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Sample records for supernova sn rate

  1. SN 1054: A pulsar-powered supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Ze; Yu, Yun-Wei; Huang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The famous ancient supernova SN 1054 could have been too bright to be explained in the “standard” radioactive-powered supernova scenario. As an alternative attempt, we demonstrate that the spin-down of the newly born Crab pulsar could provide a sufficient energy supply to make SN 1054 visible at daytime for 23 days and at night for 653 days, where a one-zone semi-analytical model is employed. Our results indicate that SN 1054 could be a “normal” cousin of magnetar-powered superluminous supernovae. Therefore, SN 1054-like supernovae could be a probe to uncover the properties of newly born neutron stars, which provide initial conditions for studies on neutron star evolutions.

  2. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  3. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  4. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  5. A spitzer space telescope study of SN 2002hh: An infrared echo from a type llP supernova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meikle, W. P. S.; Mattila, S.; Gerardy, C. L.;

    2006-01-01

    Stars: Supernovae: General, supernovae: individual (NGC 6946), Stars: Supernovae: Individual: Alphanumeric: SN 2002hh Udgivelsesdato: May 22......Stars: Supernovae: General, supernovae: individual (NGC 6946), Stars: Supernovae: Individual: Alphanumeric: SN 2002hh Udgivelsesdato: May 22...

  6. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  7. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog $-$ II. 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J; Bishop, D W; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Godoy-Rivera, D; Goss, N; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Skowron, D M; Thompson, Todd A; Woźniak, P R; Avíla, C G; Bock, G; Carballo, J -L G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; andújar, J M F; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E Y; Kiyota, S; Koff, R A; Krannich, G; Madore, B F; Marples, P; Masi, G; Morrell, N; Monard, L A G; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wagner, R M; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  8. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog - II. 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J.; Bishop, D. W.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Chen, Ping; Danilet, A. B.; Falco, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Goss, N.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G. V.; Skowron, D. M.; Thompson, Todd A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Bock, G.; Carballo, J.-L. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Andújar, J. M. F.; Guo, Zhen; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Madore, B. F.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Morrell, N.; Monard, L. A. G.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wagner, R. M.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during 2015, its second full year of operations. The same information is presented for bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered by other sources in 2015. As with the first ASAS-SN bright supernova catalog, we also present redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes for all supernova host galaxies in both samples. Combined with our previous catalog, this work comprises a complete catalog of 455 supernovae from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were previously impossible. This is the second of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  9. Type Ia Supernovae: Colors, Rates, and Progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Heringer, Epson; Kezwer, Jason; Graham, Melissa L; Sand, David; Bildfell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The rate of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a galaxy depends not only on stellar mass, but also on star formation history. Here we show that two simple observational quantities ($g-r$ or $u-r$ host galaxy color, and $r$-band luminosity), coupled with an assumed delay time distribution (the rate of SNe Ia as a function of time for an instantaneous burst of star formation), are sufficient to accurately determine a galaxy's SN Ia rate, with very little sensitivity to the precise details of the star formation history. Using this result, we compare observed and predicted color distributions of SN Ia hosts for the MENeaCS cluster supernova survey, and for the SDSS Stripe 82 supernova survey. The observations are consistent with a continuous delay time distribution (DTD), without any cutoff. For old progenitor systems the power-law slope for the DTD is found to be $-1.50 ^{+0.19} _{-0.15}$. This result favours the double degenerate scenario for SN Ia, though other interpretations are possible. We find that the late-t...

  10. A Luminous Peculiar Type Ia Supernova SN 2011hr: More Like SN 1991T or SN 2007if?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jujia; Sasdelli, Michele; Zhang, Tianmeng; Liu, Zhengweei; Mazzali, Paolo A; Meng, Xiangcun; Maeda, Keiichi; Chen, Juncheng; Huang, Fang; Zhao, Xulin; Zhang, Kaicheng; Zhai, Qian; Pian, Elena; Wang, Bo; Chang, Liang; Yi, Weimin; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Wang, Xueli; Xin, Yuxin; Wang, Jianguo; Lun, Baoli; Zheng, Xiangming; Zhang, Xiliang; Fan, Yufeng; Bai, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of a slowly declining, luminous type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011hr in the star-burst galaxy NGC 2691 are presented. SN~2011hr is found to peak at $M_{B}=-19.84 \\pm 0.40\\,\\rm{mag}$, with a post-maximum decline rate $\\Delta$m$_{15}$(B) = 0.92 $\\pm$ 0.03\\,$\\rm{mag}$. From the maximum-light bolometric luminosity, $L=(2.30 \\pm 0.90) \\times 10^{43}\\,\\rm{erg\\,s^{-1}}$, we estimate the mass of synthesized \\Nifs\\ in SN~2011hr to be $M(\\rm{^{56}Ni})=1.11 \\pm 0.43\\,M_{\\sun}$. SN 2011hr appears more luminous than SN 1991T at around maximum light, and the absorption features from its intermediate-mass elements (IMEs) are noticeably weaker than the latter at similar phases. Spectral modelling suggests that SN 2011hr has the IMEs of $\\sim$\\,0.07 M$_{\\sun}$ in the outer ejecta, which is much lower than the typical value of normal SNe Ia (i.e., 0.3 -- 0.4 M$_{\\sun}$) and is also lower than the value of SN 1991T (i.e., $\\sim$\\,0.18 M$_{\\sun}$). These results indicate that SN~2011hr may ...

  11. Cosmic Supernova Rate History and Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2001-01-01

    Adopting a single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernova progenitors with the metallicity effect, we make a prediction of the cosmic supernova rate history as a composite of the supernova rates in spiral and elliptical galaxies, and compare with the recent observational data up to z ~ 0.55.

