WorldWideScience

Sample records for supernovae explosions partial

  1. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  2. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  3. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  4. Diffuse remnants of supernova explosions of moving massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The modification of the ambient interstellar medium by the wind of massive stars (the progenitors of most of supernovae) results in that the structure and evolution of diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs) significantly deviate from those derived from standard models of SNRs based of the Sedov-Taylor solution. The stellar proper motion and the regular interstellar magnetic field affect the symmetry of the processed medium and cause the SNR to be non-spherically-symmetric. We show that taking into account these effects allows us to explain the diverse morphologies of the known SNRs (the particular attention is paid to the elongated axisymmetric SNRs and the SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells) and to infer the ``true" supernova explosion sites in some peculiar SNRs (therefore to search for new neutron stars associated with them).

  5. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  6. Explosions and light curves of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffet, B.

    1975-01-01

    The models developed to explain supernovae explosions are reviewed. The first one is thermonuclear explosion (simple or preceded by an implosion phase); the neutrino emission which results of such an explosion can have an important dynamical effect, according as the star is opaque or transparent to them; another theory involves the radiation pressure of the pulsar which is formed in the center of the star. The origin of the supernovae brightness is also uncertain: the initial heat due to the explosion does not seem to be sufficient; the brightness can result from the diffusion of the heat through the ejected matter or can be transported more rapidly by a shock wave. A model in which the heat is produced by the pulsar seems compatible with most observations (shapes of the brightness curves and the continuum spectra, expansion velocities, temperature and luminosity at the peak, total kinetic energy) [fr

  7. Supernova explosion in a very massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Eid, M.F.

    1986-07-01

    We describe the final evolution of a 100 solar mass following an evolutionary scenario during which the star evolves from a Wolf-Rayet stage through the electron- positron pair creation supernova. We find that the star is completely disrupted by explosive oxygen burning, and this type of explosion as a possible scenario for the Cassiopeia A remnant. This scenario seems to be also applicable to the supernova 1985f according to the recent observations of this object

  8. GRAVITATIONAL FIELD SHIELDING AND SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-01-01

    A new mechanism for supernova explosions called gravitational field shielding is proposed, in accord with a five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field that unifies the four-dimensional Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory. It is shown that a dense compact collapsing core of a star will suddenly turn off or completely shield its gravitational field when the core collapses to a critical density, which is inversely proportional to the square of mass of the core. As the core suddenly turns off its gravity, the extremely large pressure immediately stops the core collapse and pushes the mantle material of supernova moving outward. The work done by the pressure in the expansion can be the order of energy released in a supernova explosion. The gravity will resume and stop the core from a further expansion when the core density becomes less than the critical density. Therefore, the gravitational field shielding leads a supernova to impulsively explode and form a compact object such as a neutron star as a remnant. It works such that a compressed spring will shoot the oscillator out when the compressed force is suddenly removed.

  9. Radioactive Iron Rain: Evidence of a Nearby Supernova Explosion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A very close supernova explosion could have caused a mass extinction of life in Earth. In 1996, Brian Fields, the late Dave Schramm and the speaker proposed looking for unstable isotopes such as Iron 60 that could have been deposited by a recent nearby supernova explosion. A group from the Technical University of Munich has discovered Iron 60 in deep-ocean sediments and ferromanganese crusts due to one or more supernovae that exploded O(100) parsecs away about 2.5 million years ago. These results have recently been confirmed by a group from the Australian National University, and the Munich group has also discovered supernova Iron 60 in lunar rock samples. This talk will discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of supernova models, and the possible implications for life on Earth.

  10. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya, E-mail: shio.k@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kkotake@th.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ{sub 13} (sin{sup 2} 2θ{sub 13} ∼> 10{sup −3}), we show that survival probabilities of ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of ν-bar {sub e} observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the ν{sub e} signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ13 (sin2 2θ13 gtrsim 10-3), we show that survival probabilities of bar nue and νe seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of bar nue observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the νe signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the bar nue and νe signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  13. Core-Collapse Supernovae: Explosion dynamics, neutrinos and gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas; Hanke, Florian; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Müller, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    The quest for the supernova explosion mechanism has been one of the outstanding challenges in computational astrophysics for several decades. Simulations have now progressed to a stage at which the solution appears close and neutrino and gravitational wave signals from self-consistent explosion models are becoming available. Here we focus one of the recent advances in supernova modeling, the inclusion of general relativity in multi-dimensional neutrino hydrodynamics simulations, and present t...

  14. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at ∼130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of 60 Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ∼2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction

  15. Explosive nucleosynthesis in a neutrino-driven core collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a delayed neutrino-driven, supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI), based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15 M · star. We take into accounts neutrino heating and cooling as well as change in electron fraction due to weak interactions appropriately, in the two-dimensional simulations. We assume the isotropic emission of neutrinos from the neutrino spheres with given luminosities. and the Fermi-Dirac distribution of given temperatures. We find that the stalled shock revives due to the neutrino heating aided by SASI for cases with L νe ≥3.9x10 52 ergss -1 and the as-pherical shock passes through the outer layers of the star (≥10,000 km), with the explosion energies of ∼10 51 ergs.Next we examine abundances and masses of the supernova ejecta. We find that masses of the ejecta and 56 Ni correlate with the neutrino luminosity, and 56 Ni mass is comparable to that observed in SN 1987A. We also find that abundance pattern of the supernova ejecta is similar to that of the solar system, for cases with high explosion energies of >10 51 ergs. We emphasize that 64 Zn, which is underproduced in the spherical case, is abundantly produced in slightly neutron-rich ejecta.

  16. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  17. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  18. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  19. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  20. Multi-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernova explosions with CHIMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, O. E. B.; Harris, J. A.; Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Bruenn, S. W.; Mezzacappa, A.

    2018-04-01

    Unraveling the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) mechanism is a problem that remains essentially unsolved despite more than four decades of effort. Spherically symmetric models with otherwise high physical fidelity generally fail to produce explosions, and it is widely accepted that CCSNe are inherently multi-dimensional. Progress in realistic modeling has occurred recently through the availability of petascale platforms and the increasing sophistication of supernova codes. We will discuss our most recent work on understanding neutrino-driven CCSN explosions employing multi-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics simulations with the Chimera code. We discuss the inputs and resulting outputs from these simulations, the role of neutrino radiation transport, and the importance of multi-dimensional fluid flows in shaping the explosions. We also highlight the production of 48Ca in long-running Chimera simulations.

  1. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Schramm, D N

    1995-01-03

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of gamma-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the "KT boundary." The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events.

  2. Finding the first cosmic explosions. III. Pulsational pair-instability supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Population III supernovae have been the focus of growing attention because of their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that can be seen at the edge of the observable universe. But until now pulsational pair-instability supernovae, in which explosive thermonuclear burning in massive stars fails to unbind them but can eject their outer layers into space, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the earliest redshifts. These shells can later collide and, like Type IIn supernovae, produce superluminous events in the UV at high redshifts that could be detected in the near infrared today. We present numerical simulations of a 110 M ☉ pulsational pair-instability explosion done with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code Radiation Adaptive Grid Eulerian. We find that collisions between consecutive pulsations are visible in the near infrared out to z ∼ 15-20 and can probe the earliest stellar populations at cosmic dawn.

  3. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of γ-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the open-quotes KT boundary.close quotes The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events. 24 refs

  4. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  5. Studying explosive phenomena in astrophysics by the example of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filina, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the first stars hundreds of millions of years after the Big-Bang marks the end of the Dark Ages. Currently, we have no direct observations on how the primordial stars formed, but according to modern theory of stellar evolution these stars should be very massive (about 100 Msun) Population III stars have a potential to produce probably most energetic flashes in the Universe - gamma-ray bursts. GRBs may provide one of the most promising methods to probe directly final stage of life of primordial stars. Today's telescopes cannot look far enough into the cosmic past to observe the formation of the first stars, but the new generation of telescopes will test theoretical ideas about the formation of the first stars.Thanks to many years of observations we have good GRB's data -statistics of occurrence, spectrum, light curves. But there are still a lot of questions in the theory of GRBs. We know that GRBs are related to the death of stars and that they are connected with supernovae. So gamma-ray bursts are one of the classes of explosive processes in stellar physics that should have a lot of common with supernovae explosions. In that case GRBs should follow the same physical laws of explosion as supernovae. This work tries to approach the problem of GRBs as a problem of stellar explosion.Necessary instruments of studying stellar explosion were developed as a part of doctoral research: code for solving systems of nuclear reaction equations was incorporated into hydrodynamical code. These tools were applied for supernovae simulations in order to find possible connection with GRBs. Basing on analysis of supernovae simulations spectral analysis of GRBs was performed. (author)

  6. Neutrino nucleosynthesis in core-collapse Supernova explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverding A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 15 and 40 M⊙ has been studied. A new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections for all the nuclei included in the reaction network is used and the average neutrino energies are reduced to agree with modern supernova simulations. Despite these changes the ν process is found to contribute still significantly to the production of the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, even though the total yields for those nuclei are reduced. Furthermore we study in detail contributions of the ν process to the production of radioactive isotopes 26Al, 22Na and confirm the production of 92Nb and 98Tc.

  7. Neutrino nucleosynthesis in core-collapse Supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, A.; Huther, L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Langanke, K.; Heger, A.

    2018-01-01

    The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (v process) in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 15 and 40 M⨀ has been studied. A new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections for all the nuclei included in the reaction network is used and the average neutrino energies are reduced to agree with modern supernova simulations. Despite these changes the v process is found to contribute still significantly to the production of the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, even though the total yields for those nuclei are reduced. Furthermore we study in detail contributions of the v process to the production of radioactive isotopes 26Al, 22Na and confirm the production of 92Nb and 98Tc.

  8. The Interplay of Opacities and Rotation in Promoting the Explosion of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, David; Burrows, Adam; Radice, David

    2018-01-01

    For over five decades, the mechanism of explosion in core-collapse supernovae has been a central unsolved problem in astrophysics, challenging both our computational capabilities and our understanding of relevant physics. Current simulations often produce explosions, but they are at times underenergetic. The neutrino mechanism, wherein a fraction of emitted neutrinos is absorbed in the mantle of the star to reignite the stalled shock, remains the dominant model for reviving explosions in massive stars undergoing core collapse. We present here a diverse suite of 2D axisymmetric simulations produced by FORNAX, a highly parallelizable multidimensional supernova simulation code. We explore the effects of various corrections, including the many-body correction, to neutrino-matter opacities and the possible role of rotation in promoting explosion amongst various core-collapse progenitors.

  9. Asymmetric Explosion of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Observational Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions has not yet been clarified, despite their importance in astrophysics and cosmology. Recent theoretical investigations suggest that asymmetric distribution of initial thermonuclear sparks may be a key in the SN Ia explosion mechanism. In this paper, the first observational evidence of the asymmetry in SN Ia explosions is presented: We have found that late-time nebular spectra of various SNe Ia show a diversity in wavelengths of emission lines. This feature is inconsistent with any spherically symmetric explosion models, and indicates that the innermost region, a likely product of the deflagration wave propagation, shows an off-set with respect to the explosion center. The diversity in the emission-line wavelengths could naturally be explained by a combination of different viewing angles.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion of a massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Hashimoto, M.; Ono, M.; Kotake, K.; Ohnishi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine explosive nucleosynthesis of p-nuclei during a delayed neutrino-driven, aspherical supernova explosion aided by standing accretion shock instability, based on two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the explosion of a 15M · star. We find that p-nuclei are mainly produced through γ-processes, and that the nuclei lighter than 92 Mo are abundantly synthesized in slightly neutron-rich bubbles with electron fractions of Y e ≤0.48. 94 Mo, 96 Ru, and 98 Ru, are underproduced compared with the solar system, as in the spherical model.

  11. Early light curves for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer, U. M.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Baklanov, P.; Blinnikov, S.; Sorokina, E.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2017-12-01

    Upcoming high-cadence transient survey programmes will produce a wealth of observational data for Type Ia supernovae. These data sets will contain numerous events detected very early in their evolution, shortly after explosion. Here, we present synthetic light curves, calculated with the radiation hydrodynamical approach STELLA for a number of different explosion models, specifically focusing on these first few days after explosion. We show that overall the early light curve evolution is similar for most of the investigated models. Characteristic imprints are induced by radioactive material located close to the surface. However, these are very similar to the signatures expected from ejecta-CSM or ejecta-companion interaction. Apart from the pure deflagration explosion models, none of our synthetic light curves exhibit the commonly assumed power-law rise. We demonstrate that this can lead to substantial errors in the determination of the time of explosion. In summary, we illustrate with our calculations that even with very early data an identification of specific explosion scenarios is challenging, if only photometric observations are available.

  12. Measurement of the evolution of type Ia supernovae explosion rate as a function of redshift in the SuperNovae Legacy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripoche, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    This research thesis reports works performed within the frame of the SuperNovae Legacy Survey (SNLS) which is one of the second-generation experiment exploiting Ia supernovae as cosmological source, and allows 8 billions or years of universe expansion to be observed by means of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope and a systematic detection of supernovae. The first part addresses cosmology and supernovae, and notably shows how Ia supernovae can used as cosmological probe to constraint cosmological parameters. Other methods of measurement of these parameters are briefly explained. The SNLS experiment is then presented: description of the experiment and of the supernovae detection chain, image processing. The author then presents a detailed simulation which has been developed to simulate Ia supernovae on the experiment images. He also presents associated tools and tests. This simulation is then used to study the efficiencies and weaknesses of supernovae detection by the SNLS. The measurement of the Ia supernovae explosion rate is then measured with respect to cosmic evolution [fr

  13. Accelerating Our Understanding of Supernova Explosion Mechanism via Simulations and Visualizations with GenASiS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiardja, R. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cardall, Christian Y [ORNL; Endeve, Eirik [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most powerful explosions in the Universe, releasing about 1053 erg of energy on timescales of a few tens of seconds. These explosion events are also responsible for the production and dissemination of most of the heavy elements, making life as we know it possible. Yet exactly how they work is still unresolved. One reason for this is the sheer complexity and cost of a self-consistent, multi-physics, and multi-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulation, which is impractical, and often impossible, even on the largest supercomputers we have available today. To advance our understanding we instead must often use simplified models, teasing out the most important ingredients for successful explosions, while helping us to interpret results from higher fidelity multi-physics models. In this paper we investigate the role of instabilities in the core-collapse supernova environment. We present here simulation and visualization results produced by our code GenASiS.

  14. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  15. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  16. PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. EXPLOSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, Eduardo; Garcia-Senz, Domingo; Cabezon, Ruben M.; DomInguez, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). However, all attempts to find a convincing ignition mechanism based on a delayed detonation in a destabilized, expanding, white dwarf have been elusive so far. One of the possibilities that has been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock that confines a carbon-oxygen rich core, while transforming the kinetic energy of the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work, we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of PRD models from the time of detonation initiation up to homologous expansion. Different models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M defl , give explosions spanning a range of kinetic energies, K ∼ (1.0-1.2) x 10 51 erg, and 56 Ni masses, M( 56 Ni) ∼ 0.6-0.8 M sun , which are compatible with what is expected for typical Type Ia supernovae. Spectra and light curves of angle-averaged spherically symmetric versions of the PRD models are discussed. Type Ia supernova spectra pose the most stringent requirements on PRD models.

  17. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts : the Greatest Explosions since the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash; Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium

    2001-01-01

    Since the dramatic discovery that the supernova SN1998bw coincided in position and time with a gamma-ray burst, the possibility was raised that these two types of spectacular explosions are related. This timely volume presents especially written articles by a host of world experts who gathered together for an international conference at the Space Telescope Science Institute. This was the first meeting in which the communities of supernova researchers and gamma-ray burst researchers were brought together to share ideas. The contributions review the mechanisms for these explosive events, the possible connections between them, and their relevance for cosmology. Both observations and theoretical developments are covered. This book is an invaluable source of information for both active researchers and graduate students in this exciting area of research.

  18. Explaining the morphology of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with the jittering jets explosion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    We find that the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A shares some morphological features with four supernova remnants (SNRs) that have signatures of shaping by jets, and from that we strengthen the claim that jets played a crucial role in the explosion of SN 1987A. Some of the morphological features appear also in planetary nebulae (PNe) where jets are observed. The clumpy ejecta bring us to support the claim that the jittering jets explosion mechanism can account for the structure of the remnant of SN 1987A, i.e., SNR 1987A. We conduct a preliminary attempt to quantify the fluctuations in the angular momentum of the mass that is accreted on to the newly born neutron star via an accretion disk or belt. The accretion disk/belt launches the jets that explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The relaxation time of the accretion disk/belt is comparable to the duration of a typical jet-launching episode in the jittering jets explosion mechanism, and hence the disk/belt has no time to relax. We suggest that this might explain two unequal opposite jets that later lead to unequal sides of the elongated structures in some SNRs of CCSNe. We reiterate our earlier call for a paradigm shift from neutrino-driven explosion to a jet-driven explosion of CCSNe.

  19. Spallation reactions in shock waves at supernova explosions and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinova, G. K., E-mail: ustinova@dubna.net.ru [RAS, V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The isotopic anomalies of some extinct radionuclides testify to the outburst of a nearby supernova just before the collapse of the protosolar nebula, and to the fact that the supernova was Sn Ia, i.e. the carbon-detonation supernova. A key role of spallation reactions in the formation of isotopic anomalies in the primordial matter of the Solar System is revealed. It is conditioned by the diffusive acceleration of particles in the explosive shock waves, which leads to the amplification of rigidity of the energy spectrum of particles and its enrichment with heavier ions. The quantitative calculations of such isotopic anomalies of many elements are presented. It is well-grounded that the anomalous Xe-HL in meteoritic nanodiamonds was formed simultaneously with nanodiamonds themselves during the shock wave propagation at the Sn Ia explosion. The possible effects of shock wave fractionation of noble gases in the atmosphere of planets are considered. The origin of light elements Li, Be and B in spallation reactions, predicted by Fowler in the middle of the last century, is argued. All the investigated isotopic anomalies give the evidence for the extremely high magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) conditions at the initial stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave from Sn Ia, which can be essential in solution of the problem of origin of cosmic rays. The specific iron-enriched matter of Sn Ia and its MHD-separation in turbulent processes must be taking into account in the models of origin of the Solar System.

  20. Asymmetric explosion of core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeroni, Remi

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova represents the ultimate stage of the evolution of massive stars.The iron core contraction may be followed by a gigantic explosion which gives birth to a neutron star.The multidimensional dynamics of the innermost region, during the first hundreds milliseconds, plays a decisive role on the explosion success because hydrodynamical instabilities are able to break the spherical symmetry of the collapse. Large scale transverse motions generated by two instabilities, the neutrino-driven convection and the Standing Accretion Shock Instability (SASI),increase the heating efficiency up to the point of launching an asymmetric explosion and influencing the birth properties of the neutron star. In this thesis, hydrodynamical instabilities are studied using numerical simulations of simplified models. These models enable a wide exploration of the parameter space and a better physical understanding of the instabilities, generally inaccessible to realistic models.The non-linear regime of SASI is analysed to characterize the conditions under which a spiral mode prevails and to assess its ability to redistribute angular momentum radially.The influence of rotation on the shock dynamics is also addressed. For fast enough rotation rates, a corotation instability overlaps with SASI and greatly impacts the dynamics. The simulations enable to better constrain the effect of non-axisymmetric modes on the angular momentum budget of the iron core collapsing into a neutron star. SASI may under specific conditions spin up or down the pulsar born during the explosion. Finally, an idealised model of the heating region is studied to characterize the non-linear onset of convection by perturbations such as those produced by SASI or pre-collapse combustion inhomogeneities. The dimensionality issue is examined to stress the beneficial consequences of the three-dimensional dynamics on the onset of the explosion. (author) [fr

  1. Asymmetric supernova explosions and the origin of binary pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author investigates the effect of asymmetric supernova explosions on the orbital parameters of binary systems with a compact component. Such explosions are related to the origin of binary pulsars. The degree of asymmetry of the explosion is represented by the kick velocity gained by the exploding star due to the asymmetric mass ejection. The required kick velocity to produce the observed parameters of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 should be larger than approximately 80 km s -1 if the mass of the exploding star is larger than approximately 4 solar masses. The mean survival probability of the binary system ( ) is examined for various degrees of asymmetry in the explosion. The rare occurrence of a binary pulsar does not neccessarily imply that such a probability is low since not all pulsars have originated in a binary system. Assuming the birth rate of pulsars by Taylor and Manchester (1977), it is derived that would be as high as 0.25. Such values of can be obtained if the mass of the exploding stars is, in general, not large (< approximately 10 solar masses). (Auth.)

  2. Influence of Axisymmetrically Deformed Explosions in Type II Supernovae on the Reproduction of the Solar System Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro

    1999-01-01

    We have tried to reproduce the solar system abundances using the nucleosynthesis products of Type Ia and Type II supernovae. In particular, we examined the effects of axisymmetrically deformed explosions in Type II supernovae. 44Ca and 47,48Ti are enhanced considerably in axisymmetrically deformed explosion models because of the active alpha-rich freezeout. The enhancement of nuclei around A=45 is a welcome result since it solves the problem of the nuclei shortage. Moreover, 59Co, 63,65Cu, and 66Zn are enhanced enough to reproduce the solar system abundances. The enhancement of Cu and Zn means the possibility that these nuclei, which have been said to be produced by the slow process, can be synthesized fairly well during the explosive nucleosynthesis. To discuss their origin quantitatively, the position of the mass cut is a very important parameter that is very difficult to determine numerically at present. We also stress that an axisymmetrically deformed explosion of Type II supernovae of the degree that is considered in this analysis is not excluded by the results of calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, that is, the nucleosynthesis products are not extremely disturbed and the solar system abundances can be reproduced fairly well by the axisymmetrically deformed explosion models. This conclusion will be good for the theory of core collapse including the rotation of an iron core, magnetic field, and axisymmetrically modified neutrino radiation from a rotating protoneutron star, which possibly can cause an axisymmetrically deformed explosion.

  3. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  4. Towards gravitational-wave astronomy of core-collapse supernova explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Kei

    2010-01-01

    We study properties of gravitational waves based on the three-dimensional (3D) simulations, which demonstrate the neutrino-driven explosions aided by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Pushed by evidence supporting slow rotation prior to core-collapse, we focus on the asphericities in neutrino emissions and matter motions outside the protoneutron star. By performing a ray-tracing calculation in 3D, we estimate accurately the gravitational waveforms from anisotropic neutrino emissions. In contrast to the previous work assuming axisymmetry, we find that the gravitational waveforms vary much more stochastically because the explosion anisotropies depend sensitively on the growth of the SASI which develops chaotically in all directions. Our results show that the gravitational-wave spectrum has its peak near ∼ 100 Hz, reflecting the SASI-induced matter overturns of ∼ O(10) ms. We point out that the detection of such signals, possibly visible to the LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic supernova, could be an important probe into the long-veiled explosion mechanism.

  5. Effects of neutrino trapping on supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Mariko; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    Effects of neutrino trapping on the mass ejection from the stellar cores are investigated with the aid of a simplified equation of state under the assumption of adiabatic collapse. It is found that mass ejection becomes violent only if the ratio of the trapped leptons to baryons, Y sub(L), lies in an appropriate range. If the value of Y sub(L) lies out of this range, mass ejection is difficult. It is also shown that as the thermal stiffness of the shocked matter increases, the range necessary for the violent mass ejection becomes wider. Possibilities of supernova explosion are discussed on the basis of these results. (author)

  6. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth University, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: ken.chen@nao.ac.jp [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablative flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.

  7. The Magnetar Model of the Superluminous Supernova GAIA16apd and the Explosion Jet Feedback Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soker, Noam, E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il [Department of Physics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-04-10

    Under the assumption that jets explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM), this paper shows that rapidly rotating neutron stars are likely to be formed when the explosion is very energetic. Under the assumption that an accretion disk or an accretion belt around the just-formed neutron star launch jets and that the accreted gas spins-up the just-formed neutron star, I derive a crude relation between the energy that is stored in the spinning neutron star and the explosion energy. This relation is ( E {sub NS-spin}/ E {sub exp}) ≈ E {sub exp}/10{sup 52} erg; It shows that within the frame of the JFM explosion model of CCSNe, spinning neutron stars, such as magnetars, might have significant energy in super-energetic explosions. The existence of magnetars, if confirmed, such as in the recent super-energetic supernova GAIA16apd, further supports the call for a paradigm shift from neutrino-driven to jet-driven CCSN mechanisms.

  8. Uniform Contribution of Supernova Explosions to the Chemical Enrichment of Abell 3112 out to R{sub 200}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezer, Cemile; Ercan, E. Nihal [Department of Physics, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bulbul, Esra; Bautz, Mark W.; McDonald, Mike; Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Smith, Randall K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loewenstein, Mike, E-mail: cemile.ezer@boun.edu.tr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The spatial distribution of the metals residing in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters records all the information on a cluster’s nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history. We present measurements from a total of 1.2 Ms Suzaku XIS and 72 ks Chandra observations of the cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 3112 out to its virial radius (∼1470 kpc). We find that the ratio of the observed supernova type Ia explosions to the total supernova explosions has a uniform distribution at a level of 12%–16% out to the cluster’s virial radius. The observed fraction of type Ia supernova explosions is in agreement with the corresponding fraction found in our Galaxy and the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy. The non-varying supernova enrichment suggests that the ICM in cluster outskirts was enriched by metals at an early stage before the cluster itself was formed during a period of intense star formation activity. Additionally, we find that the 2D delayed detonation model CDDT produce significantly worse fits to the X-ray spectra compared to simple 1D W7 models. This is due to the relative overestimate of Si, and the underestimate of Mg in these models with respect to the measured abundances.

  9. 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, B.

    2011-01-01

    This year, 2011, the nobel prize in physics is given to three astronomers (Perlmutter, Schmidt, Riess) 'for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae'. In my seminar talk, I will thus present first some basic astrophysics on supernovae star explosions and the cosmological principle of an expanding Universe. Next, I will summarize the observations and measurements of the two teams behind the noble prize winners and show how the simplest explanations of the unexpected findings lead to the concept of an accelerating Universe. I will end my talk with an outlook on ongoing and future efforts to measure the equation-of-state of the Dark Energy postulated to explain the observations. (author)

  10. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra: a new method to assess explosion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Röpke, F. K.; Sim, S. A.; Pakmor, R.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Fink, M.

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, and considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events. However, until now, their progenitors are not known. The observed diversity of light curves and spectra seems to point at different progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms. Here, we present a new way to compare model predictions with observations in a systematic way. Our method is based on the construction of a metric space for SN Ia spectra by means of linear principal component analysis, taking care of missing and/or noisy data, and making use of partial least-squares regression to find correlations between spectral properties and photometric data. We investigate realizations of the three major classes of explosion models that are presently discussed: delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass detonations and double-degenerate mergers, and compare them with data. We show that in the principal component space, all scenarios have observed counterparts, supporting the idea that different progenitors are likely. However, all classes of models face problems in reproducing the observed correlations between spectral properties and light curves and colours. Possible reasons are briefly discussed.

  11. MODELING SNR CASSIOPEIA A FROM THE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION TO ITS CURRENT AGE: THE ROLE OF POST-EXPLOSION ANISOTROPIES OF EJECTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Bocchino, F., E-mail: orlando@astropa.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo “G.S. Vaiana,” Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have complex morphologies that may reflect asymmetries and structures developed during the progenitor SN explosion. Here we investigate how the morphology of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) reflects the characteristics of the progenitor SN with the aim of deriving the energies and masses of the post-explosion anisotropies responsible for the observed spatial distribution of Fe and Si/S. We model the evolution of Cas A from the immediate aftermath of the progenitor SN to the three-dimensional interaction of the remnant with the surrounding medium. The post-explosion structure of the ejecta is described by small-scale clumping of material and larger-scale anisotropies. The hydrodynamic multi-species simulations consider an appropriate post-explosion isotopic composition of the ejecta. The observed average expansion rate and shock velocities can be well reproduced by models with ejecta mass M {sub ej} ≈ 4 M {sub ⊙} and explosion energy E {sub SN} ≈ 2.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. The post-explosion anisotropies (pistons) reproduce the observed distributions of Fe and Si/S if they had a total mass of ≈0.25 M {sub ⊙} and a total kinetic energy of ≈1.5 × 10{sup 50} erg. The pistons produce a spatial inversion of ejecta layers at the epoch of Cas A, leading to the Si/S-rich ejecta physically interior to the Fe-rich ejecta. The pistons are also responsible for the development of the bright rings of Si/S-rich material which form at the intersection between the reverse shock and the material accumulated around the pistons during their propagation. Our result supports the idea that the bulk of asymmetries observed in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.

  12. Supernova SN1961v - an explosion of a very massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utrobin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the outburst of the unique supernova SN1961v in the galaxy NGC 1058 is carried out. An analysis of hydrodynamical models of supernoVa outbursts and a comparison with a considerable body of observational data on SN1961v clearly show that the SN1961v phenomenon is an explosion of a very massive star-with the mass of 2000 M and radiUs of about 100 R that results in expelling the envelope with the kinetic energy of 1.8x10 52 erg. The light curve of SN1961v furnishes direct evidence for a heterogeneity of the presupernova interior. The chemical composition produced during the evolution of the very massive star and in the final eXplosion must have a number of the essential features. In particular, hydrogen has to be underabundant relative to the solar content and distributed in the specific manner through the star. At late stages from February 1963 to February 1967, the light curve of SN1961v may be accoUnted for as interaction of the expelled envelope with the stellar wind of presupernova

  13. The Magnetar Model of the Superluminous Supernova GAIA16apd and the Explosion Jet Feedback Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soker, Noam

    2017-01-01

    Under the assumption that jets explode core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM), this paper shows that rapidly rotating neutron stars are likely to be formed when the explosion is very energetic. Under the assumption that an accretion disk or an accretion belt around the just-formed neutron star launch jets and that the accreted gas spins-up the just-formed neutron star, I derive a crude relation between the energy that is stored in the spinning neutron star and the explosion energy. This relation is ( E _N_S_-_s_p_i_n/ E _e_x_p) ≈ E _e_x_p/10"5"2 erg; It shows that within the frame of the JFM explosion model of CCSNe, spinning neutron stars, such as magnetars, might have significant energy in super-energetic explosions. The existence of magnetars, if confirmed, such as in the recent super-energetic supernova GAIA16apd, further supports the call for a paradigm shift from neutrino-driven to jet-driven CCSN mechanisms.

  14. An integral condition for core-collapse supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we derive an integral condition for core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions and use it to construct a new diagnostic of explodability. The fundamental challenge in CCSN theory is to explain how a stalled accretion shock revives to explode a star. In this manuscript, we assume that the shock revival is initiated by the delayed-neutrino mechanism and derive an integral condition for spherically symmetric shock expansion, v_s > 0. One of the most useful one-dimensional explosion conditions is the neutrino luminosity and mass-accretion rate (L_ν-- M-dot ) critical curve. Below this curve, steady-state stalled solutions exist, but above this curve, there are no stalled solutions. Burrows & Goshy suggested that the solutions above this curve are dynamic and explosive. In this manuscript, we take one step closer to proving this supposition; we show that all steady solutions above this curve have v_s > 0. Assuming that these steady v_s > 0 solutions correspond to explosion, we present a new dimensionless integral condition for explosion, Ψ > 0. Ψ roughly describes the balance between pressure and gravity, and we show that this parameter is equivalent to the τ condition used to infer the L_ν-- M-dot critical curve. The illuminating difference is that there is a direct relationship between Ψ and v_s. Below the critical curve, Ψ may be negative, positive, and zero, which corresponds to receding, expanding, and stalled-shock solutions. At the critical curve, the minimum Ψ solution is zero; above the critical curve, Ψ_m_i_n > 0, and all steady solutions have v_s > 0. Using one-dimensional simulations, we confirm our primary assumptions and verify that Ψ_m_i_n > 0 is a reliable and accurate explosion diagnostic.

  15. PSR J0538+2817 As The Remnant Of The First Supernova Explosion in a Massive Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    It is generally accepted that the radio pulsar PSR J0538+2817 is associated with the supernova remnant (SNR) S147. The only problem for the association is the obvious discrepancy (Kramer et al. 2003) between the kinematic age of the system of ~30 kyr (estimated from the angular offset of the pulsar from the geometric center of the SNR and pulsar's proper motion) and the characteristic age of the pulsar of ~600 kyr. To reconcile these ages one can assume that the pulsar was born with a spin period close to the present one (Kramer et al. 2003; Romani & Ng 2003). We propose an alternative explanation of the age discrepancy based on the fact that PSR J0538+2817 could be the stellar remnant of the first supernova explosion in a massive binary system and therefore could be as old as indicated by its characteristic age. Our proposal implies that S147 is the diffuse remnant of the second supernova explosion (that disrupted the binary system) and that a much younger second neutron star (not necessarily manifesting itself as a radio pulsar) should be associated with S147. We use the existing observational data on the system PSR J0538+2817/SNR S147 to suggest that the progenitor of the supernova that formed S147 was a Wolf-Rayet star (so that the supernova explosion occurred within a wind bubble surrounded by a massive shell) and to constrain the parameters of the binary system. We also restrict the magnitude and direction of the kick velocity received by the young neutron star at birth and find that the kick vector should not strongly deviate from the orbital plane of the binary system.

  16. The neutrino ignition of thermonuclear carbon burning, neutron star formation and supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Imshennik, V.S.; Ivanova, L.N.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Taking account of neutrino energy transport in the self-consistent hydrodynamical calculation of explosions of deo-enerated carbon stallar cores at 3x10 9 9 g/cm 3 central density leads to the core disruption with kinetic energy up to 10 51 erg (that corresponds to parameters of Supernovae of 2 type) . This mechanism leads to the formation of neutron stars with the mass M approximately 1.4M Sun at rhosub(c) > 8.4 x 10 9 g/cm 3 and to successive blow off the envelope being typical for Supernovae of 1 type

  17. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  18. Mass Extinctions and Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschinek, Gunther

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation or the direct exposure of lethal X-rays. Another indirect effect is cloud formation, induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere which result in a drop in the Earth's temperature, causing major glaciations of the Earth. The discovery of highly intensive gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which could be connected to SNe, initiated further discussions on possible life-threatening events in the Earth's history. The probability that GRBs hit the Earth is very low. Nevertheless, a past interaction of Earth with GRBs and/or SNe cannot be excluded and might even have been responsible for past extinction events.

  19. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  20. Supernova VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, N.

    2009-08-01

    We review VLBI observations of supernovae over the last quarter century and discuss the prospect of imaging future supernovae with space VLBI in the context of VSOP-2. From thousands of discovered supernovae, most of them at cosmological distances, ˜50 have been detected at radio wavelengths, most of them in relatively nearby galaxies. All of the radio supernovae are Type II or Ib/c, which originate from the explosion of massive progenitor stars. Of these, 12 were observed with VLBI and four of them, SN 1979C, SN 1986J, SN 1993J, and SN 1987A, could be imaged in detail, the former three with VLBI. In addition, supernovae or young supernova remnants were discovered at radio wavelengths in highly dust-obscured galaxies, such as M82, Arp 299, and Arp 220, and some of them could also be imaged in detail. Four of the supernovae so far observed were sufficiently bright to be detectable with VSOP-2. With VSOP-2 the expansion of supernovae can be monitored and investigated with unsurpassed angular resolution, starting as early as the time of the supernova's transition from its opaque to transparent stage. Such studies can reveal, in a movie, the aftermath of a supernova explosion shortly after shock break out.

  1. THE HIGH-METALLICITY EXPLOSION ENVIRONMENT OF THE RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVA 2009bb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, E. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Berger, E.; Torres, M. A. P.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Copete, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Ray, A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chandra, P.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Chevalier, R. A.; Fox, O.; Chugai, N.; Fransson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearby (d ∼ 40 Mpc) broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb. This event was observed to produce a relativistic outflow likely powered by a central accreting compact object. While such a phenomenon was previously observed only in long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), no LGRB was detected in association with SN 2009bb. Using an optical spectrum of the SN 2009bb explosion site, we determine a variety of interstellar medium properties for the host environment, including metallicity, young stellar population age, and star formation rate. We compare the SN explosion site properties to observations of LGRB and broad-lined SN Ic host environments on optical emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. Based on these analyses, we find that the SN 2009bb explosion site has a metallicity between 1.7 Z sun and 3.5 Z sun , in agreement with other broad-lined SN Ic host environments and at odds with the low-redshift LGRB host environments and recently proposed maximum metallicity limits for relativistic explosions. We consider the implications of these findings and the impact that SN 2009bb's unusual explosive properties and environment have on our understanding of the key physical ingredient that enables some SNe to produce a relativistic outflow.

  2. p-process nucleosynthesis via proton-capture reactions in thermonuclear supernovae explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Anne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model calculations within the framework of the so-called γ process show an underproduction of the p nucleus with the highest isotopic abundace 92Mo. This discrepancy can be narrowed by taking into account the alternative production site of a type Ia supernova explosion. Here, the nucleus 92Mo can be produced by a sequence of proton-capture reactions. The amount of 92Mo nuclei produced via this reaction chain is most sensitive to the reactions 90Zr(p,γ and 91Nb(p,γ. Both rates have to be investigated experimentally to study the impact of this nucleosynthesis aspect on the long-standing 92Mo-problem. We have already measured the proton-capture reaction on 90Zr using high-resolution in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. In this contribution, we will present our preliminary results of the total cross sections as well as the partial cross sections. Furthermore, we plan to measure the 91Nb(p,γ reaction soon. Due to the radioactive target material, the 91Nb nuclei have to be produced prior to the experiment. The current status of this production will be presented in this contribution.

  3. Aspherical supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  4. PROGENITOR-EXPLOSION CONNECTION AND REMNANT BIRTH MASSES FOR NEUTRINO-DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE OF IRON-CORE PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugliano, Marcella; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-09-20

    We perform hydrodynamic supernova (SN) simulations in spherical symmetry for over 100 single stars of solar metallicity to explore the progenitor-explosion and progenitor-remnant connections established by the neutrino-driven mechanism. We use an approximative treatment of neutrino transport and replace the high-density interior of the neutron star (NS) by an inner boundary condition based on an analytic proto-NS core-cooling model, whose free parameters are chosen such that explosion energy, nickel production, and energy release by the compact remnant of progenitors around 20 M{sub Sun} are compatible with SN 1987A. Thus, we are able to simulate the accretion phase, initiation of the explosion, subsequent neutrino-driven wind phase for 15-20 s, and the further evolution of the blast wave for hours to days until fallback is completed. Our results challenge long-standing paradigms. We find that remnant mass, launch time, and properties of the explosion depend strongly on the stellar structure and exhibit large variability even in narrow intervals of the progenitors' zero-age main-sequence mass. While all progenitors with masses below {approx}15 M{sub Sun} yield NSs, black hole (BH) as well as NS formation is possible for more massive stars, where partial loss of the hydrogen envelope leads to weak reverse shocks and weak fallback. Our NS baryonic masses of {approx}1.2-2.0 M{sub Sun} and BH masses >6 M{sub Sun} are compatible with a possible lack of low-mass BHs in the empirical distribution. Neutrino heating accounts for SN energies between some 10{sup 50} erg and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg but can hardly explain more energetic explosions and nickel masses higher than 0.1-0.2 M{sub Sun }. These seem to require an alternative SN mechanism.

  5. PROGENITOR-DEPENDENT EXPLOSION DYNAMICS IN SELF-CONSISTENT, AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summa, Alexander; Hanke, Florian; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Melson, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Marek, Andreas [Max Planck Computing and Data Facility (MPCDF), Gießenbachstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Müller, Bernhard, E-mail: asumma@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    We present self-consistent, axisymmetric core-collapse supernova simulations performed with the Prometheus-Vertex code for 18 pre-supernova models in the range of 11–28 M {sub ⊙}, including progenitors recently investigated by other groups. All models develop explosions, but depending on the progenitor structure, they can be divided into two classes. With a steep density decline at the Si/Si–O interface, the arrival of this interface at the shock front leads to a sudden drop of the mass-accretion rate, triggering a rapid approach to explosion. With a more gradually decreasing accretion rate, it takes longer for the neutrino heating to overcome the accretion ram pressure and explosions set in later. Early explosions are facilitated by high mass-accretion rates after bounce and correspondingly high neutrino luminosities combined with a pronounced drop of the accretion rate and ram pressure at the Si/Si–O interface. Because of rapidly shrinking neutron star radii and receding shock fronts after the passage through their maxima, our models exhibit short advection timescales, which favor the efficient growth of the standing accretion-shock instability. The latter plays a supportive role at least for the initiation of the re-expansion of the stalled shock before runaway. Taking into account the effects of turbulent pressure in the gain layer, we derive a generalized condition for the critical neutrino luminosity that captures the explosion behavior of all models very well. We validate the robustness of our findings by testing the influence of stochasticity, numerical resolution, and approximations in some aspects of the microphysics.

  6. RAPIDLY DECAYING SUPERNOVA 2010X: A CANDIDATE '.Ia' EXPLOSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Sternberg, Assaf; Arcavi, Iair; Nugent, Peter; Poznanski, Dovi; Jacobsen, Janet; Howell, D. Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Rich, Douglas J.; Burke, Paul F.; Brimacombe, Joseph; Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert; Bildsten, Lars; Shen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery, photometric, and spectroscopic follow-up observations of SN 2010X (PTF 10bhp). This supernova decays exponentially with τ d = 5 days and rivals the current recordholder in speed, SN 2002bj. SN 2010X peaks at M r = -17 mag and has mean velocities of 10,000 km s -1 . Our light curve modeling suggests a radioactivity-powered event and an ejecta mass of 0.16 M sun . If powered by Nickel, we show that the Nickel mass must be very small (∼0.02 M sun ) and that the supernova quickly becomes optically thin to γ-rays. Our spectral modeling suggests that SN 2010X and SN 2002bj have similar chemical compositions and that one of aluminum or helium is present. If aluminum is present, we speculate that this may be an accretion-induced collapse of an O-Ne-Mg white dwarf. If helium is present, all observables of SN 2010X are consistent with being a thermonuclear helium shell detonation on a white dwarf, a '.Ia' explosion. With the 1 day dynamic-cadence experiment on the Palomar Transient Factory, we expect to annually discover a few such events.

