes in the mechanism of digestion and to weight loss Aim: To determine the solid gastric emptying T1/2 in patients who underwent SRVG, and to correlate these findings with endoscopy, body mass index (BMI) and percent loss of excess body weight (PLEBW). Materials and Methods: Thirty six obese patients (30 women and 6 men, mean age 40.3 years) were submitted to SRVG. Endoscopy was performed 6 to 12 months after SRVG to classify the ring introduced into the neo stomach as tight, medium and large. Twelve to 18 months after SRVG the patients were submitted to scintigraphy and evaluation of BMI and PLEBW. Gastric emptying was performed with a solid meal which consisted of a cooked egg labeled with 99m Tc-microcolloid. Patients were placed in the upright position and acquisition was begun after ingestion of the radioactive meal. The gastric emptying T1/2 was calculated. Results: The T1/2 was 53.44 ± 40.26 minutes for patients with a tight ring (47.2% of the patient population); 68.03 ± 43.06 minutes for patients with a medium ring (22.2% of the patient population); and 23.06 ± 25.15 minutes for patients with a large ring (30.6% of the patient population). There was a significant correlation between T1/2 and endoscopic findings (p = 0.0482; ANOVA). Within 18 months after SRVG, patients showed BMI = 32.48 ± 7.51 and PLEBW = 77.41 ± 21.22 %. Statistical analyses showed that there was a tendency towards a direct correlation between T1/2 and PLEBW (r = 0.46; p 0.0045) and a tendency towards an inverse correlation with the BMI (r -0.48; p=0.0028). Conclusions: Despite the significant correlation between T1/2 and the endoscopic, BMI and PLEBW findings, this method was unable to differentiate the ring sizes, probably because endoscopy was performed at least 6 months prior to the gastric emptying study

  5. A SEARCH FOR ASTEROIDS, MOONS, AND RINGS ORBITING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Howell, Steve B.; Kawaler, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Possible future missions that survey 10 times as many stars with similar sensitivity and minute-cadence monitoring can establish the characteristics of asteroid systems around white dwarfs, such as the distribution of asteroid sizes and semimajor axes. Transits by planets would be more dramatic, but the probability that they will occur is lower. Ensembles of planetary moons and/or the presence of rings around planets can also produce transits detectable by Kepler. The presence of moons and rings can significantly increase the probability that Kepler will discover planets orbiting white dwarfs, even while monitoring only a small number of them.

  6. Control of ring lasers by means of coupled cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q......-switch the ring laser. Also, at certain values of the phase of the feedback in the external ring, instabilities in the total system occur and oscillations arise in the ring laser....

  7. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  8. BOREAS/AES Campbell Scientific 15-minute Surface Meteorological Data: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains data from 1994 from the Atmospheric Environment Service Campbell Scientific autostations collecting continuous fifteen minute data for BOREAS.

  9. BOREAS/AES Campbell Scientific 15-minute Surface Meteorological Data: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains data from 1995 from the Atmospheric Environment Service Campbell Scientific autostations collecting continuous fifteen minute data for BOREAS.

  10. BOREAS/AES Campbell Scientific 15-minute Surface Meteorological Data: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains data from 1996 from the Atmospheric Environment Service Campbell Scientific autostations collecting continuous fifteen minute data for BOREAS.

  11. BOREAS/AES Campbell Scientific 15-minute Surface Meteorological Data: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains data from 1995 from the Atmospheric Environment Service Campbell Scientific autostations collecting continuous fifteen minute data for BOREAS.

  12. The ring plus project: safety and acceptability of vaginal rings that protect women from unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schurmans, C?line; De Baetselier, Irith; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Jespers, Vicky; Delvaux, Th?r?se; Agaba, Stephen K; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is ongoing to develop multipurpose vaginal rings to be used continuously for contraception and to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are available in a number of countries and are most of the time used intermittently i.e. three weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Efficacy trials with a dapivirine-containing vaginal ring for HIV prevention are ongoing and plans to develop multi-purpose vaginal rings for prevention of both HIV a...