  12. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  13. SN 1987A: The Supernova of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborne, George

    2012-01-01

    Supernova 1987 A in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most intensively studied objects in the universe and a Rosetta Stone for understanding the explosions of massive stars. Approaching its 25th anniversary, SN 1987 A is a very young supernova remnant, a phase previously unobserved in any other supernova. The supernova of the 20th Century is now the supernova remnant of the 21st Century. In this talk I will discuss recent observations from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared with HST, the VLT, Spitzer, and the Herschel Space Observatory. These data reveal new insights into the composition, geometry, and heating of the explosion debris, the shock interaction with circumstellar material, and dust in the SN 1987 A system.

  14. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  15. The supernova rate: a critical ingredient and an important tool

    CERN Document Server

    Mannucci, F

    2009-01-01

    In this review I summarize the role of supernova rate as a critical ingredient of modern astrophysics, and as an important tool to understand SN explosions. Many years of active observations and theoretical modeling have produced several important results. In particular, linking SN rates with parent stellar populations has proved to be an important strategy. Despite these advances, the situation is far from clear, in particular for the SNe Ia.

  16. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from CLASH: the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, O; Maoz, D; Riess, A G; Jha, S W; Postman, M; Dahlen, T; Holoien, T W -S; McCully, C; Patel, B; Strolger, L -G; Benitez, N; Coe, D; Jouvel, S; Medezinski, E; Molino, A; Nonino, M; Bradley, L; Koekemoer, A; Balestra, I; Blondin, S; Cenko, S B; Clubb, K I; Dickinson, M E; Filippenko, A V; Frederiksen, T F; Garnavich, P; Hjorth, J; Jones, D O; Leibundgut, B; Matheson, T; Mobasher, B; Rosati, P; Silverman, J M; U, V; Jedruszczuk, K; Li, C; Lin, K; Mirmelstein, M; Neustadt, J; Ovadia, A; Rogers, E H

    2013-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ~11 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 99% significance level.

  17. Cosmic Supernova Rates and the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F

    2006-01-01

    We compute the type Ia, Ib/c and II supernova (SN) rates as functions of the cosmic time for galaxies of different morphological types. We use four different chemical evolution models, each one reproducing the features of a particular morphological type: E/S0, S0a/b, Sbc/d and Irr galaxies. We essentially describe the Hubble sequence by means of decreasing efficiency of star formation and increasing infall timescale. These models are used to study the evolution of the SN rates per unit luminosity and per unit mass as functions of cosmic time and as functions of the Hubble type. Our results indicate that: (i) the observed increase of the SN rate per unit luminosity and unit mass from early to late galaxy types is accounted for by our models. Our explanation of this effect is related to the fact that the latest Hubble types have the highest star formation rate per unit mass; (ii) By adopting a Scalo (1986) initial mass function in spiral disks, we find that massive single stars ending their lives as Wolf-Rayet ...

  18. SN2002es-like Supernovae From Different Viewing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Papadogiannakis, S; Nugent, P E; Masci, Frank J; Bue, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we compare optical light curves of two SN2002es-like Type Ia supernovae, iPTF14atg and iPTF14dpk, from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. Although the two light curves resemble each other around and after maximum, they show distinct early-phase rise behavior in the $\\textit{r}$-band. On the one hand, iPTF14atg revealed a slow and steady rise which lasted for 22 days with a mean rise rate of $0.2\\sim0.3\\,\\textrm{mag}\\,\\textrm{day}^{-1}$, before it reached the $R$-band peak ($-18.05\\,$mag). On the other hand, iPTF14dpk rose rapidly to $-17\\,$mag within a day of discovery with a rise rate $>1.8\\,\\textrm{mag}\\,\\textrm{day}^{-1}$, and then rose slowly to its peak ($-18.19\\,$mag) with a rise rate similar to iPTF14atg. The apparent total rise time of iPTF14dpk is therefore only 16 days. We show that emission from iPTF14atg before $-17\\,$days with respect to its maximum can be entirely attributed to radiation produced by collision between the SN and its companion star. Such emission is absent...

  19. SN 2002cx The Most Peculiar Known Type Ia Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W; Chornock, R; Berger, E; Berlind, P; Calkins, M L; Challis, P M; Fassnacht, C D; Jha, S; Kirshner, R P; Matheson, T; Sargent, W L W; Simcoe, R A; Smith, G H; Squires, G; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter; Fassnacht, Chris; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Smith, Graeme H.; Squires, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) 2002cx, which reveal it to be unique among all observed type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SN 2002cx exhibits a SN 1991T-like premaximum spectrum, a SN 1991bg-like luminosity, and expansion velocities roughly half those of normal SNe Ia. Photometrically, SN 2002cx has a broad peak in the $R$ band and a plateau phase in the $I$ band, and slow late-time decline. The $(B - V)$ color evolution is nearly normal, but the $(V - R)$ and $(V - I)$ colors are very red. Early-time spectra of SN 2002cx evolve very quickly and are dominated by lines from Fe-group elements; features from intermediate-mass elements (Ca, S, Si) are weak or absent. Mysterious emission lines are observed around 7000 \\AA\\ at about 3 weeks after maximum brightness. The nebular spectrum of SN 2002cx is also unique, consisting of narrow iron and cobalt lines. The observations of SN 2002cx are inconsistent with the observed spectral/photometric sequence, and provide a major challenge...