  7. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Massive stars are thought to end their lives with spectacular explosions triggered by the gravitational collapse of their cores. Interacting supernovae are generally attributed to supernova explosions occurring in dense circumstellar media, generated through mass-loss which characterisie the late phases of the life of their progenitors. In the last two decades, several observational evidences revealed that mass-loss in massive stars may be related to violent eruptions involving their outer layers, such as the luminous blue variables. Giant eruptions of extragalactic luminous blue variables, similar to that observed in Eta Car in the 19th century, are usually labelled 'SN impostors', since they mimic the behaviour of genuine SNe, but are not the final act of the life of the progenitor stars. The mechanisms producing these outbursts are still not understood, although the increasing number of observed cases triggered the efforts of the astronomical community to find possible theoretical interpretations. More recently, a number of observational evidences suggested that also lower-mass stars can experience pre-supernova outbursts, hence becoming supernova impostors. Even more interestingly, there is growing evidence of a connection among massive stars, their outbursts and interacting supernovae. All of this inspired this research, which has been focused in particular on the characterisation of supernova impostors and the observational criteria that may allow us to safely discriminate them from interacting supernovae. Moreover, the discovery of peculiar transients, motivated us to explore the lowest range of stellar masses that may experience violent outbursts. Finally, the quest for the link among massive stars, their giant eruptions and interacting supernovae, led us to study the interacting supernova LSQ13zm, which possibly exploded a very short time after an LBV-like major outburst.

  8. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  9. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  10. Shear Wave Generation by Decoupled and Partially Coupled Explosions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Jeffry L; Xu, Heming; Baker, G. E

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the sources of shear wave generation by decoupled and partially coupled explosions, and the differences in shear wave generation between tamped and decoupled explosions...

  11. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  12. STOCHASTIC NATURE OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS WITH STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Kei; Iwakami, Wakana; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Yamada, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of gravitational waves (GWs) based on three-dimensional (3D) simulations, which demonstrate neutrino-driven explosions aided by standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Pushed by evidence supporting slow rotation prior to core collapse, we focus on the asphericities in neutrino emissions and matter motions outside the protoneutron star. By performing a ray-tracing calculation in 3D, we estimate accurately the gravitational waveforms from anisotropic neutrino emissions. In contrast to the previous work assuming axisymmetry, we find that the gravitational waveforms vary much more stochastically because the explosion anisotropies depend sensitively on the growth of SASI which develops chaotically in all directions. Our results show that the GW spectrum has its peak near ∼100 Hz, reflecting SASI-induced matter overturns of ∼O(10) ms. We point out that the detection of such signals, possibly visible to the LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic supernova, could be an important probe into the long-veiled explosion mechanism.

  13. Radiative transfer in type I supernovae atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isern, J.; Lopez, R.; Simonneau, E.

    1987-01-01

    Type I Supernovae are thought to be the result of the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon oxygen white dwarf in a close binary system. As the only direct information concerning the physics and the triggering mechanism of supernova explosions comes from the spectrophotometry of the emitted radiation, it is worthwhile to put considerable effort on the understanding of the radiation transfer in the supernovae envelopes in order to set constraints on the theoretical models of such explosions. In this paper we analyze the role played by the layers curvature on the radiative transfer. (Author)

  14. Search for isotopic signatures of a supernova explosion close to the solar system in marine sediments; Recherche de signatures isotopiques dans les sediments marins de l'explosion d'une supernova proche du systeme solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, Caroline [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, (CSNSM) IN2P3/CNRS, Campus d' Orsay, Bat 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-06-15

    The recent observation of a {sup 60}Fe peak in a deep-sea ferro-manganese crust has been interpreted as due to a supernova explosion relatively close to the solar system 2.8 {+-} 0.4 Myr ago. To confirm this interpretation with better time-resolved measurements, and the simultaneous access, on the same sample, to other isotopes and geochemical phases, marine sediments seem to be a tool of choice. The objective of this work was to search for isotopic anomalies which would be characteristic for residues of this supernova. More specifically, {sup 129}I, {sup 60}Fe, and {sup 26}Al have been investigated, being measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Quantifying these nuclides' fluxes would help constrain stellar nucleosynthesis models. These residues are isotopes initially produced during hydrostatic and/or explosive nucleosynthesis. The physical conditions during the explosion (temperature, neutron density) are such that supernovae are thought to be good candidates for the astrophysical site of the r-process. The {sup 129}I study showed that measurement of pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios need a very strict control of the various potential {sup 129}I sources, especially when working with small quantities (micrograms) of iodine. This study revealed that the expected pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio for pre-nuclear samples in the marine environment shows a large discrepancy between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al measurements allow us to conclude that, in the authigenic phase of the marine sediments, there is no {sup 60}Fe anomaly in the time interval defined by the signal found on the Fe-Mn crust (from 2.4 to 3.2 Myr), and no {sup 26}Al anomaly from 2.6 to 3.2 Myr. (author)

  15. Supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae and their interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaluw, E. van der

    2001-01-01

    A supernova explosion marks the end of the evolution of a massive star. What remains of the exploded star is a high density neutron star or a black hole. The material which has been ejected by the supernova explosion will manifest itself as a supernova remnant: a hot bubble of gas expanding in the

  16. A systematic study of the explosion energy issue in core collapse supernova theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Massive stars with main sequence masses greater than 8 solar mass (Msun) the main target of CCSNe researches. According to initial mass function (IMF) they occupy about 15As a matter of fact, supernova theorists have failed to reproduce this energetic stellar explosion for about a half century because micro and macro physics are highly complex and are mutual influenced. The theoretical investigation of the explosion mechanism is based on numerical simulations, which will ultimately require computational sources of exsa scales. With recent remarkable developments both in hardware and software, however, more realistic physics are incorporated and research group are beginning to overcome the difficulties, reporting successful explosions in their numerical models. The successful is still partial, unfortunately, since in the most of the cases the explosion energy hardly reaches the typical value (10^51erg). What is worse other groups found no explosion for almost same setups. The robust explosion mechanism has not yet been ascertained and is still a remaining issue. The purpose of this paper is to study how far our understanding of "neutrino heating mechanism", the current paradigm, has reached, or put another way, to expose what kind of physics are still missing to explain observations , such as explosion energy and nickel mass. As already remarked the physics in CCSNe are quite complicated with extremely high Reynolds number, highly uncertain equation of state (EOS) at supra-nuclear densities, copious neutrinos not in thermal nor chemical equilibrium with matter normally. I believe that it is justified to devote a somewhat large number of pages to the introduction. It will be also helpful for understanding the motivation of this paper. Starting with evidence from supernova light curves I will then move to the basics idea of neutrino heating mechanism and summarize some recent developments in various micro and macro physics. Key factors in the theory of massive

  17. Supernovae Ia in 2017: a long time delay from merger/accretion to explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    I use recent observational and theoretical studies of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to further constrain the viable SN Ia scenarios and to argue that there must be a substantial time delay between the end of the merger of the white dwarf (WD) with a companion or the end of mass accretion on to the WD and its terminal explosion. This merger/accretion to explosion delay (MED) is required to allow the binary system to lead to a more or less spherical explosion and to prevent a pre-explosion ionizing radiation. Considering these recent results and the required MED, I conclude that the core degenerate scenario is somewhat more favorable over the other scenarios, followed by the double degenerate scenario. Although the single degenerate scenario is viable as well, it is less likely to account for common (normal) SN Ia. As all scenarios require substantial MED, the MED has turned from a disadvantage of the core degenerate scenario to a challenge that theory should overcome. I hope that the requirement for a MED will stimulate the discussion of the different SN Ia scenarios and the comparison of the scenarios to each other.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CHARACTER OF PRE-EXPLOSION CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK MOTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the stalled supernova shock in both two and three dimensions (2D and 3D, respectively) and explore the differences in the effects of neutrino heating and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). We find that early on the amplitude of the dipolar mode of the shock is factors of ∼2-3 smaller in 3D than in 2D. However, later in both 3D and 2D, the monopole and dipole modes start to grow until explosion. Whereas in 2D, the (l, m) = (1, 0) mode changes sign quasi-periodically, producing the 'up-and-down' motion always seen in modern 2D simulations, in 3D this almost never happens. Rather, in 3D when the dipolar mode starts to grow, it grows in magnitude and wanders stochastically in direction until settling before explosion to a particular patch of solid angle. Furthermore, in 2D, we find that the amplitude of the dipolar shock deformation separates into two classes. For the first, identified with the SASI and for a wide range of 'low' neutrino luminosities, this amplitude remains small and roughly constant. For the other, identified with higher luminosities and neutrino-driven convection, the dipolar amplitude grows sharply. Importantly, it is only for this higher luminosity class that we see neutrino-driven explosions within ∼1 s of bounce. Moreover, for the 'low' luminosity runs (including zero), the power spectra of these dipolar oscillations peak in the 30-50 Hz range associated with advection timescales, while for the high-luminosity runs the power spectra at lower frequencies are significantly more prominent. We associate this enhanced power at lower frequencies with slower convective effects and the secular growth of the dipolar shock amplitude. Though our study involves a simplified, parameterized approach, on the basis of it we hypothesize that neutrino-driven buoyant convection should almost always dominate the SASI when the supernova explosion is neutrino-driven.

  19. Search for isotopic signatures of a supernova explosion close to the solar system in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Caroline

    2006-06-01

    The recent observation of a 60 Fe peak in a deep-sea ferro-manganese crust has been interpreted as due to a supernova explosion relatively close to the solar system 2.8 ± 0.4 Myr ago. To confirm this interpretation with better time-resolved measurements, and the simultaneous access, on the same sample, to other isotopes and geochemical phases, marine sediments seem to be a tool of choice. The objective of this work was to search for isotopic anomalies which would be characteristic for residues of this supernova. More specifically, 129 I, 60 Fe, and 26 Al have been investigated, being measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Quantifying these nuclides' fluxes would help constrain stellar nucleosynthesis models. These residues are isotopes initially produced during hydrostatic and/or explosive nucleosynthesis. The physical conditions during the explosion (temperature, neutron density) are such that supernovae are thought to be good candidates for the astrophysical site of the r-process. The 129 I study showed that measurement of pre-anthropogenic 129 I/ 127 I ratios need a very strict control of the various potential 129 I sources, especially when working with small quantities (micrograms) of iodine. This study revealed that the expected pre-anthropogenic 129 I/ 127 I ratio for pre-nuclear samples in the marine environment shows a large discrepancy between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. 60 Fe and 26 Al measurements allow us to conclude that, in the authigenic phase of the marine sediments, there is no 60 Fe anomaly in the time interval defined by the signal found on the Fe-Mn crust (from 2.4 to 3.2 Myr), and no 26 Al anomaly from 2.6 to 3.2 Myr. (author)

  20. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  1. Mechanisms for supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses some of the recent developments in the study of one supernova mechanism, the neutrino transport mechanism, and indicates what future developments are needed before this model can be adequately understood. (Auth.)

  2. Neutrinos from type-II supernovae and the neutrino-driven supernova mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janka, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    Supernova 1987A has confirmed fundamental aspects of our theoretical view of type-II supernovae: Type-II supernovae are a consequence of the collapse of the iron core of a massive evolved star and lead to the formation of a neutron star or black hole. This picture is most strongly supported by the detection of electron antineutrinos in the IMB and Kamiokande II experiments in connection with SN 1987A. However, the mechanism causing the supernova explosion is not yet satisfactorily understood. In this paper the properties of the neutrino emission from supernovae and protoneutron stars will be reviewed; analytical estimates will be derived and results of numerical simulations will be shown. It will be demonstrated that the spectral distributions of the emitted neutrinos show clear and systematic discrepancies compared with thermal (black body-type) emission. This must be taken into account when neutrino observations from supernovae are to be interpreted, or when implications of the neutrino emission on nucleosynthesis processes in mantle and envelope of the progenitor star are to be investigated. Furthermore, the influence of neutrinos on the supernova dynamics will be discussed, in particular their crucial role in causing the explosion by Wilson's neutrino-driven delayed mechanism. Possible implications of convection inside the newly born neutron star and between surface and the supernova shock will be addressed and results of multi-dimensional simulations will be presented. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., refs

  3. Neutrinos from type-II supernovae and the neutrino-driven supernova mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H T [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Supernova 1987A has confirmed fundamental aspects of our theoretical view of type-II supernovae: Type-II supernovae are a consequence of the collapse of the iron core of a massive evolved star and lead to the formation of a neutron star or black hole. This picture is most strongly supported by the detection of electron antineutrinos in the IMB and Kamiokande II experiments in connection with SN 1987A. However, the mechanism causing the supernova explosion is not yet satisfactorily understood. In this paper the properties of the neutrino emission from supernovae and protoneutron stars will be reviewed; analytical estimates will be derived and results of numerical simulations will be shown. It will be demonstrated that the spectral distributions of the emitted neutrinos show clear and systematic discrepancies compared with thermal (black body-type) emission. This must be taken into account when neutrino observations from supernovae are to be interpreted, or when implications of the neutrino emission on nucleosynthesis processes in mantle and envelope of the progenitor star are to be investigated. Furthermore, the influence of neutrinos on the supernova dynamics will be discussed, in particular their crucial role in causing the explosion by Wilson`s neutrino-driven delayed mechanism. Possible implications of convection inside the newly born neutron star and between surface and the supernova shock will be addressed and results of multi-dimensional simulations will be presented. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  4. Fluid Instabilities of Magnetar-Powered Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Magnetar-powered supernova explosions are competitive models for explaining very luminous optical transits. Until recently, these explosion models were mainly calculated in 1D. Radiation emitted from the magnetar snowplows into the previous supernovae ejecta and causes a nonphysical dense shell (spike) found in previous 1D studies. This suggests that strong fluid instabilities may have developed within the magnetar-powered supernovae. Such fluid instabilities emerge at the region where luminous transits later occur, so they can affect the consequent observational signatures. We examine the magnetar-powered supernovae with 2D hydrodynamics simulations and find that the 1D dense shell transforms into the development of Rayleigh-Taylor and thin shell instabilities in 2D. The resulting mixing is able to fragment the entire shell and break the spherical symmetry of supernovae ejecta.

  5. From the advective-acoustic instability to the asymmetric explosions of Core Collapse Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletti, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The advective-acoustic cycle is a hydrodynamical mechanism fed by the coupling between advected waves (entropy, vorticity) and an acoustic feedback. Already studied in physics (rumble instability in ramjet, whistling tea kettle), it was introduced in astrophysics in the frame of the instability of the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion flow. In this thesis, we propose this cycle as an explanation for the asymmetry of the explosion of Core Collapse Supernovae. The evaluation of Eigenmodes for the classical accretion above a solid surface (white dwarfs, neutron stars) and the use of a toy-model reveal the importance of the advective-acoustic cycle in such an instable accretion flow. Following these results and the comparison with numerical simulations, a modelization of the flow when the shock stalls during a Core Collapse Supernova, shows that the advective-acoustic cycle is a natural mechanism to explain the non-spherical instability of the shock. The domination of l = 1 modes may be responsible for the observed pulsar kicks. (author) [fr

  6. Imprints of explosion conditions on late-time spectra of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Tiara R.

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play a vital role in the discrimination of different cosmological models. These events have been shown to be standardizable based on properties of their light curves during the early-time photospheric phase. However, the distribution of types of progenitor system, the explosion trigger, and the physics of the explosion are still an active topic of discussion. The details of the progenitors and explosion may provide insight into the variation seen in Type Ia supernova light curves and spectra, and therefore, allow for additional methods of standardization among the group. Late-time near-infrared spectral observations for SNe Ia show numerous strong emission features of forbidden line transitions of cobalt and iron, tracing the central distribution of iron-group burning products. As the spectrum ages, the cobalt features fade as expected from the decay of 56Co to 56Fe. This work will show that the strong and isolated [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 mum provides a unique tool to analyze near-infrared spectra of SNe Ia. Several new methods of analysis will be demonstrated to determine some of the initial conditions of the system. The initial central density, rhoc, and the extent of mixing in the central regions of the explosion have signatures in the line profiles of late-time spectra. An embedded magnetic field, B, of the white dwarf can be determined using the evolution of the lines profiles. Currently magnetic field effects are not included in the hydrodynamics and radiation transport of simulations of SNe Ia. Normalization of spectra to the 1.644 mum line allows separation of features produced by stable versus unstable isotopes of iron group elements. Implications for potential progenitor systems, explosion mechanisms, and the origins and morphology of magnetic fields in SNe Ia, in addition to limitations of the method, are discussed. Observations of the late-time near-infrared emission spectrum at multiple epochs allow for the first ever

  7. The great supernova of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Seven hundred day after the explosion of the brightest supernova in four centuries, astronomers continue to be both excited and perplexed by its behavior. By now, the supernova has received considerably attention in the literature. This paper emphasizes several aspects of the supernova that continue to be of special interest. These include: the evolution of the presupernova star, why it was blue, what its composition and core structure were; the iron core mass, explosion mechanism, and certain aspects of the neutrino burst; the detailed isotopic composition of the ejecta; the light curve and the requirement for mixing; the expected continued evolution of the supernova at all wavelengths given both the presence of several radioactivities as well as a central collapsed object as a power source; and late breaking news regarding the pulsar

  8. Interacting Supernovae: Types IIn and Ibn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    Supernovae that show evidence of strong shock interaction between their ejecta and pre-existing slower circumstellar material (CSM) constitute an interesting, diverse, and still poorly understood category of explosive transients. The chief reason they are extremely interesting is because they tell us that in a subset of stellar deaths, the progenitor star becomes wildly unstable in the years, decades, or centuries before explosion. This is something that has not been included in standard stellar evolution models but may significantly change the end product and yield of that evolution and complicates our attempts to map SNe to their progenitors. Another reason they are interesting is because CSM interaction is an efficient engine for making bright transients, allowing superluminous transients to arise from normal SN explosion energy, and transients of normal supernova luminosity to arise from sub-energetic explosions or low radioactivity yield. CSM interaction shrouds the fast ejecta in bright shock emission, obscuring our view of the underlying explosion, and the radiation hydrodynamics is challenging to model. The CSM interaction may also be highly nonspherical, perhaps linked to binary interaction in the progenitor system. In some cases, these complications make it difficult to tell the difference between a core-collapse and thermonuclear explosion or to discern between a nonterminal eruption, failed supernova, or weak supernova. Efforts to uncover the physical parameters of individual events and connections to progenitor stars make this a rapidly evolving topic that challenges paradigms of stellar evolution.

  9. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  10. Velocity Dispersion of Ionized Gas and Multiple Supernova Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev E. O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We use 3D numerical simulations to study the evolution of the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supernova (SN explosions. We find that the IHα– σ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are responsible for high velocity dispersion that reaches up to ≳ 100 km s−1. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly obtained for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion in the IHα– σ diagram may correspond to several isolated or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. Degrading the spatial resolution in the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated IHα– σ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  11. Theoretical models for supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the γ-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of 4 He and 14 N prior to their collapse on the pair instability

  12. The ν process in the innermost supernova ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieverding, Andre [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany; Langanke, Karlheinz [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Harris, James Austin [ORNL; Hix, William Raphael [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process) in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 13 and 30 M⊙ has been studied with an analytic explosion model using a new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections and spectral properties that agree with modern supernova simulations. The production factors for the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, are still significantly enhanced but do not reproduce the full solar abundances. We study the possible contribution of the innermost supernova eject to the production of the light elements 7Li and 11B with tracer particles based on a 2D supernova simulation of a 12 M⊙ progenitor and conclude, that a contribution exists but is negligible for the total yield for this explosion model.

  13. Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Astronomers have made the best ever determination of the power of a supernova explosion that was visible from Earth long ago. By observing the remnant of a supernova and a light echo from the initial outburst, they have established the validity of a powerful new method for studying supernovas. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, ESA's XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Gemini Observatory, two teams of researchers studied the supernova remnant and the supernova light echo that are located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a small galaxy about 160,000 light years from Earth. They concluded that the supernova occurred about 400 years ago (in Earth’s time frame), and was unusually bright and energetic. X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 X-ray Image of SNR 0509-67.5 This result is the first time two methods - X-ray observations of a supernova remnant and optical observations of the expanding light echoes from the explosion - have both been used to estimate the energy of a supernova explosion. Up until now, scientists had only made such an estimate using the light seen soon after a star exploded, or using remnants that are several hundred years old, but not from both. "People didn't have advanced telescopes to study supernovas when they went off hundreds of years ago," said Armin Rest of Harvard University, who led the light echo observations using Gemini. "But we've done the next best thing by looking around the site of the explosion and constructing an action replay of it." People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Oldest Known Objects Are Surprisingly Immature Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy NASA Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers In 2004, scientists used Chandra to determine that a supernova remnant, known as SNR 0509-67.5 in the LMC, was a so-called Type Ia supernova, caused by a white dwarf star in a binary system that reaches a critical mass and explodes. In

  14. The ν process in the innermost supernova ejecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverding Andre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 13 and 30 M⊙ has been studied with an analytic explosion model using a new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections and spectral properties that agree with modern supernova simulations. The production factors for the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, are still significantly enhanced but do not reproduce the full solar abundances. We study the possible contribution of the innermost supernova eject to the production of the light elements 7Li and 11B with tracer particles based on a 2D supernova simulation of a 12 M⊙ progenitor and conclude, that a contribution exists but is negligible for the total yield for this explosion model.

  15. Physics of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosive growth of high-quality data for thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf star, the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Advances in computational methods provide new insights into the physics of the phenomenon and a direct, quantitative link between observables and explosion physics. Both trends combined provided spectacular results, allowed to address, to identify specific problems and to narrow down the range of scenarios. Current topics include the relation between SNe Ia and their progenitors, the influence of the metallicities and accretion on the explosion, and details of the burning front. How can we understand the apparent homogeneity and probe for the diversity of SNe Ia? Here, we want give an overview of the current status of our understanding of supernovae physics in light of recent results

  16. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  17. THE ENGINES BEHIND SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYER, CHRISTOPHER LEE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-23

    The authors review the different engines behind supernova (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), focusing on those engines driving explosions in massive stars: core-collapse SNe and long-duration GRBs. Convection and rotation play important roles in the engines of both these explosions. They outline the basic physics and discuss the wide variety of ways scientists have proposed that this physics can affect the supernova explosion mechanism, concluding with a review of the current status in these fields.

  18. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  19. Gravitational collapse and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collapse of the core of a massive star and the subsequent birth of a neutron star in a supernova explosion are discussed, and a model of the supernova mechanism is developed. The basic theory is then compared with the particular case of SN1987A, whose emitted neutrinos permitted the first direct test of the model. (author)

  20. Presupernova models and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Science and Astronomy; Nomoto, K I [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-02-01

    Present status of the theories for presupernova evolution and triggering mechanisms of supernova explosions are summarized and discussed from the standpoint of the theory of stellar structure and evolution. It is not intended to collect every detail of numerical results thus far obtained, but to extract physically clear-cut understanding from complexities of the numerical stellar models. For this purpose the evolution of stellar cores is discussed in a generalized fashion. The following types of the supernova explosions are discussed. The carbon deflagration supernova of intermediate mass star which results in the total disruption of the star. Massive star evolves into a supernova triggered by photo-dissociation of iron nuclei which results in a formation of a neutron star or a black hole depending on its mass. These two are typical types of the supernova. Between them there remains a range of mass for which collapse of the stellar core is triggered by electron captures, which has been recently shown to leave a neutron star despite oxygen deflagration competing with the electron captures. Also discussed are combustion and detonation of helium or carbon which take place in accreting white dwarfs, and the collapse which is triggered by electron-pair creation in very massive stars.

  1. Supernova research with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Norbert; Bietenholz, Michael F.

    2016-06-01

    Core-collapse supernovae have been monitored with VLBI from shortly after the explosion to many years thereafter. Radio emission is produced as the ejecta hit the stellar wind left over from the dyingstar. Images show the details of the interaction as the shock front expands into the circumstellar medium. Measurements of the velocity and deceleration of the expansion provide information on both the ejecta and the circumstellar medium. VLBI observations can also search for the stellar remnant of the explosion, a neutron star or a black hole. Combining the transverse expansion rate with the radial expansion rate from optical spectra allows a geometric determination of the distance to the host galaxy. We will present results from recent VLBI observations, focus on their interpretations, and show updated movies of supernovae from soon after their explosion to the present.

  2. Cutting-edge issues of core-collapse supernova theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Kei; Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    Based on multi-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we report several cutting-edge issues about the long-veiled explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). In this contribution, we pay particular attention to whether three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics and/or general relativity (GR) would or would not help the onset of explosions. By performing 3D simulations with spectral neutrino transport, we show that it is more difficult to obtain an explosion in 3D than in 2D. In addition, our results from the first generation of full general relativistic 3D simulations including approximate neutrino transport indicate that GR can foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions. Based on our recent parametric studies using a light-bulb scheme, we discuss impacts of nuclear energy deposition behind the supernova shock and stellar rotation on the neutrino-driven mechanism, both of which have yet to be included in the self-consistent 3D supernova models. Finally we give an outlook with a summary of the most urgent tasks to extract the information about the explosion mechanisms from multi-messenger CCSN observables

  3. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  4. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs

  5. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  6. Chaos and turbulent nucleosynthesis prior to a supernova explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Arnett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D, time dependent numerical simulations of flow of matter in stars, now have sufficient resolution to be fully turbulent. The late stages of the evolution of massive stars, leading up to core collapse to a neutron star (or black hole, and often to supernova explosion and nucleosynthesis, are strongly convective because of vigorous neutrino cooling and nuclear heating. Unlike models based on current stellar evolutionary practice, these simulations show a chaotic dynamics characteristic of highly turbulent flow. Theoretical analysis of this flow, both in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS framework and by simple dynamic models, show an encouraging consistency with the numerical results. It may now be possible to develop physically realistic and robust procedures for convection and mixing which (unlike 3D numerical simulation may be applied throughout the long life times of stars. In addition, a new picture of the presupernova stages is emerging which is more dynamic and interesting (i.e., predictive of new and newly observed phenomena than our previous one.

  7. Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Isern, Jordi; Perego, Albino; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We present the status and open problems of nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions of both types, responsible for the production of the intermediate mass, Fe-group and heavier elements (with the exception of the main s-process). Constraints from observations can be provided through individual supernovae (SNe) or their remnants (e.g. via spectra and gamma-rays of decaying unstable isotopes) and through surface abundances of stars which witness the composition of the interstellar gas at their formation. With a changing fraction of elements heavier than He in these stars (known as metallicity) the evolution of the nucleosynthesis in galaxies over time can be determined. A complementary way, related to gamma-rays from radioactive decays, is the observation of positrons released in β+-decays, as e.g. from ^{26}Al, ^{44}Ti, ^{56,57}Ni and possibly further isotopes of their decay chains (in competition with the production of e+e- pairs in acceleration shocks from SN remnants, pulsars, magnetars or even of particle physics origin). We discuss (a) the role of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism for the composition of intermediate mass, Fe-group (and heavier?) ejecta, (b) the transition from neutron stars to black holes as the final result of the collapse of massive stars, and the relation of the latter to supernovae, faint supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts/hypernovae, (c) Type Ia supernovae and their nucleosynthesis (e.g. addressing the ^{55}Mn puzzle), plus (d) further constraints from galactic evolution, γ-ray and positron observations. This is complemented by the role of rare magneto-rotational supernovae (related to magnetars) in comparison with the nucleosynthesis of compact binary mergers, especially with respect to forming the heaviest r-process elements in galactic evolution.

  8. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. II. RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION MODELS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-09-01

    We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the COCONUT hydrodynamics code in combination with the VERTEX solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the space-time metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M{sub Sun} progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the PROMETHEUS hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models, the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50%-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.

  9. Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetric mass ejection in the early phase of supernova (SN) explosions can impart a kick velocity to the new-born neutron star (NS). For neutrino-driven explosions the NS acceleration has been shown to be mainly caused by the gravitational attraction of the anisotropically expelled inner ejecta, while hydrodynamic forces contribute on a subdominant level, and asymmetric neutrino emission plays only a secondary role. Two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations have demonstrated that this gravitational tug-boat mechanism can explain the observed space velocities of young NSs up to more than 1000 km s{sup −1}. Here, we discuss how the NS kick depends on the energy, ejecta mass, and asymmetry of the SN explosion, and what role the compactness of the pre-collapse stellar core plays for the momentum transfer to the NS. We also provide simple analytic expressions for the NS velocity in terms of these quantities. Referring to results of hydrodynamic simulations in the literature, we argue why, within the discussed scenario of NS acceleration, electron-capture SNe, low-mass Fe-core SNe, and ultra-stripped SNe can be expected to have considerably lower intrinsic NS kicks than core-collapse SNe of massive stellar cores. Our basic arguments also remain valid if progenitor stars possess large-scale asymmetries in their convective silicon and oxygen burning layers. Possible scenarios for spin-kick alignment are sketched. Much of our discussion stays on a conceptual and qualitative level, and more work is necessary on the numerical modeling side to determine the dependences of involved parameters, whose prescriptions will be needed for recipes that can be used to better describe NS kicks in binary evolution and population synthesis studies.

  10. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2018-03-01

    We propose that massive Thorne-Żytkow objects can explode. A Thorne-Żytkow object is a theoretically predicted star that has a neutron core. When nuclear reactions supporting a massive Thorne-Żytkow object terminate, a strong accretion occurs towards the central neutron core. The accretion rate is large enough to sustain a super-Eddington accretion towards the neutron core. The neutron core may collapse to a black hole after a while. A strong large-scale outflow or a jet can be launched from the super-Eddington accretion disc and the collapsing Thorne-Żytkow object can be turned into an explosion. The ejecta have about 10 M⊙ but the explosion energy depends on when the accretion is suppressed. We presume that the explosion energy could be as low as ˜1047 erg and such a low-energy explosion could be observed like a failed supernova. The maximum possible explosion energy is ˜1052 erg and such a high-energy explosion could be observed as an energetic Type II supernova or a superluminous supernova. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects may provide a new path to spread lithium and other heavy elements produced through the irp process such as molybdenum in the Universe.

  11. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; California, University, Livermore, CA); Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the Ni-56 produced therein is reviewed. The expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra for this model of type I explosions and a model for type II explosions are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed. While the theoretical results of existing models are predicated upon the assumption of a successful core bounce calculation and the neglect of such two-dimensional effects as rotation and magnetic fields the new model suggests an entirely different scenario in which a considerable portion of the energy carried by an equatorially ejected blob is deposited in the red giant envelope overlying the mantle of the star

  12. Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

  13. Luck Reveals Stellar Explosion's First Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Through a stroke of luck, astronomers have witnessed the first violent moments of a stellar explosion known as a supernova. Astronomers have seen thousands of these stellar explosions, but all previous supernovae were discovered days after the event had begun. This is the first time scientists have been able to study a supernova from its very beginning. Seeing one just moments after the event began is a major breakthrough that points the way to unraveling longstanding mysteries about how such explosions really work. Galaxy Before Supernova Explosion NASA's Swift satellite took these images of SN 2007uy in galaxy NGC 2770 before SN 2008D exploded. An X-ray image is on the left; image at right is in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels Galaxy After Supernova Explosion On January 9, 2008, Swift caught a bright X-ray burst from an exploding star. A few days later, SN 2008D appeared in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels "For years, we have dreamed of seeing a star just as it was exploding," said team leader Alicia Soderberg, a Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University. "This newly-born supernova is going to be the Rosetta Stone of supernova studies for years to come." Theorists had predicted for four decades that a bright burst of X-rays should be produced as the shock wave from a supernova blasts out of the star and through dense material surrounding the star. However, in order to see this burst, scientists faced the nearly-impossible challenge of knowing in advance where to point their telescopes to catch a supernova in the act of exploding. On January 9, luck intervened. Soderberg and her colleagues were making a scheduled observation of the galaxy NGC 2770, 88 million light-years from Earth, using the X-ray telescope on NASA's Swift satellite. During that observation, a bright burst of X

  14. Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)

  15. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  16. Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbutina, B.

    2017-12-01

    This book, both a monograph and a graduate textbook, is based on my original research and partly on the materials prepared earlier for the 2007 and 2008 IARS Astrophysics Summer School in Istanbul, AstroMundus course 'Supernovae and Their Remnants' that was held for the first time in 2011 at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and a graduate course 'Evolution of Supernova Remnants' that I teach at the aforementioned university. The first part Supernovae (introduction, thermonuclear supernovae, core-collapse supernovae) provides introductory information and explains the classification and physics of supernova explosions, while the second part Supernova remnants (introduction, shock waves, cosmic rays and particle acceleration, magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation, hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants), which is the field I work in, is more detailed in scope i.e. technical/mathematical. Special attention is paid to details of mathematical derivations that often cannot be found in original works or available literature. Therefore, I believe it can be useful to both, graduate students and researchers interested in the field.

  17. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  18. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  19. Physics of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Presupernova models of massive stars are presented and their explosion by ''delayed neutrino transport'' examined. A new form of long duration Type II supernova model is also explored based upon repeated encounter with the electron-positron pair instability in stars heavier than about 60 Msub solar. Carbon deflagration in white dwarfs is discussed as the probable explanation of Type I supernovae and special attention is paid to the physical processes whereby a nuclear flame propagates through degenerate carbon. 89 refs., 12 figs

  20. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  1. Peculiar Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella

    2018-06-01

    What makes a supernova truly "peculiar?" In this review we attempt to address this question by tracing the history of the use of "peculiar" as a descriptor of non-standard supernovae back to the original binary spectroscopic classification of Type I vs. Type II proposed by Minkowski (Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 53:224, 1941). A handful of noteworthy examples are highlighted to illustrate a general theme: classes of supernovae that were once thought to be peculiar are later seen as logical branches of standard events. This is not always the case, however, and we discuss ASASSN-15lh as an example of a transient with an origin that remains contentious. We remark on how late-time observations at all wavelengths (radio-through-X-ray) that probe 1) the kinematic and chemical properties of the supernova ejecta and 2) the progenitor star system's mass loss in the terminal phases preceding the explosion, have often been critical in understanding the nature of seemingly unusual events.

  2. TYPE Iax SUPERNOVAE: A NEW CLASS OF STELLAR EXPLOSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, P. J.; Chornock, R.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morrell, N. I.; Phillips, M. M.; Pignata, G.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Wang, X.; Anderson, J. P.; Hamuy, M.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe observed properties of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe Iax), consisting of SNe observationally similar to its prototypical member, SN 2002cx. The class currently has 25 members, and we present optical photometry and/or optical spectroscopy for most of them. SNe Iax are spectroscopically similar to SNe Ia, but have lower maximum-light velocities (2000 ∼ –1 ), typically lower peak magnitudes (–14.2 ≥ M V, p eak ∼> –18.9 mag), and most have hot photospheres. Relative to SNe Ia, SNe Iax have low luminosities for their light-curve shape. There is a correlation between luminosity and light-curve shape, similar to that of SNe Ia, but offset from that of SNe Ia and with larger scatter. Despite a host-galaxy morphology distribution that is highly skewed to late-type galaxies without any SNe Iax discovered in elliptical galaxies, there are several indications that the progenitor stars are white dwarfs (WDs): evidence of C/O burning in their maximum-light spectra, low (typically ∼0.5 M ☉ ) ejecta masses, strong Fe lines in their late-time spectra, a lack of X-ray detections, and deep limits on massive stars and star formation at the SN sites. However, two SNe Iax show strong He lines in their spectra. The progenitor system and explosion model that best fits all of the data is a binary system of a C/O WD that accretes matter from a He star and has a deflagration. At least some of the time, this explosion will not disrupt the WD. The small number of SNe in this class prohibit a detailed analysis of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the entire class. We estimate that in a given volume there are 31 +17 -13 SNe Iax for every 100 SNe Ia, and for every 1 M ☉ of iron generated by SNe Ia at z = 0, SNe Iax generate ∼0.036 M ☉ . Being the largest class of peculiar SNe, thousands of SNe Iax will be discovered by LSST. Future detailed observations of SNe Iax should further our understanding of both their progenitor systems and explosions as well

  3. Intermediate-mass Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Reveal Neutron Star Kicks by Asymmetric Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morii, Mikio; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Mori, Koji; Müller, Ewald; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The birth properties of neutron stars (NSs) yield important information about the still-debated physical processes that trigger the explosion as well as on intrinsic neutron-star physics. These properties include the high space velocities of young neutron stars with average values of several 100 km s‑1, with an underlying “kick” mechanism that is not fully clarified. There are two competing possibilities that could accelerate NSs during their birth: anisotropic ejection of either stellar debris or neutrinos. Here we present new evidence from X-ray measurements that chemical elements between silicon and calcium in six young gaseous supernova remnants are preferentially expelled opposite to the direction of neutron star motion. There is no correlation between the kick velocities and magnetic field strengths of these neutron stars. Our results support a hydrodynamic origin of neutron-star kicks connected to asymmetric explosive mass ejection, and they conflict with neutron-star acceleration scenarios that invoke anisotropic neutrino emission caused by particle and nuclear physics in combination with very strong neutron-star magnetic fields.

  4. An earlier explosion date for the Crab Nebula supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.; Fountain, John W.

    2018-04-01

    The Chinese first reported the Crab Nebula supernova on 1054 July 5. Ecclesiastical documents from the near east reported it in April and May of 1054. More than 33 petroglyphs made by Native Americans in the US and Mexico are consistent with sightings both before and after conjunction with the Sun on 1054 May 27. We found a petroglyph showing the new star close to Venus and the Moon, which occurred on 1054 April 12 and April 13, respectively. Collins et al., using the four historical dates, derived a light curve that is like that of a Type Ia supernova. The only remaining problem with this identification is that this supernova was near maximum light for 85 d, which is unlike the behavior of any known supernova.

  5. Multidimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae with CHIMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Eric J.; Bruenn, S. W.; Yakunin, K.; Endeve, E.; Blondin, J. M.; Harris, J. A.; Hix, W. R.; Marronetti, P.; Messer, O. B.; Mezzacappa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are driven by a multidimensional neutrino radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) engine, and full simulation requires at least axisymmetric (2D) and ultimately symmetry-free 3D RHD simulation. We present recent and ongoing work with our multidimensional RHD supernova code CHIMERA to understand the nature of the core-collapse explosion mechanism and its consequences. Recently completed simulations of 12-25 solar mass progenitors(Woosley & Heger 2007) in well resolved (0.7 degrees in latitude) 2D simulations exhibit robust explosions meeting the observationally expected explosion energy. We examine the role of hydrodynamic instabilities (standing accretion shock instability, neutrino driven convection, etc.) on the explosion dynamics and the development of the explosion energy. Ongoing 3D and 2D simulations examine the role that simulation resolution and the removal of the imposed axisymmetry have in the triggering and development of an explosion from stellar core collapse. Companion posters will explore the gravitational wave signals (Yakunin et al.) and nucleosynthesis (Harris et al.) of our simulations.

  6. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ☉} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ≳ 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  7. Evolution of Supernova Remnants Near the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalinewich, A.; Piran, T.; Sari, R. [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-03-20

    Supernovae near the Galactic center (GC) evolve differently from regular Galactic supernovae. This is mainly due to the environment into which the supernova remnants (SNRs) propagate. SNRs near the GC propagate into a wind swept environment with a velocity directed away from the GC, and a graded density profile. This causes these SNRs to be non-spherical, and to evolve faster than their Galactic counterparts. We develop an analytic theory for the evolution of explosions within a stellar wind, and verify it using a hydrodynamic code. We show that such explosions can evolve in one of three possible morphologies. Using these results we discuss the association between the two SNRs (SGR East and SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes) and the two neutron stars (the Cannonball and SGR J1745-2900) near the GC. We show that, given the morphologies of the SNR and positions of the neutron stars, the only possible association is between SGR A’s bipolar radio/X-ray lobes and SGR J1745-2900. If a compact object was created in the explosion of SGR East, it remains undetected, and the SNR of the supernova that created the Cannonball has already disappeared.

  8. THE ROLE OF TURBULENCE IN NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ott, Christian D., E-mail: smc@flash.uchichago.edu, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The neutrino-heated ''gain layer'' immediately behind the stalled shock in a core-collapse supernova is unstable to high-Reynolds-number turbulent convection. We carry out and analyze a new set of 19 high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and compare with spherically symmetric (one-dimensional, 1D) and axisymmetric (two-dimensional, 2D) simulations carried out with the same methods. We study the postbounce supernova evolution in a 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor star and vary the local neutrino heating rate, the magnitude and spatial dependence of asphericity from convective burning in the Si/O shell, and spatial resolution. Our simulations suggest that there is a direct correlation between the strength of turbulence in the gain layer and the susceptibility to explosion. 2D and 3D simulations explode at much lower neutrino heating rates than 1D simulations. This is commonly explained by the fact that nonradial dynamics allows accreting material to stay longer in the gain layer. We show that this explanation is incomplete. Our results indicate that the effective turbulent ram pressure exerted on the shock plays a crucial role by allowing multi-dimensional models to explode at a lower postshock thermal pressure and thus with less neutrino heating than 1D models. We connect the turbulent ram pressure with turbulent energy at large scales and in this way explain why 2D simulations are erroneously exploding more easily than 3D simulations.

  9. THE ROLE OF TURBULENCE IN NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couch, Sean M.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    The neutrino-heated ''gain layer'' immediately behind the stalled shock in a core-collapse supernova is unstable to high-Reynolds-number turbulent convection. We carry out and analyze a new set of 19 high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and compare with spherically symmetric (one-dimensional, 1D) and axisymmetric (two-dimensional, 2D) simulations carried out with the same methods. We study the postbounce supernova evolution in a 15 M ☉ progenitor star and vary the local neutrino heating rate, the magnitude and spatial dependence of asphericity from convective burning in the Si/O shell, and spatial resolution. Our simulations suggest that there is a direct correlation between the strength of turbulence in the gain layer and the susceptibility to explosion. 2D and 3D simulations explode at much lower neutrino heating rates than 1D simulations. This is commonly explained by the fact that nonradial dynamics allows accreting material to stay longer in the gain layer. We show that this explanation is incomplete. Our results indicate that the effective turbulent ram pressure exerted on the shock plays a crucial role by allowing multi-dimensional models to explode at a lower postshock thermal pressure and thus with less neutrino heating than 1D models. We connect the turbulent ram pressure with turbulent energy at large scales and in this way explain why 2D simulations are erroneously exploding more easily than 3D simulations

  10. On the mass ejected by supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model is developed in order to calculate the mass ejected by superonovae. We find that the 185, 1006, 1572 and 1604 AD events, all of them classified as either probable or possible type I supernovae, ejected between 0.1 and 0.4 solar masses with an expansion velocity of roughly 10,000 km s -1 . This range of masses suggests that a collapsed object is at the center of the remnants produced by these supernovae if the precursor was a white dwarf whose mass was closed to the Chandrasekhar limit. For the Crab we obtain an ejected mass of 0.45 Msub(sun) and point out that this value is not in contradiction with a proposal in which the moderate helium stars are good candidates for producing this kind of supernovae. Finally we obtain an ejected mass of 3.1 Msub(sun) for Cas A, indicating that a type II event produced this remnant. This ejected mass is closed to what would be expected for a progenitor like an OBN star. (author)

  11. Nucleosynthesis in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Taylor Shannon; Viktoria Ohstrom, Eva; Harris, James Austin; Hix, William R.