  13. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  14. Main ring transition crossing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

    1990-10-01

    We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for bar p production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs

  15. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  16. Electron beam cooling at a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, and an electrostatic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsumi

    2006-01-01

    At the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, with an electron cooler was operated from 1989 to 1999, while an electrostatic storage ring with a small electron cooler has been operational since 2000. In this paper, the electron cooling at TARN II and the electrostatic storage ring is described. (author)

  17. Influence of ring growth rate on damage development in hot ring rolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Omerspahic, E.; Recina, V.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    As an incremental forming process of bulk metal, ring rolling provides a cost effective process route to manufacture seamless rings. In the production of hot rolled rings, defects such as porosity can sometimes be found in high alloyed steel, manufactured from ingots having macro-segregation. For

  18. Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air pollutants. Methods Thirty-four participants performed a submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer, during which heart rate and minute ventilation were measured simultaneously at increasing cycling intensity. Individual regression equations were calculated between heart rate and the natural log of minute ventilation. Heart rates were recorded during 280 two hour trips by bicycle, bus and car and were calculated into minute ventilation levels using the individual regression coefficients. Results Minute ventilation during bicycle rides were on average 2.1 times higher than in the car (individual range from 1.3 to 5.3 and 2.0 times higher than in the bus (individual range from 1.3 to 5.1. The ratio of minute ventilation of cycling compared to travelling by bus or car was higher in women than in men. Substantial differences in regression equations were found between individuals. The use of individual regression equations instead of average regression equations resulted in substantially better predictions of individual minute ventilations. Conclusion The comparability of the gender-specific overall regression equations linking heart rate and minute ventilation with one previous American study, supports that for studies on the group level overall equations can be used. For estimating individual doses, the use of individual regression coefficients provides more precise data. Minute ventilation levels of cyclists are on average two times higher than of bus and car passengers, consistent with the ratio found in one small previous study of young adults. The study illustrates the importance of inclusion of minute ventilation data in comparing air pollution doses between

  19. Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2009-10-27

    Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air pollutants. Thirty-four participants performed a submaximal test on a bicycle ergometer, during which heart rate and minute ventilation were measured simultaneously at increasing cycling intensity. Individual regression equations were calculated between heart rate and the natural log of minute ventilation. Heart rates were recorded during 280 two hour trips by bicycle, bus and car and were calculated into minute ventilation levels using the individual regression coefficients. Minute ventilation during bicycle rides were on average 2.1 times higher than in the car (individual range from 1.3 to 5.3) and 2.0 times higher than in the bus (individual range from 1.3 to 5.1). The ratio of minute ventilation of cycling compared to travelling by bus or car was higher in women than in men. Substantial differences in regression equations were found between individuals. The use of individual regression equations instead of average regression equations resulted in substantially better predictions of individual minute ventilations. The comparability of the gender-specific overall regression equations linking heart rate and minute ventilation with one previous American study, supports that for studies on the group level overall equations can be used. For estimating individual doses, the use of individual regression coefficients provides more precise data. Minute ventilation levels of cyclists are on average two times higher than of bus and car passengers, consistent with the ratio found in one small previous study of young adults. The study illustrates the importance of inclusion of minute ventilation data in comparing air pollution doses between different modes of transport.

  20. The King's Ring: A Matter of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterrett, Joseph William

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the material and social effects of an exchange of trust between a king, Henry VIII, and his counsellor, Thomas Cranmer in Shakespeare and Fletcher’s All is True. The ring that the King gives Cranmer is both nothing and everything: nothing in that it could be anything, any ring...

  1. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-06-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  2. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  3. IAG ring test animal proteins 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Rhee, van de N.E.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The annual ring test for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy was organized by RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information

  4. Reversible decay of ring dark solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toikka, L A; Suominen, K-A

    2014-01-01

    We show how boundary effects can cause a Bose–Einstein condensate to periodically oscillate between a (circular) array of quantized vortex–antivortex pairs and a (ring) dark soliton. If the boundary is restrictive enough, the ring dark soliton becomes long-lived. (paper)

  5. The multi-bend achromat storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Mikael [MAX IV Laboratory Ole Römers v. 1 22100 Lund Sweden (Sweden)

    2016-07-27

    Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.

  6. Collective effects in isochronous storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Kim, K.-J.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the collective instabilities in isochronous storage rings using a linac-type analysis. Simple criteria for avoiding the longitudinal and transverse instabilities are developed by employing a two-particle model. Numerical examples show that these conditions do not impose serious performance restrictions for two of the currently proposed isochronous storage rings

  7. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  8. Cancer caused by radioactive gold rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callary, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Two recent cases of skin cancer caused by radioactive gold rings are described. The gold was contaminated with radon daughters from hollow goldseeds used to hold radon, back in the 1930s or possibly later. Other radioactive gold rings are probably being worn. The Canadian AECB offers free testing

  9. Rank 2 fusion rings are complete intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections.......We give a non-constructive proof that fusion rings attached to a simple complex Lie algebra of rank 2 are complete intersections....

  10. Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.

  11. The multi-bend achromat storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Not very long ago, the 3"r"d generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3"r"d generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.