  20. Type Ia Supernovae Rates and Galaxy Clustering from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, M L; Sullivan, M; Gwyn, S D J; Neill, J D; Hsiao, E Y; Astier, Pierre; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Regnault, N; Baumont, S; Du, J Le; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Suzuki, N; Walker, E S; Zhang, T

    2008-01-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) has created a large homogeneous database of intermediate redshift (0.2 < z < 1.0) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The SNLS team has shown that correlations exist between SN Ia rates, properties, and host galaxy star formation rates. The SNLS SN Ia database has now been combined with a photometric redshift galaxy catalog and an optical galaxy cluster catalog to investigate the possible influence of galaxy clustering on the SN Ia rate, over and above the expected effect due to the dependence of SFR on clustering through the morphology-density relation. We identify three cluster SNe Ia, plus three additional possible cluster SNe Ia, and find the SN Ia rate per unit mass in clusters at intermediate redshifts is consistent with the rate per unit mass in field early-type galaxies and the SN Ia cluster rate from low redshift cluster targeted surveys. We also find the number of SNe Ia in cluster environments to be within a factor of two of expectati...

  1. The circumstellar medium of the peculiar supernova SN1997ab

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanca, I M; Tenorio-Tagle, G; Telles, E; Terlevich, R J; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Salamanca, Isabel; Cid-Fernandes, Roberto; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    1998-01-01

    We report the detection of the slow moving wind into which the compact supernova remnant SN 1997ab is expanding. Echelle spectroscopy provides clear evidence for a well resolved narrow (Full Width at Zero Intensity, FWZI ~ 180 km/s) P-Cygni profile, both in Ha and Hb, superimposed on the broad emission lines of this compact supernova remnant. From theoretical arguments we know that the broad and strong emission lines imply a circumstellar density (n ~ 10^7 cm^-3). This, together with our detection, implies a massive and slow stellar wind experienced by the progenitor star shortly prior to the explosion.

  2. The Supernova Type Ia Rate Evolution with SNLS

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, J D; Balam, D; Pritchet, C J; Howell, D A; Perrett, K; Astier, Pierre; Aubourg, E; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fabbro, S; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hook, I; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Taillet, R; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Balland, C; Baumont, S; Bronder, J; Ellis, Richard S; Filiol, M; Hardin, D; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lusset, V; Mouchet, M; Mourao, A; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Schlegel, D J; Tao, C

    2007-01-01

    We present a progress report on a project to derive the evolution of the volumetric supernova Type Ia rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey. Our preliminary estimate of the rate evolution divides the sample from Neill et al. (2006) into two redshift bins: 0.2 < z < 0.4, and 0.4 < z < 0.6. We extend this by adding a bin from the sample analyzed in Sullivan et al. (2006) in the range 0.6 < z < 0.75 from the same time period. We compare the derived trend with previously published rates and a supernova Type Ia production model having two components: one component associated closely with star formation and an additional component associated with host galaxy mass. Our observed trend is consistent with this model, which predicts a rising SN Ia rate out to at least z=2.

  3. SN Refsdal: Classification as a Luminous and Blue SN 1987A-like Type II Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, P L; Selsing, J; Foley, R J; Hjorth, J; Rodney, S A; Christensen, L; Strolger, L -G; Filippenko, A V; Treu, T; Steidel, C C; Strom, A; Riess, A G; Zitrin, A; Schmidt, K B; Bradac, M; Jha, S W; Graham, M L; McCully, C; Graur, O; Weiner, B J; Silverman, J M

    2015-01-01

    We have acquired Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Very Large Telescope near-infrared spectra and images of supernova (SN) Refsdal after its discovery as an Einstein cross in Fall 2014. The HST light curve of SN Refsdal matches the distinctive, slowly rising light curves of SN 1987A-like supernovae (SNe), and we find strong evidence for a broad H-alpha P-Cygni profile in the HST grism spectrum at the redshift (z = 1.49) of the spiral host galaxy. SNe IIn, powered by circumstellar interaction, could provide a good match to the light curve of SN Refsdal, but the spectrum of a SN IIn would not show broad and strong H-alpha absorption. From the grism spectrum, we measure an H-alpha expansion velocity consistent with those of SN 1987A-like SNe at a similar phase. The luminosity, evolution, and Gaussian profile of the H-alpha emission of the WFC3 and X-shooter spectra, separated by ~2.5 months in the rest frame, provide additional evidence that supports the SN 1987A-like classification. In comparison with other exam...

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: VI. The Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Barbary, K; Amanullah, R; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanford, S A; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce sig...

  5. Radio evolution of supernova SN 2008iz in M 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, N.; Sendlinger, K.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Henkel, C.; Falcke, H.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Bower, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN 2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M 82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S ∝ tβ, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices of β = -1.22 ± 0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41 ± 0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light-curve evolution shows flux-density flares at ~970 and ~1400 days that are a factor of ~2 and ~4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, except for being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23; day 2167). We derive the spectral index, α, S ∝ να for frequencies 1.4 to 43 GHz for SN 2008iz during the period from ~430 to 2167 days after the supernova explosion. The value of α shows no signs of evolution and remains steep ≈-1 throughout the period, unlike that of SN 1993J, which started flattening at ~day 970. From the 4.8 and 8.4 GHz VLBI images, the supernova expansion is seen to start with a shell-like structure that becomes increasingly more asymmetric, then breaks up in the later epochs, with bright structures dominating the southern part of the ring. This structural evolution differs significantly from SN 1993J, which remains circularly symmetric over 4000 days after the explosion. The VLBI 4.8 and 8.4 GHz images are used to derive a deceleration index, m, for SN 2008iz, of 0.86 ± 0.02, and the average expansion velocity between days 73 and 1400 as (12.1 ± 0.2) × 103 km s-1. From the energy equipartition between magnetic field and particles, we estimate the minimum total energy in relativistic particles and the magnetic fields during the supernova expansion and also find the magnetic field amplification factor for SN 2008iz to be in the range of 55-400. The VLBI images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  6. The Type II supernovae 2006V and 2006au: two SN 1987A-like events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Sollerman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Supernova 1987A revealed that a blue supergiant (BSG) star can end its life as a core-collapse supernova (SN). SN 1987A and other similar objects exhibit properties that distinguish them from ordinary Type II Plateau (IIP) SNe, whose progenitors are believed to be red supergiants (RSGs)....