    2018-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis which occurs in core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) is one of the most important sources of elements in the universe. Elements from Oxygen through Iron come predominantly from supernovae, and contributions of heavier elements are also possible through processes like the weak r-process, the gamma process and the light element primary process. The composition of the ejecta depends on the mechanism of the explosion, thus simulations of high physical fidelity are needed to explore what elements and isotopes CCSN can contribute to Galactic Chemical Evolution. We will analyze the nucleosynthesis results from self-consistent CCSN simulations performed with CHIMERA, a multi-dimensional neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics code. Much of our understanding of CCSN nucleosynthesis comes from parameterized models, but unlike CHIMERA these fail to address essential physics, including turbulent flow/instability and neutrino-matter interaction. We will present nucleosynthesis predictions for the explosion of a 9.6 solar mass first generation star, relying both on results of the 160 species nuclear reaction network used in CHIMERA within this model and on post-processing with a more extensive network. The lowest mass iron core-collapse supernovae, like this model, are distinct from their more massive brethren, with their explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis being more like electron capture supernovae resulting from Oxygen-Neon white dwarves. We will highlight the differences between the nucleosynthesis in this model and more massive supernovae. The inline 160 species network is a feature unique to CHIMERA, making this the most sophisticated model to date for a star of this type. We will discuss the need and mechanism to extrapolate the post-processing to times post-simulation and analyze the uncertainties this introduces for supernova nucleosynthesis. We will also compare the results from the inline 160 species network to the post-processing results to study further

  12. Constraints on the progenitor system of the type Ia supernova 2014J from pre-explosion Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shen, Ken J.; Zheng, WeiKang; Graham, Melissa L.; Tucker, Brad E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Prato, Lisa [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Schaefer, Gail, E-mail: pkelly@astro.berkeley.edu [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ≈ 3.5 Mpc). We determine the supernova (SN) location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Our upper limits exclude systems having a bright red giant companion, including symbiotic novae with luminosities comparable to that of RS Ophiuchi. While the flux constraints are also inconsistent with predictions for comparatively cool He-donor systems (T ≲ 35,000 K), we cannot preclude a system similar to V445 Puppis. The progenitor constraints are robust across a wide range of R{sub V} and A{sub V} values, but significantly greater values than those inferred from the SN light curve and spectrum would yield proportionally brighter luminosity limits. The comparatively faint flux expected from a binary progenitor system consisting of white dwarf stars would not have been detected in the pre-explosion HST imaging. Infrared HST exposures yield more stringent constraints on the luminosities of very cool (T < 3000 K) companion stars than was possible in the case of SN Ia 2011fe.

  13. Constraints on the progenitor system of the type Ia supernova 2014J from pre-explosion Hubble space telescope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shen, Ken J.; Zheng, WeiKang; Graham, Melissa L.; Tucker, Brad E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Prato, Lisa; Schaefer, Gail

    2014-01-01

    We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ≈ 3.5 Mpc). We determine the supernova (SN) location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Our upper limits exclude systems having a bright red giant companion, including symbiotic novae with luminosities comparable to that of RS Ophiuchi. While the flux constraints are also inconsistent with predictions for comparatively cool He-donor systems (T ≲ 35,000 K), we cannot preclude a system similar to V445 Puppis. The progenitor constraints are robust across a wide range of R V and A V values, but significantly greater values than those inferred from the SN light curve and spectrum would yield proportionally brighter luminosity limits. The comparatively faint flux expected from a binary progenitor system consisting of white dwarf stars would not have been detected in the pre-explosion HST imaging. Infrared HST exposures yield more stringent constraints on the luminosities of very cool (T < 3000 K) companion stars than was possible in the case of SN Ia 2011fe.

  14. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  15. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, C.D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); O' Connor, E.P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Drasco, S. [Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa (United States); TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova.

  16. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.D.; O'Connor, E.P.; Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T.; Drasco, S.

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova

  17. HD271791: dynamical versus binary-supernova ejection scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    The atmosphere of the extremely high-velocity (530-920kms-1) early B-type star HD271791 is enriched in α-process elements, which suggests that this star is a former secondary component of a massive tight binary system and that its surface was polluted by the nucleosynthetic products after the primary star exploded in a supernova. It was proposed that the (asymmetric) supernova explosion unbind the system and that the secondary star (HD271791) was released at its orbital velocity in the direction of Galactic rotation. In this Letter, we show that to explain the Galactic rest-frame velocity of HD271791 within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario, the stellar remnant of the supernova explosion (a =750-1200kms-1. We therefore consider the binary-supernova scenario as highly unlikely and instead propose that HD271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical three- or four-body encounter in the dense core of the parent star cluster. Our proposal implies that by the moment of encounter HD271791 was a member of a massive post-supernova binary.

  18. A solar-type star polluted by calcium-rich supernova ejecta inside the supernova remnant RCW 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Langer, Norbert; Fossati, Luca; Bock, Douglas C.-J.; Castro, Norberto; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Greiner, Jochen; Johnston, Simon; Rau, Arne; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    When a massive star in a binary system explodes as a supernova, its companion star may be polluted with heavy elements from the supernova ejecta. Such pollution has been detected in a handful of post-supernova binaries 1 , but none of them is associated with a supernova remnant. We report the discovery of a binary G star strongly polluted with calcium and other elements at the position of the candidate neutron star [GV2003] N within the young galactic supernova remnant RCW 86. Our discovery suggests that the progenitor of the supernova that produced RCW 86 could have been a moving star, which exploded near the edge of its wind bubble and lost most of its initial mass because of common-envelope evolution shortly before core collapse, and that the supernova explosion might belong to the class of calcium-rich supernovae — faint and fast transients 2,3 , the origin of which is strongly debated 4-6 .

  19. Supernovae and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    On February 25, 1987, a sheet of telefax came to us from S. A. Bludman, saying Supernova went off in Large Magellanic Clouds. Can you see it? This is what we have been waiting 350 years for exclamation point In few hours, more information arrived. But it was still too early to definitely identify the supernova as type I or type II. This paper reports that the type I supernova is an explosion of a complete star due to uncontrolled nuclear fusion, while the type II supernova is triggered by gravitational collapse of the Fe core of a massive star (≥8 solar mass). It is this type II supernova that would leave a neutron star or a black hole after the liberation of an enormous amount of energy (3 x 10 53 erg) in the form of neutrinos. Therefore only the type II supernova is a relevant place to look for neutrino signals. It was also frustrating that the time when the stellar collapse actually took place was not definitely determined, because it was believed that the supernova brightened up about a day after the collapse and there was an ambiguity in a time lag of the optical observation. There was a possibility that it had happened well before February 24

  20. Supernova remnant S 147 and its associated neutron star(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    The supernova remnant S 147 harbors the pulsar PSR J 0538+2817 whose characteristic age is more than an order of magnitude greater than the kinematic age of the system (inferred from the angular offset of the pulsar from the geometric center of the supernova remnant and the pulsar proper motion). To reconcile this discrepancy we propose that PSR J 0538+2817 could be the stellar remnant of the first supernova explosion in a massive binary system and therefore could be as old as its characteristic age. Our proposal implies that S 147 is the diffuse remnant of the second supernova explosion (that disrupted the binary system) and that a much younger second neutron star (not necessarily manifesting itself as a radio pulsar) should be associated with S 147. We use the existing observational data on the system to suggest that the progenitor of the supernova that formed S 147 was a Wolf-Rayet star (so that the supernova explosion occurred within a wind bubble surrounded by a massive shell) and to constrain the parameters of the binary system. We also restrict the magnitude and direction of the kick velocity received by the young neutron star at birth and find that the kick vector should not strongly deviate from the orbital plane of the binary system.

  1. EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 Msun STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M sun star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number ≤70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M sun of the ejecta from the inner region (≤10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the 56 Ni masses are ≅ 10 51 erg and (0.05-0.06) M sun , respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M sun progenitor.

  2. Chiral transport of neutrinos in supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional neutrino transport theory for core-collapse supernovae misses one key property of neutrinos: the left-handedness. The chirality of neutrinos modifies the hydrodynamic behavior at the macroscopic scale and leads to topological transport phenomena. We argue that such transport phenomena should play important roles in the evolution of core-collapse supernovae, and, in particular, lead to a tendency toward the inverse energy cascade from small to larger scales, which may be relevant to the origin of the supernova explosion.

  3. The Effect of Neutrino Oscillations on Supernova Light Element Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate light element synthesis through the ν-process during supernova explosions considering neutrino oscillations and investigate the dependence of 7Li and 11B yields on neutrino oscillation parameters mass hierarchy and θ13. The adopted supernova explosion model for explosive nucleosynthesis corresponds to SN 1987A. The 7Li and 11B yields increase by about factors of 1.9 and 1.3 in the case of normal mass hierarchy and adiabatic 13-mixing resonance compared with the case without neutrino oscillations. In the case of inverted mass hierarchy or nonadiabatic 13-mixing resonance, the increase in 7Li and 11B yields is much smaller. Astronomical observations of 7Li/11B ratio in stars formed in regions strongly affected by prior generations of supernovae would constrain mass hierarchy and the range of θ13

  4. An integral view of fast shocks around supernova 1006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolic, S.; Heng, K.; Kupko, D.; Husemann, B.; Raymond, J.C.; Hughes, J.P.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Ven, G. van de

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~1000 kilometers per second into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen

  5. Production of {sup 44}Ti in neutrino-driven aspherical supernova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Goshi 861-1102 (Japan); Ono, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kotake, Kei [National Astronomical Observatory Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    We examine the synthesis of {sup 44}Ti in a neutrino-driven aspherical supernova (SN), focusing on reaction rates related to {sup 44}Ti and rotation of a progenitor. We have performed 2D hydrodynamic simulations of SN of a 15M{sub ⊙} progenitor, whose angular velocity is manually set to be a cylindrical distribution and have followed explosive nucleosynthesis in the ejecta. We find that the faster rates of {sup 40}Ca(α,γ){sup 44}Ti and the slower rate of {sup 44}Ti(α,p){sup 47}V lead to more massive ejection of {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni and larger ratios <{sup 44}Ti/{sup 56}Ni>. Faster rotation also results in more massive ejection of {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni. Ratios <{sup 44}Ti/{sup 56}Ni> are however independent from rotation. Large masses of {sup 44}Ti and large ratios observed in SN 1987A and Cas A (> 1O{sup −4}M{sub ⊙} and 1-2 respectively) are not realized in all the models.

  6. A NEW MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NEUTRINO HYDRODYNAMICS CODE OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. III. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNALS FROM SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.

  7. Type II supernovae: How do they explode?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss what has been learned from the neutrino observations of Supernova 1987A. The neutrino detections confirmed our basic theoretical scenario that Type II supernovae involve the gravitational collapse of a massive star. The small number of events makes it difficult to infer details about the actual mechanism of collapse. I discuss the current theoretical situation on the mechanism of explosion

  8. SN 2016X: a type II-P supernova with a signature of shock breakout from explosion of a massive red supergiant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Wang, X.-F.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Brown, P. J.; Mo, J.; Zhang, J.-J.; Zhang, K.-C.; Zhang, T.-M.; Howell, D.-A.; Arcavi, I.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Rui, L.-M.; Song, H.; Xiang, D.-F.; Li, W.-X.; Lin, H.; Wang, L.-F.

    2018-04-01

    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry, as well as dense optical spectroscopy, for type II Plateau (IIP) supernova SN 2016X that exploded in the nearby (˜15 Mpc) spiral galaxy UGC 08041. The observations span the period from 2 to 180 d after the explosion; in particular, the Swift UV data probably captured the signature of shock breakout associated with the explosion of SN 2016X. It shows very strong UV emission during the first week after explosion, with a contribution of ˜20-30 per cent to the bolometric luminosity (versus ≲15 per cent for normal SNe IIP). Moreover, we found that this supernova has an unusually long rise time of about 12.6 ± 0.5 d in the R band (versus ˜7.0 d for typical SNe IIP). The optical light curves and spectral evolution are quite similar to the fast-declining type IIP object SN 2013ej, except that SN 2016X has a relatively brighter tail. Based on the evolution of photospheric temperature as inferred from the Swift data in the early phase, we derive that the progenitor of SN 2016X has a radius of about 930 ± 70 R⊙. This large-size star is expected to be a red supergiant star with an initial mass of ≳19-20 M⊙ based on the mass-radius relation of the Galactic red supergiants, and it represents one of the most largest and massive progenitors found for SNe IIP.

  9. Fate of accreting white dwarfs: Type I supernovae vs collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi.

    1986-01-01

    The final fate of accreting C + O white dwarfs is either thermonuclear explosion or collapse, if the white dwarf mass grows to the Chandrasekhar mass. We discuss how the fate depends on the initial mass, age, composition of the white dwarf and the mass accretion rate. Relatively fast accretion leads to a carbon deflagration at low central density that gives rise to a Type Ia supernova. Slower accretion induces a helium detonation that could be observed as a Type Ib supernova. If the initial mass of the C + O white dwarf is larger than 1.2 Msub solar, a carbon deflagration starts at high central density and induces a collapse of the white dwarf to form a neutron star. We examine the critical condition for which a carbon deflagration leads to collapse, not explosion. For the case of explosion, we discuss to what extent the nucleosynthesis models are consistent with spectra of Type Ia and Ib supernovae. 61 refs., 18 figs

  10. 3-D explosions: a meditation on rotation (and magnetic fields)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. C.

    This is the text of an introduction to a workshop on asymmetric explosions held in Austin in June, 2003. The great progress in supernova research over thirty-odd years is briefly reviewed. The context in which the meeting was called is then summarized. The theoretical success of the intrinsically multidimensional delayed detonation paradigm in explaining the nature of Type Ia supernovae coupled with new techniques of observations in the near IR and with spectropolarimetry promise great advances in understanding binary progenitors, the explosion physics, and the ever more accurate application to cosmology. Spectropolarimetry has also revealed the strongly asymmetric nature of core collapse and given valuable perspectives on the supernova - gamma-ray burst connection. The capability of the magneto-rotational instability to rapidly create strong toroidal magnetic fields in the core collapse ambiance is outlined. This physics may be the precursor to driving MHD jets that play a role in asymmetric supernovae. Welcome to the brave new world of three-dimensional explosions!

  11. Multimessengers from Core-Collapse Supernovae: Multidimensionality as a Key to Bridge Theory and Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Kotake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are dramatic explosions marking the catastrophic end of massive stars. The only means to get direct information about the supernova engine is from observations of neutrinos emitted by the forming neutron star, and through gravitational waves which are produced when the hydrodynamic flow or the neutrino flux is not perfectly spherically symmetric. The multidimensionality of the supernova engine, which breaks the sphericity of the central core such as convection, rotation, magnetic fields, and hydrodynamic instabilities of the supernova shock, is attracting great attention as the most important ingredient to understand the long-veiled explosion mechanism. Based on our recent work, we summarize properties of gravitational waves, neutrinos, and explosive nucleosynthesis obtained in a series of our multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations and discuss how the mystery of the central engines can be unraveled by deciphering these multimessengers produced under the thick veils of massive stars.

  12. Ionizing radiations in the natural history of the Earth: role of supernova flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses the role of supernova flares in the natural history of the Earth. Probability of the solar system occurrence in the residual of supernova explosion is estimated Possible effects of the Earth occurrence in the supernova residual are studied. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Supernova mechanisms: Before and after SN1987a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of SN1987a on theoretical studies of the specific mechanism generating Type II supernovae is examined. The explosion energy extracted from analysis of the light curve for SN 1987a is on the edge of distinguishing between a prompt explosion from a hydrodynamic shock and a delayed, neutrino-induced, explosion. The detection of neutrinos from 1987a is also reanalyzed. 30 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Nucleosynthesis and hydrodynamic instabilities in core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kifonidis, K.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are of crucial importance for the explosion of massive stars as core collapse supernovae, for the synthesis of the heavy elements, and for their injection into the interstellar medium. The processes hereby involved are studied by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations which follow all phases from shock revival to shock breakout through the photosphere of a massive star. The computed distributions of radioactive elements are compared to observational data of SN 1987 A and other supernovae. While we find good agreement of our models with observations of Type Ib supernovae, the high velocities of iron group elements observed in SN 1987 A cannot be reproduced. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Hydrodynamic instabilities are of crucial importance for the explosion of massive stars as core collapse supernovae, for the synthesis of the heavy elements, and for their injection into the interstellar medium. The processes hereby involved are studied by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations which follow all phases from shock revival to shock breakout through the photosphere of a massive star. The computed distributions of radioactive elements are compared to observational data of SN 1987 A and other supernovae. While we find good agreement of our models with observations of Type Ib supernovae, the high velocities of iron group elements observed in SN 1987 A cannot be reproduced. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

  15. 3D Simulations of Supernova Remnants from Type Ia Supernova Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather; Reynolds, S. P.; Frohlich, C.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) originate from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. A great deal is still unknown about the explosion mechanisms, particularly the degree of asymmetry. However, Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) can bear the imprint of asymmetry long after the explosion. A SNR of interest is G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic SNR, which demonstrates an unusual spatial distribution of elements in the ejecta. While its X-ray spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission, spectral lines of highly ionized Si, S, and Fe are seen in a few locations, with Fe near the edge of the remnant and with strongly varying Fe/Si ratios. An asymmetric explosion within the white dwarf progenitor may be necessary to explain these unusual features of G1.9+0.3, in particular the shocked Fe at large radii. We use the VH-1 hydrodynamics code to evolve initial Type Ia explosion models in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions at an age of 100 seconds provided by other researchers to study asymmetry, the ignition properties, and the nucleosynthesis resulting from these explosions. We follow the evolution of these models interacting with a uniform external medium to a few hundred years in age. We find the abundance and location of ejecta elements from our models to be inconsistent with the observations of G1.9+0.3; while our models show asymmetric element distributions, we find no tendency for iron-group elements to be found beyond intermediate-mass elements, or for significant iron to be reverse-shocked at all at the age of G1.9+0.3. We compare the amounts of shocked iron-group and intermediate-mass elements as a function of time in the different models. Some new kind of explosion asymmetry may be required to explain G1.9+0.3. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.

  16. A surge of light at the birth of a supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; García, F.; van Dyk, S. D.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Orellana, M.; Buso, V.; Sánchez, J. L.; Tanaka, M.; Maeda, K.; Filippenko, A. V.; Zheng, W.; Brink, T. G.; Cenko, S. B.; de Jaeger, T.; Kumar, S.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Perley, D. A.; Shivvers, I.; Smith, N.

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to establish the properties of massive stars that explode as supernovae. The electromagnetic emission during the first minutes to hours after the emergence of the shock from the stellar surface conveys important information about the final evolution and structure of the exploding star. However, the unpredictable nature of supernova events hinders the detection of this brief initial phase. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of a newly born, normal type IIb supernova (SN 2016gkg), which reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths of about 40 magnitudes per day. The very frequent sampling of the observations allowed us to study in detail the outermost structure of the progenitor of the supernova and the physics of the emergence of the shock. We develop hydrodynamical models of the explosion that naturally account for the complete evolution of the supernova over distinct phases regulated by different physical processes. This result suggests that it is appropriate to decouple the treatment of the shock propagation from the unknown mechanism that triggers the explosion.

  17. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  18. Automated search for supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-11-15

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

  19. Automated search for supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion

  20. Neutrino Emission from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Supernovae are the most powerful cosmic sources of MeV neutrinos. These elementary particles play a crucial role when the evolution of a massive star is terminated by the collapse of its core to a neutron star or a black hole and the star explodes as supernova. The release of electron neutrinos, which are abundantly produced by electron captures, accelerates the catastrophic infall and causes a gradual neutronization of the stellar plasma by converting protons to neutrons as dominant constituents of neutron star matter. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final state. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the surroundings of the newly formed neutron star can power the supernova explosion and determines the conditions in the innermost supernova ejecta, making them an interesting site for the nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements and trans-iron nuclei.

  1. A constraint on prompt supernova cosmic ray production from γ-ray observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Drury, L.O'C.

    1981-01-01

    The consequences of prompt cosmic ray production intrinsic to supernovae are examined for supernova explosions occurring in dense molecular clouds. For reasonable parameters it is shown that prompt cosmic ray production cannot exceed 10 48 erg per supernova. This suggests that cosmic ray production takes place mainly in the intercloud medium. (author)

  2. Potential for supernova-induced chemical enrichment of protoglobular cluster clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Smith, G.H.; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada)

    1986-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the large internal abundance variations that are seen in the globular cluster Omega Cen in terms of supernova-induced chemical enrichment that occurred when the cluster was still largely in a gaseous phase and star formation was continuing. Using a simple power-law density model of this protoglobular gas cloud, the conditions under which this can occur have been established analytically. Clouds less massive than about 100,000 solar masses are completely disrupted by supernova explosions in their adiabatic phase. In clouds of greater mass, supernova explosions occurring near the tidal radius tend to lose their hot gas and metals to the intercloud medium. For explosions occurring closer to the mass center the ejecta must be slowed below the escape velocity, and this can only occur in clouds more massive than about 3 x 10 to the 6th solar masses. If this condition is met, then the slow isothermal momentum-conserving shocks generated by the supernova explosions may eventually induce secondary star formation. For such shocks converging on the mass center, it is found that a cloud mass of at least 10 to the 7th solar masses is required for this process to be efficient. From the observed properties of Omega Cen, a primordial mass of order 10 to the 8th solar masses is estimated, which emphasizes the unusual character of this object. 39 references

  3. Theoretical uncertainties of the Type Ia supernova rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.; Pols, O.R.; Izzard, R.G.; Vink, J.; Verbunt, F.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). Two main evolutionary channels are proposed for the WD to reach the critical density required for a thermonuclear explosion: the single degenerate (SD) scenario, in which a CO WD accretes from a

  4. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aldering, Greg [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arimoto, Nobuo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Pereira, Rui [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 Rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: hanindyo.kuncarayakti@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  5. Ti-44 Gamma-Ray Emission Lines from SN1987A Reveal an Asymmetric Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Zoglauer, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (Ti-44) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.32-kilo-electron volt emission lines from decay of Ti-44 produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of 700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion.

  6. 44Ti gamma-ray emission lines from SN1987A reveal an asymmetric explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (44Ti) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.......32–kilo–electron volt emission lines from decay of 44Ti produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of ~700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion....

  7. Water-bearing explosives thickened with a partially hydrolyzed acrylamide polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, W.M.

    1971-11-23

    Thickened water-bearing explosives are provided which do not segregate and are water-resistant over a wide range of viscosities. Preferred compositions have a unique combination of pourability and fluidity coupled with resistance to water and segregation which makes them particularly suitable in small diameter holes and in holes partially filled with water. Accordingly, water-bearing explosive compositions also are provided which consist of inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and water, which improvement consists of thickening the compositions with the combination of polyacrylamide and cross-linked galactomannan. The weight ratio of the polyacrylamide to galactomanan is from about ratio 0.1:1 to 10:1, and preferably 1:1 to 5:1. (1 claim)

  8. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-04-13

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author).

  9. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-01-01

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author)

  10. Impacto ambiental de los remanentes de supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  11. Multi-dimensional explorations in supernova theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, Adam; Dessart, Luc; Ott, Christian D.; Livne, Eli

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we bring together various of our published and unpublished findings from our recent 2D multi-group, flux-limited radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse and explosion of the cores of massive stars. Aided by 2D and 3D graphical renditions, we motivate the acoustic mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions and explain, as best we currently can, the phases and phenomena that attend this mechanism. Two major foci of our presentation are the outer shock instability and the inner core g-mode oscillations. The former sets the stage for the latter, which damp by the generation of sound. This sound propagates outward to energize the explosion and is relevant only if the core has not exploded earlier by some other means. Hence, it is a more delayed mechanism than the traditional neutrino mechanism that has been studied for the last twenty years since it was championed by Bethe and Wilson. We discuss protoneutron star convection, accretion-induced-collapse, gravitational wave emissions, pulsar kicks, the angular anisotropy of the neutrino emissions, a subset of numerical issues, and a new code we are designing that should supercede our current supernova code VULCAN/2D. Whatever ideas last from this current generation of numerical results, and whatever the eventual mechanism(s), we conclude that the breaking of spherical symmetry will survive as one of the crucial keys to the supernova puzzle

  12. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  13. A Model of the Vela Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2000-10-01

    A model of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) based on a cavity explosion of a supernova (SN) star is proposed. It is suggested that the general structure of the remnant is determined by the interaction of the SN blast wave with a massive shell created by the SN progenitor (15-20 M_solar) star. A possible origin of the nebula of hard X-ray emission detected around the Vela pulsar is discussed.

  14. Supernovae-generated high-velocity compact clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinewich, A.; Beniamini, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. A previous study claimed the discovery of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). This hypothetical black hole was invoked in order to explain the high-velocity dispersion in one of several dense molecular clouds near the Galactic center. The same study considered the possibility that this cloud was due to a supernova explosion, but disqualified this scenario because no X-rays were detected. Aims: We here check whether a supernova explosion could have produced that cloud, and whether this explanation is more likely than an IMBH. More specifically, we wish to determine whether a supernova inside a dense molecular cloud would emit in the X-rays. Methods: We have approached this problem from two different directions. First, we performed an analytic calculation to determine the cooling rate by thermal bremsstrahlung and compared this time to the lifetime of the cloud. Second, we estimated the creation rate of these dense clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) region near the Galactic center, where they were observed. Based on this rate, we can place lower bounds on the total mass of IMBHs and clouds and compare this to the masses of the components of the CMZ. Results: We find that the cooling time of the supernova remnant inside a molecular cloud is shorter than its dynamical time. This means that the temperature in such a remnant would be much lower than that of a typical supernova remnant. At such a low temperature, the remnant is not expected to emit in the X-rays. We also find that to explain the rate at which such dense clouds are created requires fine-tuning the number of IMBHs. Conclusions: We find the supernova model to be a more likely explanation for the formation of high-velocity compact clouds than an IMBH.

  15. Supernova hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  16. Hydrodynamical models of supernova SN 1987 A in the LMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberg, E.K.; Imshennik, V.S.; Nadezhin, D.K.; Utrobin, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the properties of SN 1987A in LMC can be described well by hydrodynamical models of explosions of compact massive stars. In accordance with these models, the mass of the expelled envelope the presupernova radius and the total energy of explosion are evaluated for SN 1987A to be ∼ 16M Sun , ∼ 30R Sun , and ∼ 3.10 51 erg, respectively. The progenitor of supernova remnant Cas A may be considered as the prototype to the SN 1987A in our own Galaxy. In other galaxies, this subtype of supernovae can be represented by SN 1948B in NGC6946. If energy of explosion transfers from collapsed core of the star to the envelope within timescale less than 1 hour, then delay Δt ∼ 3 hours between the neutrino pulse and the steep rise of optical luminosity of SN 1987A does not contradict with scenario of explosions of compact massive stars

  17. Rotation-supported Neutrino-driven Supernova Explosions in Three Dimensions and the Critical Luminosity Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Alexander; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Melson, Tobias; Marek, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We present the first self-consistent, 3D core-collapse supernova simulations performed with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code for a rotating progenitor star. Besides using the angular momentum of the 15 M ⊙ model as obtained in the stellar evolution calculation with an angular frequency of ∼10‑3 rad s‑1 (spin period of more than 6000 s) at the Si/Si–O interface, we also computed 2D and 3D cases with no rotation and with a ∼300 times shorter rotation period and different angular resolutions. In 2D, only the nonrotating and slowly rotating models explode, while rapid rotation prevents an explosion within 500 ms after bounce because of lower radiated neutrino luminosities and mean energies and thus reduced neutrino heating. In contrast, only the fast-rotating model develops an explosion in 3D when the Si/Si–O interface collapses through the shock. The explosion becomes possible by the support of a powerful standing accretion shock instability spiral mode, which compensates for the reduced neutrino heating and pushes strong shock expansion in the equatorial plane. Fast rotation in 3D leads to a “two-dimensionalization” of the turbulent energy spectrum (yielding roughly a ‑3 instead of a ‑5/3 power-law slope at intermediate wavelengths) with enhanced kinetic energy on the largest spatial scales. We also introduce a generalization of the “universal critical luminosity condition” of Summa et al. to account for the effects of rotation, and we demonstrate its viability for a set of more than 40 core-collapse simulations, including 9 and 20 M ⊙ progenitors, as well as black-hole-forming cases of 40 and 75 M ⊙ stars to be discussed in forthcoming papers.

  18. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with precursor supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Soebur; Mészáros, Peter; Waxman, Eli

    2003-06-20

    The high energy neutrino signature from proton-proton and photo-meson interactions in a supernova remnant shell ejected prior to a gamma-ray burst provides a test for the precursor supernova, or supranova, model of gamma-ray bursts. Protons in the supernova remnant shell and photons entrapped from a supernova explosion or a pulsar wind from a fast-rotating neutron star remnant provide ample targets for protons escaping the internal shocks of the gamma-ray burst to interact and produce high energy neutrinos. We calculate the expected neutrino fluxes, which can be detected by current and future experiments.

  19. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  20. Pair-instability Supernova Simulations: Progenitor Evolution, Explosion, and Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Kozyreva, Alexandra [The Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hirschi, Raphael [Astrophysics group, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Yusof, Norhasliza, E-mail: msgilmer@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-09-10

    In recent years, the viability of the pair-instability supernova (PISN) scenario for explaining superluminous supernovae has all but disappeared except for a few slowly-evolving examples. However, PISNe are not predicted to be superluminous throughout the bulk of their mass range. In fact, it is more likely that the first PISN we see (if we have not seen one already) will not be superluminous. Here, we present hydrodynamic simulations of PISNe for four stellar models with unique envelope properties spanning the PISN mass range. In addition, we compute synthetic light curves (LCs) for comparison with current and future observations. We also investigate, in the context of our most massive model, the prospect of mixing in the supernova ejecta, alleviating discrepancies between current PISN models and the remaining superluminous candidate events. To this end, we present the first published 3D hydrodynamic simulations of PISNe. After achieving convergence between 1D, 2D, and 3D simulations, we examine mixing in the supernova ejecta and its affect on the bolometric LC. We observe slight deviations from spherical symmetry, which increase with the number of dimensions. We find no significant effects on the bolometric LC; however, we conclude that mixing between the silicon and oxygen rich layers caused by the Rayleigh–Taylor instability may affect spectra.

  1. Probing Late-Stage Stellar Evolution through Robotic Follow-Up of Nearby Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin

    2018-01-01

    Many of the remaining uncertainties in stellar evolution can be addressed through immediate and long-term photometry and spectroscopy of supernovae. The early light curves of thermonuclear supernovae can contain information about the nature of the binary companion to the exploding white dwarf. Spectra of core-collapse supernovae can reveal material lost by massive stars in their final months to years. Thanks to a revolution in technology—robotic telescopes, high-speed internet, machine learning—we can now routinely discover supernovae within days of explosion and obtain well-sampled follow-up data for months and years. Here I present three major results from the Global Supernova Project at Las Cumbres Observatory that take advantage of these technological advances. (1) SN 2017cbv is a Type Ia supernova discovered within a day of explosion. Early photometry shows a bump in the U-band relative to previously observed Type Ia light curves, possibly indicating the presence of a nondegenerate binary companion. (2) SN 2016bkv is a low-luminosity Type IIP supernova also caught very young. Narrow emission lines in the earliest spectra indicate interaction between the ejecta and a dense shell of circumstellar material, previously observed only in the brightest Type IIP supernovae. (3) Type Ibn supernovae are a rare class that interact with hydrogen-free circumstellar material. An analysis of the largest-yet sample of this class has found that their light curves are much more homogeneous and faster-evolving than their hydrogen-rich counterparts, Type IIn supernovae, but that their maximum-light spectra are more diverse.

  2. Expected impact from weak reactions with light nuclei in corecollapse supernova simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of light nuclear clusters in simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Expressions for the reaction rates are developed for a large selection of charged current absorption and scattering processes with light clusters. Medium modifications are taken into account at the mean-field level. We explore the possible impact on the supernova dynamics and the neutrino signal during the mass accretion phase prior to the possible explosion onset as well as during the subsequent protoneutron star deleptnoization after the explosion onset has been launched.

  3. On neutron star/supernova remnant associations

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2000-01-01

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1757-24, SGR0525-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possibl...

  4. Shock Revival in Core-collapse Supernovae: A Phase-diagram Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Daniel; Balberg, Shmuel; Keshet, Uri

    2015-12-01

    We examine the conditions for the revival of the stalled accretion shock in core-collapse supernovae, in the context of the neutrino heating mechanism. We combine one-dimensional simulations of the shock revival process with a derivation of a quasi-stationary approximation, which is both accurate and efficient in predicting the flow. In particular, this approach is used to explore how the evolution of the accretion shock depends on the shock radius, RS, and velocity, VS (in addition to other global properties of the system). We do so through a phase-space analysis of the shock acceleration, aS, in the {R}S{--}{V}S plane, shown to provide quantitative insights into the initiation and nature of runaway expansion. In the particular case of an initially stationary ({V}S=0, {a}S=0) profile, the prospects for an explosion can be assessed by the initial signs of the partial derivatives of the shock acceleration, in analogy to a linear damped/anti-damped oscillator. If \\partial {a}S/\\partial {R}S\\lt 0 and \\partial {a}S/\\partial {V}S\\gt 0, runaway will likely occur after several oscillations, while if \\partial {a}S/\\partial {R}S\\gt 0, runaway expansion will commence in a non-oscillatory fashion. These two modes of runaway correspond to low and high mass accretion rates, respectively. We also use the quasi-stationary approximation to assess the advection-to-heating timescale ratio in the gain region, often used as an explosion proxy. Indeed, this ratio does tend to ∼1 in conjunction with runaway conditions, but neither this unit value nor the specific choice of the gain region as a point of reference appear to be unique in this regard.

  5. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SN 2015bn IN THE NEBULAR PHASE: EVIDENCE FOR THE ENGINE-POWERED EXPLOSION OF A STRIPPED MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Cowperthwaite, P. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Maguire, K. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Arcavi, I.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Chambers, K. C.; Magnier, E. A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, T.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. A., E-mail: matt.nicholl@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-10

    We present nebular-phase imaging and spectroscopy for the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn, at redshift z = 0.1136, spanning +250–400 days after maximum light. The light curve exhibits a steepening in the decline rate from 1.4 mag (100 days){sup −1} to 1.7 mag (100 days){sup −1}, suggestive of a significant decrease in the opacity. This change is accompanied by a transition from a blue continuum superposed with photospheric absorption lines to a nebular spectrum dominated by emission lines of oxygen, calcium, and magnesium. There are no obvious signatures of circumstellar interaction or large {sup 56}Ni mass. We show that the spectrum at +400 days is virtually identical to a number of energetic SNe Ic such as SN 1997dq, SN 2012au, and SN 1998bw, indicating similar core conditions and strengthening the link between “hypernovae”/long gamma-ray bursts and SLSNe. A single explosion mechanism may unify these events that span absolute magnitudes of −22 < M {sub B} < −17. Both the light curve and spectrum of SN 2015bn are consistent with an engine-driven explosion ejecting 7–30 M {sub ⊙} of oxygen-dominated ejecta (for reasonable choices in temperature and opacity). A strong and relatively narrow O i λ 7774 line, seen in a number of these energetic events but not in normal supernovae, may point to an inner shell that is the signature of a central engine.

  6. Autopsy of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting ejecta in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) are discussed. The reconstructions encompass the remnant's faint outlying ejecta knots, including the exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of debris often referred to as `jets'. The bulk of Cas A's ejecta are arranged in several circular rings with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). We suggest that similar large-scale ejecta rings may be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may explain lumpy emission line profile substructure sometimes observed in spectra of extragalactic core-collapse supernovae years after explosion. A likely origin for these large ejecta rings is post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material to form bubble-like structures.

  7. Supernova remnant S147 and its associated neutron star(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    The supernova remnant S147 harbors the pulsar PSR J0538+2817 whose characteristic age is more than an order of magnitude greater than the kinematic age of the system (inferred from the angular offset of the pulsar from the geometric center of the supernova remnant and the pulsar proper motion). To reconcile this discrepancy we propose that PSR J0538+2817 could be the stellar remnant of the first supernova explosion in a massive binary system and therefore could be as old as its characteristic...

  8. Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, A S; Levan, A J; Strolger, L; Vreeswijk, P M; Thorsett, S E; Bersier, D; Burud, I; Castro Cerón, J M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Conselice, C; Dahlen, T; Ferguson, H C; Fynbo, J P U; Garnavich, P M; Gibbons, R A; Gorosabel, J; Gull, T R; Hjorth, J; Holland, S T; Kouveliotou, C; Levay, Z; Livio, M; Metzger, M R; Nugent, P E; Petro, L; Pian, E; Rhoads, J E; Riess, A G; Sahu, K C; Smette, A; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Woosley, S E

    2006-05-25

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel, they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powers an even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-duration gamma-ray burst. One would then expect that these long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galactic environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find that the gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated in the very brightest regions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the core-collapse supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most extremely massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  9. Observation and interpretation of type IIb supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) explosions represent the final demise of massive stars. Among the various types, there is a group of relatively infrequent CC-SNe termed type IIb, which appear to be hybrids between normal type II SNe (those characterised by H emission) and type Ib (those that lack H features in their spectra but exhibit prominent HeI lines). The nature of the stellar progenitors leading to type IIb SNe is currently unknown, although two channels are contemplated: single massive stars that have lost part of their outer envelope as a consequence of stellar winds, and massive stars that shed mass by Roche-Lobe overflow to a companion. The latter is in fact the favoured scenario for most of the objects observed up to now. In the majority of cases, when there are no direct progenitor detections, some hints about type IIb SN progenitors (e.g., initial mass) can be derived indirectly from the objects' light curves (LCs) and spectra. Motivated by the relatively few well-sampled observational datasets that exist up to date for type IIb SNe and the unknowns on their progenitors, we carried out extensive observations (mainly in the optical domain) for the young type IIb SNe 2011fu and 2013df. Both these SNe are particularly interesting because they show a first LC peak caused by shock breakout, followed by a secondary 56Ni-decay-powered maximum. The analysis of the data for SNe 2011fu and 2013df points to precursors that seem to have been stars with large radii (of the order of 100 RSun), with low mass hydrogen envelopes (tenths of MSun), and relatively low initial masses (12-18 MSun), which could have formed part of interacting binary systems. The nature of a third SN IIb candidate, OGLE-2013-SN-100, proved to be enigmatic. OGLE-2013-SN-100, shows a first peak in the LC, and other characteristics somewhat similar to those of type IIb SNe. However, after a deeper analysis, we conclude OGLE-2013-SN-100 is likely not a SN of type IIb. We provide an alternative

  10. A 3D View of a Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The outlined regions mark the 57 knots in Tycho selected by the authors for velocity measurements. Magenta regions have redshifted line-of-sight velocities (moving away from us); cyan regions have blueshifted light-of-sight velocities (moving toward us). [Williams et al. 2017]The Tycho supernova remnant was first observed in the year 1572. Nearly 450 years later, astronomers have now used X-ray observations of Tycho to build the first-ever 3D map of a Type Ia supernova remnant.Signs of ExplosionsSupernova remnants are spectacular structures formed by the ejecta of stellar explosions as they expand outwards into the surrounding interstellar medium.One peculiarity of these remnants is that they often exhibit asymmetries in their appearance and motion. Is this because the ejecta are expanding into a nonuniform interstellar medium? Or was the explosion itself asymmetric? The best way we can explore this question is with detailed observations of the remnants.Histograms of the velocity in distribution of the knots in the X (green), Y (blue) and Z (red) directions (+Z is away from the observer). They show no evidence for asymmetric expansion of the knots. [Williams et al. 2017]Enter TychoTo this end, a team of scientists led by Brian Williams (Space Telescope Science Institute and NASA Goddard SFC) has worked to map out the 3D velocities of the ejecta in the Tycho supernova remnant. Tycho is a Type Ia supernova thought to be caused by the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a binary system that was destabilized by mass transfer from its companion.After 450 years of expansion, the remnant now has the morphological appearance of a roughly circular cloud of clumpy ejecta. The forward shock wave from the supernova, however, is known to have twice the velocity on one side of the shell as on the other.To better understand this asymmetry, Williams and collaborators selected a total of 57 knots in Tychos ejecta, spread out around the remnant. They then used 12 years of

  11. Neutron Star/supernova Remnant Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.

  12. Spectroscopic standardisation of Ia type supernovae within the frame of the Supernovae Legacy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, Jeremy

    2008-09-01

    This research thesis first proposes an overview of cosmology science since antiquity until modern times, of its fast development during the 20. century (discovery of galaxies, introduction of general relativity), of the standard cosmological model (Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics, equations of Friedman-Lemaitre, universe radius and curvature, universe evolution, energetic assessment), of the issue of black matter and black energy, and of cosmological probes (diffuse cosmological background, gravitational lenses). The second part presents supernovae: origin, explosion mechanisms, diversity, Ia supernovae). The third part presents the Supernovae Legacy Survey (SNLS): objectives and instruments of the SNLS program, detection strategy. The fourth part describes the spectroscopy of SNLS candidates to the VLT (Very Large Telescope): reduction of spectral data, subtraction of the host galaxy and identification of the supernova, assessment of method performance, flux and position errors, assessment of VLT observations. The fifth part discusses the variability of spectral characteristics of Ia supernovae: measurement of spectral indicators, study of SiII(4128A) line, study of the CaHandK region, equivalent depth as a new spectral indicator. The sixth part discusses cosmological implications of the SNLS, and the last part briefly reports and comments the measurement of spectroscopic indicators in the SNAP/JDEM experiment

  13. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING 56Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M ☉ star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that 56 Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter (∼>3500 km s –1 ) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of 56 Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity 56 Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, 56 Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s –1 can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of 56 Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of 56 Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s –1 . We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of 56 Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required

  14. Synoptic sky surveys and the diffuse supernova neutrino background: Removing astrophysical uncertainties and revealing invisible supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Amy; Fields, Brian D.; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The cumulative (anti)neutrino production from all core-collapse supernovae within our cosmic horizon gives rise to the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), which is on the verge of detectability. The observed flux depends on supernova physics, but also on the cosmic history of supernova explosions; currently, the cosmic supernova rate introduces a substantial (±40%) uncertainty, largely through its absolute normalization. However, a new class of wide-field, repeated-scan (synoptic) optical sky surveys is coming online, and will map the sky in the time domain with unprecedented depth, completeness, and dynamic range. We show that these surveys will obtain the cosmic supernova rate by direct counting, in an unbiased way and with high statistics, and thus will allow for precise predictions of the DSNB. Upcoming sky surveys will substantially reduce the uncertainties in the DSNB source history to an anticipated ±5% that is dominated by systematics, so that the observed high-energy flux thus will test supernova neutrino physics. The portion of the universe (z < or approx. 1) accessible to upcoming sky surveys includes the progenitors of a large fraction (≅87%) of the expected 10-26 MeV DSNB event rate. We show that precision determination of the (optically detected) cosmic supernova history will also make the DSNB into a strong probe of an extra flux of neutrinos from optically invisible supernovae, which may be unseen either due to unexpected large dust obscuration in host galaxies, or because some core-collapse events proceed directly to black hole formation and fail to give an optical outburst.