  12. Fuzzy Rough Ring and Its Prop erties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bi-jun; FU Yan-ling

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theories of fuzzy rough ring and its properties. The fuzzy approximation space generated by fuzzy ideals and the fuzzy rough approximation operators were proposed in the frame of fuzzy rough set model. The basic properties of fuzzy rough approximation operators were analyzed and the consistency between approximation operators and the binary operation of ring was discussed.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be something about the ring structure itself that causes epilepsy. Seizures may occur because certain genes on the ... mapping of telomeric 14q32 deletions: search for the cause of seizures. Am J Med Genet A. ... L, Elia M, Vigevano F. Epilepsy in ring 14 chromosome syndrome. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 ...

  14. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2009-01-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  15. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...

  16. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA,

  17. Dynamic thermo-chemo-mechanical strain of Zircaloy-4 slotted rings for evaluating strategies that mitigate stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrier, G.A.; Metzler, J.; Farahani, M.; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in Zircaloy-4 fuel sheaths has been investigated by static loading of slotted ring samples under hot and corrosive conditions. However, in nuclear reactors, power ramps can have short (e.g., 10-20 minutes) and recurring time frames due to dynamic processes such as on-power refuelling, adjuster rod manoeuvres, and load following. Therefore, to enable out-reactor dynamic testing, an apparatus was designed to dynamically strain slotted ring samples under SCC conditions. This apparatus can additionally be used to test fatigue properties. Unique capabilities of this apparatus and preliminary results obtained from static and dynamic tests are presented. (author)

  18. Stent fabric fatigue of grafts supported by Z-stents versus ringed stents: an in vitro buckling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Lu; Guidoin, Robert; Nutley, Mark; Song, Ge; Zhang, Ze; Du, Jia; Douville, Yvan

    2014-03-01

    Stent-grafts externally fitted with a Z-shaped stents were compared to devices fitted with ringed stents in an in vitro oscillating fatigue machine at 200 cycles per minute and a pressure of 360 mmHg for scheduled durations of up to 1 week. The devices fitted with Z-stents showed a considerably lower endurance limit to buckling compared to the controls. The contact between the apexes of adjacent Z-stents resulted in significant damage to the textile scaffolds and polyester fibers due to the sharp angle of the Z-stents. The ringed stents did not cause any fraying in the textile scaffolds.

  19. Cooling rings for TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-02-01

    Consideration is given to quantum fluctuations, intra beam scattering, cooling rates, and ring acceptance in order to see if one can obtain a normalized emittance of 10 -8 in any plausible cooling ring. It is concluded that only a small gain is obtained by varying the partition functions, but a very significant gain is made by using higher bending fields. The ring is found to get bigger if the magnet apertures are increased. The ring diameter is found to increase if the momentum spread of the beam is reduced. It is shown that the power can be reduced by allowing a high beamstrahlung energy loss resulting in higher current in the cooling ring. Parameters are also given for a 10 -7 m radian emittance case

  20. Ring power balance observing plasma stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.B.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Ring power balance is performed for an E-ring stabilized tandem mirror reactor, taking into account constraints imposed by plasma stability. The two most important criteria are the stability of the core interchange and hot electron interchange modes. The former determines the ring thickness, the latter determines the minimum hot electron temperature; both quantities are important for power balance. The combination of the hot electron interchange constraint and the fact that the barrier density is low places the operating point on the synchrotron dominated branch of power balance. The reference case considered here requires a reasonable 34 MW of heating power deposited in the rings. We also have examined the sensitivity of the required ring power on uncertainties in the numerical coefficients of the stability constraints. We have found that the heating power is strongly affected

  1. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  2. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-01-01

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function

  3. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy CF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R Karl Malcolm, Susan M Fetherston, Clare F McCoy, Peter Boyd, Ian MajorSchool of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.Keywords: controlled release, sustained release, antiretroviral, dapivirine, SILCS diaphragm, silicone elastomer, thermoplastic

  4. Get 150 minutes/week of moderate physical activity: It doesn’t matter how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute have shown that people who engage in more minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity enjoy health benefits (measured here by likelihood of dying during the study period), but it does not matter how those minutes are accumulated.

  5. Minutes of the fifth annual meeting of the panel on reference nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Coyne, J.J.; Brenner, D.S.

    1981-04-01

    The minutes include: approval of agenda and minutes of the fourth meeting; elections; reactor physics data needs; fusion data needs; biomedical data needs; status of international and national cooperation; status and availability of data files; status of transfer of responsibilities from NDP to NNDC; status of publications; on-line data base systems; and summary of recommendations and actions

  6. 12 CFR 701.3 - Member inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member inspection of credit union books... inspection of credit union books, records, and minutes. (a) Member inspection rights. A group of members of a...) Accounting books and records; and (2) Minutes of the proceedings of the credit union's members, board of...