  7. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  8. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z ~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, J D; Aubourg, E; Balam, D; Basa, S; Baumont, S; Bronder, J; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Filiol, M; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hook, I; Howell, D A; Lusset, V; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perlmutter, S; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ripoche, P; Sullivan, M; Taillet, R

    2006-01-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova rate derived from the first two years of the Canada -- France -- Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four one-square degree fields with a typical temporal frequency of ~ 4 observer-frame days over time spans of from 158 to 211 days per season for each field, with breaks during full moon. We used 8-10 meter-class telescopes for spectroscopic followup to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.2 =0.47) = 0.42^{+0.13}_{-0.09} (systematic) +- 0.06 (statistical) X 10^-4 yr^-1 Mpc^3, assuming h = 0.7, Omega_m = 0.3 and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of r_L(=0.47) = 0.154^{+0.048}_{-0.033} (systematic) ^{+0.039}_{-0.031} (statistical) SNu. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia p...

  9. MERLIN radio observations of two recent supernovae in Arp299: SN2010O & SN2010P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, R. J.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Mattila, S.; Garrington, S. T.; Kankare, E.; Ryder, S.; Alberdi, A.; Romero-Canizales, C.

    2010-02-01

    We report MERLIN radio observations of the two recent supernovae in Arp299; SN2010P and SN2010O (CBET #2145 and CBET #2144, respectively). Observations of Arp299 were made between 1900UT 29th Jan 2010 and 0150UT 1st Feb 2010 at 4994MHz. The previously known compact radio structure of Arp299, including the nuclear starburst components associated with A=IC694 and B1=the southernmost nucleus of NGC3690 are detected (Neff, Ulvestad & Teng 2004, ApJ, 611, 186; Ulvestad 2009 AJ, 138, 152; Perez-Torres et al 2009, A&A 507, 17).

  10. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dilday, Benjamin; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Mollá, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Östman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    ABRIDGED We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z <0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3$. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of $({0.37}^{+0.17+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.55}^{+0.13+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ ($\\mathrm{SNu}x = 10^{-12} L_{x\\sun}^{-1} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be $({0.31}^{+0.18+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.49}^{+0.15+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01})$ $\\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be $({2.04}^{+1.99+0.07}_{-1.11-0.04}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.36}^{+0.84+0.01}_...

  11. Early observations of the nearby type Ia supernova SN 2015F

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier, R; Firth, R; Pignata, G; Mazzali, P; Maguire, K; Childress, M J; Arcavi, I; Ashall, C; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; Gal-Yam, A; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Johansson, J; McCully, C; Prajs, S; Prentice, S; Schulze, S; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Smith, M; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present photometry and time-series spectroscopy of the nearby type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2015F over $-16$ days to $+80$ days relative to maximum light, obtained as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). SN 2015F is a slightly sub-luminous SN Ia with a decline rate of $\\Delta m15(B)=1.35 \\pm 0.03$ mag, placing it in the region between normal and SN 1991bg-like events. Our densely-sampled photometric data place tight constraints on the epoch of first light and form of the early-time light curve. The spectra exhibit photospheric C II $\\lambda 6580$ absorption until $-4$ days, and high-velocity Ca II is particularly strong at $14000$ km s$^{-1}$, suggesting mixing in the outermost layers of the SN ejecta. Although unusual in SN Ia spectra, including V II in the modelling significantly improves the spectral fits. Intriguingly, we detect an absorption feature at $\\sim$6800 \\AA\\ that persists until maximum light. Our favoured explanation for this line is photospheric Al II, w...

  12. Nearby Supernova Rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. I. The Methods and Database

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Jesse; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2010-01-01

    This is the first paper of a series in which we present new measurements of the observed rates of supernovae (SNe) in the local Universe, determined from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). We have obtained 2.3 million observations of 14,882 sample galaxies over an interval of 11 years (March 1998 through Dec. 2008). We considered 1036 SNe detected in our sample and used an optimal subsample of 726 SNe (274 SNe~Ia, 116 SNe~Ibc, 324 SNe~II) to determine our SN rates. This is the largest and most homogeneous set of nearby SNe ever assembled for this purpose, and ours is the first local SN rate analysis based on CCD imaging and modern image-subtraction techniques. In this paper, we lay the foundation of the study. We derive the recipe for the control-time calculation for SNe with a known luminosity function, and provide details on the construction of the galaxy and SN samples used in the calculations. Compared with a complete volume-limited galaxy sample, our sample has a deficit of low-luminosity gala...

  13. SN 2014cx: A case study of a normal type II-plateau supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Kelsi O'Leary

    Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are characterized by hydrogen in the spectrum and an enduring period of nearly constant optical brightness, likely due to the progenitors having large, intact hydrogen envelopes (i.e. red supergiants). SNe II-P are the most commonly observed core-collapse event, and yet the basic characteristics of this class are still being defined. We add to the growing sample of II-P SNe with well-sampled observations of SN 2014cx. It was discovered on September 2, 2014 UT in the SBd galaxy NGC 337, which has a Tully-Fisher distance of 20.7 1.7 Mpc. SN 2014cx was classified as type II through spectra taken within a day of discovery, and later as II-P based on an initial photometric analysis. We initiated a photometric and spectropolarimetric campaign to follow SN 2014cx; over a five-month period, we obtained optical BVRcIc images using Mount Laguna Observatorys 40-inch telescope as part of the MOunt LAguna SUpernova Survey (MOLASUS) and spectropolarimetry as part of the SuperNova SpectroPOLarimetry project (SNSPOL). Here I present an analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy obtained during this campaign. From the photometric light- and color-curves, I establish the II-P classification, measuring a plateau decline-rate in V to be 0.0039 0.0005 mag/day, within normal bounds for SNe II-P. To better investigate the photometric behavior, I employ several techniques to establish that SN 2014cx's light suffers little to no host-galaxy extinction. I demonstrate that SN 2014cx's light- and color-curves exhibit shapes typical of SNe II-P, aside from minor peculiarities. From the spectropolarimetry, I analyze the extremely high signal-to-noise flux spectra. Using the FeII 5169 absorption feature, I find that the photospheric velocity shows temporal evolution typical of SNe II-P: declining steadily during the plateau as the photosphere recedes. Finally, I apply the the standardized candle method and determine a distance to SN 2014cx of 21.0 1.7 Mpc