  15. The Importance of Electron Captures in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langanke, K.; Sampaio, J.M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear physics plays an essential role in the dynamics of a type II supernova (a collapsing star). Recent advances in nuclear many-body theory allow now to reliably calculate the stellar weak-interaction processes involving nuclei. The most important process is the electron capture on finite nuclei with mass numbers A > 55. It is found that the respective capture rates, derived from modern many-body models, differ noticeably from previous, more phenomenological estimates. This leads to significant changes in the stellar trajectory during the supernova explosion, as has been found in state-of-the-art supernova simulations. (author)

  16. Oscillation effects and time variation of the supernova neutrino signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Brockman, Justin

    2008-02-01

    The neutrinos detected from the next galactic core-collapse supernova will contain valuable information on the internal dynamics of the explosion. One mechanism leading to a temporal evolution of the neutrino signal is the variation of the induced neutrino flavor mixing driven by changes in the density profile. With one and two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations we identify the behavior and properties of prominent features of the explosion. Using these results we demonstrate the time variation of the neutrino crossing probabilities due to changes in the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) neutrino transformations as the star explodes by using the S-matrix—Monte Carlo—approach to neutrino propagation. After adopting spectra for the neutrinos emitted from the proto-neutron star we calculate for a galactic supernova the evolution of the positron spectra within a water Cerenkov detector and find that this signal allows us to probe of a number of explosion features.

  17. Why type 2 supernovae do not explode in irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskij, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The conclusion is drawn that reason for an absence of type 2 supernovae explosions in irregular galaxies is their peculiar chemical composition. The observed lack of stellar wind from massive hot giants is due to relatively low heavy element abundance. For this reason evolving massive stars do not form an extended dense envelopes that is a necessary condition for the type 2 supernova phenomenon

  18. 2D and 3D core-collapse supernovae simulation results obtained with the CHIMERA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenn, S W; Marronetti, P; Dirk, C J [Physics Department, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W. Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Mezzacappa, A; Hix, W R [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Blondin, J M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Messer, O E B [Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Yoshida, S, E-mail: bruenn@fau.ed [Max-Planck-Institut fur Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Golm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Much progress in realistic modeling of core-collapse supernovae has occurred recently through the availability of multi-teraflop machines and the increasing sophistication of supernova codes. These improvements are enabling simulations with enough realism that the explosion mechanism, long a mystery, may soon be delineated. We briefly describe the CHIMERA code, a supernova code we have developed to simulate core-collapse supernovae in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions. We then describe the results of an ongoing suite of 2D simulations initiated from a 12, 15, 20, and 25 M{sub o-dot} progenitor. These have all exhibited explosions and are currently in the expanding phase with the shock at between 5,000 and 20,000 km. We also briefly describe an ongoing simulation in 3 spatial dimensions initiated from the 15 M{sub o-dot} progenitor.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, I'll give a general introduction to Supernova Theory, beginning with the presupernova evolution and ending with the later stages of the explosion. This will be distilled from a colloquium type of talk. It is necessary to have the whole supernova picture in one's mind's eye when diving into some of its nooks and crannies, as it is quite a mess of contradictory ingredients. We will have some discussion of supernova 1987a, but will keep our discussion more general. Second, we'll look at the infall and bounce of the star, seeing why it goes unstable, what dynamics it follows as it collapses, and how and why it bounces back. From there, we will go on to look at the equation of state (EOS) in more detail. We'll consider the cases T = 0 and T > 0. We'll focus on /rho/ 0 , and then /rho/ > /rho/ 0 and the EOS of neutron stars, and whether or not they contain cores of strange matter. There are many things we could discuss here and not enough time. If I had more lectures, the remaining time would focus on two more questions of special interest to nuclear physicists: the electron capture reactions and neutrino transport. If time permitted, we'd have some discussion of the nucleosynthetic reactions in the explosion's debris as well. However, we cannot cover such material adequately, and I have chosen these topics because they are analytically tractable, pedagogically useful, and rather important. 23 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  20. 2D RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUT IN BIPOLAR EXPLOSIONS OF A BLUE SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and compare their results with the spherically symmetric model. The bolometric light curves of the shock breakout emission are calculated by a ray-tracing method. Our radiation-hydrodynamic models indicate that the early part of the shock breakout emission can be used to probe the geometry of the blast wave produced as a result of the gravitational collapse of the iron core.

  1. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING {sup 56}Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki, E-mail: masaomi.ono@riken.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-08-20

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M{sub Sun} star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that {sup 56}Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter ({approx}>3500 km s{sup -1}) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of {sup 56}Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity {sup 56}Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, {sup 56}Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of {sup 56}Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of {sup 56}Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s{sup -1}. We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of {sup 56}Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required.

  2. HD271791: dynamical versus binary-supernova ejection scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere of the extremely high-velocity (530-920 km/s) early B-type star HD271791 is enriched in $\\alpha$-process elements, which suggests that this star is a former secondary component of a massive tight binary system and that its surface was polluted by the nucleosynthetic products after the primary star exploded in a supernova. It was proposed that the (asymmetric) supernova explosion unbind the system and that the secondary star (HD271791) was released at its orbital velocity in the...

  3. Abundance Tomography of Type Ia Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.; Mazzali, P.A.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of early time spectra of Type Ia Supernovae is presented. A new method to derive a detailed abundance distribution of the SN ejecta through comparison with synthetic spectra, called 'Abundance Tomography' is introduced and applied to the normal SN Ia 2002bo. Conclusions regarding the explosion mechanism are drawn

  4. "Special Case" Stellar Blast Teaching Astronomers New Lessons About Cosmic Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A powerful thermonuclear explosion on a dense white-dwarf star last February has given astronomers their best look yet at the early stages of such explosions, called novae, and also is giving them tantalizing new clues about the workings of bigger explosions, called supernovae, that are used to measure the Universe. RS Ophiuchi Expansion RS Ophiuchi Expansion CREDIT: Rupen, Mioduszewski & Sokoloski, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for full-sized image and detailed caption) Using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and other telescopes, "We have seen structure in the blast earlier than in any other stellar explosion," said Tim O'Brien of the University of Manchester's Jodrell Bank Observatory in the U.K. "We see evidence that the explosion may be ejecting material in jets, contrary to theoretical models that assumed a spherical shell of ejected material," O'Brien added. The explosion occurred in a star system called RS Ophiuchi, in the constellation Ophiuchus. RS Ophiuchi consists of a dense white dwarf star with a red giant companion whose prolific stellar wind dumps material onto the surface of the white dwarf. When enough of this material has accumulated, theorists say, a gigantic thermonuclear explosion, similar to a hydrogen bomb but much larger, occurs. Systems such as RS Ophiuchi may eventually produce a vastly more powerful explosion -- a supernova -- when the white dwarf accumulates enough mass to cause it to collapse and explode violently. Because such supernova explosions (called Type 1a supernovae by astronomers) all are triggered as the white dwarf reaches the same mass, they are thought to be identical in their intrinsic brightness. This makes them extremely valuable as "standard candles" for measuring distances in the Universe. "We think the white dwarf in RS Ophiuchi is about as massive as a white dwarf can get, and so is close to the point when it will become a supernova," said Jennifer Sokoloski, of the Harvard

  5. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  6. Multidimensional pair-instability supernova simulations and their multi-messenger signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Matthew; Kozyreva, Alexandra; Hirschi, Raphael; Fröhlich, Carla; Wright, Warren; Kneller, James P.; Yusof, Norhasliza

    2018-01-01

    Pair-Instability supernovae (PISNe) are an exotic class of supernovae which, in addition to being fascinating in its own right (its very existence is a topic of debate), may be important for many areas of astrophysics (early stellar populations, galaxy/chemical evolution, cosmic reionization, etc.). At present, PISNe are one of the three proposed mechanisms for explaining superluminous supernovae, though one major drawback is that PISN models predict longer rise times to peak luminosity than seen in observations of superluminous supernovae. Model rise times can be reduced by having shallower progenitor envelopes and/or outward mixing of radioactive material during the explosions. Here, we present explosions and light curves for four progenitor models, with relatively shallow envelopes, that span the PISN mass range. Our light curves exhibit significantly shorter rise times than other PISNe light curves. In addition, we investigate the effects of a multidimensional treatment during the explosive burning phase of PISNe, including the first such treatment in 3D. We find a small amount of outward mixing of radioactive Ni-56 that increases with the number of dimensions, however this mixing is insufficient to significantly alter the light curve rise time. We find significant mixing between the silicon and oxygen rich layers, especially in 3D, that may affect model spectra and should be investigated in the future. Finally, we present the neutrino signals expected from our most massive and least massive PISN models. Accounting for neutrino oscillations, we compute the expected event rates for current and future neutrino detectors.

  7. Gamma-ray observations of supernovae SN1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.A.W.; Neri, J.A.C.F.; Jayanthi, U.B.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of supernovae explosions predict a high emission of gamma rays (∼ 10 -2 photons.cm -2 .s -1 ) beginning around 300 days after explosion. A balloon-borne experiment was flown in October, 1987, to observe this emission. The payload carried 4 phoswich detectors of BGO/CsI and NaI/CsI with areas 169 cm 2 and 100 cm 2 , respectively. The detectors' sensitivity (for 10000 s at 3g/cm 3 with error bar of 3 σ) is about 10 -3 ∼ 10 -4 photons. cm -2 .s -1 at energies above 200 KeV. The detectors mounted on a stabilized platform observed the supernova for about 2 hours. The data are being analized for pulsations (≥ 0.5 ms) and gamma ray emission. Energy spectra and temporal analysis will be presented and discussed. (author) [pt

  8. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies. A preference of hydrogen-poor events for extreme emission line galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Kruehler, T.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Mehner, A.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Amorin, R.; Thoene, C. C.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Gallazzi, A.; Helminiak, K. G.; Hjorth, J.; Ibar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusi...

  9. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-05-06

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  10. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, A.; Welch, D.L.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Oaster, L.; Lanning, H.; Olsen, K.; Smith, R.C.; Becker, A.C.; Bergmann, M.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Cook, K.H.; Damke, G.; Garg, A.; Huber, M.E.; Matheson, T.; Minniti, D.; Prieto, J.L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane

  11. Radio emission from supernovae. I. One to twelve year old supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, K.W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R.A.; Van Der Hulst, J.M.; Roberts, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    All recorded optical supernovae brighter than 14.0 mag from SN 1970A to SN 1981A were observed in May 1982 using VLA at 6 cm. Apart from the known radio supernovae (SN 1970G, SN 1979C, and SN 1980K), radio emissions were not detected from any of the objects to a limit of about 0.5 mJy. Limits on mass-loss rates from the presupernova systems are established. It is found that Type Ia Sns originate in systems which contain very little circumstellar material at the time of explosion. These systems are very different from those which originate Type Ib Sns. With some exceptions, Type II SNs originate with the high presupernova mass-loss rates expected from red supergiant progenitors with original main-sequence masses greater than about 8 solar masses. 16 references

  12. Fermi and Swift as supernova alarms: Alert, localization, and diagnosis of future Galactic Type Ia explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.; Lien, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    A Galactic SNIa event could go entirely unnoticed due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the Milky Way plane, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit nuclear γ- ray lines, from the 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay. The energy released in these decays powers the SNIa UVOIR light curve at times after ~1 week, leading to an exponential decline. Importantly for Swift and Fermi, these decays are accompanied by γ-ray line emission, with distinct series of lines for both the 56Ni and 56Co decays, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. These lines are squarely within the Fermi/GBM energy range, and the 56Ni 158 keV line is detectable by Swift/BAT. The Galaxy is optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. Both GBM and BAT have continuous and nearly all-sky coverage. Thus GBM and BAT are ideal Galactic SNIa monitors and early warning systems. We will illustrate expected GBM and BAT light curves and spectra, based on our model for SNIa γ-ray emission and transfer. We show that the supernova signal emerges as distinct from the GBM background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. Therefore, if a Galactic SNIa were to explode, there are two possibilities of confirming and sounding the alert: 1) Swift/BAT discovers the SNIa first and localizes it within arcminutes; 2) Fermi/GBM finds the SNIa first and localizes it to within ~1 degree, using the Earth occultation technique, followed up by BAT to localize it within arcminutes. After the alert of either BAT or GBM, Swift localizes it to take spectra in optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays simultaneously with both XRT and UVOT instruments.

  13. The great supernova of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite their apparently very different objectives, astrophysics - the study of the largest structures in the Universe - and particle physics - the study of the smallest - have always had common ground. On 23 February 1987 a supernova explosion provided additional impetus to reinforce these links. In this article, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, explains why

  14. SUPERNOVA 1987A: A TEMPLATE TO LINK SUPERNOVAE TO THEIR REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Bocchino, F., E-mail: orlando@astropa.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo “G.S. Vaiana”, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    The emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) reflects the properties of both the progenitor supernovae (SNe) and the surrounding environment. The complex morphology of the remnants, however, hampers the disentanglement of the two contributions. Here, we aim at identifying the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and at constraining the structure of the environment surrounding the SN. We performed high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations describing SN 1987A soon after the core-collapse and the following three-dimensional expansion of its remnant between days 1 and 15,000 after the SN. We demonstrated that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A during the first 250 days of evolution also reproduces the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between SNe and SNRs. By comparing model results with observations, we constrained the explosion energy in the range 1.2–1.4 × 10{sup 51} erg and the envelope mass in the range 15–17 M{sub ⊙}. We found that the shape of X-ray lightcurves and spectra at early epochs (<15 years) reflects the structure of outer ejecta: our model reproduces the observations if the outermost ejecta have a post-explosion radial profile of density approximated by a power law with index α = −8. At later epochs, the shapes of X-ray lightcurves and spectra reflect the density structure of the nebula around SN 1987A. This enabled us to ascertain the origin of the multi-thermal X-ray emission, disentangle the imprint of the SN on the remnant emission from the effects of the remnant interaction with the environment, and constrain the pre-supernova structure of the nebula.

  15. Contribution of infrared observations to the study of supernovae remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvion, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of dust in young supernovae remnants observed in middle infrared, mainly by means of the ISOCAM instrument installed on the ISO satellite. The author first presents the supernovae physics and the studied young remnants, describes dusts and the main sites of formation and destruction, and outlines the difficulties and benefits of observations performed in the middle infrared. Then, the author reports acquired evidences related to the formation of dusts in supernovae, and the search for a millimetre emission by cold dust contained in regions which are not yet excited by the shock, in order to better assess the overall quantities created by supernovae. He reports the use of observations of dust and neon in Cassiopeia A to perform a diagnosis on the mixture of elements during the supernovae explosion [fr

  16. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Binary progenitors of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    1984-12-01

    Among the massive stars that are expected to produce Type II, hydrogen-rich supernovae, the presence of a close companion can increase the main sequence mass needed to yield a collapsing core. In addition, due to mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, the companion enhances the stripping of the stellar hydrogen envelope produced by single star winds and thereby makes it harder for the star to give rise to a typical SN II light curve. Among the less massive stars that may be the basis for Type I, hydrogen-free supernovae, a close companion could be an innocent bystander to carbon detonation/deflagration in the primary. It may alternatively be a vital participant which transfers material to a white dwarf primary and drives it to explosive conditions.

  19. Supernova Neutrinos - MeV Messengers of the Extreme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova is a nearly perfect neutrino bomb. While capable of outshining its entire host galaxy, this stunning light show represents just a small portion of the explosion.  Indeed, each such cataclysmic event typically radiates two orders of magnitude more energy as low-energy neutrinos than it does as electromagnetic radiation or as kinetic shockwaves. Consequently, MeV-scale neutrinos are made in huge numbers as the star is dying, and because these ghostly subatomic particles interact so rarely with normal matter they easily escape the fireball, providing a window into one of the most violent and interesting volumes in space: the heart of a stellar collapse. This talk will cover some of the history of neutrinos and supernovas, as well as how we are preparing new technology and partnerships to observe the next spectacular explosion in all its multimessenger glory.

  20. Revealing the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection with TeV neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F

    2005-08-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are rare, powerful explosions displaying highly relativistic jets. It has been suggested that a significant fraction of the much more frequent core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by comparably energetic but mildly relativistic jets, which would indicate an underlying supernova-GRB connection. We calculate the neutrino spectra from the decays of pions and kaons produced in jets in supernovae, and show that the kaon contribution is dominant and provides a sharp break near 20 TeV, which is a sensitive probe of the conditions inside the jet. For a supernova at 10 Mpc, 30 events above 100 GeV are expected in a 10 s burst in the IceCube detector.

  1. From supernovae to galaxy clusters : observing the chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mernier, F.D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas the extreme conditions of the first minutes after the Big Bang have produced nearly all the hydrogen and helium in the Universe, heavier elements - or metals - are synthesised in the core of stars and in supernova explosions. Currently, however, the behaviour of supernovae (and their stellar

  2. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than ∼5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  3. Monte Carlo study of neutrino acceleration in supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Ellison, D.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1981-01-01

    The first order Fermi acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays in shocks may be at work for neutrinos in supernova shocks when the latter are at densities rho>10 13 g cm -3 at which the core material is opaque to neutrinos. A Monte Carlo approach to study this effect is employed and the emerging neutrino power law spectra are presented. The increased energy acquired by the neutrinos may facilitate their detection in supernova explosions and provide information about the physics of collapse

  4. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type. Ia SNe, 5 Type...

  5. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  6. NASA's Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    GREENBELT, Md.- Thanks to a fortuitous observation with NASA’s Swift satellite, astronomers for the first time have caught a star in the act of exploding. Astronomers have previously observed thousands of stellar explosions, known as supernovae, but they have always seen them after the fireworks were well underway. "For years we have dreamed of seeing a star just as it was exploding, but actually finding one is a once in a lifetime event," says team leader Alicia Soderberg, a Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University in Princeton, N.J. "This newly born supernova is going to be the Rosetta stone of supernova studies for years to come." A typical supernova occurs when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel and collapses under its own gravity to form an ultradense object known as a neutron star. The newborn neutron star compresses and then rebounds, triggering a shock wave that plows through the star’s gaseous outer layers and blows the star to smithereens. Astronomers thought for nearly four decades that this shock "break-out" will produce bright X-ray emission lasting a few minutes. X-ray Image X-ray Images But until this discovery, astronomers have never observed this signal. Instead, they have observed supernovae brightening days or weeks later, when the expanding shell of debris is energized by the decay of radioactive elements forged in the explosion. "Seeing the shock break-out in X-rays can give a direct view of the exploding star in the last minutes of its life and also provide a signpost to which astronomers can quickly point their telescopes to watch the explosion unfold," says Edo Berger, a Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University. Soderberg's discovery of the first shock breakout can be attributed to luck and Swift's unique design. On January 9, 2008, Soderberg and Berger were using Swift to observe a supernova known as SN 2007uy in the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years from Earth in the

  7. Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Christa; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

    2014-07-17

    The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions, but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1 to 0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae in the first few years after explosion. Observations of the spectral evolution of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40 to 240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength-dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (exceeding one micrometre) grains, which resist destruction. At later times (500 to 900 days), the near-infrared thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the dust source from the circumstellar medium to the ejecta. This provides the link between the early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

  8. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M DM : a larger M DM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M ⊙ as M DM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M ⊙ . We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae

  9. Measurements of the diameter of the supernova SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovska, M.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Speckle interferometric measurements of the angular diameter of SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained at 664 days after the outburst are presented. Diameters were estimated with milliarcsec precision at 657 nm and 550 nm by fitting model visibility functions to the data corresponding to different intensity distributions for the supernova disk. Measurements made assuming a uniform intensity distribution were compared to the uniform disk measurements obtained from 30 days after the explosion. Diameter measurements obtained near the center of the H-alpha line are consistent with homologous expansion of the supernova shell with a mean velocity of 2850 km/s. The linear least-squares fit to the measurements obtained at other wavelengths from 260 days after the explosion yielded a somewhat lower mean expansion velocity. 8 refs

  10. Multigroup models of the convective epoch in core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swesty, F Douglas; Myra, Eric S

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae is a problem that has plagued nuclear astrophysicists since the first computational models of this phenomenon were carried out in the 1960s. Our current theories of this violent phenomenon center around multi-dimensional effects involving radiation-hydrodynamic flows of hot, dense matter and neutrinos. Modeling these multi-dimensional radiative flows presents a computational challenge that will continue to stress high-performance computing beyond the teraflops to the petaflop level. In this paper we describe a few of the scientific discoveries that we have made via terascale computational simulations of supernovae under the auspices of the SciDAC-funded Terascale Supernova Initiative

  11. Pulsational Pair-instability Model for Superluminous Supernova PTF12dam:Interaction and Radioactive Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei; Quimby, Robert [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sorokina, Elena [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Petr, E-mail: alexey.tolstov@ipmu.jp [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Being a superluminous supernova, PTF12dam can be explained by a {sup 56}Ni-powered model, a magnetar-powered model, or an interaction model. We propose that PTF12dam is a pulsational pair-instability supernova, where the outer envelope of a progenitor is ejected during the pulsations. Thus, it is powered by a double energy source: radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and a radiative shock in a dense circumstellar medium. To describe multicolor light curves and spectra, we use radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the STELLA code. We found that light curves are well described in the model with 40 M {sub ⊙} ejecta and 20–40 M {sub ⊙} circumstellar medium. The ejected {sup 56}Ni mass is about 6 M {sub ⊙}, which results from explosive nucleosynthesis with large explosion energy (2–3)×10{sup 52} erg. In comparison with alternative scenarios of pair-instability supernova and magnetar-powered supernova, in the interaction model, all the observed main photometric characteristics are well reproduced: multicolor light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities.

  12. Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.

    2016-11-01

    Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.

  13. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  14. Stellar survivor from explosion in 1572 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 1051 kb Credits: NASA/ESA, CXO and P. Ruiz-Lapuente (University of Barcelona) Tycho's Supernova, SN 1572A These images show the location of a suspected runaway companion star to a titanic supernova explosion witnessed in the year 1572 by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era. This discovery provides the first direct evidence supporting the long-held belief that Type Ia supernovae come from binary star systems containing a normal star and a burned-out white dwarf star. When the dwarf ultimately explodes by being overfueled by the companion star, the companion is slung away from the demised star. The Hubble Space Telescope played a key role by precisely measuring the surviving star's motion against the sky background. Right: A Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of a small section of sky containing the candidate star. The star is like our Sun except several thousand million years older. It is moving through space at three times the speed of the other stars in its neighbourhood. Hubble's sharp view allowed for a measurement of the star's motion, based on images taken in 1999 and 2003. The image consists of a single greyscale Hubble exposure colourised with the help of data from Digitized Sky Survey 2. Left: The Hubble view is superimposed on this wide-field view of the region enveloped by the expanding bubble of the supernova explosion; the bubble and candidate star are at approximately the same distance, 10 000 light-years. The star is noticeably offset from the geometric centre of the bubble. The colours in the Chandra X-Ray image of the hot bubble show different X-ray energies, with red, green and blue representing low, medium and high energies, respectively. (The image is cut off at the bottom because the southernmost region of the remnant fell outside the field of view of the Chandra camera.) hi-res Size hi-res: 1059 kb Credits: NASA/ESA and P. Ruiz-Lapuente (University of Barcelona) The

  15. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  16. Offline analysis in SNLS: measurement of type-Ia supernovae explosion rate and cosmological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusset, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The Supernova Legacy Survey is a second generation experiment for the measurement of cosmological parameters using type-la supernovae. Il follows the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, attributed to an unknown 'dark energy'. This thesis presents a type-la supernovae search using an offline analysis of SNLS data. It makes it possible to detect the supernovae that were missed online and to study possible selection biases. One of its principal characteristics is that it uses entirely automatic selection criteria. This type of automated offline analysis had never been carried out before for data reaching this redshift. This analysis enabled us to discover 73 additional SNIa candidates compared to those identified in the real time analysis on the same data, representing an increase of more than 50% of the number of supernovae. The final Hubble diagram contains 262 SNIa which gives us, for a flat ACDM model, the following values for the cosmological parameters: Ω_M = 0,31 ± 0,028 (stat) ± 0,036 (syst) et Ω_A = 0,69. This offline analysis of SNLS data opens new horizons, both by checking for possible biases in current measurements of cosmological parameters by supernovae experiments and by preparing the third generation experiments, on the ground or in space, which will detect thousands of SNIa. (author) [fr

  17. Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors In The Era Of Untargeted Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan Edward

    2014-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the highly energetic explosions of massive stars (≳ 8 M⊙) that are pervasive in their influence throughout astrophysics. They are the phenomenon with primary responsibility for enriching the universe with many of the heavy elements (like carbon and oxygen) that are needed for life, provide a critical feedback pressure which helps to shape the galaxies that host them, and are the likely formation mechanism for stellar mass black holes. In the past decade, the study of these explosions has been revolutionized by the advent of wide field, untargeted transient searches like Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). These new searches permit the discovery of SNe at unprecedented rates, and absent of many of the selection effects that have enforced biases on past, targeted transient searches. This thesis presents a broad survey of core-collapse SN phenomenology exhibited in the discoveries of untargeted searches, and statistically quantifies population properties of these explosions that link them to distinct classes of progenitor stars. Through studies of the host galaxy and explosion properties of extreme PS1-discovered events, and controlled samples of specific classes of core-collapse objects, we constrain the effect of progenitor star chemical composition (metallicity) on their eventual death states. We provide a new observational, photometric tool which lowers the cost of precisely and accurately measuring the metallicities of distant galaxies and supernova host environments. Moreover, we develop and apply a novel, multi-level Bayesian model for optical transient light curves which we apply to simultaneously interpret more than 20,000 PS1 images. This study illustrates how population-level modeling of data from large photometric surveys can yield improved physical inference on their progenitor stars through comparison to physical models. In the coming era, as next-generation facilities like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope come online, the

  18. Chandra Maps Vital Elements From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A team of astronomers led by Dr. John Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, NJ has used observations from NASA's orbital Chandra X-ray Observatory to make an important new discovery that sheds light on how silicon, iron, and other elements were produced in supernova explosions. An X-ray image of Cassiopeia A (Cas A), the remnant of an exploded star, reveals gaseous clumps of silicon, sulfur, and iron expelled from deep in the interior of the star. The findings appear online in the Astrophysical Journal Letters at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ and are slated for print publication on Jan. 10, 2000. Authors of the paper, "Nucleosynthesis and Mixing in Cassiopeia A", are Hughes, Rutgers graduate student Cara Rakowski, Dr. David Burrows of the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA and Dr. Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA. According to Hughes, one of the most profound accomplishments of twentieth century astronomy is the realization that nearly all of the elements other than hydrogen and helium were created in the interiors of stars. "During their lives, stars are factories that take the simplest element, hydrogen, and convert it into heavier ones," he said. "After consuming all the hydrogen in their cores, stars begin to evolve rapidly, until they finally run out of fuel and begin to collapse. In stars ten times or so more massive than our Sun, the central parts of the collapsing star may form a neutron star or a black hole, while the rest of the star is blown apart in a tremendous supernova explosion." Supernovae are rare, occurring only once every 50 years or so in a galaxy like our own. "When I first looked at the Chandra image of Cas A, I was amazed by the clarity and definition," said Hughes. "The image was much sharper than any previous one and I could immediately see lots of new details." Equal in significance to the image clarity is the potential the Chandra data held for measuring the

  19. SUPERNOVAE, NEUTRON STARS, AND TWO KINDS OF NEUTRINO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, H Y

    1962-08-15

    The role of neutrinos in the core of a star that has undergone a supernova explosion is discussed. The existence of neutron stars, the Schwarzchild singularity in general relativity, and the meaning of conservation of baryons in the neighborhood of a Schwarzchild singularity are also considered. The problem of detection of neutron stars is discussed. It is concluded that neutron stars are the most plausible alternative for the remnant of the core of a supernova. The neutrino emission processes are divided into two groups: the neutrino associated with the meson (mu) and the production of electron neutrinos. (C.E.S.)

  20. Circumstellar Interaction in Supernovae in Dense Environments—An Observational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam

    2018-02-01

    In a supernova explosion, the ejecta interacting with the surrounding circumstellar medium (CSM) give rise to variety of radiation. Since CSM is created from the mass loss from the progenitor, it carries footprints of the late time evolution of the star. This is one of the unique ways to get a handle on the nature of the progenitor system. Here, I will focus mainly on the supernovae (SNe) exploding in dense environments, a.k.a. Type IIn SNe. Radio and X-ray emission from this class of SNe have revealed important modifications in their radiation properties, due to the presence of high density CSM. Forward shock dominance in the X-ray emission, internal free-free absorption of the radio emission, episodic or non-steady mass loss rate, and asymmetry in the explosion seem to be common properties of this class of SNe.

  1. THE LANDSCAPE OF THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: NEUTRON STAR AND BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS, EXPLOSION ENERGIES, AND NICKEL YIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Thompson, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    If the neutrino luminosity from the proto-neutron star formed during a massive star core collapse exceeds a critical threshold, a supernova (SN) results. Using spherical quasi-static evolutionary sequences for hundreds of progenitors over a range of metallicities, we study how the explosion threshold maps onto observables, including the fraction of successful explosions, the neutron star (NS) and black hole (BH) mass functions, the explosion energies (E SN ) and nickel yields (M Ni ), and their mutual correlations. Successful explosions are intertwined with failures in a complex pattern that is not simply related to initial progenitor mass or compactness. We predict that progenitors with initial masses of 15 ± 1, 19 ± 1, and ∼21-26 M ☉ are most likely to form BHs, that the BH formation probability is non-zero at solar-metallicity and increases significantly at low metallicity, and that low luminosity, low Ni-yield SNe come from progenitors close to success/failure interfaces. We qualitatively reproduce the observed E SN -M Ni correlation, we predict a correlation between the mean and width of the NS mass and E SN distributions, and that the means of the NS and BH mass distributions are correlated. We show that the observed mean NS mass of ≅ 1.33 M ☉ implies that the successful explosion fraction is higher than 0.35. Overall, we show that the neutrino mechanism can in principle explain the observed properties of SNe and their compact objects. We argue that the rugged landscape of progenitors and outcomes mandates that SN theory should focus on reproducing the wide ranging distributions of observed SN properties

  2. NASA's Chandra Reveals Origin of Key Cosmic Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    WASHINGTON -- New findings from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have provided a major advance in understanding a type of supernova critical for studying the dark energy that astronomers think pervades the universe. The results show mergers of two dense stellar remnants are the likely cause of many of the supernovae that have been used to measure the accelerated expansion of the universe. These supernovae, called Type Ia, serve as cosmic mile markers to measure expansion of the universe because they can be seen at large distances, and they follow a reliable pattern of brightness. However, until now, scientists have been unsure what actually causes the explosions. "These are such critical objects in understanding the universe," said Marat Gilfanov of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and lead author of the study that appears in the Feb. 18 edition of the journal Nature. "It was a major embarrassment that we did not know how they worked. Now we are beginning to understand what lights the fuse of these explosions." Most scientists agree a Type Ia supernova occurs when a white dwarf star -- a collapsed remnant of an elderly star -- exceeds its weight limit, becomes unstable and explodes. Scientists have identified two main possibilities for pushing the white dwarf over the edge: two white dwarfs merging or accretion, a process in which the white dwarf pulls material from a sun-like companion star until it exceeds its weight limit. "Our results suggest the supernovae in the galaxies we studied almost all come from two white dwarfs merging," said co-author Akos Bogdan, also of Max Planck. "This is probably not what many astronomers would expect." The difference between these two scenarios may have implications for how these supernovae can be used as "standard candles" -- objects of a known brightness -- to track vast cosmic distances. Because white dwarfs can come in a range of masses, the merger of two could result in explosions that vary somewhat in

  3. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-14

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

  4. Models for Type Ia Supernovae and Related Astrophysical Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Friedrich K.; Sim, Stuart A.

    2018-06-01

    We give an overview of recent efforts to model Type Ia supernovae and related astrophysical transients resulting from thermonuclear explosions in white dwarfs. In particular we point out the challenges resulting from the multi-physics multi-scale nature of the problem and discuss possible numerical approaches to meet them in hydrodynamical explosion simulations and radiative transfer modeling. We give examples of how these methods are applied to several explosion scenarios that have been proposed to explain distinct subsets or, in some cases, the majority of the observed events. In case we comment on some of the successes and shortcoming of these scenarios and highlight important outstanding issues.

  5. Fast-time Variations of Supernova Neutrino Fluxes and Detection Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamborra, I.; Hanke, F.; Müller, B.; Janka, H.T.; Raffelt, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In the delayed explosion scenario of a core-collapse supernova, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective over-turns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Neutrino signal variations from the first full-scale three-dimensional

  6. Numerical models of protoneutron stars and type-II supernovae - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H T [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The results of recent multi-dimensional simulations of type-II supernovae are reviewed. They show that convective instabilities in the collapsed stellar core might play an important role already during the first second after the formation of the supernovae shock. Convectively unstable situations occur below and near the neutrinosphere as well as in the neutrino-heated region between the nascent neutron star and the supernova shock after the latter has stalled at a radiums of typically 100-200 km. While convective overturn in the layer of neutrino energy deposition clearly helps the explosion to develop and potentially provides an explanation of strong mantle and envelope mixing, asphericities, and non-uniform {sup 56}Ni distribution observed in supernova SN 1987A, its presence and importance depends on the strength of the neutrino heating and thus on the size of the neutrino fluxes from the neutrino star. Convection in the hot-bubble region can only be developed if the growth timescale of the instabilities and the heating timescale are both shorter than the accretion timescale of the matter advected through the stagnant shock. For too small neutrino luminosities this requirement is not fulfilled and convective activity cannot develop, leading to very weak explosions or even fizzling models, just as in the one-dimensional situations. Convectively enhanced neutrino luminosities from the protoneutron star can therefore provide an essential condition for the explosion of the star. Very recent two-dimensional, self-consistent, general relativistic simulations of the cooling of a newly-formed neutron star demonstrate and confirm the possibility that Ledoux convection, driven by negative lepton number and entropy gradients, may encompass the whole protoneutron star within less than one second and can lead to an increase of the neutrino fluxes by up to a factor of two. (author) 9 figs., refs.

  7. Accreting white dwarf models for type I supernovae. I. Presupernova evolution and triggering mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs accreting helium in binary systems has been investigated from the onset of accretion up to the point at which a thermonuclear explosion occurs as a plausible explosion model for a Type I supernova. Although the accreted material has been assumed to be helium, our results should also be applicable to the more general case of accretion of hydrogen-rich material, since hydrogen shell burning leads to the development of a helium zone. Several cases with different accretion rates of helium and different initial masses of the white dwarf have been studied. The relationship between the conditions in the binary system and the triggering mechanism for the supernova explosion is discussed, especially for the cases with relatively slow accretion rate. It is found that the growth of a helium zone on the carbon-oxygen core leads to a supernova explosion which is triggered either by the off-center helium detonation for slow and intermediate accretion rates, or by the carbon deflagration for slow and rapid accretion rates. Both helium detonation and carbon deflagration are possible for the case for the slow accretion since, in this case, the initial mass of the white dwarf is an important parameter for determining the mode of ignition. Finally, various modes of building up the helium zone on the white dwarf, namely, direct transfer of helium from the companion star and the various types and strength of the hydrogen shell flashes are discussed in some detail

  8. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Different Ye Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hix, W. Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The influence of a large variation of Ye on explosive yield is investigated. We calculate nucleosynthesis with the initial electron fraction Ye ranging from 0.48 to 0.58 in explosive Si burning region in Population III, 25 M· supernovae. We obtain the significant overproduction of odd elements, K and Sc. In the Ye < 0.5 cases light p-process nuclei are enhanced. We find that the abundance pattern taken from arbitrary mixture of each nucleosynthesis yield in various values of Ye can reasonably explain that in observed extremely metal-poor stars

  9. SN 2008jb: A 'LOST' CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA IN A STAR-FORMING DWARF GALAXY AT ∼10 Mpc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Lee, J. C.; Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; McNaught, R.; Garradd, G.; Beacom, J. F.; Beshore, E.; Catelan, M.; Pojmanski, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Szczygieł, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery and follow-up observations of SN 2008jb, a core-collapse supernova in the southern dwarf irregular galaxy ESO 302–14 (M B = –15.3 mag) at 9.6 Mpc. This nearby transient was missed by galaxy-targeted surveys and was only found in archival optical images obtained by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey and the All-Sky Automated Survey. The well-sampled archival photometry shows that SN 2008jb was detected shortly after explosion and reached a bright optical maximum, V max ≅ 13.6 mag (M V,max ≅ –16.5). The shape of the light curve shows a plateau of ∼100 days, followed by a drop of ∼1.4 mag in the V band to a slow decline with an approximate 56 Co decay slope. The late-time light curve is consistent with 0.04 ± 0.01 M ☉ of 56 Ni synthesized in the explosion. A spectrum of the supernova obtained two years after explosion shows a broad, boxy Hα emission line, which is unusual for normal Type II-Plateau supernovae at late times. We detect the supernova in archival Spitzer and WISE images obtained 8-14 months after explosion, which show clear signs of warm (600-700 K) dust emission. The dwarf irregular host galaxy, ESO 302–14, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H) = 8.2 (∼1/5 Z ☉ ), similar to those of the Small Magellanic Cloud and the hosts of long gamma-ray bursts and luminous core-collapse supernovae. This metallicity is one of the lowest among local (∼ 5 M ☉ for the star formation complex, assuming a single-age starburst. These properties are consistent with the expanding Hα supershells observed in many well-studied nearby dwarf galaxies, which are tell-tale signs of feedback from the cumulative effect of massive star winds and supernovae. The age estimated for the star-forming region where SN 2008jb exploded suggests a relatively high-mass progenitor star with an initial mass M ∼ 20 M ☉ and warrants further study. We discuss the implications of these findings in the study of core

  10. THE MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF JET-DRIVEN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: THE CASE OF W49B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Casanova, Diego F.; De Colle, Fabio [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-543, 04510 D. F. (Mexico); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lopez, Laura A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The circumstellar medium (CSM) of a massive star is modified by its winds before a supernova (SN) explosion occurs, and thus the evolution of the resulting supernova remnant (SNR) is influenced by both the geometry of the explosion as well as the complex structure of the CSM. Motivated by recent work suggesting the SNR W49B was a jet-driven SN expanding in a complex CSM, we explore how the dynamics and the metal distributions in a jet-driven explosion are modified by the interaction with the surrounding environment. In particular, we perform hydrodynamical calculations to study the dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis of a jet-driven SN triggered by the collapse of a 25 M {sub ☉} Wolf-Rayet star and its subsequent interaction with the CSM up to several hundred years following the explosion. We find that although the CSM has small-scale effects on the structure of the SNR, the overall morphology and abundance patterns are reflective of the initial asymmetry of the SN explosion. Thus, we predict that jet-driven SNRs, such as W49B, should be identifiable based on morphology and abundance patterns at ages up to several hundred years, even if they expand into a complex CSM environment.

  11. Acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova-remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that supernova-explosions are the dominant source of cosmic rays up to an energy of 10 to the 14th power eV/nucleon. Moreover, these high energy particles provide a major contribution to the energy density of the interstellar medium (ISM) and should therefore be included in calculations of interstellar dynamic phenomena. For the following the first order Fermi mechanism in shock waves are considered to be the main acceleration mechanism. The influence of this process is twofold; first, if the process is efficient (and in fact this is the cas) it will modify the dynamics and evolution of a supernova-remnant (SNR), and secondly, the existence of a significant high energy component changes the overall picture of the ISM. The complexity of the underlying physics prevented detailed investigations of the full non-linear selfconsistent problem. For example, in the context of the energy balance of the ISM it has not been investigated how much energy of a SN-explosion can be transfered to cosmic rays in a time-dependent selfconsistent model. Nevertheless, a lot of progress was made on many aspects of the acceleration mechanism.

  12. Acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova-remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that supernova-explosions are the dominant source of cosmic rays up to an energy of 10 to the 14th power eV/nucleon. Moreover, these high energy particles provide a major contribution to the energy density of the interstellar medium (ISM) and should therefore be included in calcuations of interstellar dynamic phenomena. For the following the first order Fermi mechanism in shock waves are considered to be the main acceleration mechanism. The influence of this process is twofold; first, if the process is efficient (and in fact this is the case) it will modify the dynamics and evolution of a supernova-remnant (SNR), and secondly, the existence of a significant high energy component changes the overall picture of the ISM. The complexity of the underlying physics prevented detailed investigations of the full non-linear selfconsistent problem. For example, in the context of the energy balance of the ISM it has not been investigated how much energy of a SN-explosion can be transfered to cosmic rays in a time-dependent selfconsistent model. Nevertheless, a lot of progress was made on many aspects of the acceleration mechnism

  13. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Della Valle, M.; Deustua, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I. M.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R. G.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.