  7. Absence of robust ischemic preconditioning by five 1-minute total umbilical cord occlusions in fetal sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotgering, F.K.; Bishai, J.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Blood, A.B.; Hunter, C.J.; Oberg, K.C.; Power, G.G.; Longo, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent a series of five 1-minute total umbilical cord occlusions, intended to induce ischemic preconditioning (IP), affects the physiologic responses to a 10-minute total umbilical cord occlusion (damaging insult [DI]) 1 hour later and provides cardio- and

  8. 12 CFR 407.6 - Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed meetings. 407.6 Section 407.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF EX-IM BANK MEETINGS § 407.6 Transcripts, recordings and minutes of closed...

  9. Minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, M.; Hoek, G.; van den Hazel, P.J.; Brunekreef, B.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Differences in minute ventilation between cyclists, pedestrians and other commuters influence inhaled doses of air pollution. This study estimates minute ventilation of cyclists, car and bus passengers, as part of a study on health effects of commuters' exposure to air

  10. Semi-algebraic function rings and reflectors of partially ordered rings

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The book lays algebraic foundations for real geometry through a systematic investigation of partially ordered rings of semi-algebraic functions. Real spectra serve as primary geometric objects, the maps between them are determined by rings of functions associated with the spectra. The many different possible choices for these rings of functions are studied via reflections of partially ordered rings. Readers should feel comfortable using basic algebraic and categorical concepts. As motivational background some familiarity with real geometry will be helpful. The book aims at researchers and graduate students with an interest in real algebra and geometry, ordered algebraic structures, topology and rings of continuous functions.

  11. Preparation for electron ring - plasma ring merging experiments in RECE-MERGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, D.; Sekiguchi, A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of a mixed-CT using relativistic electron rings and gun-produced plasma rings by MERGE-ing them axially is simulated. This process is similar to the axial stacking of relativistic electron rings in RECE-Christa. The results of their first plasm production experiment are reported here. After study of the gun-produced plasma's properties is completed, the gun will be mounted at the downstream end of the vacuum tank and the source of relativistic electron rings will be at the upstream end. The two rings, formed at opposite ends of the tank, will be translated axially and merged

  12. Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)

  13. Last minute

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    At its meeting on 12 December, CERN Council decided to follow Finance Committee’s recommendation to adjust our salaries by 2.7% from January 2009. The Staff Association is very pleased about this decision to follow the approved method which shows, even in the current difficult financial situation, the Members States’ full support for the staff of the Organization.

  14. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  15. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  16. Galactic rings revisited - I. CVRHS classifications of 3962 ringed galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Rings are important and characteristic features of disc-shaped galaxies. This paper is the first in a series that re-visits galactic rings with the goals of further understanding the nature of the features and for examining their role in the secular evolution of galaxy structure. The series begins with a new sample of 3962 galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo 2 citizen science data base, selected because zoo volunteers recognized a ring-shaped pattern in the morphology as seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey colour images. The galaxies are classified within the framework of the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage system. It is found that zoo volunteers cued on the same kinds of ring-like features that were recognized in the 1995 Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. This paper presents the full catalogue of morphological classifications, comparisons with other sources of classifications and some histograms designed mainly to highlight the content of the catalogue. The advantages of the sample are its large size and the generally good quality of the images; the main disadvantage is the low physical resolution that limits the detectability of linearly small rings such as nuclear rings. The catalogue includes mainly inner and outer disc rings and lenses. Cataclysmic (`encounter-driven') rings (such as ring and polar ring galaxies) are recognized in less than 1 per cent of the sample.

  17. Airpower, Chaos, and Infrastructure: Lords of the Rings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felker, Edward

    1998-01-01

    .... It focuses on the third ring (infrastructure) of John A. Warden III's theory of five strategic rings, which the author argues is often neglected in the debate over the importance of leadership (first ring...

  18. Recycler ring conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider provides the highest center of mass energy collisions in the world. To fully exploit this unique tool, Fermilab is committed to a program of accelerator upgrades for the purpose of increasing the Collider luminosity. Over the past 7 years the luminosity has been increased from a peak of 1.6x10 30 cm -2 sec -1 in 1989 to over 3x10 31 cm -2 sec -1 during 1995. The Main Injector will supply a larger flux of protons for antiproton production and more intense proton bunches for use in the Collider, and this is expected to increase the peak luminosity to close to 1x10 32 cm -2 sec -1 . Further increases in luminosity will require additional upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex. This report documents the design of a new fixed-energy storage ring to be placed in the Main Injector tunnel which will provide an initial factor of 2 increase to 2x10 32 cm -2 sec -1 , and ultimately provide the basis for an additional order of magnitude luminosity increase up to 1x10 33 cm -2 sec -1