  14. The broad line type Ic supernova SN 2007ru: Adding to the diversity of type Ic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D K; Anupama, G C; Gurugubelli, Uday K; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Photometric and spectral evolution of the type Ic supernova SN 2007ru during the first 3 months are presented. The spectra show broad spectral features due to very high expansion velocity, normally seen in hypernovae. The photospheric velocity is higher than other type Ic supernovae. It is lower than SN 1998bw at $\\sim$ 8 days after the explosion, but is comparable at later epochs. The light curve evolution of SN 2007ru indicates a fast rise time of 8$\\pm$3 days to $B$ band maximum and post-maximum decline more rapidly than other broad-line type Ic supernovae.With an absolute $V$ magnitude of -19.10, SN 2007ru is comparable in brightness with SN 1998bw and lies at the brighter end of the observed type Ic supernovae. The mass of \\Nifs is estimated to be $\\sim 0.4\\Msun$. The fast rise and decline of the light curve and the high expansion velocity suggest that SN 2007ru is an explosion with a high kinetic energy/ejecta mass ratio ($E_{\\rm K}/M_{\\rm {ej}}$). This adds to the diversity of type Ic supernovae.

  15. Radio and X-rays From SN 2013df Enlighten Progenitors of Type IIb Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kamble, Atish; Soderberg, Alicia M; Chakraborti, Sayan; Fransson, Claes; Chevalier, Roger; Powell, Diana; Milisavljevic, Dan; Parrent, Jerod; Bietenholz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present radio and X-ray observations of the nearby Type IIb Supernova 2013df in NGC4414 from 10 to 250 days after the explosion. The radio emission showed a peculiar soft-to-hard spectral evolution. We present a model in which inverse Compton cooling of synchrotron emitting electrons can account for the observed spectral and light curve evolution. A significant mass loss rate, $\\dot{M} \\approx 8 \\times 10^{-5}\\,\\rm M_{\\odot}/yr$ for a wind velocity of 10 km/s, is estimated from the detailed modeling of radio and X-ray emission, which are primarily due to synchrotron and bremsstrahlung, respectively. We show that SN 2013df is similar to SN 1993J in various ways. The shock wave speed of SN 2013df was found to be average among the radio supernovae; $v_{sh}/c \\sim 0.07$. We did not find any significant deviation from smooth decline in the light curve of SN 2013df. One of the main results of our self-consistent multiband modeling is the significant deviation from energy equipartition between magnetic fields and...

  16. A Missing-Link in the Supernova-GRB Connection: The Case of SN 2012ap

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Chomiuk, Laura; Kamble, Atish; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Hurley, Kevin; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Bietenholz, Michael; Brunthaler, Andreas; Pignata, Giuliano; Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo; Fransson, Claes; Bartel, Norbert; Hamuy, Mario; Levesque, Emily; MacFadyen, Andrew; Dittmann, Jason; Krauss, Miriam; Briggs, M S; Connaughton, V; Yamaoka, K; Takahashi, T; Ohno, M; Fukazawa, Y; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Murakami, T; Goldsten, J; Barthelmy, S; Gehrels, N; Cummings, J; Krimm, H; Palmer, D; Golenetskii, S; Aptekar, R; Frederiks, D; Svinkin, D; Cline, T; Mitrofanov, I G; Golovin, D; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Enos, H; von Kienlin, A; Rau, A; Zhang, X; Savchenko, V

    2014-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are characterized by ultra-relativistic outflows, while supernovae are generally characterized by non-relativistic ejecta. GRB afterglows decelerate rapidly usually within days, because their low-mass ejecta rapidly sweep up a comparatively larger mass of circumstellar material. However supernovae, with heavy ejecta, can be in nearly free expansion for centuries. Supernovae were thought to have non-relativistic outflows except for few relativistic ones accompanied by GRBs. This clear division was blurred by SN 2009bb, the first supernova with a relativistic outflow without an observed GRB. Yet the ejecta from SN 2009bb was baryon loaded, and in nearly-free expansion for a year, unlike GRBs. We report the first supernova discovered without a GRB, but with rapidly decelerating mildly relativistic ejecta, SN 2012ap. This shows that central engines in type Ic supernovae, even without an observed GRB, can produce both relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflows like GRBs.

  17. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  18. The distant Type Ia supernova rate

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, R; Sullivan, M; Ellis, Richard S; Aldering, G; Astier, Pierre; Duestua, S E; Fruchter, A S; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, A; Groom, D E; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Irwin, M J; Kim, A G; Kim, M Y; Knop, R A; Lee, J C; Lidman, C E; McMahon, R G; Nugent, P; Panagia, N; Pennypacker, C R; Perlmutter, S; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Schahmaneche, K; Schaefer, B; Walton, N A

    2001-01-01

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially-flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean redshift $z\\simeq0.55$ of $1.53 {^{+0.28}_{-0.25}} {^{+0.32}_{-0.31}} 10^{-4} h^3 {\\rm Mpc}^{-3} {\\rm yr}^{-1}$ or $0.58 {^{+0.10}_{-0.09}} {^{+0.10}_{-0.09}} h^2 {\\rm SNu}$ (1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per $10^{10}$\\Lbsun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Radio and Infrared Galaxies from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, M L; Sullivan, M; Howell, D A; Gwyn, S D J; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Balam, D; Fabbro, S; Hsiao, E Y; Mourao, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Perlmutter, S; Ruhlman-Kleider, V; Suzuki, N; Fakhouri, H K; Walker, E S

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, VLA 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ~1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always <~ 2 sigma. Rates in these subsets are consistent with predictions of the two component "A+B" SN Ia rate model. Since infrared properties of radio SN Ia hosts indicate dust obscured star formation, we incorporate infrared star formation rates into the "A+B" model. We also show the properties of SNe Ia in radio and infrared galaxies suggest the hosts contain dust and support a continuum of delay time distributions for SNe Ia, although other delay time distributions cannot be ruled out based on our data.