    1997-12-16

    The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two months of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.

  14. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Christian D; O'Connor, Evan; Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank; Burrows, Adam; Livne, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  15. On Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1706-44, PSR B1757-24, SGR 0526-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possible NS/SNR associations could be enlarged. An observational test is discussed, which could provide a determination of the true birth-places of NSs associated with middle-aged SNRs, and thereby provide more reliable estimates of their transverse velocities.

  16. Multi-dimensional simulations of the expanding supernova remnant of SN 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International center for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Reville, B. [Center for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wagner, A. Y., E-mail: tobympotter@gmail.com [Center for Computational Sciences, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove and McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M {sub ☉} and an energy of 1.5 × 10{sup 44} J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 10{sup 7} m{sup –3} produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.

  17. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic ν e and ν-bar e fluxes and on the number of events for ν e + C 12 , ν e + O 16 , ν e + Ar 40 and ν-bar e + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  18. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE 56Ni PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M g = –17.42 ± 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] λ4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive 56 Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m AB ∼ 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any 56 Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M ☉ of 56 Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae (∼10 –4 of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z ☉ ), high progenitor mass (>60 M ☉ ) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  19. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  20. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A; Fox, D B; Price, P A; Ofek, E O; Davis, M R; Leonard, D C; Soderberg, A M; Schmidt, B P; Lewis, K M; Peterson, B A; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Cenko, S B; Sari, R; Sharon, K; Frail, D; Moon, D-S; Brown, P J; Cucchiara, A; Harrison, F; Piran, T; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J; Penprase, B E; Chevalier, R A; MacFadyen, A I

    2006-12-21

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which produce accompanying supernovae; the short-duration (< or = 2 s) GRBs have a different origin, which has been argued to be the merger of two compact objects. Here we report optical observations of GRB 060614 (duration approximately 100 s, ref. 10) that rule out the presence of an associated supernova. This would seem to require a new explosive process: either a massive collapsar that powers a GRB without any associated supernova, or a new type of 'engine', as long-lived as the collapsar but without a massive star. We also show that the properties of the host galaxy (redshift z = 0.125) distinguish it from other long-duration GRB hosts and suggest that an entirely new type of GRB progenitor may be required.

  1. Explosive nucleosynthesis in zones rich in hydrogen and helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Jacques.

    1975-01-01

    Explosive nucleosynthesis was studied for element with masses lower than that of 35 Cl at temperatures between 10 8 to 10 9 K. It is shown that in some astrophysical objects (Novae, Supernovae or super-massive-stars) an explosive nucleosynthesis of isotopes such as 3 He, 7 Li, 25 Mg or 29 Si is possible. The existence of those elements in the interstellar medium would make possible, ultimately, the formation of heavier elements (iron peak and above) [fr

  2. The End of Days -- Chandra Catches X-ray Glow From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Through a combination of serendipity and skill, scientists have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to capture a rare glimpse of X-radiation from the early phases of a supernova, one of the most violent events in nature. Although more than a thousand supernovas have been observed by optical astronomers, the early X-ray glow from the explosions has been detected in less than a dozen cases. The Chandra observations were made under the direction of a team of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, led by Walter Lewin and his graduate student, Derek Fox. When combined with simultaneous observations by radio and optical telescopes, the X-ray observations tell about the thickness of the shell that was blown off, its density, its speed, and how much material was shed by the star before it exploded. Chandra observed an X-ray glow from SN1999em with the total power of 50,000 suns. Ten days later it observed the supernova for another nine hours, and found that the X rays had faded to half their previous intensity. The optical luminosity, which had the brightness of 200 million suns, had faded somewhat less. No radio emission was detected at any time. With this information, the MIT group and their colleagues are already piecing together a picture of the catastrophic explosion. Observations by optical astronomers showed that SN1999em was a Type II supernova produced by the collapse of the core of a star ten or more times as massive as the Sun. The intense heat generated in the collapse produces a cataclysmic rebound that sends high speed debris flying outward at speeds in excess of 20 million miles per hour. The debris crashes into matter shed by the former star before the explosion. This awesome collision generates shock waves that heat expanding debris to three million degrees. The X-ray glow from this hot gas was detected by Chandra and gives astrophysicists a better understanding of the dynamics of the explosion, as well as the

  3. Neutrino-driven supernovae: An accretion instability in a nuclear physics controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janka, H.-T.; Buras, R.; Kitaura Joyanes, F.S.; Marek, A.; Rampp, M.; Scheck, L.

    2005-01-01

    New simulations demonstrate that low-mode, nonradial hydrodynamic instabilities of the accretion shock help starting hot-bubble convection in supernovae and thus support explosions by the neutrino-heating mechanism. The prevailing conditions depend on the high-density equation of state which governs stellar core collapse, core bounce, and neutron star formation. Tests of this sensitivity to nuclear physics variations are shown for spherically symmetric models. Implications of current explosion models for r-process nucleosynthesis are addressed

  4. Critical study of type II supernovae: equations of state and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relevance of relativistic gravitation and of the properties of nuclear matter at high density to supernova explosions is examined in detail. The existing empirical knowledge on the nuclear equation of state at densities greater than saturation, extracted from analysis of heavy ion collisions and from the breathing mode in heavy nuclei, is also considered. Particulars of the prompt explosions recently obtained theoretically by Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana are presented. 40 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Critical study of type II supernovae: equations of state and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relevance of relativistic gravitation and of the properties of nuclear matter at high density to supernova explosions is examined in detail. The existing empirical knowledge on the nuclear equation of state at densities greater than saturation, extracted from analysis of heavy ion collisions and from the breathing mode in heavy nuclei, is also considered. Particulars of the prompt explosions recently obtained theoretically by Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana are presented. 40 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. THE OXYGEN FEATURES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xulin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Sai, Hanna; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Maeda, Keiichi; Wang, Lifan; Zhang, Jujia; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2016-01-01

    The absorption feature O i λ 7773 is an important spectral indicator for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that can be used to trace the unburned material in outer layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD). In this work, we use a large sample of SNe Ia to examine this absorption at early phases (i.e., 13 day ≲ t ≲ 7 day) and make comparisons with the absorption features of Si ii λ 6355 and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet. We show that for a subgroup of spectroscopically normal SNe with normal photospheric velocities (i.e., v si ≲ 12,500 km s 1 at optical maximum), the line strength of the high velocity feature (HVF) of O i is inversely correlated with that of Si ii (or Ca ii), and this feature also shows a negative correlation with the luminosity of SNe Ia. This finding, together with other features we find for the O i HVF, reveal that for this subgroup of SNe Ia, explosive oxygen burning occurs in the outermost layer of the SN. Differences in the oxygen burning could lead to the observed diversity, which is in remarkable agreement with the popular delayed-detonation model of Chandrasekhar mass WDs.

  7. THE OXYGEN FEATURES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF THERMONUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xulin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Sai, Hanna; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Wang, Lifan [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zhang, Jujia [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650216 (China); Zhang, Tianmeng, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhaoxl11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-08-01

    The absorption feature O i λ 7773 is an important spectral indicator for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that can be used to trace the unburned material in outer layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD). In this work, we use a large sample of SNe Ia to examine this absorption at early phases (i.e., 13 day ≲ t ≲ 7 day) and make comparisons with the absorption features of Si ii λ 6355 and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet. We show that for a subgroup of spectroscopically normal SNe with normal photospheric velocities (i.e., v {sub si} ≲ 12,500 km s{sup 1} at optical maximum), the line strength of the high velocity feature (HVF) of O i is inversely correlated with that of Si ii (or Ca ii), and this feature also shows a negative correlation with the luminosity of SNe Ia. This finding, together with other features we find for the O i HVF, reveal that for this subgroup of SNe Ia, explosive oxygen burning occurs in the outermost layer of the SN. Differences in the oxygen burning could lead to the observed diversity, which is in remarkable agreement with the popular delayed-detonation model of Chandrasekhar mass WDs.

  8. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Christian D; O' Connor, Evan [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Livne, Eli, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.ed [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  9. The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Morrell, Nidia; Hamuy, Mario; Anais, Jorge; Boldt, Luis; Busta, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Folatelli, Gastón; Freedman, Wendy L.; González, Consuelo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Persson, Sven Eric; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Serón, Jacqueline; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Torres, Simón; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Madore, Barry F.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Villanueva, Steven

    2017-11-01

    We present final natural-system optical (ugriBV) and near-infrared (YJH) photometry of 134 supernovae (SNe) with probable white dwarf progenitors that were observed in 2004-2009 as part of the first stage of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). The sample consists of 123 Type Ia SNe, 5 Type Iax SNe, 2 super-Chandrasekhar SN candidates, 2 Type Ia SNe interacting with circumstellar matter, and 2 SN 2006bt-like events. The redshifts of the objects range from z=0.0037 to 0.0835; the median redshift is 0.0241. For 120 (90%) of these SNe, near-infrared photometry was obtained. Average optical extinction coefficients and color terms are derived and demonstrated to be stable during the five CSP-I observing campaigns. Measurements of the CSP-I near-infrared bandpasses are also described, and near-infrared color terms are estimated through synthetic photometry of stellar atmosphere models. Optical and near-infrared magnitudes of local sequences of tertiary standard stars for each supernova are given, and a new calibration of Y-band magnitudes of the Persson et al. standards in the CSP-I natural system is presented.

  10. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  11. An automated supernova search and the design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations for an automated supernova search are reviewed. If supernova are to be found a week after explosion well before light maximum of both Types I and II, and if a rate of finding of 52 per year is justified, then one needs to keep roughly 5000 galaxies under surveillance out of a full set of 15,000 galaxies at ≅50 Mpc distance. For detection at 1% of Type I maximum light requires a 30-inch telescope, 10 photoelectrons per pixel threshold, a 128 x 128 pixel photodetector operating with a 3-second integration time, and 2 seconds to slew and settle ≅1 0 . A system designed to perform this function in real-time is described. 7 refs

  12. Approximate supernova remnant dynamics with cosmic ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelk, H. J.; Drury, L. O.; Dorfi, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    Supernova explosions are the most violent and energetic events in the galaxy and have long been considered probably sources of Cosmic Rays. Recent shock acceleration models treating the Cosmic Rays (CR's) as test particles nb a prescribed Supernova Remnant (SNR) evolution, indeed indicate an approximate power law momentum distribution f sub source (p) approximation p(-a) for the particles ultimately injected into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This spectrum extends almost to the momentum p = 1 million GeV/c, where the break in the observed spectrum occurs. The calculated power law index approximately less than 4.2 agrees with that inferred for the galactic CR sources. The absolute CR intensity can however not be well determined in such a test particle approximation.

  13. Approximate supernova remnant dynamics with cosmic ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, H.J.; Drury, L.O.; Dorfi, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Supernova explosions are the most violent and energetic events in the galaxy and have long been considered probable sources of cosmic rays. Recent shock acceleration models treating the cosmic rays (CR's) as test particles nb a prescribed supernova remnant (SNR) evolution, indeed indicate an approximate power law momentum distribution f sub source (p) approximation p(-a) for the particles ultimately injected into the interstellar medium (ISM). This spectrum extends almost to the momentum p = 1 million GeV/c, where the break in the observed spectrum occurs. The calculated power law index approximately less than 4.2 agrees with that inferred for the galactic CR sources. The absolute CR intensity can however not be well determined in such a test particle approximation

  14. Observing the Next Galactic Supernova with the NOvA Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasel, Justin A. [Indiana U.; Sheshukov, Andrey [Dubna, JINR; Habig, Alec [Minnesota U., Duluth

    2017-10-02

    The next galactic core-collapse supernova will deliver a wealth of neutrinos which for the first time we are well-situated to measure. These explosions produce neutrinos with energies between 10 and 100 MeV over a period of tens of seconds. Galactic supernovae are relatively rare events, occurring with a frequency of just a few per century. It is therefore essential that all neutrino detectors capable of detecting these neutrinos are ready to trigger on this signal when it occurs. This poster describes a data-driven trigger which is designed to detect the neutrino signal from a galactic core-collapse supernova with the NOvA detectors. The trigger analyzes 5ms blocks of detector activity and applies background rejection algorithms to detect the signal time structure over the background. This background reduction is an essential part of the process, as the NOvA detectors are designed to detect neutrinos from Fermilab's NuMI beam which have an average energy of 2GeV--well above the average energy of supernova neutrinos.

  15. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J. [Institut de Physique Nuclueaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic {nu}{sub e} and {nu}-bar{sub e} fluxes and on the number of events for {nu}{sub e} + C{sup 12}, {nu}{sub e} + O{sup 16}, {nu}{sub e} + Ar{sup 40} and {nu}-bar{sub e} + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  16. Core-collapse supernovae - successes, problems, and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Janka, H T

    2000-01-01

    Multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the post-bounce evolution of collapsed stellar iron cores have demonstrated that convective overturn between the stalled shock and the neutrinosphere can have an important effect on the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism. Whether a model yields a successful explosion or not, however, still depends on the power of neutrino energy deposition behind the stalled shock. The neutrino interaction with the stellar gas in the 'hot bubble' also determines the duration of the shock stagnation phase, the explosion energy, and the composition of the neutrino-heated supernova ejecta. More accurate models require a more precise calculation of the neutrino luminosities and spectra and of the angular distributions of the neutrinos in the heating region. Therefore it is necessary to improve the numerical treatment of the neutrino transport, to take into account convective processes inside the newly formed neutron star, and to develop a better understanding of the neutrino opacitie...

  17. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Bravo, Eduardo; Timmes, F. X.; Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M.; Piro, Anthony L.; Mori, Hideyuki; Park, Sangwook

    2017-01-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the 12 C + 16 O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  18. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Andrews, Brett [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Yamaguchi, Hiroya [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bravo, Eduardo [E.T.S. Arquitectura del Vallès, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Carrer Pere Serra 1-15, E-08173 Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Timmes, F. X. [The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (United States); Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mori, Hideyuki [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 602, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: hector.mr@pitt.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon–oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler , 3C 397, and G337.2−0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler , which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2−0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the {sup 12}C + {sup 16}O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  19. Related Progenitor Models for Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ic Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Dena, David R.; Langer, Norbert; Moriya, Takashi J.; Schootemeijer, Abel

    2018-05-01

    We model the late evolution and mass loss history of rapidly rotating Wolf–Rayet stars in the mass range 5 M ⊙…100 M ⊙). We find that quasi-chemically homogeneously evolving single stars computed with enhanced mixing retain very little or no helium and are compatible with Type Ic supernovae. The more efficient removal of core angular momentum and the expected smaller compact object mass in our lower-mass models lead to core spins in the range suggested for magnetar-driven superluminous supernovae. Our higher-mass models retain larger specific core angular momenta, expected for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the collapsar scenario. Due to the absence of a significant He envelope, the rapidly increasing neutrino emission after core helium exhaustion leads to an accelerated contraction of the whole star, inducing a strong spin-up and centrifugally driven mass loss at rates of up to {10}-2 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 in the last years to decades before core collapse. Because the angular momentum transport in our lower-mass models enhances the envelope spin-up, they show the largest relative amounts of centrifugally enforced mass loss, i.e., up to 25% of the expected ejecta mass. Our most massive models evolve into the pulsational pair-instability regime. We would thus expect signatures of interaction with a C/O-rich circumstellar medium for Type Ic superluminous supernovae with ejecta masses below ∼10 M ⊙ as well as for the most massive engine-driven explosions with ejecta masses above ∼30 M ⊙. Signs of such interaction should be observable at early epochs of the supernova explosion; they may be related to bumps observed in the light curves of superluminous supernovae, or to the massive circumstellar CO-shell proposed for Type Ic superluminous supernova Gaia16apd.

  20. Stellar core collapse and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Mayle, R.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.

    1985-04-01

    Massive stars that end their stable evolution as their iron cores collapse to a neutron star or black hole long been considered good candidates for producing Type II supernovae. For many years the outward propagation of the shock wave produced by the bounce of these iron cores has been studied as a possible mechanism for the explosion. For the most part, the results of these studies have not been particularly encouraging, except, perhaps, in the case of very low mass iron cores or very soft nuclear equations of state. The shock stalls, overwhelmed by photodisintegration and neutrino losses, and the star does not explode. More recently, slow late time heating of the envelope of the incipient neutron star has been found to be capable of rejuvenating the stalled shock and producing an explosion after all. The present paper discusses this late time heating and presents results from numerical calculations of the evolution, core collapse, and subsequent explosion of a number of recent stellar models. For the first time they all, except perhaps the most massive, explode with reasonable choices of input physics. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  1. A blowout numerical model for the supernova remnant G352.7-0.1

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo Roy, J. C.; Velazquez, P. F.; Esquivel, A.; Giacani, Elsa Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the Galactic supernova remnant G352.7−0.1. This remnant is peculiar for having a shell-like inner ring structure and an outer arc in radio observations. In our model, the supernova explosion producing the remnant occurs inside and near the border of a spherical cloud with a density higher than that of the surrounding interstellar medium. A blowout is produced when the remnant reaches the border of the cloud. We have then used the results of our hydr...

  2. Very-high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2014J with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. In this work we present data from observations with the MAGIC telescopes of SN 2014J detected on January 21 2014, the closest Type Ia supernova since Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes started to operate. Aims: We aim to probe the possibility of very-high-energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays produced in the early stages of Type Ia supernova explosions. Methods: We performed follow-up observations after this supernova (SN) explosion for five days, between January 27 and February 2 2014. We searched for gamma-ray signals in the energy range between 100 GeV and several TeV from the location of SN 2014J using data from a total of 5.5 h of observations. Prospects for observing gamma rays of hadronic origin from SN 2014J in the near future are also being addressed. Results: No significant excess was detected from the direction of SN 2014J. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the integral flux, assuming a power-law spectrum, dF/dE ∝ E- Γ, with a spectral index of Γ = 2.6, for energies higher than 300 GeV and 700 GeV, are established at 1.3 × 10-12 and 4.1 × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1, respectively. Conclusions: For the first time, upper limits on the VHE emission of a Type Ia supernova are established. The energy fraction isotropically emitted into TeV gamma rays during the first 10 days after the supernova explosion for energies greater than 300 GeV is limited to 10-6 of the total available energy budget ( 1051 erg). Within the assumed theoretical scenario, the MAGIC upper limits on the VHE emission suggest that SN 2014J will not be detectable in the future by any current or planned generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.

  3. SN 2015as: a low-luminosity Type IIb supernova without an early light-curve peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Anjasha; Misra, Kuntal; Pastorello, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Tomasella, L.; Tartaglia, L.; Singh, Mridweeka; Dastidar, Raya; Srivastav, S.; Ochner, P.; Brown, Peter J.; Anupama, G. C.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Pandey, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We present results of the photometric (from 3 to 509 d post-explosion) and spectroscopic (up to 230 d post-explosion) monitoring campaign of the He-rich Type IIb supernova (SN) 2015as. The (B - V) colour evolution of SN 2015as closely resemble those of SN 2008ax, suggesting that SN 2015as belongs to the SN IIb subgroup that does not show the early, short-duration photometric peak. The light curve of SN 2015as reaches the B-band maximum about 22 d after the explosion, at an absolute magnitude of -16.82 ± 0.18 mag. At ˜75 d after the explosion, its spectrum transitions from that of a SN II to a SN Ib. P Cygni features due to He I lines appear at around 30 d after explosion, indicating that the progenitor of SN 2015as was partially stripped. For SN 2015as, we estimate a 56Ni mass of ˜0.08 M⊙ and ejecta mass of 1.1-2.2 M⊙, which are similar to the values inferred for SN 2008ax. The quasi-bolometric analytical light-curve modelling suggests that the progenitor of SN 2015as has a modest mass (˜0.1 M⊙), a nearly compact (˜0.05 × 1013 cm) H envelope on top of a dense, compact (˜2 × 1011 cm) and a more massive (˜1.2 M⊙) He core. The analysis of the nebular phase spectra indicates that ˜0.44 M⊙ of O is ejected in the explosion. The intensity ratio of the [Ca II]/[O I] nebular lines favours either a main-sequence progenitor mass of ˜15 M⊙ or a Wolf-Rayet star of 20 M⊙.

  4. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays. Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images. To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount

  5. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  6. PRE-SUPERNOVA EVOLUTION OF ROTATING SOLAR METALLICITY STARS IN THE MASS RANGE 13-120 M {sub Sun} AND THEIR EXPLOSIVE YIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi, Alessandro [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Limongi, Marco, E-mail: alessandro.chieffi@inaf.it, E-mail: marco.limongi@oa-roma.inaf.it [Centre for Stellar and Planetary Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, P.O. Box 28M, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-02-10

    We present the first set of a new generation of models of massive stars with a solar composition extending between 13 and 120 M {sub Sun }, computed with and without the effects of rotation. We included two instabilities induced by rotation: the meridional circulation and the shear instability. We implemented two alternative schemes to treat the transport of the angular momentum: the advection-diffusion formalism and the simpler purely diffusive one. The full evolution from the pre-main sequence up to the pre-supernova stage is followed in detail with a very extended nuclear network. The explosive yields are provided for a variety of possible mass cuts and are available at the Web site http://www.iasf-roma.inaf.it/orfeo/public{sub h}tml. We find that both the He and the CO core masses are larger than those of their non-rotating counterparts. Also the C abundance left by the He burning is lower than in the non-rotating case, especially for stars with an initial mass of 13-25 M {sub Sun }, and this affects the final mass-radius relation, basically the final binding energy, at the pre-supernova stage. The elemental yields produced by a generation of stars rotating initially at 300 km s{sup -1} do not change substantially with respect to those produced by a generation of non-rotating massive stars, the main differences being a slight overproduction of the weak s-component and a larger production of F. Since rotation also affects the mass-loss rate, either directly or indirectly, we find substantial differences in the lifetimes as O-type and Wolf-Rayet subtypes between the rotating and non-rotating models. The maximum mass exploding as Type IIP supernova ranges between 15 and 20 M {sub Sun} in both sets of models (this value depends basically on the larger mass-loss rates in the red supergiant phase due to the inclusion of the dust-driven wind). This limiting value is in remarkably good agreement with current estimates.

  7. The R-process: supernovae and other sources of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielemann, F.-K.; Moceli, D.; Panov, I.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid neutron capture in stellar explosions is responsible for the heaviest elements in nature, up to Th, U and beyond. This nucleosynthesis process, the r-process, is unique in the sense that a combination of nuclear physics far from stability (masses, half-lives, neutron-capture and photodisintegration, neutron-induced and beta-delayed fission and last but not least neutrino-nucleus interactions) is intimately linked to ejecta from astrophysical explosions (core collapse supernovae or other neutron star related events). The astrophysics and nuclear physics involved still harbor many uncertainties, either in the extrapolation of nuclear properties far beyond present experimental explorations or in the modeling of multidimensional, general relativistic (neutrino-radiation) hydrodynamics with rotation and possibly required magnetic fields. Observational clues about the working of the r-process are mostly obtained from solar abundances and from the abundance evolution of the heaviest elements as a function of galactic age, as witnessed in old extremely metal-poor stars. They contain information whether the r-process is identical for all stellar events, how abundance features develop with galactic time and whether the frequency of r-process events is comparable to that of average core collapse supernovae - producing oxygen through titanium, as well as iron-group nuclei. The theoretical modeling of the r-process has advanced from simple approaches, where the use of static neutron densities and temperatures can aid to test the influence of nuclear properties far from stability on abundance features, to more realistic expansions with a given entropy, global neutron/proton ratio and expansion timescales, as expected from explosive astrophysical events. The direct modeling in astrophysical events such as supernovae still faces the problem whether the required conditions can be met. (author)

  8. A GRB and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova from a Single Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Duffell, Paul C.; Liu, Yuqian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B.; Kasen, Daniel; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2018-06-01

    Unusually high velocities (≳0.1c) and correspondingly high kinetic energies have been observed in a subset of Type Ic supernovae (so-called “broad-lined Ic” supernovae; SNe Ic-BL), prompting a search for a central engine model capable of generating such energetic explosions. A clue to the explosion mechanism may lie in the fact that all supernovae that accompany long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) belong to the SN Ic-BL class. Using a combination of two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations, we demonstrate that the central engine responsible for long GRBs can also trigger an SN Ic-BL. We find that a reasonable GRB engine injected into a stripped Wolf–Rayet progenitor produces a relativistic jet with energy ∼1051 erg, as well as an SN whose synthetic light curves and spectra are fully consistent with observed SNe Ic-BL during the photospheric phase. As a result of the jet’s asymmetric energy injection, the SN spectra and light curves depend on viewing angle. The impact of viewing angle on the spectrum is particularly pronounced at early times, while the viewing-angle dependence for the light curves (∼10% variation in bolometric luminosity) persists throughout the photospheric phase.

  9. Gamma Ray Bursts and Their Links With Supernovae and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism is the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Links with Supernovae and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism are the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  11. Manganese in Dwarf Galaxies as a Probe of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Mithi; Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    Despite the importance of thermonuclear or Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles in astrophysics, the physical mechanisms behind Type Ia SNe are still poorly constrained. Theoretically, the nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ia SNe can distinguish among different models of Type Ia explosions. For example, neutron-rich elements such as manganese (Mn) are sensitive probes of the physics of Type Ia SNe because their abundances are correlated to the density of the progenitor white dwarf. Since dwarf galaxies' chemical evolution is dominated by Type Ia SNe at late times, Type Ia nucleosynthetic yields can be indirectly inferred from stellar abundances in dwarf galaxies. However, previous measurements of Mn in dwarf galaxies are too incomplete to draw definitive conclusions on the Type Ia explosion mechanism. In this work, we therefore use medium-resolution stellar spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS to measure Mn abundances in red giants in several Milky Way satellite galaxies. We report average Type Ia Mn yields computed from these abundances, and we discuss the implications for Type Ia supernova physics.

  12. Exposing Hierarchical Parallelism in the FLASH Code for Supernova Simulation on Summit and Other Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatheodore, Thomas L. [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL

    2017-11-01

    Since roughly 100 million years after the big bang, the primordial elements hydrogen (H), helium (He), and lithium (Li) have been synthesized into heavier elements by thermonuclear reactions inside of the stars. The change in stellar composition resulting from these reactions causes stars to evolve over the course of their lives. Although most stars burn through their nuclear fuel and end their lives quietly as inert, compact objects, whereas others end in explosive deaths. These stellar explosions are called supernovae and are among the most energetic events known to occur in our universe. Supernovae themselves further process the matter of their progenitor stars and distribute this material into the interstellar medium of their host galaxies. In the process, they generate ∼1051 ergs of kinetic energy by sending shock waves into their surroundings, thereby contributing to galactic dynamics as well.

  13. Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae (very energetic supernovae) are presented. These models provide a favorable situation to explain some unexpected features in observations of hypernovae, e.g., high velocity matter dominated by Fe and low velocity matter dominated by O. The overall abundance of these models gives a good fit, at least qualitatively, to abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. We suggest hypernovae be driven by bipolar jets and contribute significantly to the early Galactic chemical evolution

  14. Calculation of the energy of explosives with a partial reaction model. Comparison with cylinder test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchidrian, Jose A.; Lopez, Lina M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - E.T.S.I. Minas, Rios Rosas 21, E-28003 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The energy delivered by explosives is described by means of the useful expansion work along the isentrope of the detonation products. A thermodynamic code (W-DETCOM) is used, in which a partial reaction model has been implemented. In this model, the reacted fraction of the explosive in the detonation state is used as a fitting factor so that the calculated detonation velocity meets the experimental value. Calculations based on such a model have been carried out for a number of commercial explosives of ANFO and emulsion types. The BKW (Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson) equation of state is used for the detonation gases with the Sandia parameter set (BKWS). The energy delivered in the expansion (useful work) is calculated, and the values obtained are compared with the Gurney energies from cylinder test data at various expansion ratios. The expansion work values obtained are much more realistic than those from an ideal detonation calculation and, in most cases, the values predicted by the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental ones. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; Rank, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short times. Many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extintion is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in the active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micron emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and a half after the explosion. Since dust extintion is much less at 6.63 pm than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the NiII line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micron using ISOCAM to search for the NiII emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any NiII line emission brighter than a 5sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled to the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a NiII with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a NiII line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  16. Dynamics of supernova remnants in the Galactic centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolas, E.; Mapelli, M.; Spera, M.

    The Galactic centre (GC) is a unique place to study the extreme dynamical processes occurring near a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Here we simulate a large set of binaries orbiting the SMBH while the primary member undergoes a supernova (SN) explosion, in order to study the impact of SN kicks on the orbits of stars and dark remnants in the GC. We find that SN explosions are efficient in scattering neutron stars and other light stars on new (mostly eccentric) orbits, while black holes (BHs) tend to retain memory of the orbit of their progenitor star. SN kicks are thus unable to eject BHs from the GC: a cusp of dark remnants may be lurking in the central parsec of our Galaxy.

  17. Extreme explosions supernovae, hypernovae, magnetars, and other unusual cosmic blasts

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, David S

    2013-01-01

    What happens at the end of the life of massive stars? At one time we thought all these stars followed similar evolutionary paths. However, new discoveries have shown that things are not quite that simple. This book focuses on the extreme -the most intense, brilliant and peculiar- of astronomical explosions. It features highly significant observational finds that push the frontiers of astronomy and astrophysics, particularly as before these objects were only predicted in theory.  This book is for those who want the latest information and ideas about the most dramatic and unusual explosions dete

  18. Late-Time Spectral Observations of Type IIP Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Pickett, Stephanie; Wheeler, J. Craig; Filippenko, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe IIP) are H-rich explosions that come from red supergiant (RSG) progenitors. Despite the fact that they are the most common subtype of SN, little work has been done on late-time observations of SNe IIP owing to their relative faintness at these epochs. We analyze 91 late-time (older than about 100 days past explosion) optical spectra of 38 SNe IIP, making this the largest sample of SN IIP nebular spectra ever studied. Quantitative criteria from the spectra themselves are employed to determine if an observation is truly nebular, and thus should be included in the study. We measure the fluxes, shapes, and velocities of various emission lines and investigate their temporal evolution. These values are also compared to photometric data in order to search for correlations that may allow us to gain insight into the RSG progenitors of SNe IIP and learn more about the details of the explosion itself.

  19. Spectroscopic observations of the supernova remnant candidates 3 C 400.2 and S91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbadin, F.; D'Odorico, S.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of 3 C 400.2 and S 91 have been used to measure the emission line rations Hα/N II region, Hα/ SII region and 6,717/6,731 of S II region in the two nebulae. By comparing the measured ratios with the mean values observed in supernova remnants, in planetary nebulae und in glactic H II regions, it is possible to conclude that the two nebulae are the result of supernova explosions. For S 91, previously catalogued as an H II region, we derive a linear diameter of 34 pc and a distance of 0.7 kpc using a relation between the diameter of supernova remnants and the average Hα/ N II region intensity ratio in their optical filaments. (orig.) [de

  20. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Chakraborti, S; Pignata, G; Chevalier, R A; Chandra, P; Ray, A; Wieringa, M H; Copete, A; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Barthelmy, S D; Bietenholz, M F; Chugai, N; Stritzinger, M D; Hamuy, M; Fransson, C; Fox, O; Levesque, E M; Grindlay, J E; Challis, P; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Milne, P A; Torres, M A P

    2010-01-28

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their gamma-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported.

  1. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected γ-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Pignata, G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Chandra, P.; Ray, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Copete, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chugai, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hamuy, M.; Fransson, C.; Fox, O.; Levesque, E. M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Challis, P.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Milne, P. A.; Torres, M. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of γ-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their γ-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported.

  2. On the type Ia supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: evidence for Chandrasekhar-mass explosions at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hoeflich, P.; Burns, C. R.; Gall, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2018-06-01

    Radiative transfer models of two transitional type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been produced using the abundance stratification technique. These two objects - designated SN 2007on and SN 2011iv - both exploded in the same galaxy, NGC 1404, which allows for a direct comparison. SN 2007on synthesized 0.25 M_{⊙} of 56Ni and was less luminous than SN 2011iv, which produced 0.31 M_{⊙} of 56Ni. SN 2007on had a lower central density (ρc) and higher explosion energy (Ekin ˜1.3 ± 0.3 × 1051erg) than SN 2011iv, and it produced less nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) elements (0.06 M_{⊙}). Whereas, SN 2011iv had a larger ρc, which increased the electron capture rate in the lowest velocity regions, and produced 0.35 M_{⊙} of stable NSE elements. SN 2011iv had an explosion energy of ˜Ekin ˜0.9 ± 0.2 × 1051erg. Both objects had an ejecta mass consistent with the Chandrasekhar mass (Ch-mass), and their observational properties are well described by predictions from delayed-detonation explosion models. Within this framework, comparison to the sub-luminous SN 1986G indicates SN 2011iv and SN 1986G have different transition densities (ρtr) but similar ρc. Whereas SN 1986G and SN 2007on had a similar ρtr but different ρc. Finally, we examine the colour-stretch parameter sBV versus Lmax relation and determine that the bulk of SNe Ia (including the sub-luminous ones) are consistent with Ch-mass delayed-detonation explosions, where the main parameter driving the diversity is ρtr. We also find ρc to be driving the second-order scatter observed at the faint end of the luminosity-width relationship.

  3. Evidence from stable isotopes and 10Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Projjwal; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Heger, Alexander; Haxton, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed.

  4. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  5. Things begin to happen around Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On 23 February 1994, it will be exactly seven years since the explosion of Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud [1] was first observed, at a distance of approx. 160,000 light-years. It was the first naked-eye supernova to be seen in almost four hundred years. Few events in modern astronomy have met with such an enthusiastic response by the scientists and this famous object has been under constant surveillance ever since. After several years of relative quiescence, things are now beginning to happen in the immediate neighbourhood of SN 1987A. Recent observations with the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) indicate that interaction between the stellar material which was ejected during the explosion and the surrounding ring-shaped nebulae has started. This signals the beginning of a more active phase during which the supernova is likely to display a number of new and interesting phenomena, never before observed. SEVEN YEARS IN THE LIFE OF A SUPERNOVA After brightening to maximum light at about magnitude 3 a few months after the explosion, the long period of steady fading which is typical for supernovae, set in by mid-1987. The matter ejected by the explosion took the form of an expanding fireball, which began to spread through the nearly empty space around the supernova with a velocity of almost 10,000 km/sec. As it cooled, the temperature and therefore the total brightness decreased and the supernova became fainter and fainter. At the present moment, the magnitude of SN 1987A is about 18.5, that is almost 2 million times fainter than it was at maximum. Various phenomena have been observed around SN 1987A during the past years. Already in early 1988, light echoes were seen as concentric, slowly expanding luminous circles; they represent the reflections of the explosion light flash in interstellar clouds inside the Large Magellanic Cloud, between the supernova and us. In 1989, high-resolution observations with the NTT showed an elliptical ``ring

  6. DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indebetouw, R.; Chevalier, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matsuura, M.; Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Dwek, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zanardo, G. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bouchet, P. [CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fransson, C.; Lundqvist, P. [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gaensler, B. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Kirshner, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakićević, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Long, K. S.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Martí-Vidal, I. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 μm, 870 μm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M {sub ☉}). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.

  7. Radio observations reveal a smooth circumstellar environment around the extraordinary type Ib supernova 2012au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Atish; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Chakraborti, Sayan; Dittmann, Jason; Drout, Maria; Sanders, Nathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Medvedev, Mikhail [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Chevalier, Roger [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: atish.vyas@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-12-10

    We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN 2012au, an energetic, radio-luminous supernova of Type Ib that exhibits multi-wavelength properties bridging subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae, hypernovae, and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from a shock-heated circumburst medium that has a wind density profile (ρ∝r {sup –2}). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave v ≈ 0.2 c and a radius of r ≈ 1.4 × 10{sup 16}cm at 25 days after the estimated date of explosion. For a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}, we determine the mass-loss rate of the progenitor to be M-dot =3.6×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio-emitting material to be E ≈ 10{sup 47} erg, which is intermediate to SN 1998bw and SN 2002ap. The evolution of the radio light curve of SN 2012au is in agreement with its interaction with a smoothly distributed circumburst medium and the absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to r ≈ 10{sup 17} cm from the supernova site. We conclude that the bright radio emission from SN 2012au was not dissimilar from other core-collapse supernovae despite its extraordinary optical properties, and that the evolution of the SN 2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet, marked with a steady mass loss, during the final years preceding explosion.

  8. OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact

  9. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  10. Supernova explosions in close binary systems. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of a spherically symmetric explosion on the runaway velocity of a close binary system with an initial circular orbit is considered. It is shown that the runaway velocity is completely determined by the final orbital parameters regardless of the initial condition. The galactic z distribution of the known massive X-ray binaries indicates that the runaway velocities of these systems are very probably smaller than approximately 100 km/s with the most likely values of approximately 25-50 km/s. Such runaway velocities can be obtained if the post-explosion eccentricities are less than approximately 0.25. This then has the concequence that the mass of the exploded star which produced the neutron stars in the massive X-ray binaries can in most cases not have been larger than approximately 7-8 M(S) with the most likely values of approximately 3-4 M(S) if the supergiants in these systems have mass (M 2 ) of approximately 20 M(S). For Cyg X-1, the upper mass limit of the exploded star is found to be approximately 16 M(S). For M 2 = 30 M(S) these upper limit becomes approximately 9-10 M(S) and 19 M(S) respectively. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding type Ia supernovae through their U-band spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, J.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Bongard, S.; Boone, K.; Brinnel, V.; Buton, C.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Hayden, B.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kim, A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuesters, D.; Leget, P.-F.; Lombardo, S.; Lin, Q.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Rubin, D.; Saunders, C.; Smadja, G.; Sofiatti, C.; Suzuki, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2018-06-01

    Context. Observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be used to derive accurate cosmological distances through empirical standardization techniques. Despite this success neither the progenitors of SNe Ia nor the explosion process are fully understood. The U-band region has been less well observed for nearby SNe, due to technical challenges, but is the most readily accessible band for high-redshift SNe. Aims: Using spectrophotometry from the Nearby Supernova Factory, we study the origin and extent of U-band spectroscopic variations in SNe Ia and explore consequences for their standardization and the potential for providing new insights into the explosion process. Methods: We divide the U-band spectrum into four wavelength regions λ(uNi), λ(uTi), λ(uSi) and λ(uCa). Two of these span the Ca H&K λλ 3934, 3969 complex. We employ spectral synthesis using SYNAPPS to associate the two bluer regions with Ni/Co and Ti. Results: The flux of the uTi feature is an extremely sensitive temperature/luminosity indicator, standardizing the SN peak luminosity to 0.116 ± 0.011 mag root mean square (RMS). A traditional SALT2.4 fit on the same sample yields a 0.135 mag RMS. Standardization using uTi also reduces the difference in corrected magnitude between SNe originating from different host galaxy environments. Early U-band spectra can be used to probe the Ni+Co distribution in the ejecta, thus offering a rare window into the source of light curve power. The uCa flux further improves standardization, yielding a 0.086 ± 0.010 mag RMS without the need to include an additional intrinsic dispersion to reach χ2/dof 1. This reduction in RMS is partially driven by an improved standardization of Shallow Silicon and 91T-like SNe. All tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A71. Individual SN spectra shown are available at http://snfactory.lbl.gov/snf/data

  12. Supernova 2008J: early time observations of a heavily reddened SN 2002ic-like transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We provide additional observational evidence that some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show signatures of circumstellar interaction (CSI) with hydrogen-rich material. Methods: Early phase optical and near-infrared (NIR) light curves and spectroscopy of SN 2008J obtained by the Carnegie Supernova...... that their CSI emissions are similarly robust. The high-resolution spectrum reveals narrow emission lines produced from un-shocked gas characterized by a wind velocity of ~50 km s-1. We conclude that SN 2008J best matches an explosion of a SN Ia that interacts with its CSM....

  13. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: CAN CORIOLIS FORCE BREAK THE SYMMETRY OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONFINED DETONATION EXPLOSION MECHANISM?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Senz, D. [Departament de Física, UPC, Comte d’Urgell 187, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain); Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K. [Departement Physik, Universität Basel. Klingelbergstrasse, 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Domínguez, I., E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu, E-mail: ruben.cabezon@unibas.ch [Departamento de Física, Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-10

    Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.

  14. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  15. A HIGHLY MAGNIFIED SUPERNOVA AT z = 1.703 BEHIND THE MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER A1689

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Joensson, J.; Moertsell, E.; Nordin, J. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Albanova University Centre, SE 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden); Clement, B.; Cuby, J.-G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Limousin, M. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 6610, CNRS-Universite de Provence, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Dahlen, T. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Richard, J.; Watson, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Fabbro, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8T 1M8 (Canada); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Paech, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Riehm, T. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Physics Department, Stockholm University, Albanova University Centre, SE 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stanishev, V., E-mail: rahman@fysik.su.se [CENTRA-Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-11-20

    Our ability to study the most remote supernova explosions, crucial for the understanding of the evolution of the high-redshift universe and its expansion rate, is limited by the light collection capabilities of telescopes. However, nature offers unique opportunities to look beyond the range within reach of our unaided instruments thanks to the light-focusing power of massive galaxy clusters. Here we report on the discovery of one of the most distant supernovae ever found, at redshift z = 1.703. Due to a lensing magnification factor of 4.3 {+-} 0.3, we are able to measure a light curve of the supernova, as well as spectroscopic features of the host galaxy with a precision comparable to what would otherwise only be possible with future generation telescopes.