  19. ring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  20. Nilradicals of skew Hurwitz series of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ‎For a ring endomorphism α of a ring R, ‎Krempa called α a rigid endomorphism if aα(a=0 implies a = 0 for a in R. ‎A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we extend the α-rigid property of a ring R to the upper nilradical N_r(R of R. ‎For an endomorphism α and the upper nilradical N_r(R of a ring R, ‎we introduce the condition (*: ‎N_r(R is a α-ideal of R and aα(a in N_r(R implies a in N_r(R for a in R. ‎We study characterizations of a ring R with an endomorphism α satisfying the condition (*, ‎and we investigate their related properties‎. ‎The connections between the upper nilradical of R and the upper nilradical of the skew Hurwitz series ring (HR,α of R are also investigated‎.

  1. Common pass decentered annular ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, D. A.; Waite, T. R.

    1985-04-30

    An optical resonator having an annular cylindrical gain region for use in a chemical laser or the like in which two ring-shaped mirrors having substantially conical reflecting surfaces are spaced apart along a common axis of revolution of the respective conical surfaces. A central conical mirror reflects incident light directed along said axis radially outwardly to the reflecting surface of a first one of the ring-shaped mirrors. The radial light rays are reflected by the first ring mirror to the second ring mirror within an annular cylindrical volume concentric with said common axis and forming a gain region. Light rays impinging on the second ring mirror are reflected to diametrically opposite points on the same conical mirror surfaces and back to the first ring mirror through the same annular cylindrical volume. The return rays are then reflected by the conical mirror surface of the first ring mirror back to the central conical mirror. The mirror surfaces are angled such that the return rays are reflected back along the common axis by the central mirror in a concentric annular cylindrical volume. A scraper mirror having a central opening centered on said axis and an offset opening reflects all but the rays passing through the two openings in an output beam. The rays passing through the second opening are reflected back through the first opening to provide feedback.

  2. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  3. Tritium concentrations in tree ring cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Toshio; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Takashima, Yoshimasa.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of tritium (tissue bound tritium; TBT) concentration in tree rings are presented and discussed. Such measurement is expected to provide a useful means of estimating the tritium level in the environment in the past. The concentration of tritium bound in the tissue (TBT) in a tree ring considered to reflect the environmental tritium level in the area at the time of the formation of the ring, while the concentration of tritium in the free water in the tissue represents the current environmental tritium level. First, tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a cedar tree grown in a typical environment in Fukuoka Prefecture is compared with the tritium concentration in precipitation in Tokyo. Results show that the year-to-year variations in the tritium concentration in the tree rings agree well with those in precipitation. The maximum concentration, which occurred in 1963, is attibuted to atmospheric nuclear testing which was performed frequently during the 1961 - 1963 period. Measurement is also made of the tritium concentration in tree ring cellulose sampled from a pine tree grown near the Isotope Center of Kyushu University (Fukuoka). Results indicate that the background level is higher probably due to the release of tritium from the facilities around the pine tree. Thus, measurement of tritium in tree ring cellulose clearly shows the year-to-year variation in the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.K.)

  4. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  5. Tourniquet Deflation Prior to 20 Minutes in Upper Extremity Intravenous Regional Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurich, Richard W; Langan, Justin W; Teasdall, Robert J; Tanner, Stephanie L; Sanders, John L

    2018-03-01

    Bier blocks, or intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA), are a method of anesthesia for upper extremity surgeries. This study reports our experience with tourniquet deflation prior to 20 minutes with upper extremity IVRA. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort analysis. Records, including intraoperative and immediate postoperative anesthesia notes, of 430 patients who underwent IVRA with an upper extremity Bier block and a corresponding tourniquet time of less than 20 minutes were reviewed. Patient demographics, procedure(s) performed, American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, volume of lidocaine used in Bier block, tourniquet time, and any complications were recorded. This cohort consisted of 127 males and 303 females. The 3 most common procedures performed were carpal tunnel release (315), trigger finger release (47), and excision of masses (34). The average tourniquet time for this cohort was 16 minutes (range, 9-19 minutes), and the average volume of lidocaine (0.5% plain) injected was 44 mL (range, 30-70 mL). A tourniquet time of 17 minutes or less was observed in 339 patients, and 170 patients had tourniquet times of 15 minutes or less. Five complications were recorded: intraoperative vomiting, mild postoperative nausea/vomiting, severe postoperative nausea and vomiting, and transient postoperative hypotension that responded to a fluid bolus. No major complications were observed in our cohort of upper extremity IVRA and tourniquet times of less than 20 minutes. Several variables play a role in the safety of upper extremity IVRA.