  20. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog I: 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalog of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centers of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.

  1. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - I. 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Brimacombe, J.; Bersier, D.; Bishop, D. W.; Dong, Subo; Brown, J. S.; Danilet, A. B.; Simonian, G. V.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Falco, E.; Pojmanski, G.; Skowron, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.; Ávila, C. G.; Conseil, E.; Contreras, C.; Cruz, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Koff, R. A.; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G. J.; Hissong, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Jose, J.; Kiyota, S.; Long, Feng; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright (mV ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalogue of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses many previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds bright supernovae closer to the centres of host galaxies than either other professional surveys or amateurs, a remarkable result given ASAS-SN's poorer angular resolution. This is the first of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts that will be released by the ASAS-SN team.

  2. Early observations of the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2015F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, R.; Sullivan, M.; Firth, R. E.; Pignata, G.; Mazzali, P.; Maguire, K.; Childress, M. J.; Arcavi, I.; Ashall, C.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S. M.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Johansson, J.; Kasai, E. K.; McCully, C.; Prajs, S.; Prentice, S.; Schulze, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Smith, M.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    We present photometry and time series spectroscopy of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2015F over -16 d to +80 d relative to maximum light, obtained as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. SN 2015F is a slightly sub-luminous SN Ia with a decline rate of Δm15(B) = 1.35 ± 0.03 mag, placing it in the region between normal and SN 1991bg-like events. Our densely sampled photometric data place tight constraints on the epoch of first light and form of the early-time light curve. The spectra exhibit photospheric C II λ6580 absorption until -4 days, and high-velocity Ca II is particularly strong at 14 000 km s-1, suggesting mixing in the outermost layers of the SN ejecta. Although unusual in SN Ia spectra, including V II in the modelling significantly improves the spectral fits. Intriguingly, we detect an absorption feature at ˜6800 Å that persists until maximum light. Our favoured explanation for this line is photospheric Al II, which has never been claimed before in SNe Ia, although detached high-velocity C II material could also be responsible. In both cases, the absorbing material seems to be confined to a relatively narrow region in velocity space. The nucleosynthesis of detectable amounts of Al II would argue against a low-metallicity white dwarf progenitor. We also show that this 6800 Å feature is weakly present in other normal SN Ia events and common in the SN 1991bg-like sub-class.

  3. The Peculiar SN 2005hk: Do Some Type Ia Supernovae Explode As Deflagrations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.M.; Li, W.; Frieman, J.A.; Blinnikov, S.I.; DePoy, D.; Prieto, J.L.; Milne, P.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, N.; Hamuy, M.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Roth, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Krzeminski, W.; Filippenko, A.V.; Freedman, W.L.; Chornock, R.; Jha, S.; Madore, B.F.; Persson, S.E.; /Las Campanas Observ. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2006-11-14

    We present extensive u{prime}g{prime}r{prime}i{prime} BV RIY JHK{sub s} photometry and optical spectroscopy of SN 2005hk. These data reveal that SN 2005hk was nearly identical in its observed properties to SN 2002cx, which has been called 'the most peculiar known type Ia supernova'. Both supernovae exhibited high ionization SN 1991T-like pre-maximum spectra, yet low peak luminosities like SN 1991bg. The spectra reveal that SN 2005hk, like SN 2002cx, exhibited expansion velocities that were roughly half those of typical type Ia supernovae. The R and I light curves of both supernovae were also peculiar in not displaying the secondary maximum observed for normal type Ia supernovae. Our Y JH photometry of SN 2005hk reveals the same peculiarity in the near-infrared. By combining our optical and near-infrared photometry of SN 2005hk with published ultraviolet light curves obtained with the Swift satellite, we are able to construct a bolometric light curve from {approx} 10 days before to {approx}60 days after B maximum. The shape and unusually low peak luminosity of this light curve, plus the low expansion velocities and absence of a secondary maximum at red and near-infrared wavelengths, are all in reasonable agreement with model calculations of a 3D deflagration which produces {approx} 0.25 M{sub {circle_dot}} of {sup 56}Ni.

  4. SN 2000cx and SN 2013bh: Extremely Rare, Nearly Twin Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Jeffrey M; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Fox, Ori D; Cao, Yi; Johansson, Joel; Perley, Daniel A; Tal, David; Wheeler, J Craig; Amanullah, Rahman; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Goobar, Ariel; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Laher, Russ; Lee, William H; Marion, G H; Nugent, Peter E; Shivvers, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2000cx was one of the most peculiar transients ever discovered. While its rise to maximum brightness was typical for a SN Ia, its decline was slower, causing standard light curve fitting algorithms to fail; its spectra indicated a high photospheric temperature. Thirteen years later SN 2013bh (aka iPTF13abc), the first near identical twin of SN 2000cx, was discovered. We obtained optical and near-IR photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy of this object from discovery until about 1 month past r-band maximum brightness. The spectra of both objects indicate the presence of iron-group elements (Co II, Ni II, Fe II, Fe III, and high-velocity features [HVFs] of Ti II), intermediate-mass elements (Si II, Si III, and S II), in addition to separate normal velocity features (~12000 km/s) and HVFs (~24000 km/s) of Ca II. Persistent absorption from Fe III and Si III, along with the colour evolution, imply relatively high blackbody temperatures for SNe 2013bh and 2000cx (~12000 ...