  16. Neutrinos from supernova explosion and the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Suzuki, H.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that by taking the effect of the Earth into account the possible observation of electron neutrinos from the supernova SN1987A at the Kamiokande II is compatible with the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle by the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. The authors' scenario requires relatively large mixing angles sin/sup 2/ 2θ>≥0.3 and, most probably, Δm/sup 2/ of the order of 10/sup -6/ -- 10/sup -5/(eV)/sup 2/. The implications of possible observation in other neutrino detectors are briefly discussed

  17. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the

  18. Search for supernova {sup 60}Fe in the Earth's microfossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, S.; Ludwig, P.; Egli, R.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Rugel, G. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstrasse 41 80333 Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstra. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-12

    Approximately 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of {sup 60}Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) microfossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth-supernova interaction, provided the bacteria preferentially uptake iron from fine-grained iron oxides and ferric hydroxides. Using empirically derived microfossil concentrations in a deep-sea drill core, we deduce a conservative estimate of the {sup 60}Fe fraction as {sup 60}Fe/Fe Almost-Equal-To 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15}. This value sits comfortably within the sensitivity limit of present accelerator mass spectrometry capabilities.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATED USING A 15 M{sub ⊙} PROGENITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Eric J.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Harris, J. Austin; Yakunin, Konstantin N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Bruenn, Stephen W. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Hix, W. Raphael [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Messer, O. E. Bronson [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Blondin, John M. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Marronetti, Pedro, E-mail: elentz@utk.edu [Physics Division, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    We have performed ab initio neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations in three and two spatial dimensions (3D and 2D) of core-collapse supernovae from the same 15 M{sub ☉} progenitor through 440 ms after core bounce. Both 3D and 2D models achieve explosions; however, the onset of explosion (shock revival) is delayed by ∼100 ms in 3D relative to the 2D counterpart and the growth of the diagnostic explosion energy is slower. This is consistent with previously reported 3D simulations utilizing iron-core progenitors with dense mantles. In the ∼100 ms before the onset of explosion, diagnostics of neutrino heating and turbulent kinetic energy favor earlier explosion in 2D. During the delay, the angular scale of convective plumes reaching the shock surface grows and explosion in 3D is ultimately lead by a single, large-angle plume, giving the expanding shock a directional orientation not dissimilar from those imposed by axial symmetry in 2D simulations. We posit that shock revival and explosion in the 3D simulation may be delayed until sufficiently large plumes form, whereas such plumes form more rapidly in 2D, permitting earlier explosions.

  20. Research in nuclear astrophysics: Stellar collapse and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics has been examined. We have been actively researching both the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, neutron star birth, and the emission of neutrinos from supernovae, on the one hand, and the nuclear physics of the equation of state of hot, dense matter on the other hand. There is close coupling between nuclear theory and supernova and neutron star phenomenon; in fact, nuclear matter properties, especially supernuclear densities, might be best delineated by astrophysical considerations. Our research has also focused on the neutrinos emitted from supernovae, since they are the only available observables of the internal supernova mechanism. The recent observations of neutrinos from SN 1987A proved to be in remarkable agreement with models we pioneered prior to its explosion. We have also developed a novel hydrodynamical code in which shocks are treated via Riemann resolution rather than with artificial viscosity. We have also extended models of the neutrino emission and cooling of neutron stars to include the effects of rotation. The Lattimer compressible liquid drop model is the basis of our equation of state. We have developed a rapid version for use in hydrodynamic codes that retains essentially all the physics of earlier, more detailed equations of state. We have also focused on the nuclei-nuclear matter phase transition just below nuclear matter density, including the probable nuclear deformations and the possible ''inside-out'' phase of bubbles, which could be of major importance in supernovae models. Work also progressed toward understanding the origin of the r-process elements, through focusing on the neutron star decompression model

  1. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  2. The type Ia supernova SNLS-03D3bb from a super-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter E; Ellis, Richard S; Conley, Alexander J; Le Borgne, Damien; Carlberg, Raymond G; Guy, Julien; Balam, David; Basa, Stephane; Fouchez, Dominique; Hook, Isobel M; Hsiao, Eric Y; Neill, James D; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathryn M; Pritchet, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe, and the need for dark energy, were inferred from observations of type Ia supernovae. There is a consensus that type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions that destroy carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that have accreted matter from a companion star, although the nature of this companion remains uncertain. These supernovae are thought to be reliable distance indicators because they have a standard amount of fuel and a uniform trigger: they are predicted to explode when the mass of the white dwarf nears the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4 solar masses (M(o)). Here we show that the high-redshift supernova SNLS-03D3bb has an exceptionally high luminosity and low kinetic energy that both imply a super-Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass supernovae should occur preferentially in a young stellar population, so this may provide an explanation for the observed trend that overluminous type Ia supernovae occur only in 'young' environments. As this supernova does not obey the relations that allow type Ia supernovae to be calibrated as standard candles, and as no counterparts have been found at low redshift, future cosmology studies will have to consider possible contamination from such events.

  3. Asymmetric explosions of core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of several hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena that could create an asymmetry in core collapse supernovae. In the first part giving the general context, we first describe the theoretical and observational indications suggesting an important asymmetry. We then present several instabilities that could break the initial spherical symmetry, insisting particularly on the role of the Stationary Accretion Shock Instability (SASI). The second part is dedicated to an hydrodynamic study of the Standing Accretion shock instability. We first give an argument using the frequency of unstable modes that enables us to distinguish between the two mechanisms proposed to explain the linear growth of SASI. As a second step, we study the non-linear dynamics of SASI and propose for the first time a mechanism responsible for its saturation. In this scenario, the saturation occurs when parasitic instabilities are able to grow fast enough on a SASI mode. The semi-analytical prediction of the saturation amplitude is successfully compared with published numerical simulations. The third part studies the effect of a moderate magnetic field. We find that such a magnetic field can have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on SASI depending on its geometry. We then concentrate on the dynamics of the Alfven surface, where the Alfven and the advection speed coincide. We show that the amplification of Alfven waves near this surface creates a pressure feedback, which could affect significantly the dynamics of the shock if the magnetic energy is comparable to the kinetic energy. (author) [fr

  4. Supernova 1604, Kepler’s Supernova, and Its Remnant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Alsabti, A.W.; Murdin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova 1604 is the last galactic supernova for which historical records exist. Johannes Kepler’s name is attached to it, as he published a detailed account of the observations made by himself and European colleagues. Supernova 1604 was very likely a type Ia supernova, which exploded 350–750 pc

  5. An Astronomical Time Machine: Light Echoes from Historic Supernovae and Stellar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rest, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Tycho Brahe's observations of a supernova in 1572 challenged the dogma that the celestial realm was unchanging. Now, 440 years later we have once again seen the light that Tycho saw as simple reflections from walls of Galactic dust. These light echoes, as well as ones detected from other historical events such as Cas A and Eta Carinae's Great Eruption, give us a rare opportunity in astronomy: the direct observation of the cause (the explosion/eruption) and the effect (the remnant) of the same astronomical event. But we can do more: the light echoes let us look at the explosion from different angles, and permit us to map the asymmetries in the explosion. I will discuss how the unprecedented three-dimensional view of these exciting events allows us to unravel some of their secrets.

  6. The X-Ray Light Curve of the Very Luminous Supernova SN 1978K in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Petre, R.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We present the 0.5-2.0 keV light curve of the X-ray luminous supernova SN 1978K in NGC 1313, based on six ROSAT observations spanning 1990 July to t994 July. SN 1978K is one of a few supernovae or supernova remnants that are very luminous (˜1039-1040 ergs s-1) in the X-ray, optical, and radio bands, and the first, at a supernova age of 10-20 yr, for which sufficient data exist to create an X-ray light curve. The X-ray flux is approximately constant over the 4 yr sampled by our observations, which were obtained 12-16 yr after the initial explosion. Three models exist to explain the large X-ray luminosity: pulsar input, a reverse shock running back into the expanding debris of the supernova, and the outgoing shock crushing of cloudlets in the debris field. Based upon calculations of Chevalier & Fransson, a pulsar cannot provide sufficient energy to produce the soft X-ray luminosity. Based upon the models and the light curve to date, it is not possible to discern the evolutionary phase of the supernova.

  7. Hydromagnetic instabilities and magnetic field amplification in core collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Duran, P; Obergaulinger, M; Mueller, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-st. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aloy, M A; Font, J A, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    Some of the most violent events in the universe, the gamma ray burst, could be related to the gravitational collapse of massive stellar cores. The recent association of long GRBs to some class of type Ic supernova seems to support this view. In such scenario fast rotation, strong magnetic fields and general relativistic effects are key ingredients. It is thus important to understand the mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field under that conditions. I present global simulations of the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores in general relativity and semi-global simulations of hydromagnetic instabilities under core collapse conditions. I discuss effect of the magneto-rotational instability and the magnetic field amplification during the collapse, the uncertainties in this process and the dynamical effects in the supernova explosion.

  8. Radioactive Beam Measurements to Probe Stellar Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Unique beams of unstable nuclei from the Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being used to measure the thermonuclear reactions that occur in novae, X-ray bursts, and supernovae. The astrophysical impact of these measurements is determined by synergistic nuclear data evaluations and element synthesis calculations. Results of recent measurements and explosion simulations are brie y described, along with future plans and software research tools for the community.

  9. Energetics and Birth Rates of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Published X-ray emission properties for a sample of 50 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are used as input for SNR evolution modeling calculations. The forward shock emission is modeled to obtain the initial explosion energy, age, and circumstellar medium density for each SNR in the sample. The resulting age distribution yields a SNR birthrate of 1/(500 yr) for the LMC. The explosion energy distribution is well fit by a log-normal distribution, with a most-probable explosion energy of 0.5× {10}51 erg, with a 1σ dispersion by a factor of 3 in energy. The circumstellar medium density distribution is broader than the explosion energy distribution, with a most-probable density of ˜0.1 cm-3. The shape of the density distribution can be fit with a log-normal distribution, with incompleteness at high density caused by the shorter evolution times of SNRs.

  10. A New Method to Constrain Supernova Fractions Using X-ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Loewenstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112.We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% plus or minus 5.4% to 37.1% plus or minus 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 plus or minus 0.34) x 10(exp 9), to (1.28 plus or minus 0.43) x 10(exp 9), fromsnapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kiloparsecs of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

  11. Toward connecting core-collapse supernova theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Timothy A.

    We study the evolution of the collapsing core of a 15 solar mass blue supergiant supernova progenitor from the moment shortly after core bounce until 1.5 seconds later. We present a sample of two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models parameterized to match the explosion energetics of supernova SN 1987A. We focus on the characteristics of the flow inside the gain region and the interplay between hydrodynamics, self-gravity, and neutrino heating, taking into account uncertainty in the nuclear equation of state. We characterize the evolution and structure of the flow behind the shock in terms the accretion flow dynamics, shock perturbations, energy transport and neutrino heating effects, and convective and turbulent motions. We also analyze information provided by particle tracers embedded in the flow. Our models are computed with a high-resolution finite volume shock capturing hydrodynamic code. The code includes source terms due to neutrino-matter interactions from a light-bulb neutrino scheme that is used to prescribe the luminosities and energies of the neutrinos emerging from the core of the proto-neutron star. The proto-neutron star is excised from the computational domain, and its contraction is modeled by a time-dependent inner boundary condition. We find the spatial dimensionality of the models to be an important contributing factor in the explosion process. Compared to two-dimensional simulations, our three-dimensional models require lower neutrino luminosities to produce equally energetic explosions. We estimate that the convective engine in our models is 4% more efficient in three dimensions than in two dimensions. We propose that this is due to the difference of morphology of convection between two- and three-dimensional models. Specifically, the greater efficiency of the convective engine found in three-dimensional simulations might be due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio of convective plumes, which aids in distributing energy deposited by

  12. PAIR INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE: LIGHT CURVES, SPECTRA, AND SHOCK BREAKOUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For the initial mass range (140 M sun sun ) stars die in a thermonuclear runaway triggered by the pair-production instability. The supernovae they make can be remarkably energetic (up to ∼10 53 erg) and synthesize considerable amounts of radioactive isotopes. Here we model the evolution, explosion, and observational signatures of representative pair instability supernovae (PI SNe) spanning a range of initial masses and envelope structures. The predicted light curves last for hundreds of days and range in luminosity from very dim to extremely bright (L ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 ). The most massive events are bright enough to be seen at high redshift, but the extended light curve duration (∼1 yr)-prolonged by cosmological time-dilation-may make it difficult to detect them as transients. A more promising approach may be to search for the brief and luminous outbreak occurring when the explosion shock wave first reaches the stellar surface. Using a multi-wavelength radiation-hydrodynamics code we calculate that, in the rest frame, the shock breakout transients of PI SNe reach luminosities of 10 45 -10 46 erg s -1 , peak at wavelengths ∼30-170 A, and last for several hours. We discuss how observations of the light curves, spectra, and breakout emission can be used to constrain the mass, radius, and metallicity of the progenitor.

  13. Aspherical nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova with 25 M {sub ☉} standard progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, M. V. [École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL (UMR CNRS 5574), Université de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Filina, A. A.; Baranov, A. A.; Chardonnet, P. [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, 9, Chemin de Bellevue BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Chechetkin, V. M. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, Miusskaya sq. 4, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    The problem of nucleosynthesis was studied within an aspherical supernova model. The explosive burning was computed in a star of 25 M {sub ☉} initial mass on its final stage of evolution. The chemical composition of a presupernova was taken from realistic evolutionary computations. A piecewise parabolic method on a local stencil was applied to simulate the hydrodynamics of the explosion. The gravity was recomputed by a Poisson solver on a fine grid as the explosion developed. A detailed yield of chemical elements was performed as a post-processing step using the tracer particles method. The produced nuclei formed a layer-like structure enclosing large fragments of nickel and iron-group isotopes that were pushed away from the central region by an explosion along the polar direction. The light nuclei were preferentially moving along the equatorial plane forming a torus-like structure.

  14. THE BIGGEST EXPLOSIONS IN THE UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Heger, Alex; Chen, Ke-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive primordial stars are expected to form in a small fraction of massive protogalaxies in the early universe, and are generally conceived of as the progenitors of the seeds of supermassive black holes (BHs). Supermassive stars with masses of ∼55, 000 M ☉ , however, have been found to explode and completely disrupt in a supernova (SN) with an energy of up to ∼10 55 erg instead of collapsing to a BH. Such events, ∼10, 000 times more energetic than typical SNe today, would be among the biggest explosions in the history of the universe. Here we present a simulation of such a SN in two stages. Using the RAGE radiation hydrodynamics code, we first evolve the explosion from an early stage through the breakout of the shock from the surface of the star until the blast wave has propagated out to several parsecs from the explosion site, which lies deep within an atomic cooling dark matter (DM) halo at z ≅ 15. Then, using the GADGET cosmological hydrodynamics code, we evolve the explosion out to several kiloparsecs from the explosion site, far into the low-density intergalactic medium. The host DM halo, with a total mass of 4 × 10 7 M ☉ , much more massive than typical primordial star-forming halos, is completely evacuated of high-density gas after ∼ ☉ after ∼> 70 Myr. The chemical signature of supermassive star explosions may be found in such long-lived second-generation stars today

  15. The population of supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1978-01-01

    The detection of SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds is reviewed with emphasis on its limits. A sample of SNRs is then used to derive the mean interval between SN explosions, tau . After the maximum constraints have been put on all the other parameters, the distribution of diameters of remnants with diameter less than 30 pc in the LMC is shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. In adopting a mean value of E/sub 0//n/sub 0/ (energy at explosion over surrounding density) of 5*10/sup 51/ ergs cm/sup 3/, the best value of tau is 300+or-100 years in good agreement with predictions from statistics of supernovae in external galaxies. The small number of remnants in the SMC prevents a similar approach being used with any statistical significance. (20 refs).

  16. A very energetic supernova associated with the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, Jesper; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P U; Woosley, Stan E; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Tanvir, Nial R; Greiner, Jochen; Andersen, Michael I; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Castro Cerón, José María; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Kaper, Lex; Klose, Sylvio; Masetti, Nicola; Pedersen, Holger; Pedersen, Kristian; Pian, Elena; Palazzi, Eliana; Rhoads, James E; Rol, Evert; van den Heuvel, Edward P J; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Watson, Darach; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2003-06-19

    Over the past five years evidence has mounted that long-duration (>2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-the most luminous of all astronomical explosions-signal the collapse of massive stars in our Universe. This evidence was originally based on the probable association of one unusual GRB with a supernova, but now includes the association of GRBs with regions of massive star formation in distant galaxies, the appearance of supernova-like 'bumps' in the optical afterglow light curves of several bursts and lines of freshly synthesized elements in the spectra of a few X-ray afterglows. These observations support, but do not yet conclusively demonstrate, the idea that long-duration GRBs are associated with the deaths of massive stars, presumably arising from core collapse. Here we report evidence that a very energetic supernova (a hypernova) was temporally and spatially coincident with a GRB at redshift z = 0.1685. The timing of the supernova indicates that it exploded within a few days of the GRB, strongly suggesting that core-collapse events can give rise to GRBs, thereby favouring the 'collapsar' model.

  17. [O I] λλ6300, 6364 IN THE NEBULAR SPECTRUM OF A SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Pakmor, R.; Pignata, G.; Maeda, K.; Hachinger, S.; Leibundgut, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, a late-phase spectrum of SN 2010lp, a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), is presented and analyzed. As in 1991bg-like SNe Ia at comparable epochs, the spectrum is characterized by relatively broad [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission lines. However, instead of narrow [Fe III] and [Co III] lines that dominate the emission from the innermost regions of 1991bg-like supernovae (SNe), SN 2010lp shows [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission, usually associated with core-collapse SNe and never previously observed in a subluminous thermonuclear explosion. The [O I] feature has a complex profile with two strong, narrow emission peaks. This suggests that oxygen is distributed in a non-spherical region close to the center of the ejecta, severely challenging most thermonuclear explosion models discussed in the literature. We conclude that, given these constraints, violent mergers are presently the most promising scenario to explain SN 2010lp

  18. The fate of accreting white dwarfs: type I supernovae vs. collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1986-01-01

    The fate of accreting white dwarfs is examined with respect to thermonuclear explosion or collapse. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy 1986. Effects of accretion and the fate of white dwarfs, models for type 1a and 1b supernovae, collapse induced by carbon deflagration at high density, and fate of double white dwarfs, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  20. The Three-Dimensional Expansion of the Ejecta from Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Coyle, Nina; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Seitenzahl, Ivo Rolf; Hewitt, John W.; Blondin, John M.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2017-08-01

    We present the first three-dimensional measurements of the velocity of various ejecta knots in Tycho's supernova remnant, known to result from a Type Ia explosion. Chandra X-ray observations over a 12-year baseline from 2003 to 2015 allow us to measure the proper motion of nearly 60 ``tufts'' of Si-rich ejecta, giving us the velocity in the plane of the sky. For the line of sight velocity, we use two different methods: a non-equilibrium ionization model fit to the strong Si and S lines in the 1.2-2.8 keV regime, and a fit consisting of a series of Gaussian lines. These methods give consistent results, allowing us to determine the red or blue shift of each of the knots. Assuming a distance of 3.5 kpc, we find total velocities that range from 2400 to 6600 km s$^{-1}$, with a mean of 4430 km s$^{-1}$. We find several regions where the ejecta knots have overtaken the forward shock. These regions have proper motions in excess of 6000 km s$^{-1}$. Some Type Ia supernova explosion models predict a velocity asymmetry in the ejecta. We find no such velocity asymmetries in Tycho, and discuss our findings in light of various explosion models, favoring those delayed detonation models with relatively vigorous and symmetrical deflagrations. Finally, we compare measurements with models of the remnant's evolution that include both smooth and clumpy ejecta profiles, finding that both ejecta profiles can be accommodated by the observations.

  1. The Final Stages of Massive Star Evolution and Their Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Alexander

    In this chapter I discuss the final stages in the evolution of massive stars - stars that are massive enough to burn nuclear fuel all the way to iron group elements in their core. The core eventually collapses to form a neutron star or a black hole when electron captures and photo-disintegration reduce the pressure support to an extent that it no longer can hold up against gravity. The late burning stages of massive stars are a rich subject by themselves, and in them many of the heavy elements in the universe are first generated. The late evolution of massive stars strongly depends on their mass, and hence can be significantly effected by mass loss due to stellar winds and episodic mass loss events - a critical ingredient that we do not know as well as we would like. If the star loses all the hydrogen envelope, a Type I supernova results, if it does not, a Type II supernova is observed. Whether the star makes neutron star or a black hole, or a neutron star at first and a black hole later, and how fast they spin largely affects the energetics and asymmetry of the observed supernova explosion. Beyond photon-based astronomy, other than the sun, a supernova (SN 1987) has been the only object in the sky we ever observed in neutrinos, and supernovae may also be the first thing we will ever see in gravitational wave detectors like LIGO. I conclude this chapter reviewing the deaths of the most massive stars and of Population III stars.

  2. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  3. The evolution of red supergiants to supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasor, Emma R.; Davies, Ben

    2017-11-01

    With red supergiants (RSGs) predicted to end their lives as Type IIP core collapse supernova (CCSN), their behaviour before explosion needs to be fully understood. Mass loss rates govern RSG evolution towards SN and have strong implications on the appearance of the resulting explosion. To study how the mass-loss rates change with the evolution of the star, we have measured the amount of circumstellar material around 19 RSGs in a coeval cluster. Our study has shown that mass loss rates ramp up throughout the lifetime of an RSG, with more evolved stars having mass loss rates a factor of 40 higher than early stage RSGs. Interestingly, we have also found evidence for an increase in circumstellar extinction throughout the RSG lifetime, meaning the most evolved stars are most severely affected. We find that, were the most evolved RSGs in NGC2100 to go SN, this extra extinction would cause the progenitor's initial mass to be underestimated by up to 9M⊙.

  4. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the low-luminosity, broad-lined Ic supernova iPTF15dld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pian, E.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.

    2017-01-01

    Core-collapse stripped-envelope supernova (SN) explosions reflect the diversity of physical parameters and evolutionary paths of their massive star progenitors. We have observed the Type Ic SN iPTF15dld (z = 0.047), reported by the Palomar Transient Factory. Spectra were taken starting 20 rest-frame...

  5. Type II supernovae modelisation: neutrinos transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, P.

    1988-10-01

    A modelisation of neutrino transport in type II supernovae is presented. The first part is a description of hydrodynamics and radiative processes responsible of supernovae explosions. Macroscopic aspects of these are displayed in part two. Neutrino transport theory and usual numerical methods are also developed. A new technic of coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei or free nucleons is proposed in the frame work of the Lorentz bifluid approximation. This method deals with all numerical artifices (flux limiting schemes, closure relationship of Eddington moments) and allows a complete and consistent determination of the time-dependent neutrino distribution function for any value of the opacity, gradient of opacity and for all (relativistic) velocity fields of the diffusive medium. Part three is dedicated to microscopic phenomena (electronic capture, chimical composition, etc) which rule neutrinos emission-absorption mechanisms. The numerical treatments of those are presented, and some applications are useful for their parametrization. Finally, an extension of the method to inelastic scattering on light particules (electrons) is described in view to study neutrinos thermalization mechanism [fr

  6. Mars, solar wind, and supernova - implications of the Viking data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1977-01-01

    A scenario for the evolution of the Martian atmosphere consistent with various data of the Viking 1 and 2 and the Mariner 9 has been presented: Mars was formed from Renazzo-type meteorites polluted by the products of supernova explosion. A dense ancient Martian atmosphere has been swept away by the solar wind and the present tenuous atmosphere was supplied recently by the volcanic gas from the Tharsis region, after the occurrence of the magnetic field. (Auth.)

  7. REVIVAL OF THE STALLED CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK TRIGGERED BY PRECOLLAPSE ASPHERICITY IN THE PROGENITOR STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couch, Sean M.; Ott, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-dimensional simulations of advanced nuclear burning stages of massive stars suggest that the Si/O layers of presupernova stars harbor large deviations from the spherical symmetry typically assumed for presupernova stellar structure. We carry out three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with and without aspherical velocity perturbations to assess their potential impact on the supernova hydrodynamics in the stalled-shock phase. Our results show that realistic perturbations can qualitatively alter the postbounce evolution, triggering an explosion in a model that fails to explode without them. This finding underlines the need for a multi-dimensional treatment of the presupernova stage of stellar evolution

  8. REVIVAL OF THE STALLED CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK TRIGGERED BY PRECOLLAPSE ASPHERICITY IN THE PROGENITOR STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couch, Sean M. [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ott, Christian D., E-mail: smc@flash.uchichago.edu, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Multi-dimensional simulations of advanced nuclear burning stages of massive stars suggest that the Si/O layers of presupernova stars harbor large deviations from the spherical symmetry typically assumed for presupernova stellar structure. We carry out three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with and without aspherical velocity perturbations to assess their potential impact on the supernova hydrodynamics in the stalled-shock phase. Our results show that realistic perturbations can qualitatively alter the postbounce evolution, triggering an explosion in a model that fails to explode without them. This finding underlines the need for a multi-dimensional treatment of the presupernova stage of stellar evolution.

  9. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters - III. Disruption of partially unbound clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J. E.; Ercolano, B.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2013-03-01

    We extend our previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics parameter study of the effects of photoionization from O-stars on star-forming clouds to include initially unbound clouds. We generate a set of model clouds in the mass range 104-106 M⊙ with initial virial ratios Ekin/Epot = 2.3, allow them to form stars and study the impact of the photoionizing radiation produced by the massive stars. We find that, on the 3 Myr time-scale before supernovae are expected to begin detonating, the fraction of mass expelled by ionizing feedback is a very strong function of the cloud escape velocities. High-mass clouds are largely unaffected dynamically, while low-mass clouds have large fractions of their gas reserves expelled on this time-scale. However, the fractions of stellar mass unbound are modest and significant portions of the unbound stars are so only because the clouds themselves are initially partially unbound. We find that ionization is much more able to create well-cleared bubbles in the unbound clouds, owing to their intrinsic expansion, but that the presence of such bubbles does not necessarily indicate that a given cloud has been strongly influenced by feedback. We also find, in common with the bound clouds from our earlier work, that many of the systems simulated here are highly porous to photons and supernova ejecta, and that most of them will likely survive their first supernova explosions.

  10. Spherical shock due to point explosion with varying energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. B.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1983-05-01

    The motion of a perfect gas behind a weak or strong spherical point-explosion shock wave in a nonuniform rest atmosphere is investigated analytically for the case of variable flow energy. The self-similar solutions derived are also adaptable to a uniform expanding piston. The solution is applied to the isothermal case, and the results of numerical integration are presented in graphs showing the density, velocity, and pressure distributions for different values of delta. The findings are considered significant for investigations of sonic booms, laser production of plasmas, high-altitude nuclear detonations, supernova explosions, and the sudden expansion of the solar corona, and for the laboratory production of high temperatures using shock waves.

  11. supernovae: Photometric classification of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Moss, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Supernovae classifies supernovae using their light curves directly as inputs to a deep recurrent neural network, which learns information from the sequence of observations. Observational time and filter fluxes are used as inputs; since the inputs are agnostic, additional data such as host galaxy information can also be included.

  12. Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petschek, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book offers papers incorporating the latest results and understanding about supernovae, including SN1987A. There are several chapters reviewing all the radio through infrared, visible, and ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma-rays but also neutrinos. Other chapters deal with the classification of supernovae, depending on their spectra and light curves. Three chapters treat supernovae theory, including an idea of a fractal burning front and another on the behavior of neutron stars

  13. Search for supernova-produced {sup 60}Fe in the Earth's fossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Shawn; Ludwig, Peter; Chernenko, Valentyna; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [TU Muenchen, Physik Department (Germany); Egli, Ramon [ZAMG, Wien (Austria); Frederichs, Thomas [Universitaet Bremen, Geowissenschaften (Germany); Hazlik, Marianne [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Chemie (Germany); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 1.8 to 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of {sup 60}Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004)]. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth-supernova interaction; these bacteria were and are ubiquitous in all ocean sediments. We have conducted accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, searching for live {sup 60}Fe in the magnetofossil component of a Pacific Ocean sediment core (ODP Core 848); additional AMS measurements are now ongoing with a second sediment core (ODP Core 851) in which we expect to find a higher {sup 60}Fe signal. This talk presents the current preliminary status of our {sup 60}Fe search results for both sediment cores.

  14. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  15. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-01-01

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  16. Constraining the supersaturation density equation of state from core-collapse supernova simulations? Excluded volume extension of the baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article the role of the supersaturation density equation of state (EOS) is explored in simulations of failed core-collapse supernova explosions. Therefore the nuclear EOS is extended via a one-parameter excluded-volume description for baryons, taking into account their finite and increasing volume with increasing density in excess of saturation density. Parameters are selected such that the resulting supernova EOS represent extreme cases, with high pressure variations at supersaturation density which feature extreme stiff and soft EOS variants of the reference case, i.e. without excluded-volume corrections. Unlike in the interior of neutron stars with central densities in excess of several times saturation density, central densities of core-collapse supernovae reach only slightly above saturation density. Hence, the impact of the supersaturation density EOS on the supernova dynamics as well as the neutrino signal is found to be negligible. It is mainly determined from the low- and intermediate-density domain, which is left unmodified within this generalized excluded volume approach. (orig.)

  17. Type Iax Supernovae: A New Class of Stellar Explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, P. J.; Chornock, R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe observed properties of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe Iax), consisting of SNe observationally similar to its prototypical member, SN 2002cx. The class currently has 25 members, and we present optical photometry and/or optical spectroscopy for most of them. SNe Iax...... are spectroscopically similar to SNe Ia, but have lower maximum-light velocities (2000 lower peak magnitudes (-14.2 > M_V,peak > -18.9 mag), and most have hot photospheres. Relative to SNe Ia, SNe Iax have low luminosities for their light-curve shape. There is a correlation between......^+17_-13 SNe Iax for every 100 SNe Ia, and for every 1 M_sun of iron generated by SNe Ia at z = 0, SNe Iax generate 0.052^+0.017_-0.014 M_sun. Being the largest class of peculiar SNe, thousands of SNe Iax will be discovered by LSST. Future detailed observations of SNe Iax should further our understanding...

  18. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great distances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and timescales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes

  19. Radio emission from Supernovae and High Precision Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Torres, M. A.

    1999-11-01

    corrections, agree well within one standard deviation. In summary, our astrometric results demonstrate the feasibility of using phase-delay difference techniques (single-frequency or dual-frequency) for sources separated by as far as 15(deg) on the sky. This opens the avenue for the extension of the technique on a global scale with the aim of building up a quasi-inertial reference frame (of submilliarcsecond accuracy) based on extragalactic radio sources. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the radio emission of the Type II supernova SN 1993J, whose relative proximity (it exploded in the Galaxy M81, at a distance of 10 million of light-years) has allowed us to observe it with VLBI at different radio frequency bands since June 1993. This radio supernova is the best studied one so far and thus a perfect laboratory to test supernova radio emission models. Early VLBI observations of this supernova by our group allowed us to discover the shell structure of SN 1993J--likely common to all supernovae--the youngest ever discovered in a supernova. Subsequently, our VLBI observations showed SN 1993J to be self-similarly expanding and, more recently, we used our VLBI observations at 3.6 and 6 cm in the period 6 through 42 months after explosion to show that the supernova expansion is decelerating, its size following a power-law with time (R t^m; m=0.86 +- 0.02). Our measurement of the expansion index yields estimates of the density of both supernova ejecta and circumstellar material in standard supernova explosion models. In particular, the density of the circumstellar material seems to be following a power-law less steep than usual (rhocs r^{-s}, with s approx. 1.66 instead of the standard s=2). Our VLBI observations also showed that the supernova radio emission comes from a shell of width 30% of the outer radius. In this thesis, we describe a numerical code that simulates synchrotron radio emission from a supernova. We assume that the supernova is self

  20. DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP), CONICET, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA La Plata (Argentina); Van Dyk, Schuyler D. [IPAC/Caltech, Mailcode 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Pignata, Giuliano; Hamuy, Mario [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Quimby, Robert M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Elias-Rosa, Nancy [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miller, Adam A., E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    Supernova (SN) iPTF13bvn in NGC 5806 was the first Type Ib SN to have been tentatively associated with a progenitor in pre-explosion images. We performed deep ultraviolet (UV) and optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of the SN site ∼740 days after explosion. We detect an object in the optical bands that is fainter than the pre-explosion object. This dimming is likely not produced by dust absorption in the ejecta; thus, our finding confirms the connection of the progenitor candidate with the SN. The object in our data is likely dominated by the fading SN, implying that the pre-SN flux is mostly due to the progenitor. We compare our revised pre-SN photometry with previously proposed models. Although binary progenitors are favored, models need to be refined. In particular, to comply with our deep UV detection limit, any companion star must be less luminous than a late-O star or substantially obscured by newly formed dust. A definitive progenitor characterization will require further observations to disentangle the contribution of a much fainter SN and its environment.

  1. The Physics of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. I. Analytic Results and Time Dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Philip A.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    We develop an analytic solution of the radiation transport problem for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and show that it reproduces bolometric light curves produced by more detailed calculations under the assumption of a constant-extinction coefficient. This model is used to derive the thermal conditions in the interior of SNe Ia and to study the sensitivity of light curves to various properties of the underlying supernova explosions. Although the model is limited by simplifying assumptions, it is adequate for demonstrating that the relationship between SNe Ia maximum-light luminosity and rate of decline is most easily explained if SNe Ia span a range in mass. The analytic model is also used to examine the size of various terms in the transport equation under conditions appropriate to maximum light. For instance, the Eulerian and advective time derivatives are each shown to be of the same order of magnitude as other order v/c terms in the transport equation. We conclude that a fully time-dependent solution to the transport problem is needed in order to compute SNe Ia light curves and spectra accurate enough to distinguish subtle differences of various explosion models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  2. Some Arguments in Support of the Association of PSR B1706-44 with the Supernova Remnant G343.1-2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, D. C.-J.; Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We present some arguments in support of the association of the pulsar PSR B1706-44 with the supernova remnant G343.1-2.3, based on the idea that these objects could be the result of a supernova explosion within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the supernova progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud). We suggest that in addition to the known bright "half" of G343.1-2.3 there should exist a more extended and weaker component, such that the actual shape of G343.1 2.3 is similar to that of the well-known SNR VRO 42.05.01. We have found such a component in archival radio data.

  3. Ab Initio Simulations of a Supernova-driven Galactic Dynamo in an Isolated Disk Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butsky, Iryna [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zrake, Jonathan; Kim, Ji-hoon; Yang, Hung-I; Abel, Tom [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We study the magnetic field evolution of an isolated spiral galaxy, using isolated Milky Way–mass galaxy formation simulations and a novel prescription for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) supernova feedback. Our main result is that a galactic dynamo can be seeded and driven by supernova explosions, resulting in magnetic fields whose strength and morphology are consistent with observations. In our model, supernovae supply thermal energy and a low-level magnetic field along with their ejecta. The thermal expansion drives turbulence, which serves a dual role by efficiently mixing the magnetic field into the interstellar medium and amplifying it by means of a turbulent dynamo. The computational prescription for MHD supernova feedback has been implemented within the publicly available ENZO code and is fully described in this paper. This improves upon ENZO 's existing modules for hydrodynamic feedback from stars and active galaxies. We find that the field attains microgauss levels over gigayear timescales throughout the disk. The field also develops a large-scale structure, which appears to be correlated with the disk’s spiral arm density structure. We find that seeding of the galactic dynamo by supernova ejecta predicts a persistent correlation between gas metallicity and magnetic field strength. We also generate all-sky maps of the Faraday rotation measure from the simulation-predicted magnetic field, and we present a direct comparison with observations.

  4. PTF11mnb: First analog of supernova 2005bf. Long-rising, double-peaked supernova Ic from a massive progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Quimby, R. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We study PTF11mnb, a He-poor supernova (SN) whose light curves resemble those of SN 2005bf, a peculiar double-peaked stripped-envelope (SE) SN, until the declining phase after the main peak. We investigate the mechanism powering its light curve and the nature of its progenitor star. Methods: Optical photometry and spectroscopy of PTF11mnb are presented. We compared light curves, colors and spectral properties to those of SN 2005bf and normal SE SNe. We built a bolometric light curve and modeled this light curve with the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) hydrodynamical code explosion of a MESA progenitor star and semi-analytic models. Results: The light curve of PTF11mnb turns out to be similar to that of SN 2005bf until 50 d when the main (secondary) peaks occur at -18.5 mag. The early peak occurs at 20 d and is about 1.0 mag fainter. After the main peak, the decline rate of PTF11mnb is remarkably slower than what was observed in SN 2005bf, and it traces well the 56Co decay rate. The spectra of PTF11mnb reveal a SN Ic and have no traces of He unlike in the case of SN Ib 2005bf, although they have velocities comparable to those of SN 2005bf. The whole evolution of the bolometric light curve is well reproduced by the explosion of a massive (Mej = 7.8 M⊙), He-poor star characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, a total 56Ni mass of 0.59 M⊙, and an explosion energy of 2.2 × 1051 erg. Alternatively, a normal SN Ib/c explosion (M(56Ni) = 0.11 M⊙, EK = 0.2 × 1051 erg, Mej = 1 M⊙) can power the first peak while a magnetar, with a magnetic field characterized by B = 5.0 × 1014 G, and a rotation period of P = 18.1 ms, provides energy for the main peak. The early g-band light curve can be fit with a shock-breakout cooling tail or an extended envelope model from which a radius of at least 30 R⊙ is obtained. Conclusions: We presented a scenario where PTF11mnb was the explosion of a massive, He-poor star, characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni

  5. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER41149 ''Nuclear Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Zhong Qian

    2004-01-01

    During the funding period from August 15, 2000 to August 14, 2004, the main foci of my research have been implications of abundances in metal-poor stars for nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae and chemical evolution of the universe, effects of neutrino oscillations and neutrino-nucleus interactions on r-process nucleosynthesis, physical conditions in neutrino-driven winds from proto-neutron stars, neutrino driven mechanism of supernova explosion, supernova neutrino signals in terrestrial detectors, and constraints on variations of fundamental couplings and astrophysical conditions from properties of nuclear reactions. Personnel (three graduate students and a postdoctoral research associate) involved in my research are listed in section 2. Completed research projects are discussed in section 3. Publications during the funding period are listed in section 4 and oral presentations in section 5. Remarks about the budget are given in section 6

  6. Radio emission from embryonic superluminous supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omand, Conor M. B.; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely argued that Type-I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) are driven by powerful central engines with a long-lasting energy injection after the core-collapse of massive progenitors. One of the popular hypotheses is that the hidden engines are fast-rotating pulsars with a magnetic field of B ˜ 1013-1015 G. Murase, Kashiyama & Mészáros proposed that quasi-steady radio/submm emission from non-thermal electron-positron pairs in nascent pulsar wind nebulae can be used as a relevant counterpart of such pulsar-driven supernovae (SNe). In this work, focusing on the nascent SLSN-I remnants, we examine constraints that can be placed by radio emission. We show that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array can detect the radio nebula from SNe at DL ˜ 1 Gpc in a few years after the explosion, while the Jansky Very Large Array can also detect the counterpart in a few decades. The proposed radio follow-up observation could solve the parameter degeneracy in the pulsar-driven SN model for optical/UV light curves, and could also give us clues to young neutron star scenarios for SLSNe-I and fast radio bursts.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Rotational explosion mechanism for collapsing supernovae and the two-stage neutrino signal from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshennik, Vladimir S.

    2011-02-01

    The two-stage (double) signal produced by the outburst of the close supernova (SN) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which started on and involved two neutrino signals during the night of 23 February 1987 UT, is theoretically interpreted in terms of a scenario of rotationally exploding collapsing SNs, to whose class the outburst undoubtedly belongs. This scenario consists of a set of hydrodynamic and kinetic models in which key results are obtained by numerically solving non-one-dimensional and nonstationary problems. Of vital importance in this context is the inclusion of rotation effects, their role being particularly significant precisely in terms of the question of the transformation of the original collapse of the presupernova iron core to the explosion of the SN shell, with an energy release on a familiar scale of 1051 erg. The collapse in itself leads to the birth of neutron stars (black holes) emitting neutrino and gravitational radiation signals of gigantic intensity, whose total energy significantly (by a factor of hundreds) exceeds the above-cited SN burst energy. The proposed rotational scenario is described briefly by artificially dividing it into three (or four) characteristic stages. This division is dictated by the physical meaning of the chain of events a rotating iron core of a sufficiently massive (more than 10M) star triggers when it collapses. An attempt is made to quantitatively describe the properties of the associated neutrino and gravitational radiations. The review highlights the interpretation of the two-stage neutrino signal from SN 1987A, a problem which, given the present status of theoretical astrophysics, cannot, in the author's view, be solved without including rotation effects.

  8. Interacting supernovae from photoionization-confined shells around red supergiant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Kotak, Rubina; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M.-A.; Moriya, Takashi J.; Neilson, Hilding R.

    2014-08-01

    Betelgeuse, a nearby red supergiant, is a fast-moving star with a powerful stellar wind that drives a bow shock into its surroundings. This picture has been challenged by the discovery of a dense and almost static shell that is three times closer to the star than the bow shock and has been decelerated by some external force. The two physically distinct structures cannot both be formed by the hydrodynamic interaction of the wind with the interstellar medium. Here we report that a model in which Betelgeuse's wind is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the static shell without requiring a new understanding of the bow shock. Pressure from the photoionized wind generates a standing shock in the neutral part of the wind and forms an almost static, photoionization-confined shell. Other red supergiants should have much more massive shells than Betelgeuse, because the photoionization-confined shell traps up to 35 per cent of all mass lost during the red supergiant phase, confining this gas close to the star until it explodes. After the supernova explosion, massive shells dramatically affect the supernova light curve, providing a natural explanation for the many supernovae that have signatures of circumstellar interaction.

  9. Handbook of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This reference work gathers all of the latest research in the supernova field areas to create a definitive source book on supernovae, their remnants and related topics. It includes each distinct subdiscipline, including stellar types, progenitors, stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis of elements, supernova types, neutron stars and pulsars, black holes, swept up interstellar matter, cosmic rays, neutrinos from supernovae, supernova observations in different wavelengths, interstellar molecules and dust. While there is a great deal of primary and specialist literature on supernovae, with a great many scientific groups around the world focusing on the phenomenon and related subdisciplines, nothing else presents an overall survey. This handbook closes that gap at last. As a comprehensive and balanced collection that presents the current state of knowledge in the broad field of supernovae, this is to be used as a basis for further work and study by graduate students, astronomers and astrophysicists working in close/r...

  10. On The Origin Of Two-Shell Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2007-07-01

    The proper motion of massive stars could cause them to explode far from the geometric centers of their wind-driven bubbles and thereby could affect the symmetry of the resulting diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs). We use this fact to explain the origin of SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells (e.g. Cygnus Loop, 3C 400.2, etc.).