  6. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  7. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  8. Transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Ring Implantation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tanner, RE

    2018-05-01

    Failed surgical mitral valve repair using an annuloplasty ring has traditionally been treated with surgical valve replacement or repair1. For patients at high risk for repeat open heart surgery, placement of a trans-catheter aortic valve (i.e., TAVI valve) within the mitral ring (i.e., Mitral-Valve-in-Ring, MViR) has emerged as a novel alternative treatment strategy2-5 . We describe our experience of a failed mitral valve repair that was successfully treated with a TAVI valve delivered via the trans-septal approach, and summarise the data relating to this emerging treatment strategy.

  9. Corneal iron ring after conductive keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Naoumidi, Tatiana L; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-08-01

    To report formation of corneal iron ring deposits after conductive keratoplasty. Observational case report. Case report. A 54-year-old woman underwent conductive keratoplasty for hyperopia. One year after conductive keratoplasty, iron ring pattern pigmentation was detected at the corneal epithelium of both eyes. This is the first report of the appearance of corneal iron ring deposits following conductive keratoplasty treatment in a patient. It is suggested that alterations in tear film stability, resulting from conductive keratoplasty-induced changes in corneal curvature, constitute the contributory factor for these deposits.

  10. Vascular ring complicates accidental button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ronald W; Schwartz, Matthew C; Stephany, Joshua; Donnelly, Lane F; Franciosi, James P; Epelman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion can lead to dangerous complications, including vasculoesophageal fistula formation. The presence of a vascular ring may complicate battery ingestion if the battery lodges at the level of the ring and its important vascular structures. We report a 4-year-old boy with trisomy 21 who was diagnosed with a vascular ring at the time of button battery ingestion and died 9 days after presentation due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal erosion and vasculoesophageal fistula formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Flux qubits on semiconducting quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M; Zipper, E

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the quantum state of a single electrons in a quantum ring made of a semiconductor is at the heart of recent developments towards a scalable quantum computer. A peculiar dispersion relation of quantum rings allows to steer the ground state properties by the magnetic flux and offers spin and orbital degrees of freedom for quantum manipulations. We show that such ring can be effectively reduced to the two-state system forming a qubit on orbital or spin degrees of freedom.

  12. Nucleophilic ring opening reactions of aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rabia; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Saleem, Sameera

    2018-05-04

    Aziridine ring opening reactions have gained tremendous importance in the synthesis of nitrogen containing biologically active molecules. During recent years, a great effort has been put forward by scientists toward unique bond construction methodologies via ring opening of aziridines. In this regard, a wide range of chiral metal- and organo-catalyzed desymmetrization reactions of aziridines have been reported with carbon, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, halogen, and other nucleophiles. In this review, an outline of methodologies adopted by a number of scientists during 2013-2017 for aziridine ring opening reactions as well as their synthetic applications is described.

  13. Polar lunar power ring: Propulsion energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    A ring shaped grid of photovoltaic solar collectors encircling a lunar pole at 80 to 85 degrees latitude is proposed as the primary research, development, and construction goal for an initial lunar base. The polar Lunar Power Ring (LPR) is designed to provide continuous electrical power in ever increasing amounts as collectors are added to the ring grid. The LPR can provide electricity for any purpose indefinitely, barring a meteor strike. The associated rail infrastructure and inherently expandable power levels place the LPR as an ideal tool to power an innovative propulsion research facility or a trans-Jovian fleet. The proposed initial output range is 90 Mw to 90 Gw.

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Makeyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2 and quadripolar (n = 3 electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected.

  15. Improving the Accuracy of Laplacian Estimation with Novel Variable Inter-Ring Distances Concentric Ring Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive concentric ring electrodes are a promising alternative to conventional disc electrodes. Currently, the superiority of tripolar concentric ring electrodes over disc electrodes, in particular, in accuracy of Laplacian estimation, has been demonstrated in a range of applications. In our recent work, we have shown that accuracy of Laplacian estimation can be improved with multipolar concentric ring electrodes using a general approach to estimation of the Laplacian for an (n + 1)-polar electrode with n rings using the (4n + 1)-point method for n ≥ 2. This paper takes the next step toward further improving the Laplacian estimate by proposing novel variable inter-ring distances concentric ring electrodes. Derived using a modified (4n + 1)-point method, linearly increasing and decreasing inter-ring distances tripolar (n = 2) and quadripolar (n = 3) electrode configurations are compared to their constant inter-ring distances counterparts. Finite element method modeling and analytic results are consistent and suggest that increasing inter-ring distances electrode configurations may decrease the truncation error resulting in more accurate Laplacian estimates compared to respective constant inter-ring distances configurations. For currently used tripolar electrode configuration, the truncation error may be decreased more than two-fold, while for the quadripolar configuration more than a six-fold decrease is expected. PMID:27294933