  5. Evolution in the Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Perrett, K; Conley, A; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Carlberg, R; Fouchez, D; Ripoche, P; Neill, J D; Astier, P; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Pritchet, C; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Baumont, S; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Walker, E S

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR_Ia) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star-formation history over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., proportional to t^-beta) yields values from beta=0.98+/-0.05 to beta=1.15+/-0.08 depending on the parameterization of t...

  6. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search II. Rates in a galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Botticella, M T; Greggio, L; Pignata, G; Della Valle, M; Grado, A; Limatola, L; Baruffolo, A; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Capaccioli, M; Cascone, E; Covone, G; De Cicco, D; Falocco, S; Haeussler, B; Harutyunyan, V; Jarvis, M; Marchetti, L; Napolitano, N R; Paolillo, M; Pastorello, A; Radovich, M; Schipani, P; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M; Vaccari, M

    2016-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series in which we present measurements of the Supernova (SN) rates from the SUDARE survey. In this paper, we study the trend of the SN rates with the intrinsic colours, the star formation activity and the mass of the parent galaxies. We have considered a sample of about 130000 galaxies and a SN sample of about 50 events. We found that the SN Ia rate per unit mass is higher by a factor of six in the star-forming galaxies with respect to the passive galaxies. The SN Ia rate per unit mass is also higher in the less massive galaxies that are also younger. These results suggest a distribution of the delay times (DTD) less populated at long delay times than at short delays. The CC SN rate per unit mass is proportional to both the sSFR and the galaxy mass. The trends of the Type Ia and CC SN rates as a function of the sSFR and the galaxy mass that we observed from SUDARE data are in agreement with literature results at different redshifts. The expected number of SNe Ia is in agreement ...

  7. SN1991bg-like supernovae are a compelling source of most Galactic antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panther, Fiona H.; Crocker, Roland M.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Ruiter, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy glows with the soft gamma ray emission resulting from the annihilation of ~5 × 1043 electron-positron pairs every second. The origin of this vast quantity of antimatter and the peculiar morphology of the 511keV gamma ray line resulting from this annihilation have been the subject of debate for almost half a century. Most obvious positron sources are associated with star forming regions and cannot explain the rate of positron annihilation in the Galactic bulge, which last saw star formation some 10 Gyr ago, or else violate stringent constraints on the positron injection energy. Radioactive decay of elements formed in core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could supply positrons matching the injection energy constraints but the distribution of such potential sources does not replicate the required morphology. We show that a single class of peculiar thermonuclear supernova - SN1991bg-like supernovae (SNe 91bg) - can supply the number and distribution of positrons we see annihilating in the Galaxy through the decay of 44Ti synthesised in these events. Such 44Ti production simultaneously addresses the observed abundance of 44Ca, the 44Ti decay product, in solar system material.

  8. SN1991bg-like supernovae are a compelling source of most Galactic antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Panther, Fiona H

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy glows with the soft gamma ray emission resulting from the annihilation of $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{43}$ electron-positron pairs every second. The origin of this vast quantity of antimatter and the peculiar morphology of the 511keV gamma ray line resulting from this annihilation have been the subject of debate for almost half a century. Most obvious positron sources are associated with star forming regions and cannot explain the rate of positron annihilation in the Galactic bulge, which last saw star formation some $10\\,\\mathrm{Gyr}$ ago, or else violate stringent constraints on the positron injection energy. Radioactive decay of elements formed in core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could supply positrons matching the injection energy constraints but the distribution of such potential sources does not replicate the required morphology. We show that a single class of peculiar thermonuclear supernova - SN1991bg-like supernovae (SNe 91bg) - can supply the number...

  9. Supernova SN 1006 in two historic Yemeni reports

    CERN Document Server

    Rada, Wafiq

    2015-01-01

    We present two Arabic texts of historic observations of supernova SN 1006 from Yemen as reported by al-Yamani and Ibn al-Dayba (14th to 16th century AD). An English translation of the report by the latter was given before (Stephenson & Green 2002), but the original Arabic text was not yet published. In addition, we present for the first time the earlier report, also from Yemen, namely by al-Yamani in its original Arabic and with our English translation. It is quite obvious that the report by Ibn al-Dayba is based on the report by al-Yamani (or a common source), but the earlier report by al-Yamani is more detailed and in better (Arabic) language. We discuss in detail the dating of these observations. The most striking difference to other reports about SN 1006 is the apparent early discovery in Yemen in the evening of 15th of Rajab of the year 396h (i.e. AD 1006 Apr 17 \\pm 2 on the Julian calendar), as reported by both al-Yamani and Ibn al-Dayba. i.e. about 1.5 weeks earlier than the otherwise earliest know...