  11. Galactic Winds Driven by Supernovae and Radiation Pressure: Theory and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Davis, Shane

    2018-01-01

    Galactic winds are ubiquitous in most rapidly star-forming galaxies. They are crucial to the process of galaxy formation and evolution, regulating star formation, shaping the stellar mass function and the mass-metallicity relation, and enriching the intergalactic medium with metals. Although important, the physics of galactic winds is still unclear. Winds may be driven by many mechanisms including overlapping supernovae explosions, radiation pressure of starlight on dust grains, and cosmic rays. However, the growing observations of multiphase structure in galactic winds in a large number of galaxies have not been well explained by any models. In this talk I will focus on the models of supernova- and radiation-pressure-driven winds. Using the state-of-the-art numerical simulations, I will assess the relative merits of these driving mechanisms for accelerating cold and warm clouds to observed velocities, and momentum flux boost during wind propagation.

  12. Explosive Nucleosynthesis Study Using Laser Driven γ-ray Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Hayakawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose nuclear experiments using γ-ray pulses provided from high field plasma generated by high peak power laser. These γ-ray pulses have the excellent features of extremely short pulse, high intensity, and continuous energy distribution. These features are suitable for the study of explosive nucleosyntheses in novae and supernovae, such as the γ process and ν process. We discuss how to generate suitable γ-ray pulses and the nuclear astrophysics involved.

  13. Nuclear gamma ray lines from supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, J.O.D.

    1980-01-01

    From theoretical considerations of the behaviour of gamma ray line fluxes occurring after a supernova explosion, the 1.156 and 0.847 MeV lines are seen to be the most likely to be observed. The 1.156 MeV line has been previously observed by other investigators. Observations of the 0.847 MeV line, and 1.332, 1.173 and 0.059 MeV lines using a Ge(Li) telescope aboard a stratospheric balloon which was flown in Brazil in 1977 are reported. The observation using a NaI(Tl) detector of a line in the energy interval 1.5 - 1.6 MeV, which may be due to 0 18 (p,p') 0 18 sup (*) reaction is also reported. (Author) [pt

  14. Nebular phase observations of the Type-Ib supernova iPTF13bvn favour a binary progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Maeda, K.; Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; Morrell, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Hamuy, M.; de Jaeger, T.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kawabata, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present and analyse late-time observations of the Type-Ib supernova with possible pre-supernova progenitor detection, iPTF13bvn, which were done ~300 days after the explosion. We discuss them in the context of constraints on the supernova's progenitor. Previous studies have proposed two possible natures for the progenitor of the supernova, i.e. a massive Wolf-Rayet star or a lower-mass star in a close binary system. Methods: Our observations show that the supernova has entered the nebular phase, with the spectrum dominated by Mg I]λλ4571, [O I]λλ6300, 6364, and [Ca II]λλ7291, 7324 emission lines. We measured the emission line fluxes to estimate the core oxygen mass and compared the [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae. Results.The core oxygen mass of the supernova progenitor was estimated to be ≲0.7 M⊙, which implies initial progenitor mass that does not exceed ~15-17 M⊙.Since the derived mass is too low for a single star to become a Wolf-Rayet star, this result lends more support to the binary nature of the progenitor star of iPTF13bvn. The comparison of [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae also shows that iPTF13bvn appears to be in close association with the lower mass progenitors of stripped-envelope and Type-II supernovae. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); Chilean Telescope Time Allocation Committee proposal CN2014A-91.

  15. Type IIP supernova light curves affected by the acceleration of red supergiant winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Förster, Francisco; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the first synthetic light-curve model set of Type IIP supernovae exploded within circumstellar media in which the acceleration of the red supergiant winds is taken into account. Because wind acceleration makes the wind velocities near the progenitors low, the density of the immediate vicinity of the red supergiant supernova progenitors can be higher than that extrapolated by using a constant terminal wind velocity. Therefore, even if the mass-loss rate of the progenitor is relatively low, it can have a dense circumstellar medium at the immediate stellar vicinity and the early light curves of Type IIP supernovae are significantly affected by it. We adopt a simple β velocity law to formulate the wind acceleration. We provide bolometric and multicolour light curves of Type IIP supernovae exploding within such accelerated winds from the combinations of three progenitors, 12-16 M⊙; five β, 1-5; seven mass-loss rates, 10-5-10-2 M⊙ yr-1; and four explosion energies, (0.5-2) × 1051 erg. All the light-curve models are available at https://goo.gl/o5phYb. When the circumstellar density is sufficiently high, our models do not show a classical shock breakout as a consequence of the interaction with the dense and optically thick circumstellar media. Instead, they show a delayed `wind breakout', substantially affecting early light curves of Type IIP supernovae. We find that the mass-loss rates of the progenitors need to be 10-3-10-2 M⊙ yr-1 to explain typical rise times of 5-10 d in Type IIP supernovae assuming a dense circumstellar radius of 1015 cm.

  16. ON THE PROGENITOR SYSTEM OF THE TYPE Iax SUPERNOVA 2014dt IN M61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Van Dyk, Schuyler D. [IPAC/Caltech, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mauerhan, Jon C. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Miller, Adam A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images of the Type Iax supernova (SN Iax) 2014dt in M61. After astrometrically aligning these images, we do not detect any stellar sources at the position of the SN in the pre-explosion images to relatively deep limits (3σ limits of M {sub F438W} > –5.0 mag and M {sub F814W} > –5.9 mag). These limits are similar to the luminosity of SN 2012Z's progenitor system (M {sub F435W} = –5.43 ± 0.15 and M {sub F814W} = –5.24 ± 0.16 mag), the only probable detected progenitor system in pre-explosion images of a SN Iax, and indeed, of any white-dwarf supernova. SN 2014dt is consistent with having a C/O white-dwarf primary/helium-star companion progenitor system, as was suggested for SN 2012Z, although perhaps with a slightly smaller or hotter donor. The data are also consistent with SN 2014dt having a low-mass red giant or main-sequence star companion. The data rule out main-sequence stars with M {sub init} ≳ 16 M {sub ☉} and most evolved stars with M {sub init} ≳ 8 M {sub ☉} as being the progenitor of SN 2014dt. Hot Wolf-Rayet stars are also allowed, but the lack of nearby bright sources makes this scenario unlikely. Because of its proximity (D = 12 Mpc), SN 2014dt is ideal for long-term monitoring, where images in ∼2 yr may detect the companion star or the luminous bound remnant of the progenitor white dwarf.

  17. SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora L.; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shaviv, Nir J. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Fremling, Christoffer; Sollerman, Jesper [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications of extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby SNe IIb to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, SNe IIb have on average <0.86 precursors as bright as an absolute R-band magnitude of −14 in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and <0.56 events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a ≳5 times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor that would be detectable for the closest SNe in our sample. Therefore, mass ejections, if they are common in such SNe, are radiatively inefficient or have durations longer than months. Indeed, when using 60-day bins, a faint precursor candidate is detected prior to SN 2012cs (∼2% false-alarm probability). We also report the detection of the progenitor of SN 2011dh that does not show detectable variability over the final two years before the explosion. The suggested progenitor of SN 2012P is still present, and hence is likely a compact star cluster or an unrelated object.

  18. Long-term prospects: Mitigation of supernova and gamma-ray burst threat to intelligent beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirković, Milan M.; Vukotić, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    We consider global catastrophic risks due to cosmic explosions (supernovae, magnetars and gamma-ray bursts) and possible mitigation strategies by humans and other hypothetical intelligent beings. While by their very nature these events are so huge to daunt conventional thinking on mitigation and response, we wish to argue that advanced technological civilizations would be able to develop efficient responses in the domain of astroengineering within their home planetary systems. In particular, we suggest that construction of shielding swarms of small objects/particles confined by electromagnetic fields could be one way of mitigating the risk of cosmic explosions and corresponding ionizing radiation surges. Such feats of astroengineering could, in principle, be detectable from afar by advanced Dysonian SETI searches.

  19. Systematic thermal reduction of neutronization in core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantina, A.F.; Donati, P.; Pizzochero, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate to what extent the temperature dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy can affect the neutronization of the stellar core prior to neutrino trapping during gravitational collapse. To this end, we implement a one-zone simulation to follow the collapse until β-equilibrium is reached and the lepton fraction remains constant. Since the strength of electron capture on the neutron-rich nuclei associated to the supernova scenario is still an open issue, we keep it as a free parameter. We find that the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy consistently yields a small reduction of deleptonization, which corresponds to a systematic effect on the shock wave energetics: the gain in dissociation energy of the shock has a small yet non-negligible value of about 0.4 foe (1 foe=10 51 erg) and this result is almost independent from the strength of nuclear electron capture. The presence of such a systematic effect and its robustness under changes of the parameters of the one-zone model are significant enough to justify further investigations with detailed numerical simulations of supernova explosions.

  20. DISCOVERY, PROGENITOR AND EARLY EVOLUTION OF A STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gorbikov, Evgeny; Ofek, Eran O.; Yaron, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Hancock, Paul [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Valenti, Stefano; Graham, Melissa; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sand, David [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Marion, G. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Walker, Emma S. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511-8499 (United States); Mazzali, Paolo, E-mail: ycao@astro.caltech.edu [INAF-Padova Astronomical Observatory, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2013-09-20

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory reports our discovery of a young supernova, iPTF13bvn, in the nearby galaxy, NGC 5806 (22.5 Mpc). Our spectral sequence in the optical and infrared suggests a Type Ib classification. We identify a blue progenitor candidate in deep pre-explosion imaging within a 2σ error circle of 80 mas (8.7 pc). The candidate has an M{sub B} luminosity of –5.52 ± 0.39 mag and a B – I color of 0.25 ± 0.25 mag. If confirmed by future observations, this would be the first direct detection for a progenitor of a Type Ib. Fitting a power law to the early light curve, we find an extrapolated explosion date around 0.6 days before our first detection. We see no evidence of shock cooling. The pre-explosion detection limits constrain the radius of the progenitor to be smaller than a few solar radii. iPTF13bvn is also detected in centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Fitting a synchrotron self-absorption model to our radio data, we find a mass-loading parameter of 1.3×10{sup 12} g cm{sup –1}. Assuming a wind velocity of 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}, we derive a progenitor mass-loss rate of 3 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Our observations, taken as a whole, are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor of the supernova iPTF13bvn.

  1. Supernova 2010as: the lowest-velocity member of a family of flat-velocity type IIb supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Olivares Estay, Felipe; Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Holmbo, Simon; Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Morrell, Nidia; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark M. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Förster, Francisco [Center for Mathematical Modelling, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2120 Piso 7, Santiago (Chile); Prieto, José Luis [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Valenti, Stefano [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Afonso, Paulo; Altenmüller, Konrad; Elliott, Jonny, E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85740 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    We present extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the stripped-envelope supernova SN 2010as. Spectroscopic peculiarities such as initially weak helium features and low expansion velocities with a nearly flat evolution place this object in the small family of events previously identified as transitional Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). There is ubiquitous evidence of hydrogen, albeit weak, in this family of SNe, indicating that they are in fact a peculiar kind of Type IIb SNe that we name 'flat-velocity' Type IIb. The flat-velocity evolution—which occurs at different levels between 6000 and 8000 km s{sup –1} for different SNe—suggests the presence of a dense shell in the ejecta. Despite the spectroscopic similarities, these objects show surprisingly diverse luminosities. We discuss the possible physical or geometrical unification picture for such diversity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we associate SN 2010as with a massive cluster and derive a progenitor age of ≈6 Myr, assuming a single star-formation burst, which is compatible with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Our hydrodynamical modeling, on the contrary, indicates that the pre-explosion mass was relatively low, ≈4 M {sub ☉}. The seeming contradiction between a young age and low pre-SN mass may be solved by a massive interacting binary progenitor.

  2. Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating Among Near-Earth Stellar Explosion Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Brian J; Ellis, John R

    2015-01-01

    We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10$^{5}$ to 10$^{8}$ years that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGBs) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the $^{60}$Fe and $^{26}$Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include $^{244}$Pu and $^{53}$Mn. We discuss interpretations of the $^{60}$Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (i) the $^{60}$Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (ii) the $^{60}$Fe signals highly constrain a SAGB interpretation but do not completely them rule out, (iii) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (iv) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radio...

  3. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  4. Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La, {sup 180}Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on {theta}{sub 13}, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  5. Supernova nucleosynthesis and the physics of neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2012-11-01

    We studied the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and others are predominantly produced by the neutrino interactions with several abundant nuclei. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here first study how to know the suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  6. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  7. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  8. FINDING THE FIRST COSMIC EXPLOSIONS. II. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Joggerst, Candace C.; Fryer, Chris L.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Heger, Alexander; Holz, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the properties of Population III (Pop III) stars is prerequisite to elucidating the nature of primeval galaxies, the chemical enrichment and reionization of the early intergalactic medium, and the origin of supermassive black holes. While the primordial initial mass function (IMF) remains unknown, recent evidence from numerical simulations and stellar archaeology suggests that some Pop III stars may have had lower masses than previously thought, 15-50 M ☉ in addition to 50-500 M ☉ . The detection of Pop III supernovae (SNe) by JWST, WFIRST, or the TMT could directly probe the primordial IMF for the first time. We present numerical simulations of 15-40 M ☉ Pop III core-collapse SNe performed with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code RAGE. We find that they will be visible in the earliest galaxies out to z ∼ 10-15, tracing their star formation rates and in some cases revealing their positions on the sky. Since the central engines of Pop III and solar-metallicity core-collapse SNe are quite similar, future detection of any Type II SNe by next-generation NIR instruments will in general be limited to this epoch.

  9. Smoking supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Haley Louise; Eales, Stephen Anthony; Dunne, L.

    2007-01-01

    The question ‘Are supernovae important sources of dust?’ is a contentious one. Observations with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) only detected very small amounts of hot dust in supernova remnants. Here, we review observations of two young Galactic remnants with the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA), which imply that large quantities of dust are produced by supernovae. The association of dust with the Cassiopeia A remnant is i...

  10. Research Performance Progress Report: Diverging Supernova Explosion Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewa, Tomasz [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The aim of this project was to design a series of blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments of this kind are relevant to mixing in core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) and have the potential to address previously unanswered questions in high-energy density physics (HEDP) and astrophysics. The unmatched laser power of the NIF laser offers a unique chance to observe and study “new physics” like the mass extensions observed in HEDP RT experiments performed on the Omega laser [1], which might be linked to self-generated magnetic fields [2] and so far could not be reproduced by numerical simulations. Moreover, NIF is currently the only facility that offers the possibility to execute a diverging RT experiment, which would allow to observe processes such as inter-shell penetration via turbulent mixing and shock-proximity effects (distortion of the shock by RT spikes).

  11. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Analysis of stripped-envelope supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Bersten, M.; Baron, E.; Burns, C.; Contreras, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    Stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) include H-poor (Type IIb), H-free (Type Ib), and He-free (Type Ic) events thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars. The exact nature of their progenitors is a matter of debate with several lines of evidence pointing towards intermediate mass (MinitCarnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) that are unparalleled in terms of photometric accuracy and wavelength range. Light-curve parameters are estimated through the fits of an analytical function and trends are searched for among the resulting fit parameters. Detailed inspection of the dataset suggests a tentative correlation between the peak absolute B-band magnitude and Δm15(B), while the post maximum light curves reveals a correlation between the late-time linear slope and Δm15. Making use of the full set of optical and near-IR photometry, combined with robust host-galaxy extinction corrections, comprehensive bolometric light curves are constructed and compared to both analytic and hydrodynamical models. This analysis finds consistent results among the two different modeling techniques and from the hydrodynamical models we obtained ejecta masses of 1.1-6.2M⊙, 56Ni masses of 0.03-0.35M⊙, and explosion energies (excluding two SNe Ic-BL) of 0.25-3.0 × 1051 erg. Our analysis indicates that adopting κ = 0.07 cm2 g-1 as the mean opacity serves to be a suitable assumption when comparing Arnett-model results to those obtained from hydrodynamical calculations. We also find that adopting He I and O I line velocities to infer the expansion velocity in He-rich and He-poor SNe, respectively, provides ejecta masses relatively similar to those obtained by using the Fe II line velocities, although the use of Fe II as a diagnostic does imply higher explosion energies. The inferred range of ejecta masses are compatible with intermediate mass (MZAMS ≤ 20M⊙) progenitor stars in binary systems for the majority of SE SNe. Furthermore, our hydrodynamical modeling of the

  12. Type Ia supernovae, standardizable candles, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill S.; Li, Baojiu

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally accepted to act as standardizable candles, and their use in cosmology led to the first confirmation of the as yet unexplained accelerated cosmic expansion. Many of the theoretical models to explain the cosmic acceleration assume modifications to Einsteinian general relativity which accelerate the expansion, but the question of whether such modifications also affect the ability of SNe Ia to be standardizable candles has rarely been addressed. This paper is an attempt to answer this question. For this we adopt a semianalytical model to calculate SNe Ia light curves in non-standard gravity. We use this model to show that the average rescaled intrinsic peak luminosity—a quantity that is assumed to be constant with redshift in standard analyses of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology data—depends on the strength of gravity in the supernova's local environment because the latter determines the Chandrasekhar mass—the mass of the SN Ia's white dwarf progenitor right before the explosion. This means that SNe Ia are no longer standardizable candles in scenarios where the strength of gravity evolves over time, and therefore the cosmology implied by the existing SN Ia data will be different when analysed in the context of such models. As an example, we show that the observational SN Ia cosmology data can be fitted with both a model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.62 ,0.38 ) and Newton's constant G varies as G (z )=G0(1 +z )-1/4 and the standard model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.3 ,0.7 ) and G is constant, when the Universe is assumed to be flat.

  13. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  14. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  15. Massive Majorana neutrinos in pre-bounce supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, S.; Raychaudhuri, A.

    1992-06-01

    The currently accepted models of supernova collapse rely on the standard electroweak theory and massless left-handed neutrinos. We consider the effect of massive right-handed Majorana neutrinos on this scenario. In order that they do not upset the agreement of the usual treatment with observation, we require that in the pre-bounce stage either (a) these neutrinos are trapped or (b) if they free stream they do not change the electron fraction to the extent that the explosion is prevented. From these constraints, we obtain upper and lower bounds on the right-handed interaction strengths as a function of the neutrino mass which can be translated to bounds on the right-handed gauge boson mass. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of his in-depth article on the 1987 supernova, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Centre reviewed the background to supernovae, the composition of massive stars and the optical history of SN 1987A, and speculated on what the 1987 remnant might be. In such a Type II supernova, gravitational pressure crushes the atoms of the star's interior producing neutron matter, or even a black hole, and releasing an intense burst of neutrinos. 1987 was the first time that physicists were equipped (but not entirely ready!) to intercept these particles, and in the second part of his article, David Schramm covers the remarkable new insights from the science of supernova neutrino astronomy, born on 23 February 1987

  17. Infrared and Optical Spectroscopy of Type Ia Supernovae in the Nebular Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, E. J. C.; Meikle, W. P. S.; Geballe, T. R.; Walton, N. A.; Pinto, P. A.; Dhillon, V. S.; Howell, S. B.; Harrop-Allin, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectra for Type Ia supernovae at epochs of 13 to 338 days after maximum blue light. Some contemporary optical spectra are also shown. All the NIR spectra exhibit considerable structure throughout the J-, H- and K-bands. In particular they exhibit a flux `deficit' in the J-band which persists as late as 175 days. This is responsible for the well-known red J-H colour. To identify the emission features and test the $^{56}$Ni hypothesis for the explosion and subseq...

  18. Dust in Supernovae and Supernova Remnants II: Processing and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micelotta, E. R.; Matsuura, M.; Sarangi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Observations have recently shown that supernovae are efficient dust factories, as predicted for a long time by theoretical models. The rapid evolution of their stellar progenitors combined with their efficiency in precipitating refractory elements from the gas phase into dust grains make supernovae the major potential suppliers of dust in the early Universe, where more conventional sources like Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars did not have time to evolve. However, dust yields inferred from observations of young supernovae or derived from models do not reflect the net amount of supernova-condensed dust able to be expelled from the remnants and reach the interstellar medium. The cavity where the dust is formed and initially resides is crossed by the high velocity reverse shock which is generated by the pressure of the circumstellar material shocked by the expanding supernova blast wave. Depending on grain composition and initial size, processing by the reverse shock may lead to substantial dust erosion and even complete destruction. The goal of this review is to present the state of the art about processing and survival of dust inside supernova remnants, in terms of theoretical modelling and comparison to observations.

  19. DIMENSIONAL DEPENDENCE OF THE HYDRODYNAMICS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Nordhaus, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A major goal over the last decade has been understanding which multidimensional effects are crucial in facilitating core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions. Unfortunately, much of this work has necessarily assumed axisymmetry. In this work, we present analyses of simplified two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) CCSN models with the goal of comparing the hydrodynamics in setups that differ only in dimension. Not surprisingly, we find many differences between 2D and 3D models. While some differences are subtle and perhaps not crucial, others are dramatic and make interpreting 2D models problematic. In particular, axisymmetric models produce excess power at the largest spatial scales, power that has been deemed critical in previous explosion models. Nevertheless, our 3D models, which have an order of magnitude less power than 2D models on large scales, explode earlier. Since explosions occur earlier in 3D than in 2D, the vigorous large-scale sloshing is either not critical in any dimension or the explosion mechanism operates differently in 2D and 3D. On the other hand, we find that the average parcel of matter in the gain region has been exposed to net heating for up to 30% longer in 3D than in 2D, an effect we attribute to the differing characters of turbulence in 2D and 3D. We suggest that this effect plays a prominent role in producing earlier explosions in 3D. Finally, we discuss a simple model for the runaway growth of buoyant bubbles that is able to quantitatively account for the growth of the shock radius and predicts a critical luminosity relation.

  20. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2011ei: TIME-DEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION OF TYPE IIb AND Ib SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E.; Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Parker, Stuart; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian; Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within ∼1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity (∼> 12, 000 km s –1 ) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v ≈ 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot ∼1.4×10 -5 M sun yr -1 (assuming wind velocity v w = 10 3 km s –1 ). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M ☉ ), compact (R * ∼ 11 cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  1. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2011ei: TIME-DEPENDENT CLASSIFICATION OF TYPE IIb AND Ib SUPERNOVAE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chomiuk, Laura; Sanders, Nathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pignata, Giuliano; Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Parker, Stuart [Parkdale Observatory, 225 Warren Road, RDl Oxford, Canterbury 7495 (New Zealand); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pian, Elena [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Pickering, Timothy; Buckley, David A. H.; Crawford, Steven M.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Hettlage, Christian [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Hooper, Eric; Nordsieck, Kenneth H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Donoghue, Darragh, E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present X-ray, UV/optical, and radio observations of the stripped-envelope, core-collapse supernova (SN) 2011ei, one of the least luminous SNe IIb or Ib observed to date. Our observations begin with a discovery within {approx}1 day of explosion and span several months afterward. Early optical spectra exhibit broad, Type II-like hydrogen Balmer profiles that subside rapidly and are replaced by Type Ib-like He-rich features on a timescale of one week. High-cadence monitoring of this transition suggests absorption attributable to a high-velocity ({approx}> 12, 000 km s{sup -1}) H-rich shell, which is likely present in many Type Ib events. Radio observations imply a shock velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.13 c and a progenitor star average mass-loss rate of M-dot {approx}1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (assuming wind velocity v{sub w} = 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}). This is consistent with independent constraints from deep X-ray observations with Swift-XRT and Chandra. Overall, the multi-wavelength properties of SN 2011ei are consistent with the explosion of a lower-mass (3-4 M{sub Sun }), compact (R{sub *} {approx}< 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm), He-core star. The star retained a thin hydrogen envelope at the time of explosion, and was embedded in an inhomogeneous circumstellar wind suggestive of modest episodic mass loss. We conclude that SN 2011ei's rapid spectral metamorphosis is indicative of time-dependent classifications that bias estimates of the relative explosion rates for Type IIb and Ib objects, and that important information about a progenitor star's evolutionary state and mass loss immediately prior to SN explosion can be inferred from timely multi-wavelength observations.

  2. TYPE Ia SNe ALONG REDSHIFT: THE R(Si II) RATIO AND THE EXPANSION VELOCITIES IN INTERMEDIATE-z SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altavilla, G.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Balastegui, A.; Mendez, J.; Espana-Bonet, C.; Irwin, M.; Ellis, R. S.; McMahon, R. M.; Walton, N. A.; Folatelli, G.; Goobar, A.; Nobili, S.; Stanishev, V.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of intermediate-z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using empirical physical diagrams which permit the investigation of those SNe explosions. This information can be very useful to reduce systematic uncertainties of the Hubble diagram of SNe Ia up to high z. The study of the expansion velocities and the measurement of the ratio R(Si II) allow subtyping of SNe Ia as done in nearby samples. The evolution of this ratio as seen in the diagram R(Si II)-(t) together with R(Si II) max versus (B - V) 0 indicates consistency of the properties at intermediate-z compared with the nearby SNe Ia. At intermediate-z, expansion velocities of Ca II and Si II are found similar to those of the nearby sample. This is found in a sample of six SNe Ia in the range 0.033 ≤z≤ 0.329 discovered within the International Time Programme of SNe Ia for Cosmology and Physics in the spring run of 2002. 7 The program run under Omega and Lambda from Supernovae and the Physics of Supernova Explosions within the International Time Programme at the telescopes of the European Northern Observatory (ENO) at La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Two SNe Ia at intermediate-z were of the cool FAINT type, one being an SN1986G-like object highly reddened. The R(Si II) ratio as well as subclassification of the SNe Ia beyond templates help to place SNe Ia in their sequence of brightness and to distinguish between reddened and intrinsically red supernovae. This test can be done with very high z SNe Ia and it will help to reduce systematic uncertainties due to extinction by dust. It should allow to map the high-z sample into the nearby one.

  3. Nearby supernova factory announces 34 supernovae in one year'; best Rookie year ever for supernova search

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), an international collaboration based at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, announced that it had discovered 34 supernovae during the first year of the prototype system's operation (2 pages).

  4. New prospects for detecting high-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta

    2018-04-01

    Neutrinos from supernovae (SNe) are crucial probes of explosive phenomena at the deaths of massive stars and neutrino physics. High-energy neutrinos are produced through hadronic processes by cosmic rays, which are accelerated during interaction between the supernova (SN) ejecta and circumstellar material (CSM). Recent observations of extragalactic SNe have revealed that a dense CSM is commonly expelled by the progenitor star. We provide new quantitative predictions of time-dependent high-energy neutrino emission from diverse types of SNe. We show that IceCube and KM3Net can detect ˜103 events from a SN II-P (and ˜3 ×105 events from a SN IIn) at a distance of 10 kpc. The new model also enables us to critically optimize the time window for dedicated searches for nearby SNe. A successful detection will give us a multienergy neutrino view of SN physics and new opportunities to study neutrino properties, as well as clues to the cosmic-ray origin. GeV-TeV neutrinos may also be seen by KM3Net, Hyper-Kamiokande, and PINGU.

  5. IMPACT OF NEW GAMOW–TELLER STRENGTHS ON EXPLOSIVE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kanji; Famiano, Michael A.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Toshio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hidaka, Jun [Mechanical Engineering Department, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Honma, Michio [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan); Iwamoto, Koichi [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu, E-mail: kanji.mori@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: michael.famiano@wmich.edu, E-mail: suzuki@phys.chs.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: jun.hidaka@meisei-u.ac.jp, E-mail: m-honma@u-aizu.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nomoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: otsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    Recent experimental results have confirmed a possible reduction in the Gamow–Teller (GT{sub +}) strengths of pf-shell nuclei. These proton-rich nuclei are of relevance in the deflagration and explosive burning phases of SNe Ia. While prior GT strengths result in nucleosynthesis predictions with a lower-than-expected electron fraction, a reduction in the GT{sub +} strength can result in a slightly increased electron fraction compared to previous shell model predictions, though the enhancement is not as large as previous enhancements in going from rates computed by Fuller, Fowler, and Newman based on an independent particle model. A shell model parametrization has been developed that more closely matches experimental GT strengths. The resultant electron-capture rates are used in nucleosynthesis calculations for carbon deflagration and explosion phases of SNe Ia, and the final mass fractions are compared to those obtained using more commonly used rates.

  6. Young supernova remnants and INTEGRAL: "4"4Ti lines and non-thermal emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.

    2006-10-01

    This thesis deals with the search for and the study of young galactic supernova remnants using the observations performed by IBIS/ISGRI, one of the two main coded-mask instruments onboard the european gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL. This research is based on i) the study of gamma-ray lines coming from the radioactive decay of "4"4Ti, a short-lived nucleus (τ∼ 86 y) exclusively produced during the first stages of stellar explosions, and ii) the study of the nonthermal continuum mechanisms which take place inside the young supernova remnants. I separate the manuscript in four main parts. The first one presents an overview of supernovae from an observational and theoretical point of view. The second part describes the INTEGRAL satellite with its instruments, the techniques used for analyzing the data collected by IBIS/ISGRI, and my personal investigations concerning different developments such as: the spectral calibration of the IBIS/ISGRI instrument, the correction of noisy pixels on the camera, the creation of background maps, and the development of an alternative pipeline useful for dealing with a large amount of data. I also present a method for imaging extended sources with a coded-mask instrument such as IBIS/ISGRI, and its first application on the Coma Cluster. The results obtained on historical supernova remnants like Cas A, Tycho, RXJ0852-4622 (Vela Junior) are presented in the third part. The first chapter of the last part is devoted to the study of the detectability of supernovae in the optical domain with a model of the interstellar extinction. The second chapter reports on the search for missing and hidden young supernova remnants in the Milky Way with the IBIS/ISGRI galactic plane survey through the "4"4Sc gamma-ray lines as well as with a multi-wavelength approach, from the radio domain (VLA) to the new observational window at TeV energies (HESS). I also discuss the constraints on the supernova rate and the "4"4Ti production in core-collapse supernovae

  7. High Energy Observational Investigations of Supernova Remnants and their Interactions with Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yue Hui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we review the effort of Fermi Asian Network (FAN in exploring the supernova remnants (SNRs with state-of-art high energy observatories, including Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory, in the period of 2011- 2012. Utilizing the data from Fermi LAT, we have discovered the GeV emission at the position of the Galactic SNR Kes 17 which provides evidence for the hadronic acceleration. Our study also sheds light on the propagation of cosmic rays from their acceleration site to the intersteller medium. We have also launched an identification campaign of SNR candidates in the Milky Way, in which a new SNR G308.3-1.4 have been uncovered with our Chandra observation. Apart from the remnant, we have also discovered an associated compact object at its center. The multiwavelength properties of this X-ray source suggest it can possibly be the compact binary that survived a supernova explosion.

  8. Supernova cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibundgut, B.

    2005-01-01

    Supernovae have developed into a versatile tool for cosmology. Their impact on the cosmological model has been profound and led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion. The current status of the cosmological model as perceived through supernova observations will be presented. Supernovae are currently the only astrophysical objects that can measure the dynamics of the cosmic expansion during the past eight billion years. Ongoing experiments are trying to determine the characteristics of the accelerated expansion and give insight into what might be the physical explanation for the acceleration. (author)

  9. Sites that Can Produce Left-handed Amino Acids in the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Richard N.; Famiano, Michael A.; Onaka, Takashi; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2018-03-01

    The Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which uses electron anti-neutrinos and the magnetic field from a source object such as a supernova to selectively destroy one amino acid chirality, is studied for possible sites that would produce meteoroids with partially left-handed amino acids. Several sites appear to provide the requisite magnetic field intensities and electron anti-neutrino fluxes. These results have obvious implications for the origin of life on Earth.

  10. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  11. Spiral Disk Instability Can Drive Thermonuclear Explosions in Binary White Dwarf Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert; García-Berro, Enrique; Aznar-Siguán, Gabriela; Ji, Suoqing; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Thermonuclear, or Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), originate from the explosion of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and serve as standardizable cosmological candles. However, despite their importance, the nature of the progenitor systems that give rise to SNe Ia has not been hitherto elucidated. Observational evidence favors the double-degenerate channel in which merging white dwarf binaries lead to SNe Ia. Furthermore, significant discrepancies exist between observations and theory, and to date, ther...

  12. Neutron star formation in theoretical supernovae. Low mass stars and white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The presupernova evolution of stars that form semi-degenerate or strongly degenerate O + Ne + Mg cores is discussed. For the 10 to 13 Msub solar stars, behavior of off-center neon flashes is crucial. The 8 to 10 m/sub solar stars do not ignite neon and eventually collapse due to electron captures. Properties of supernova explosions and neutron stars expected from these low mass progenitors are compared with the Crab nebula. The conditions for which neutron stars form from accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs in clsoe binary systems is also examined

  13. A physical interpretation of the jet-like X-ray emission from supernova remnant W49B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miceli, M.; Miceli, M.; Decourchelle, A.; Ballet, J.; Miceli, M.; Bocchino, F.; Hughes, J.; Hwang, U.; Hwang, U.; Petre, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the study of supernova remnants and their complex interaction with the interstellar medium and the circumstellar material, we focus on the galactic supernova remnant W49B. Its morphology exhibits an X-ray bright elongated nebula, terminated on its eastern end by a sharp perpendicular structure aligned with the radio shell. The X-ray spectrum of W49B is characterized by strong K emission lines from Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. There is a variation of the temperature in the remnant with the highest temperature found in the eastern side and the lowest one in the western side. The analysis of the recent observations of W49B indicates that the remnant may be the result of an asymmetric bipolar explosion where the ejecta are collimated along a jet-like structure and the eastern jet is hotter and more Fe-rich than the western one. Another possible scenario associates the X-ray emission with a spherical explosion where parts of the ejecta are interacting with a dense belt of ambient material. To overcome this ambiguity we present new results of the analysis of an XMM-Newton observation and we perform estimates of the mass and energy of the remnant. We conclude that the scenario of an anisotropic jet-like explosion explains quite naturally our observation results, but the association of W49B with a hyper-nova and a gamma-ray burst, although still possible, is not directly supported by any evidence. (authors)

  14. Deflagration to detonation transition in thermonuclear supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charignon, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are an important tool to determine the expansion history of our Universe. Thus, considerable attention has been given to both observations and models of these events. The most popular explosion model is the central ignition of a deflagration in the dense C+O interior of a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf, followed by a transition to a detonation (TDD). We study in this thesis a new mechanism for this transition. The most robust and studied progenitor model and the postulated mechanism for the TDD, the so called 'Zel'dovich gradient mechanism', are presented. State of the art 3D simulations of such a delayed detonation, at the price of some adjustments, can indeed reproduce observables. But due to largely unresolved physical scales, such simulations cannot explain the TDD by themselves, and especially, the physical mechanism which triggers this transition - which is not yet understood, even on Earth, for unconfined media. It is then discussed why the current Zel'dovich mechanism might be too constraining for a SN Ia model, pointing to a new approach, which is the core result of this thesis.In the final part, our alternative model for DDT in supernovae, the acoustic heating of the pre-supernova envelope, is presented. A planar model first proves that small amplitude acoustic perturbations (generated by a turbulent flame) are actually amplified in a steep density gradient, up to a point where they turn into shocks able to trigger a detonation. Then, this mechanism is applied to more realistic models, taking into account, in spherical geometry, the expanding envelope. A parametric study demonstrates the validity of the model for a reasonable range of acoustic wave amplitudes and frequencies.To conclude, some exploratory 2D and 3D MHD simulations, seeking for realistic acoustic source compatible with our mechanism, are presented. (author) [fr

  15. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  16. Freely Expanding Knots of X-Ray-emitting Ejecta in Kepler’s Supernova Remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshiki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Hughes, John P., E-mail: toshiki@astro.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report measurements of proper motion, radial velocity, and elemental composition for 14 compact X-ray-bright knots in Kepler’s supernova remnant (SNR) using archival Chandra data. The knots with the highest speed show both large proper motions ( μ ∼ 0.″11–0.″14 yr{sup −1}) and high radial velocities ( v ∼ 8700–10,020 km s{sup −1}). For these knots the estimated space velocities (9100 km s{sup −1} ≲ v {sub 3D} ≲ 10,400 km s{sup −1}) are similar to the typical Si velocity seen in supernovae (SNe) Ia near maximum light. High-speed ejecta knots appear only in specific locations and are morphologically and kinematically distinct from the rest of the ejecta. The proper motions of five knots extrapolate back over the age of Kepler’s SNR to a consistent central position. This new kinematic center agrees well with previous determinations, but is less subject to systematic errors and denotes a location about which several prominent structures in the remnant display a high degree of symmetry. These five knots are expanding at close to the free expansion rate (expansion indices of 0.75 ≲ m ≲ 1.0), which we argue indicates either that they were formed in the explosion with a high density contrast (more than 100 times the ambient density) or that they have propagated through regions of relatively low density ( n {sub H} < 0.1 cm{sup −3}) in the ambient medium. X-ray spectral analysis shows that the undecelerated knots have high Si and S abundances, a lower Fe abundance, and very low O abundance, pointing to an origin in the partial Si-burning zone, which occurs in the outer layer of the exploding white dwarf for models of SNe Ia. Other knots show lower speeds and expansion indices consistent with decelerated ejecta knots or features in the ambient medium overrun by the forward shock. Our new accurate location for the explosion site has well-defined positional uncertainties, allowing for a great reduction in the area to be searched for faint

  17. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

  18. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J.; Indebetouw, R.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Baes, M.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L.; Bolatto, A.; Dunne, L.; Fransson, C.; Gomez, H. L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Hopwood, R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lakicevic, M.; Marcaide, J.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Meixner, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M ☉ of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at ∼2000 km s –1 . Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations

  19. THE MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II-LINEAR SUPERNOVA 2009kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Steele, Thea N.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Vinko, Jozsef; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Foley, Ryan J.

    2010-01-01

    We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) 2009kr in NGC 1832. We find that its properties to date support its classification as Type II-linear (SN II-L), a relatively rare subclass of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We have also identified a candidate for the SN progenitor star through comparison of pre-explosion, archival images taken with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope with SN images obtained using adaptive optics plus NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck-II telescope. Although the host galaxy's substantial distance (∼26 Mpc) results in large uncertainties in the relative astrometry, we find that if this candidate is indeed the progenitor, it is a highly luminous (M 0 V = -7.8 mag) yellow supergiant with initial mass ∼18-24 M sun . This would be the first time that an SN II-L progenitor has been directly identified. Its mass may be a bridge between the upper initial mass limit for the more common Type II-plateau SNe and the inferred initial mass estimate for one Type II-narrow SN.

  20. Binary Paths to Type Ia Supernovae Explosions: the Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    This symposium was focused on the hunt for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Is there a main channel for the production of SNe Ia? If so, are these elusive progenitors single degenerate or double degenerate systems? Although most participants seemed to favor the single degenerate channel, there was no general agreement on the type of binary system at play. An observational puzzle that was highlighted was the apparent paucity of supersoft sources in our Galaxy and also in external galaxies. The single degenerate channel (and as it was pointed out, quite possibly also the double degenerate channel) requires the binary system to pass through a phase of steady nuclear burning. However, the observed number of supersoft sources falls short by a factor of up to 100 in explaining the estimated birth rates of SNe Ia. Thus, are these supersoft sources somehow hidden away and radiating at different wavelengths, or are we missing some important pieces of this puzzle that may lead to the elimination of a certain class of progenitor? Another unanswered question concerns the dependence of SNe Ia luminosities on the age of their host galaxy. Several hypotheses were put forward, but none was singled out as the most likely explanation. It is fair to say that at the end of the symposium the definitive answer to the vexed progenitor question remained well and truly wide open.

  1. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  2. Late time optical spectra from the 56Ni model for Type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of 56 Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure 56 Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the 56 Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of 56 Ni and 56 Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the 56 Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of 56 Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the 56 Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined

  3. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, N.; Morokuma, T.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Nomoto, K.; Baklanov, P.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS , metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg -2 day -1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  4. Confronting Models of Massive Star Evolution and Explosions with Remnant Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Carolyn A.; Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Özel, Feryal

    2018-03-01

    The mass distribution of compact objects provides a fossil record that can be studied to uncover information on the late stages of massive star evolution, the supernova explosion mechanism, and the dense matter equation of state. Observations of neutron star masses indicate a bimodal Gaussian distribution, while the observed black hole mass distribution decays exponentially for stellar-mass black holes. We use these observed distributions to directly confront the predictions of stellar evolution models and the neutrino-driven supernova simulations of Sukhbold et al. We find strong agreement between the black hole and low-mass neutron star distributions created by these simulations and the observations. We show that a large fraction of the stellar envelope must be ejected, either during the formation of stellar-mass black holes or prior to the implosion through tidal stripping due to a binary companion, in order to reproduce the observed black hole mass distribution. We also determine the origins of the bimodal peaks of the neutron star mass distribution, finding that the low-mass peak (centered at ∼1.4 M ⊙) originates from progenitors with M ZAMS ≈ 9–18 M ⊙. The simulations fail to reproduce the observed peak of high-mass neutron stars (centered at ∼1.8 M ⊙) and we explore several possible explanations. We argue that the close agreement between the observed and predicted black hole and low-mass neutron star mass distributions provides new, promising evidence that these stellar evolution and explosion models capture the majority of relevant stellar, nuclear, and explosion physics involved in the formation of compact objects.

  5. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10 6 M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints

  6. Study of the $^{44}$Ti$(\\alpha,p)^{47}$V47 reaction and implications for core collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Margerin, V; Davinson, T; Dressler, R; Fallis, J; Kankainen, A; Laird, A M; Lotay, G; Mountford, D J; Murphy, C D; Seiffert, C; Schumann, D; Stowasser, T; Stora, T; Wang, C H -T; Woods, P J

    2014-01-01

    The underlying physics triggering core collapse supernovae is not fully understood but observations of material ejected during such events helps to solve this puzzle. In particular, several satellite based γ -ray observations of the isotope 44 Ti have been reported recently. Conveniently, the amount of this isotope in stellar ejecta is thought to depend critically on the explosion mechanism. The most influential reaction to the amount of 44 Ti in supernovae is 44 Ti ( α , p ) 47 V. Here we report on a direct study of this reaction conducted at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. The experiment was performed with a 44 Ti beam at E lab = 2 . 16 MeV / u, corresponding to an energy distribution, for reacting α -particles, centred on E cm = 4 . 15 with a 1 σ width of 0.23 MeV. This is, for the first time, well within the Gamow window for core collapse supernovae. The material from which the 44 Ti beam was extracted originates from highly irradiated components of the SINQ spallation neutron source of the Paul Scherr...