  16. Multiplicative Structure and Hecke Rings of Generator Matrices for Codes over Quotient Rings of Euclidean Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals. In the first half of the study, we deal with arbitrary Euclidean domains. We show that the product of generator matrices of codes over the rings mod a and mod b produces generator matrices of all codes over the ring mod a b , i.e., this correspondence is onto. Moreover, we show that if a and b are coprime, then this correspondence is one-to-one, i.e., there exist unique codes over the rings mod a and mod b that produce any given code over the ring mod a b through the product of their generator matrices. In the second half of the study, we focus on the typical Euclidean domains such as the rational integer ring, one-variable polynomial rings, rings of Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, p-adic integer rings and rings of one-variable formal power series. We define the reduced generator matrices of codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals and show their uniqueness. Finally, we apply our theory of reduced generator matrices to the Hecke rings of matrices over these Euclidean domains.

  17. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status in minute (minimal) prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael; Isaacs, William B; A Platz, Elizabeth; Meeker, Alan K; Demarzo, Angelo M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-11-01

    Minute prostatic adenocarcinomas are considered to be of insufficient virulence. Given recent suggestions of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion association with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma, we evaluated the incidence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute prostatic adenocarcinomas. A total of 45 consecutive prostatectomies with minute adenocarcinoma were used for tissue microarray construction. A total of 63 consecutive non-minimal, Gleason Score 6 tumors, from a separate PSA Era prostatectomy tissue microarray, were used for comparison. FISH was carried out using ERG break-apart probes. Tumors were assessed for fusion by deletion (Edel) or split (Esplit), duplicated fusions and low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus. Minute adenocarcinomas: Fusion was evaluable in 32/45 tumors (71%). Fifteen out of 32 (47%) tumors were positive for fusion. Six (19%) were of the Edel class and 7 (22%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT2): Fusion was identified in 20/30 tumors (67%). Four (13%) were of Edel class and 5 (17%) were combined Edel+Esplit. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 5 (16%) tumors. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT3): Fusion was identified in 19/33 (58%). Fusion was due to a deletion in 6 (18%) tumors. Seven tumors (21%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. One tumor showed Esplit alone. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 3 (9%) cases. The incidence of duplicated fusions was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas (13 vs 0%; P=0.03). A trend for higher incidence of low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus without fusion was noted in non-minute adenocarcinomas (10 vs 0%; P=0.07). We found a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion rate of 47% in minute adenocarcinomas. The latter is not significantly different from that of grade matched non-minute adenocarcinomas. The incidence of duplicated fusion was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas. Our finding of comparable rate of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute adenocarcinomas may argue

  18. Vortex Ring Interaction With a Coaxially Aligned Cylinderical Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Rajmanoharan, P.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    1998-11-01

    We present results of experiments of a fully developed vortex ring interacting with a cylinderical rod, having a rounded nose, placed coaxially in line with the motion of the ring. The pressure field of the translating ring causes unsteady boundary layer separation and results in the formation of one or more ( secondary ) vortex rings, that subsequently interact. The nature and strength of the interaction depends on the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the ring diameter. For the larger diameter cylinders the vortex ring travels a few ring diameters before it breaks up. For the smaller diameter cylinders the vortex ring speed decreases slowly and, simultaneously, its diameter increases.

  19. Geodesic detection of Agulhas rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beron-Vera, F. J.; Wang, Y.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Goni, G. J.; Haller, G.

    2012-12-01

    Mesoscale oceanic eddies are routinely detected from instantaneous velocities. While simple to implement, this Eulerian approach gives frame-dependent results and often hides true material transport by eddies. Building on the recent geodesic theory of transport barriers, we develop an objective (i.e., frame-independent) method for accurately locating coherent Lagrangian eddies. These eddies act as compact water bodies, with boundaries showing no leakage or filamentation over long periods of time. Applying the algorithm to altimetry-derived velocities in the South Atlantic, we detect, for the first time, Agulhas rings that preserve their material coherence for several months, while eddy candidates yielded by other approaches tend to disperse or leak within weeks. These findings suggest that current Eulerian estimates of the Agulhas leakage need significant revision.Temporal evolution of fluid patches identified as eddies by different methods. First column: eddies extracted using geodesic eddy identification [1,2]. Second column: eddies identified from sea surface height (SSH) using the methodology of Chelton et al. [2] with U/c > 1. Third column: eddies identified as elliptic regions by the Okubo-Weiss (OW) criterion [e.g., 3]. Fourth column: eddies identified as mesoelliptic (ME) regions by Mezic et al.'s [4] criterion. References: [1] Beron-Vera et al. (2012). Geodesic eddy detection suggests reassessment of Agulhas leakage. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, submitted. [2] Haller & Beron-Vera (2012). Geodesic theory of transport barriers in two-dimensional flows. Physica D, in press. [2] Chelton et al. (2011). Prog. Oceanog. 91, 167. [3] Chelton et al. (2007). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L5606. [4] Mezic et al. (2010). Science 330, 486.

  20. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, R.F.; Clout, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given

  1. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Qiao; Tian, Hongyu; Ding, Jianwen; Liu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  2. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Tian, Hongyu [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Liu, Junfeng, E-mail: liu.jf@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  3. Collins' bypass for the main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-01-01

    Design of the bypass for the main ring at Fermilab is discussed. Specific design features discussed include space, path length, geometric closure, matching of betatron functions, and external dispersion. Bypass parameters are given

  4. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  5. Polymer dynamics: Floored by the rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2008-12-01

    The tube model can explain how mutually entangled polymer chains move and interact, but it relies on the loose ends of chains to generate relaxation. Ring polymers have no ends - so how do they relax?

  6. The "g-2" Muon Storage Ring

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The "g-2" muon storage ring, shortly before completion in June 1974. Bursts of pions (from a target, hit by a proton beam from the 26 GeV PS) are injected and polarized muons from their decay are captured on a stable orbit. When the muons decay too, their precession in the magnetic field of the storage ring causes a modulation of the decay-electron counting rate, from which the muon's anomalous magnetic moment can be determined. In 1977, the "g-2" magnets were modified to build ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment), a proton and antiproton storage ring for testing stochastic and electron cooling. Later on, the magnets had a 3rd life, when the ion storage ring CELSIUS was built from them in Uppsala. For later use as ICE, see 7711282, 7802099, 7809081,7908242.

  7. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos

  8. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Electron beam depolarization in a damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.

    1993-04-01

    Depolarization of a polarized electron beam injected into a damping ring is analyzed by extending calculations conventionally applied to proton synchrotrons. Synchrotron radiation in an electron ring gives rise to both polarizing and depolarizing effects. In a damping ring, the beam is stored for a time much less than the time for self polarization. Spin flip radiation may therefore be neglected. Synchrotron radiation without spin flips, however, must be considered as the resonance strength depends on the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude which changes as the electron beam is radiation damped. An expression for the beam polarization at extraction is derived which takes into account radiation damping. The results are applied to the electron ring at the Stanford Linear Collider and are compared with numerical matrix formalisms

  11. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  12. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont:�Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  13. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Mount Mansfield 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG2017-2 Thompson, P. J., and Thompson, T. B., 2017, Bedrock Geologic Map of the Mount Mansfield 7.5 Minute Quadrangle, Vermont: VGS Open-File...

  14. USGS 1:24000 (7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Mathematically generated grid representing USGS 7 1/2 Minute Quadrangle Map outlines. Quadrangle names and standard identifiers are included with the data set.

  15. Coal industry - minutes of evidence - Wednesday 14 May 1986. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains minutes of evidence on the coal industry from the examination of witnesses from Associated Heat Services PLC, Boots PLC, the chamber of Coal Trades and the Domestic Coal Consumers' Council.

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA S-BAND PROFILER MINUTE DATA MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Minute Data MC3E dataset was gathered during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in...

  17. From coffee ring to spherulites ring of poly(ethylene oxide) film from drying droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinchun; Zhang, Xuerong; Qiu, Maibo; Wei, Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Di

    2018-03-01

    We discuss how the "spherulites ring" morphology and "coffee ring" profile of PEO film formed by the drying droplet at glass substrate with different heating rate. Upon increasing the heating rate of substrate, it is found that deposited PEO film from drying droplet shows the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology. The main mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed to be an enhanced Marangoni convection which is induced by the increased solute concentration gradient and reduced viscous force above 70 °C. A simple formation mechanism of the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology is proposed. These findings can be exploited to trace the center of Marangoni convection, with potential applications in designing the spherulite patterns of crystalline polymer films in ink-jet printing and self-assembly fields.

  18. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  19. Bosonic and fermionic dipoles on a ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöllner, Sascha; Pethick, C. J.; Bruun, Georg Morten

    2011-01-01

    We show that dipolar bosons and fermions confined in a quasi-one-dimensional ring trap exhibit a rich variety of states because their interaction is inhomogeneous. For purely repulsive interactions, with increasing strength of the dipolar coupling there is a crossover from a gaslike state...... to an inhomogeneous crystal-like one. For small enough angles between the dipoles and the plane of the ring, there are regions with attractive interactions, and clustered states can form....

  20. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.