  7. Measuring the Progenitor Masses and Dense Circumstellar Material of Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Valenti, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    Recent modeling of hydrogen-rich Type II supernova (SN II) light curves suggests the presence of dense circumstellar material (CSM) surrounding the exploding progenitor stars. This has important implications for the activity and structure of massive stars near the end of their lives. Since previous work focused on just a few events, here we expand to a larger sample of 20 well-observed SNe II. For each event we are able to constrain the progenitor zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass, explosion energy, and the mass and radial extent of the dense CSM. We then study the distribution of each of these properties across the full sample of SNe. The inferred ZAMS masses are found to be largely consistent with a Salpeter distribution with minimum and maximum masses of 10.4 and 22.9 M ⊙, respectively. We also compare the individual ZAMS masses we measure with specific SNe II that have pre-explosion imaging to check their consistency. Our masses are generally comparable to or higher than the pre-explosion imaging masses, potentially helping ease the red supergiant problem. The explosion energies vary from (0.1–1.3) × 1051 erg, and for ∼70% of the SNe we obtain CSM masses in the range between 0.18 and 0.83 M ⊙. We see a potential correlation between the CSM mass and explosion energy, which suggests that pre-explosion activity has a strong impact on the structure of the star. This may be important to take into account in future studies of the ability of the neutrino mechanism to explode stars. We also see a possible correlation between the CSM radial extent and ZAMS mass, which could be related to the time with respect to explosion when the CSM is first generated.

  8. The nature of the Vela X-ray ``jet". The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the origin of filamentary structures in the Vela supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    1999-12-01

    The nature of the Vela X-ray ``jet", recently discovered by Markwardt & Ögelman (1995), is examined. It is suggested that the ``jet" arises along the interface of domelike deformations of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable shell of the Vela supernova remnant; thereby the ``jet" is interpreted as a part of the general shell of the remnant. The origin of deformations as well as the general structure of the remnant are discussed in the framework of a model based on a cavity explosion of a supernova star. It is suggested that the shell deformations viewed at various angles appear as filamentary structures visible throughout the Vela supernova remnant at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. A possible origin of the nebula of hard X-ray emission detected by Willmore et al. (1992) around the Vela pulsar is proposed.

  9. Preparing for an explosion: Hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence in presupernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nathan; Arnett, W. David, E-mail: nathans@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: darnett@as.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Both observations and numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life before core collapse. The most dramatic example of this disconnect is in the eruptive mass loss occurring in the decade preceding Type IIn supernovae. We outline the key empirical evidence that indicates severe pre-supernova instability in massive stars, and we suggest that the chief reason that these outbursts are absent in stellar evolution models may lie in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes. The mixing length theory that is used ignores (1) finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature and (2) their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. Including these fluctuations is likely to give rise to hydrodynamic instabilities in the latest burning sequences, which prompts us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced pre-supernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically alter calculations of the core-collapse explosion mechanism itself. These modifications may also impact detailed nucleosynthesis and measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, as well as the interpretation of young core-collapse supernova remnants. Understanding these critical instabilities in the final stages of evolution may make possible the development of an early warning system for impending core collapse, if we can identify their asteroseismological or eruptive signatures.

  10. Neutrino spectrum from SN 1987A and from cosmic supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, Hasan; Beacom, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of neutrinos from SN 1987A by the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven detectors provided the first glimpse of core collapse in a supernova, complementing the optical observations and confirming our basic understanding of the mechanism behind the explosion. One long-standing puzzle is that, when fitted with thermal spectra, the two independent detections do not seem to agree with either each other or typical theoretical expectations. We assess the compatibility of the two data sets in a model-independent way and show that they can be reconciled if one avoids any bias on the neutrino spectrum stemming from theoretical conjecture. We reconstruct the neutrino spectrum from SN 1987A directly from the data through nonparametric inferential statistical methods and present predictions for the diffuse supernova neutrino background based on SN 1987A data. We show that this prediction cannot be too small (especially in the 10-18 MeV range), since the majority of the detected events from SN 1987A were above 18 MeV (including 6 events above 35 MeV), suggesting an imminent detection in operational and planned detectors

  11. Electromagnetic pulse from supernovae. [model for old low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Upper and lower limits to the radiated electromagnetic pulse from a supernova are calculated assuming that the mass fraction of the matter expanding inside the dipole magnetic field shares energy and maintains the pressure balance in the process. A supernova model is described in which the explosion occurs in old low-mass stars containing less than 10% hydrogen in their ejecta and a remnant neutron star is produced. The analysis indicates that although the surface layer of a star of 1 g/cu thickness may be shock-accelerated to an energy factor of about 100 and may expand into the vacuum with an energy factor approaching 10,000, the equatorial magnetic field will retard this expansion so that the inner, more massive ejecta layers will effectively accelerate the presumed canonical dipole magnetic field to greater velocities than would the surface layer alone. A pulse of 10 to the 46th power ergs in a width of about 150 cm will result which will not be affected by circumstellar matter or electron self-radiation effects. It is shown that interstellar matter will attenuate the pulse, but that charge separation may reduce the attenuation and allow a larger pulse to escape.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Image, Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were created by the universe's biggest firecracker, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before the United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This HST image of Cas A shows for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the super nova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in January 2000 and January 2002. Image Credit: NASA and HST team (Stoics/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Fesen (Darmouth) and J. Morse ( Univ. of Colorado).

  13. Late time optical spectra from the /sup 56/Ni model for Type I supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of /sup 56/Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure /sup 56/Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the /sup 56/Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of /sup 56/Ni and /sup 56/Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the /sup 56/Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of /sup 56/Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the /sup 56/Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined.

  14. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  15. CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS IN ABSORPTION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have been predicted to modify their ambient circumstellar (CSM) and interstellar environments through the action of their powerful winds. While there is X-ray and optical evidence for circumstellar interaction in several remnants of Type Ia SNe, widespread evidence for such interaction in Type Ia SNe themselves has been lacking. We consider prospects for the detection of CSM shells that have been predicted to be common around Type Ia SNe. Such shells are most easily detected in Na I absorption lines. Variable (declining) absorption is expected to occur soon after the explosion, primarily during the SN rise time, for shells located within ∼1-10 pc of a SN. The distance of the shell from the SN can be determined by measuring the timescale for line variability.

  16. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: broad, multiple components indicate aspherical explosion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gall, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Höflich, P.; Hsiao, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, `transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct emission components, one redshifted and one blueshifted. These components are similar in mass but have slightly different degrees of ionization. They recede from one another at a line-of-sight speed larger than the sum of the combined expansion velocities of their emitting cores, thereby acting as two independent nebulae. While this configuration appears to be consistent with the scenario of two white dwarfs colliding, it may also indicate an off-centre delayed detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. In either case, broad emission line widths and a rapidly evolving light curve can be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC 1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two-component model yields somewhat better results than a single-component model. Most of the mass ejected is in one component, however, which suggests that SN 2011iv was the result of the off-centre ignition of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  18. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  19. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Blondin, John; Borkowski, Kazik; Reynolds, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Kepler’s supernova remnant contains unusual features that strongly suggest an origin in a single-degenerate Type Ia explosion, including anisotropic circumstellar medium (CSM), a strong brightness gradient, and spatially varying expansion proper motions. We present 3Dhydrodynamic simulations to test a picture in which Kepler's progenitor binary emitted a strong asymmetric wind, densest in the orbital plane, while the system moved at high velocity through the ISM. We simulate the creation of the presupernova environment as well as the supernova blast wave, using the VH-1 grid-based hydrodynamics code. We first modeled an anisotropic wind to create an asymmetric bowshock around the progenitor, then the blast wave from thesupernova. The final simulation places both previous model pieces onto a single grid and allows the blast wave to expand into the bowshock. Models were completed on a Yin-Yang grids with matching angular resolutions. By manipulating parameters that control the asymmetry of the system, we attempted to find conditions that recreated the current state of Kepler. We analyzed these models by comparing images of Kepler from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to line-of-sight projections from the model results. We also present comparisons of simulated expansion velocities with recent observations of X-ray proper motions from Chandra images. We were able to produce models that contained similar features to those seen in Kepler. We find the greatest resemblance to Kepler images with a presupernova wind with an equator-to-pole density contrast of 3 and a moderately disk-like CSM at a 5° angle between equatorial plane and system motion.

  20. MAGNETAR-POWERED SUPERNOVAE IN TWO DIMENSIONS. I. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Woosley, S. E.; Sukhbold, Tuguldur, E-mail: ken.chen@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Previous studies have shown that the radiation emitted by a rapidly rotating magnetar embedded in a young supernova can greatly amplify its luminosity. These one-dimensional studies have also revealed the existence of an instability arising from the piling up of radiatively accelerated matter in a thin dense shell deep inside the supernova. Here, we examine the problem in two dimensions and find that, while instabilities cause mixing and fracture this shell into filamentary structures that reduce the density contrast, the concentration of matter in a hollow shell persists. The extent of the mixing depends upon the relative energy input by the magnetar and the kinetic energy of the inner ejecta. The light curve and spectrum of the resulting supernova will be appreciably altered, as will the appearance of the supernova remnant, which will be shellular and filamentary. A similar pile up and mixing might characterize other events where energy is input over an extended period by a centrally concentrated source, e.g., a pulsar, radioactive decay, a neutrino-powered wind, or colliding shells. The relevance of our models to the recent luminous transient ASASSN-15lh is briefly discussed.

  1. Eulerian finite-difference calculations of explosions in partially water-filled overstrong cylindrical containment vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.L.; Herrmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations, using the two-dimensional Eulerian finite-difference code CSQ, were performed for the problem of a small spherical high-explosive charge detonated in a closed heavy-walled cylindrical container partially filled with water. Data from corresponding experiments, specifically performed to validate codes used for hypothetical core disruptive accidents of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, are available in the literature. The calculations were performed specifically to test whether Eulerian methods could handle this type of problem, to determine whether water cavitation, which plays a large role in the loadings on the roof of the containment vessel, could be described adequately by an equilibrium liquid-vapor mixed phase model, and to investigate the trade-off between accuracy and cost of the calculations by using different sizes of computational meshes. Comparison of the experimental and computational data shows that the Eulerian method can handle the problem with ease, giving good predictions of wall and floor loadings. While roof loadings are qualitatively correct, peak impulse appears to be affected by numerical resolution and is underestimated somewhat

  2. QCD matter in white dwarfs and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, M.; Lan, N.Q.; Suh, I.-S.

    2010-01-01

    The search for astrophysical evidence for a transition to QCD matter is an important goal. Although much effort has gone into searching for neutron star candidates, here we describe the exploration of two other possible signatures. One is the search for strange dwarfs. Masses and radii for a large number of white dwarfs have been deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. Some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equation of state. We argue that there is marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs that are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis. We also review the current status of core-collapse supernova research, and in particular, the effects on the explosion of a QCD phase transition in the proto-neutron-star core. We describe how a first order transition could enhance the explosion and lead to observable effects in the emergent neutrino light curve. (author)

  3. THE YELLOW SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II SUPERNOVA 2011dh IN M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maund, J. R.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Magill, L.; Ergon, M.; Sollerman, J.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Botticella, M.-T.; Valenti, S.; Bufano, F.; Danziger, I. J.; Stephens, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the detection of the putative progenitor of the Type IIb SN 2011dh in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. Using post-explosion Adaptive Optics imaging with Gemini NIRI+ALTAIR, the position of the supernova (SN) in the pre-explosion images was determined to within 23 mas. The progenitor candidate is consistent with an F8 supergiant star (logL/L sun = 4.92 ± 0.20 and T eff = 6000 ± 280 K). Through comparison with stellar evolution tracks, this corresponds to a single star at the end of core C-burning with an initial mass of M ZAMS = 13 ± 3 M sun . The possibility of the progenitor source being a cluster is rejected, on the basis of: (1) the source not being spatially extended, (2) the absence of excess Hα emission, and (3) the poor fit to synthetic cluster spectral energy distributions (SEDs). It is unclear if a binary companion is contributing to the observed SED, although given the excellent correspondence of the observed photometry to a single star SED we suggest that the companion does not contribute significantly. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations show fast evolution similar to the transitional Type IIb SN 2008ax and suggest that a large amount of the progenitor's hydrogen envelope was removed before explosion. Late-time observations will reveal if the yellow supergiant or the putative companion star were responsible for this SN explosion.

  4. Non-spherical core collapse supernovae. III. Evolution towards homology and dependence on the numerical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryszczak, A.; Guzman, J.; Plewa, T.; Kifonidis, K.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: We study the hydrodynamic evolution of a non-spherical core-collapse supernova in two spatial dimensions. We begin our study from the moment of shock revival - taking into account neutrino heating and cooling, nucleosynthesis, convection, and the standing accretion shock (SASI) instability of the supernova blast - and continue for the first week after the explosion when the expanding flow becomes homologous and the ejecta enter the early supernova remnant (SNR) phase. We observe the growth and interaction of Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities resulting in an extensive mixing of the heavy elements throughout the ejecta. We obtain a series of models at progressively higher resolution and provide a discussion of numerical convergence. Methods: Different from previous studies, our computations are performed in a single domain. Periodic mesh mapping is avoided. This is made possible by employing cylindrical coordinates, and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy in which the computational workload (defined as the product of the total number of computational cells and the length of the time step) is monitored and, if necessary, reduced. Results: Our results are in overall good agreement with the AMR simulations we have reported in the past. We show, however, that numerical convergence is difficult to achieve, due to the strongly non-linear nature of the problem. Even more importantly, we find that our model displays a strong tendency to expand laterally away from the equatorial plane and toward the poles. We demonstrate that this expansion is a physical property of the low-mode, SASI instability. Although the SASI operates only within about the first second of the explosion, it leaves behind a large lateral velocity gradient in the post shock layer which affects the evolution for minutes and hours later. This results in a prolate deformation of the ejecta and a fast advection of the highest-velocity 56Ni-rich material from

  5. Berkeley automated supernova search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  6. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  7. Possible linkage between supernovae, increased terrestrial lightning, and wildfire activity in the Late Miocene and Early Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. C.; Feulner, G.; Melott, A. L.; Kirsten, T.; von Bloh, W.

    2017-12-01

    Radioisotopes from deep-sea deposits show that Earth was affected by nearby supernovae about 2.5 and 8 million years ago. Recent modelling work shows that high-energy particles from these events resulted in greatly enhanced ionization of the troposphere. This could have led to an increase in wildfires via more frequent lightning. Here we show that published data on global fire activity from charcoal records reveal a marked increase in wildfires around the times of the supernova explosions. We use a dynamic global vegetation model to assess the impact of increased lightning frequency on vegetation patterns, finding a patchy global decrease in tree cover. Regionally, vegetation changes are particularly pronounced in western North America, the Mediterranean, Central Asia, Northern Indochina, subtropical South America, Africa and Australia, and notably East Africa, in agreement with empirical evidence for a global shift towards savannas during the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that moderately nearby supernovae have the potential to affect life on Earth even if they are too distant to initiate a mass extinction. Finally, we note that the shift from forest to savannah biomes in the East African Rift Valley region has been tentatively linked to hominin evolution in this region.

  8. Meteoritic anomalies and explosive neutron processing of helium-burning shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielemann, F.K.; Arnould, M.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1978-07-01

    The late addition to the average solar mix of some heavy elements, and particularly r-process nuclei of exotic composition seems to be compatible with recent meteoritic analyses. The very origin of such alien components and their peculiar composition have to be understood on grounds of astrophysical models. As a first step in this direction, the present work analyses the explosive nuclear processing associated with the passage of a supernova shock front through the helium-burning shell of a massive presupernova star, and particularly examines the resulting heavy (A >= 60) element yields. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  9. On the Possibility of Fast Radio Bursts from Inside Supernovae: The Case of SN 1986J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietenholz, Michael F.; Bartel, Norbert

    2017-12-01

    We discuss the possibility of obtaining fast radio bursts (FRBs) from the interior of supernovae, in particular SN 1986J. Young neutron stars are involved in many of the possible scenarios for the origin of FRBs, and it has been suggested that the high dispersion measures observed in FRBs might be produced by the ionized material in the ejecta of associated supernovae. Using VLA and VLBI measurements of the Type IIn SN 1986J, which has a central compact component not seen in other supernovae, we can directly observe for the first time radio signals, which originate in the interior of a young (∼30 year old) supernova. We show that at an age of 30 years, any FRB signal at ∼1 GHz would still be largely absorbed by the ejecta. By the time the ejecta have expanded so that a 1 GHz signal would be visible, the internal dispersion measure due to the SN ejecta would be below the values typically seen for FRBs. The high dispersion measures seen for the FRBs detected so far could of course be due to propagation through the intergalactic medium provided that the FRBs are at distances much larger than that of SN 1986J, which is 10 Mpc. We conclude that if FRBs originate in Type II SNe/SNRs, they would likely not become visible until 60 ∼ 200 years after the SN explosion.

  10. EARLY RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNGEST NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PTF 11kly (SN 2011fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Fox, Derek B.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S. Bradley; De Bruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    On 2011 August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of M-dot ∼ -8 (w/100 km s -1 ) M sun yr -1 from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main-sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the proximity of PTF11kly and the sensitivity of our prompt observations, we would have to wait for a long time (a decade or longer) in order to more meaningfully probe the circumstellar matter of SNe Ia.

  11. Observational properties of SNe Ia progenitors close to the explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambé, A.; Piersanti, L.; Raimondo, G.; Delgrande, R.

    2018-04-01

    We determine the expected signal in various observational bands of supernovae Ia progenitors just before the explosion by assuming the rotating double-degenerate scenario. Our results are valid also for all the evolutionary scenarios invoking rotation as the driving mechanism of the accretion process as well as the evolution up to the explosion. We find that the observational properties depend mainly on the mass of the exploding object, even if the angular momentum evolution after the end of the mass accretion phase and before the onset of C-burning plays a non-negligible role. Just before the explosion, the magnitude MV ranges between 9 and 11 mag, while the colour (F225W - F555W) is about -1.64 mag. The photometric properties remain constant for a few decades before the explosion. During the last few months, the luminosity decreases very rapidly. The corresponding decline in the optical bands varies from a few hundredths up to one magnitude, the exact value depending on both the white dwarf total mass and the braking efficiency at the end of the mass transfer. This feature is related to the exponentially increasing energy production, which drives the formation of a convective core rapidly extending over a large part of the exploding object. Also, a drop in the angular velocity occurs. We find that observations in the soft X band (0.5-2 keV) may be used to check if the evolution of the SNe Ia progenitors up to the explosion is driven by rotation and, hence, to discriminate among different progenitor scenarios.

  12. METAMORPHOSIS OF SN 2014C: DELAYED INTERACTION BETWEEN A HYDROGEN POOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA AND A NEARBY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Challis, P.; Drout, M. R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E.; Eldridge, J. J.; Fong, W.; Bietenholz, M.; Chornock, R.; Fransson, C.; Fesen, R. A.; Mackey, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf–Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30–300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution

  13. METAMORPHOSIS OF SN 2014C: DELAYED INTERACTION BETWEEN A HYDROGEN POOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA AND A NEARBY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Challis, P.; Drout, M. R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Eldridge, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Fong, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bietenholz, M. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Fransson, C. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mackey, J., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf–Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30–300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  14. THE STELLAR ANCESTRY OF SUPERNOVAE IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. I. THE MOST RECENT SUPERNOVAE IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badenes, Carles; Harris, Jason; Zaritsky, Dennis; Prieto, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    We use the star formation history (SFH) map of the Large Magellanic Cloud recently published by Harris and Zaritsky to study the sites of the eight smallest (and presumably youngest) supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Cloud: SN 1987A, N158A, N49, and N63A (core collapse remnants), 0509 - 67.5, 0519 - 69.0, N103B, and DEM L71 (Type Ia remnants). The local SFHs provide unique insights into the nature of the supernova (SN) progenitors, which we compare with the properties of the SN explosions derived from the remnants themselves and from SN light echoes. We find that all the core collapse SNe that we have studied are associated with vigorous star formation (SF) in the recent past. In the case of SN 1987A, the time of the last peak of SF (12 Myr) matches the lifetime of a star with the known mass of its blue supergiant progenitor (∼20 M sun ). More recent peaks of SF can lead to SNe with more massive progenitors, which opens the possibility of a Type Ib/c origin for SNRs N158A and N63A. Stars more massive than 21.5 M sun are very scarce around SNR N49, implying that the magnetar SGR 0526 - 66 in this SNR was either formed elsewhere or came from a progenitor with a mass well below the 30M sun threshold suggested in the literature. Three of our four Ia SNRs are associated with old, metal-poor stellar populations. This includes SNR 0509 - 67.5, which is known to have been originated by an extremely bright Type Ia event, and yet is located very far away from any sites of recent SF, in a population with a mean age of 7.9 Gyr. The Type Ia SNR N103B, on the other hand, is associated with recent SF, and might have had a relatively younger and more massive progenitor with substantial mass loss before the explosion. We discuss these results in the context of our present understanding of core collapse and Type Ia SN progenitors.

  15. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea, E-mail: cjc09@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s{sup –1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M{sub ☉}) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  16. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea

    2014-01-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s –1 ). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M ☉ ) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  17. Assessing the link between recent supernovae near Earth and the iron-60 anomaly in a deep-sea crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Michael M.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Some time ago, an enhanced concentration of the radionuclide 60Fe was discovered in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust, isolated in layers dating from about 2.2, Myr ago. Since 60Fe (half-life of 2.6, Myr) is not naturally produced on Earth, such an excess can only be attributed to extraterrestrial sources, particularly one or several nearby supernovae in the recent past. It has been speculated that these supernovae might have been involved in the formation of the Local Superbubble, our Galactic habitat. The aim of this talk is to provide a quantitative evidence for this scenario. For that purpose, I will present results from high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Superbubble and its neighbour Loop I in different environments, including a self-consistently evolved supernova-driven interstellar medium. For the superbubble modelling, the time sequence and locations of the generating core-collapse supernova explosions are taken into account, which are derived from the mass spectrum of the perished members of certain, carefully preselected stellar moving groups. The release and turbulent mixing of 60Fe is followed via passive scalars, where the yields of the decaying radioisotope were adjusted according to recent stellar evolution calculations. The models are able to reproduce both the timing and the intensity of the 60Fe excess observed with rather high precision.

  18. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF ∼ 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects

  19. THE PROGENITOR DEPENDENCE OF THE PRE-EXPLOSION NEUTRINO EMISSION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    We perform spherically symmetric general-relativistic simulations of core collapse and the postbounce pre-explosion phase in 32 presupernova stellar models of solar metallicity with zero-age main-sequence masses of 12-120 M ☉ . Using energy-dependent three-species neutrino transport in the two-moment approximation with an analytic closure, we show that the emitted neutrino luminosities and spectra follow very systematic trends that are correlated with the compactness (∼M/R) of the progenitor star's inner regions via the accretion rate in the pre-explosion phase. We find that these qualitative trends depend only weakly on the nuclear equation of state (EOS), but quantitative observational statements will require independent constraints on the EOS and the rotation rate of the core as well as a more complete understanding of neutrino oscillations. We investigate the simulated response of water Cherenkov detectors to the electron antineutrino fluxes from our models and find that the large statistics of a galactic core collapse event may allow robust conclusions on the inner structure of the progenitor star.

  20. THE PROGENITOR DEPENDENCE OF THE PRE-EXPLOSION NEUTRINO EMISSION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D., E-mail: evanoc@tapir.caltech.edu, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Mailcode 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We perform spherically symmetric general-relativistic simulations of core collapse and the postbounce pre-explosion phase in 32 presupernova stellar models of solar metallicity with zero-age main-sequence masses of 12-120 M {sub Sun }. Using energy-dependent three-species neutrino transport in the two-moment approximation with an analytic closure, we show that the emitted neutrino luminosities and spectra follow very systematic trends that are correlated with the compactness ({approx}M/R) of the progenitor star's inner regions via the accretion rate in the pre-explosion phase. We find that these qualitative trends depend only weakly on the nuclear equation of state (EOS), but quantitative observational statements will require independent constraints on the EOS and the rotation rate of the core as well as a more complete understanding of neutrino oscillations. We investigate the simulated response of water Cherenkov detectors to the electron antineutrino fluxes from our models and find that the large statistics of a galactic core collapse event may allow robust conclusions on the inner structure of the progenitor star.

  1. Nurseries of Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Teddy

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have long been the gold standard for precision cosmology and after several decades of intense research the supernova (SN) community was in 2011 honored by giving the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of Dark Energy to the leaders of the two big SN collaborations: S...

  2. Prompt effects of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Conflicting theories on the mechanisms of supernova production are examined. Supernova as sources of other phenomena such as comic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, and electromagnetic pulses are considered. 32 references

  3. Probing Dark Energy via Neutrino and Supernova Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Lawrence; Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Papucci, Michele; Perez, Gilad

    2006-07-10

    A novel method for extracting cosmological evolution parameters is proposed, using a probe other than light: future observations of the diffuse anti-neutrino flux emitted from core-collapse supernovae (SNe), combined with the SN rate extracted from future SN surveys. The relic SN neutrino differential flux can be extracted by using future neutrino detectors such as Gadolinium-enriched, megaton, water detectors or 100-kiloton detectors of liquid Argon or liquid scintillator. The core-collapse SN rate can be reconstructed from direct observation of SN explosions using future precision observatories. Our method, by itself, cannot compete with the accuracy of the optical-based measurements but may serve as an important consistency check as well as a source of complementary information. The proposal does not require construction of a dedicated experiment, but rather relies on future experiments proposed for other purposes.

  4. Probing Dark Energy via Neutrino and Supernova Observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence; Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Papucci, Michele; Perez, Gilad

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for extracting cosmological evolution parameters is proposed, using a probe other than light: future observations of the diffuse anti-neutrino flux emitted from core-collapse supernovae (SNe), combined with the SN rate extracted from future SN surveys. The relic SN neutrino differential flux can be extracted by using future neutrino detectors such as Gadolinium-enriched, megaton, water detectors or 100-kiloton detectors of liquid Argon or liquid scintillator. The core-collapse SN rate can be reconstructed from direct observation of SN explosions using future precision observatories. Our method, by itself, cannot compete with the accuracy of the optical-based measurements but may serve as an important consistency check as well as a source of complementary information. The proposal does not require construction of a dedicated experiment, but rather relies on future experiments proposed for other purposes

  5. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    parameters, the age of the Universe and the geometry of space can be derived. They have been the focus of a large number of astronomical programmes over the past decades. Many aspects of the currently preferred cosmological model, the Hot Big Bang , have been impressively confirmed by observations of the expansion of the Universe, the cosmic background radiation, and also the explanation of the synthesis of light elements. Still, our knowledge about the dynamical state of the Universe, as well as the early formation of structures, i.e., of galaxies and stars, is far from complete - this remains a field of active research. Possibly, the simplest way to test our present assumptions in this direction is to measure accurate distances and compare them with the expected cosmic scale. This is where the recent results contribute to our understanding of the Universe. The key role of supernovae The two research teams, both with participation from ESO [1], have concentrated on the study of rare stellar explosions, during which certain old stars undergo internal incineration. In this process, explosive nuclear fusion burns matter into the most stable atomic nucleus, iron, and releases a gigantic amount of energy. ESO PR Photo 50a/98 ESO PR Photo 50a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 648 pix - 768k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2431 pix - 8.5Mb] ESO PR Photo 50b/98 ESO PR Photo 50b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 649 pix - 784k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2432 pix - 8.4Mb] These photos illustrate the follow-up observations on which the new results described in this Press Release are based. Sky fields with clusters of galaxies are monitored with the 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) in Chile and spectra are obtained of suddenly appearing star-like objects that may be supernovae. Confirmed Type Ia supernovae are then monitored by ESO telescopes at La Silla and at other observatories. In PR Photo 50a/98 , a supernova at redshift z = 0.51 [2] (corresponding to a distance of about 10

  6. EVOLVING TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH SHORT DELAY TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Chen Xuefei; Han Zhanwen; Meng Xiangcun

    2009-01-01

    The single-degenerate model is currently a favorable progenitor model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent investigations on the white dwarf (WD) + He star channel of the single-degenerate model imply that this channel is noteworthy for producing SNe Ia. In this paper, we studied SN Ia birthrates and delay times of this channel via a detailed binary population synthesis approach. We found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the WD + He star channel is ∼0.3 x 10 -3 yr -1 according to our standard model, and that this channel can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (∼4.5 x 10 7 -1.4 x 10 8 yr). Meanwhile, these WD + He star systems may be related to the young supersoft X-ray sources prior to SN Ia explosions.

  7. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10{sup 5} years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  8. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10 5 years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  9. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM AND DISTANCE TO THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G84.2-0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, Denis A.; Green, Kaylie S., E-mail: leahy@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: ksgreen@ucalgary.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-11-20

    We analyze X-ray and radio observations of the supernova remnant G84.2-0.8. 1420 MHz atomic hydrogen (H I) line and radio continuum data yield H I absorption spectra and a new H I absorption distance of 5.8-6.2 kpc. Archival X-ray observations from ROSAT and Chandra which cover the area including G84.2-0.8 are analyzed to show extended X-ray emission from G84.2-0.8. Fits to X-ray spectra from Chandra, with the new H I distance of 5.8-6.2 kpc, are used to determine the Sedov parameters of the supernova remnant. G84.2-0.8 is large (16-18 pc radius), middle aged ({approx}9000 yr), expanding in low-density interstellar medium (0.02 cm{sup -3}), and consistent with a low explosion energy (0.8-6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg).

  10. [FeII] as a tracer supernova rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M J F; Van der Werf, P P; Israel, F P

    2012-01-01

    Supernovae play an integral role in the feedback of processed material into the ISM of galaxies and are responsible for most of the chemical enrichment of the universe. The rate of supernovae can also reveal the star formation histories. Supernova rate is usually measured through the non-thermal radio continuum luminosity, but in this paper we establish a quantitative relationship between the [FeII] 1.26 luminosity and supernova rate in a sample of 11 near-by starburst galaxies. SINFONI data cubes are used to perform a pixel pixel analysis of this correlation. Using Bry equivalent width and luminosity as the only observational inputs into Starburst 99, the supernova rate is derived at each pixel and a map of supernova rate is created. This is then compared morphologically and quantitatively to [FeII] 1.26 luminosity map. We find a strong linear and morphological correlation between supernova rate and [FeII] 1.26 on a pixel-pixel basis. The Starburst 99 derived supernova rates are also in good agreement with the radio derived supernova rates, which further demonstrates the strength of [FeII] as a tracer of supernova rate. With the strong correlation found in this sample of galaxies, we now qualitatively use [FeII] 1.26 to derive supernova rate on either a pixel-pixel or integrated galactic basis.

  11. Chandra Images Provide New Vision of Cosmic Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory released today reveal previously unobserved features in the remnants of three different supernova explosions. Two of the remnants G21.5-0.9 and PSR 0540-69 show dramatic details of the prodigious production of energetic particles by a rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron star, as well as the enormous shell structures produced by the explosions. The image of the third remnant, E0102-72, reveals puzzling spoke-like structures in its interior. G21.5-0.9, in the constellation of Scutum, is about 16,000 light years (1 light year = 6 trillion miles) from Earth. Chandra's image shows a bright nebula surrounded by a much larger diffuse cloud. Inside the inner nebula is a bright central source that is thought to be a rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron star. A rotating neutron star acts like a powerful generator, creating intense electric voltages that accelerate electrons to speeds close to the speed of light. The total output of this generator is greater than a thousand suns. The fluffy appearance of the central nebula is thought to be due to magnetic field lines which constrain the motions of the high-energy electrons. "It's a remarkable image," said Dr. Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Neither the inner core nor the outer shell has ever been seen before." "It is as though we have a set of Russian dolls, with structures embedded within structures," said Professor Gordon Garmire of Penn State University, and principal investigator of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, the X-ray camera that was used to make two of the images. NASA's project scientist, Dr. Martin Weisskopf of the Marshall Space Flight Center said, "Chandra's capability to provide surprises and insights continues." PSR 0540-69 PSR 0540-69 The existence of a rotating neutron star, or pulsar, in the center of G21.5-0.9 is inferred from the appearance of the nebula and the energy distribution of X-rays and radio

  12. Comparing Neutron Star Kicks to Supernova Remnant Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland-Ashford, Tyler; Lopez, Laura A. [The Ohio State University Department of Astronomy, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Auchettl, Katie [The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and Astro-particle Physics, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Temim, Tea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: holland-ashford.1@osu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Supernova explosions are inherently asymmetric and can accelerate new-born neutron stars (NSs) to hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Two prevailing theories to explain NS kicks are ejecta asymmetries (e.g., conservation of momentum between NS and ejecta) and anisotropic neutrino emission. Observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) can give us insights into the mechanism that generates these NS kicks. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between NS kick velocities and the X-ray morphologies of 18 SNRs observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Röntgen Satellite ( ROSAT ). We measure SNR asymmetries using the power-ratio method (a multipole expansion technique), focusing on the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole power ratios. Our results show no correlation between the magnitude of the power ratios and NS kick velocities, but we find that for Cas A and G292.0+1.8, whose emission traces the ejecta distribution, their NSs are preferentially moving opposite to the bulk of the X-ray emission. In addition, we find a similar result for PKS 1209–51, CTB 109, and Puppis A; however, their emission is dominated by circumstellar/interstellar material, so their asymmetries may not reflect their ejecta distributions. Our results are consistent with the theory that NS kicks are a consequence of ejecta asymmetries as opposed to anisotropic neutrino emission. In the future, additional observations to measure NS proper motions within ejecta-dominated SNRs are necessary to robustly constrain the NS kick mechanism.

  13. GAMMA RAYS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA SN 2014J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Grebenev, S.; Isern, J.; Bikmaev, I.; Bravo, E.; Chugai, N.; Jean, P.; Knödlseder, J.; Lebrun, F.; Kuulkers, E.

    2015-01-01

    The whole set of INTEGRAL observations of Type Ia supernova SN 2014J, covering the period 19–162 days after the explosion, has been analyzed. For spectral fitting the data are split into early and late periods covering days 19–35 and 50–162, respectively, optimized for 56 Ni and 56 Co lines. As expected for the early period, much of the gamma-ray signal is confined to energies below ∼200 keV, while for the late period it is strongest above 400 keV. In particular, in the late period, 56 Co lines at 847 and 1248 keV are detected at 4.7σ and 4.3σ, respectively. The light curves in several representative energy bands are calculated for the entire period. The resulting spectra and light curves are compared with a subset of models. We confirm our previous finding that the gamma-ray data are broadly consistent with the expectations for canonical one-dimensional models, such as delayed detonation or deflagration models for a near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. Late optical spectra (day 136 after the explosion) show rather symmetric Co and Fe line profiles, suggesting that, unless the viewing angle is special, the distribution of radioactive elements is symmetric in the ejecta

  14. Low-z Type Ia Supernova Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, Mario

    The discovery of acceleration and dark energy in 1998 arguably constitutes one of the most revolutionary discoveries in astrophysics in recent years. This paradigm shift was possible thanks to one of the most traditional cosmological tests: the redshift-distance relation between galaxies. This discovery was based on a differential measurement of the expansion rate of the universe: the current one provided by nearby (low-z) type Ia supernovae and the one in the past measured from distant (high-z) supernovae. This paper focuses on the first part of this journey: the calibration of the type Ia supernova luminosities and the local expansion rate of the universe, which was made possible thanks to the introduction of digital CCD (charge-coupled device) digital photometry. The new technology permitted us in the early 1990s to convert supernovae as precise tools to measure extragalactic distances through two key surveys: (1) the "Tololo Supernova Program" which made possible the critical discovery of the "peak luminosity-decline rate" relation for type Ia supernovae, the key underlying idea today behind precise cosmology from supernovae, and (2) the Calán/Tololo project which provided the low - z type Ia supernova sample for the discovery of acceleration.

  15. New aspects of the QCD phase transition in proto-neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Heinimann, Oliver; Liebendörfer, Matthias; Friedrich-Karl, Thielemann; Yudin, Andrey; Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The QCD phase transition from hadronic to deconfined quark matter is found to be a so-called “entropic” phase transition, characterized, e.g., by a negative slope of the phase transition line in the pressure-temperature phase diagram. In a first part of the present proceedings it is discussed that entropic phase transitions lead to unusual thermal properties of the equation of state (EoS). For example one finds a loss of pressure (a “softening”) of the proto-neutron star EoS with increasing entropy. This can lead to a novel, hot third family of compact stars, which exists only in the early proto-neutron star phase. Such a hot third family can trigger explosions of core-collapse supernovae. However, so far this special explosion mechanism was found to be working only for EoSs which are not compatible with the 2 M ⊙ constraint for the neutron star maximum mass. In a second part of the proceeding it is discussed which quark matter parameters could be favorable for this explosion mechanism, and have sufficiently high maximum masses at the same time. (paper)

  16. What stars become supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of empirical lines of evidence is assembled on the masses and stellar population types of stars that trigger supernova (SN) explosions. The main theoretical motivations are to determine whether type I supernovae (SN I) can have massive precursors, and whether there is an interval of stellar mass, between the masses of precursors of pulsars and white dwarfs, that is disrupted by carbon detonation. Statistical and other uncertainties in the empirical arguments are given particular attention, and are found to be more important than generally realized. Relatively secure conclusions include the following. Statistics of stellar birthrates, SN, pulsars, and SN remnants in the Galaxy show that SN II (or all SN) could arise from stars with masses greater than M/sub s/ where M/sub s/ approximately 49 to 12 M solar mass; the precursor mass range cannot be more closely defined from present data; nor can it be said whether all SN leave pulsars and/or extended radio remnants. Several methods of estimating the masses of stars that become white dwarfs are consistent with a lower limit, M/sub s/ greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass, so carbon detonation may indeed be avoided, although this conclusion is not secure. Studies of the properties of galaxies in which SN occur, and their distributions within galaxies, support the usual views that SN I have low-mass precursors (less than or equal to 5 M solar mass and typically less than or equal to 1 M solar mass) and SN II have massive precursors (greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass); the restriction of known SN II to Sc and Sb galaxies, to date, is shown to be consistent, statistically, with massive stars in other galaxies also dying as SN II. Possible implications of the peculiarities of some SN-producing galaxies are discussed. Suggestions are made for observational and theoretical studies that would help answer important remaining questions on the nature of SN precursors

  17. Electron Acceleration in Supernovae and Millimeter Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernovae launch a strong shock wave by the interaction of the expanding ejecta and surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM. At the shock, electrons are accelerated to relativistic speed, creating observed synchrotron emissions in radio wavelengths. In this paper, I suggest that SNe (i.e., < 1 year since the explosion provide a unique site to study the electron acceleration mechanism. I argue that the eciency of the acceleration at the young SN shock is much lower than conventionally assumed, and that the electrons emitting in the cm wavelengths are not fully in the Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA regime. Thus radio emissions from young SNe record information on the yet-unresolved 'injection' mechanism. I also present perspectives of millimeter (mm observations of SNe - this will provide opportunities to uniquely determine the shock physics and the acceleration efficiency, to test the non-linear DSA mechanism and provide a characteristic electron energy scale with which the DSA start dominating the electron acceleration.

  18. Intensive Monitoring Survey of Nearby Galaxies (IMSNG): Catching Early Light Curves of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Myungshin; IMSNG Team

    2018-01-01

    SNe light curves have been used to study the expansion history of the universe, and a lot of efforts have gone into understanding the overall shape of the radioactively powered light curve. However, we still have little direct observational evidence for the theorized SN progenitor systems. Recent studies suggest that the light curve of a supernova shortly after its explosion (world. Through this survey, we expect to catch the very early precursor emission as faint as R=21 mag (~0.1 Rsun for the progenitor). This poster outlines this project, and present a few scientific highlights, such as the early light curve of SN 2015F in NGC 2442.

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant O(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate O(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ''ray-by-ray'' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ''ray-by-ray'' calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion

  20. A Peculiar Subclass of Type Ia Supernovae a.k.a. Type Iax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mridweeka; Misra, Kuntal; Sahu, Devendra Kumar; Dastidar, Raya; Gangopadhyay, Anjasha; Bose, Subhash; Srivastav, Shubham; Anapuma, Gadiyara Chakrapani; Chakradhari, Nand Kumar; Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2018-04-01

    We present optical photometric (upto ˜ 410 days since Bmax) and spectroscopic (upto ˜ 235 days since Bmax) observations of a type Iax supernova SN 2014dt located in M61. The broad band light curves follow a linear decline up to ˜ 100 days after which a significant flattening is seen in the late-time (beyond 150 days) light curves of SN 2014dt. SN 2014dt best matches the light curve evolution of SN 2005hk and reaches a peak magnitude of MB˜ -18.12±0.04 with ?m15˜ 1.35±0.06 mag. The earliest spectrum at ˜ 23 days is dominated by FeII and CoII lines with the absence of the Si II 6150 Å line. Using the peak bolometric luminosity we estimate a 56Ni mass of 0.14 M⊙ in the case of SN 2005hk and the striking similarity between SN 2014dt and SN 2005hk implies that a comparable amount of 56Ni would have been synthesized in the explosion of SN 2014dt. There are several explosion scenarios proposed for these peculiar events. Being one of the brightest and closest SN! , SN 2014dt is an ideal candidate for long term monitoring. Late phase observations are very essential to understand the progenitor system and the actual explosion scenario for these events.

  1. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Margutti, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  2. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, Raffaella, E-mail: jguillochon@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  3. Nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning in massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The production of heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning has been calculated using a hydrodynamical model of a 15 M/sub sun/ (Type II) supernovae and a n-process nuclear reaction network. The resulting neutron-rich heavy nuclei are not produced in the relative abundances of solar-system r-process material, especially in the vicinity of Pt, nor are any actinides produced. These deficiencies reflect an inadequate supply of neutrons. However, some neutron-rich isotopes, normally associated with the r-process, are produced which may be significant for the production of isotopic anomalies in meteorites

  4. Supernova real-time monitor system in Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Y.; Yamada, M.; Ishida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    1994-01-01

    A data-analysis program to discover possible supernova neutrino bursts has been installed in the online data-acquisition computer of the Kamiokande experiment. The program automatically analyzes data within 20 min and gives an alarm to collaborators if a possible supernova neutrino burst is found. The detection efficiency of the program is 96% for a typical supernova located 50 kpc from Earth. After a careful analysis by the Kamiokande collaborators, it will be possible to inform all optical observatories in the world about the occurrence of a supernova within 3 h from the time of first detecting the neutrino burst. Information