  10. INTERACTING SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA IMPOSTORS: SN 2009ip, IS THIS THE END?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorello, A.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Fraser, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pignata, G.; Takats, K.; Bufano, F. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Valenti, S. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Inc., Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Benitez, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Botticella, M. T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Brimacombe, J. [Coral Towers Observatory, Coral Towers, Esplanade, Cairns 4870 (Australia); Cellier-Holzem, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Costado, M. T. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Cupani, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Curtis, I. [2 Yandra Street, Vale Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5081 (Australia); Elias-Rosa, N. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ergon, M. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fynbo, J. P. U., E-mail: andrea.pastorello@oapd.inaf.it [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); and others

    2013-04-10

    We report the results of a three-year-long dedicated monitoring campaign of a restless luminous blue variable (LBV) in NGC 7259. The object, named SN 2009ip, was observed photometrically and spectroscopically in the optical and near-infrared domains. We monitored a number of erupting episodes in the past few years, and increased the density of our observations during eruptive episodes. In this paper, we present the full historical data set from 2009 to 2012 with multi-wavelength dense coverage of the two high-luminosity events between 2012 August and September. We construct bolometric light curves and measure the total luminosities of these eruptive or explosive events. We label them the 2012a event (lasting {approx}50 days) with a peak of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, and the 2012b event (14 day rise time, still ongoing) with a peak of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. The latter event reached an absolute R-band magnitude of about -18, comparable to that of a core-collapse supernova (SN). Our historical monitoring has detected high-velocity spectral features ({approx}13,000 km s{sup -1}) in 2011 September, one year before the current SN-like event. This implies that the detection of such high-velocity outflows cannot, conclusively, point to a core-collapse SN origin. We suggest that the initial peak in the 2012a event was unlikely to be due to a faint core-collapse SN. We propose that the high intrinsic luminosity of the latest peak, the variability history of SN 2009ip, and the detection of broad spectral lines indicative of high-velocity ejecta are consistent with a pulsational pair-instability event, and that the star may have survived the last outburst. The question of the survival of the LBV progenitor star and its future fate remain open issues, only to be answered with future monitoring of this historically unique explosion.

  11. Photometric and Spectroscopic study of a highly reddened type Ia supernova SN 2003hx in NGC 2076

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Kuntal; Anupama, G C; Pandey, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    We present $UBVRI$ CCD photometry and optical spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2003hx which appeared in the galaxy NGC 2076, obtained till $\\sim$ 146 days after the epoch of $B$ band maximum. The supernova reached at maximum brightness in $B$ band on JD 245 2893 $\\pm$ 1.0 with an apparent magnitude of 14.92 $\\pm$ 0.01 mag which was estimated by making template fits to the light curves. SN 2003hx is an example of a highly reddened supernova with $E(B-V)$ = 0.56 $\\pm$ 0.23. We estimate $R_v$ = 1.97 $\\pm$ 0.54 which indicates the small size of dust particles as compared to their galactic counterparts. The luminosity decline rate is $\\Delta m_{15}(B)$ = 1.17 $\\pm$ 0.12 mag and the absolute $B$ band magnitude obtained from the luminosity versus decline rate relation (Phillips et al. 1999) is $M^B_{max}$ = -19.20 $\\pm$ 0.18 mag. The peak bolometric luminosity indicates that $\\sim$ 0.66 $M_\\odot$ mass of $^{56}$ Ni was ejected by the supernova. The spectral evolution indicates the supernova to be a normal type Ia...

  12. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dilday, Benjamin; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Filippenko, Alexei V; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Molla, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Ostman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z \\lesssim 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04+1.61-0.95 % of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used t...

  13. The ASAS-SN Bright Supernova Catalog I: 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Kochanek, C S; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Brimacombe, J; Bersier, D; Bishop, D W; Dong, Subo; Brown, J S; Danilet, A B; Simonian, G V; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Falco, E; Pojmanski, G; Skowron, D M; Wozniak, P R; Avila, C G; Conseil, E; Contreras, C; Cruz, I; Fernandez, J M; Koff, R A; Guo, Zhen; Herczeg, G J; Hissong, J; Hsiao, E Y; Jose, J; Kiyota, S; Long, Feng; Monard, L A G; Nicholls, B; Nicolas, J; Wiethoff, W S

    2016-01-01

    We present basic statistics for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) during its first year-and-a-half of operations, spanning 2013 and 2014. We also present the same information for all other bright ($m_V\\leq17$), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered from 2014 May 1 through the end of 2014, providing a comparison to the ASAS-SN sample starting from the point where ASAS-SN became operational in both hemispheres. In addition, we present collected redshifts and near-UV through IR magnitudes, where available, for all host galaxies of the bright supernovae in both samples. This work represents a comprehensive catalog of bright supernovae and their hosts from multiple professional and amateur sources, allowing for population studies that were not previously possible because the all-sky emphasis of ASAS-SN redresses most previously existing biases. In particular, ASAS-SN systematically finds supernovae closer to the centers of host galaxies than either other...

  14. VLBI observations of SN2011dh: imaging of the youngest radio supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Paragi, Z; Yang, J; Marcaide, J M; Guirado, J C; Ros, E; Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A; Argo, M K; van der Horst, A J; Garrett, M A; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W

    2011-01-01

    We report on the VLBI detection of supernova SN2011dh at 22GHz using a subset of the EVN array. The observations took place 14 days after the discovery of the supernova, thus resulting in a VLBI image of the youngest radio-loud supernova ever. We provide revised coordinates for the supernova with milli-arcsecond precision, linked to the ICRF. The recovered flux density is a factor 2 below the EVLA flux density reported by other authors at the same frequency and epoch of our observations. This discrepancy could be due to extended emission detected with the EVLA or to calibration problems in the VLBI and/or EVLA observations.

  15. Inverse Compton X-ray Emission from Supernovae with Compact Progenitors: Application to SN2011fe

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, R; Chomiuk, L; Chevalier, R; Hurley, K; Milisavljevic, D; Foley, R J; Hughes, J P; Slane, P; Fransson, C; Moe, M; Barthelmy, S; Boynton, W; Briggs, M; Connaughton, V; Costa, E; Cummings, J; Del Monte, E; Enos, H; Fellows, C; Feroci, M; Fukazawa, Y; Gehrels, N; Goldsten, J; Golovin, D; Hanabata, Y; Harshman, K; Krimm, H; Litvak, M L; Makishima, K; Marisaldi, M; Mitrofanov, I G; Murakami, T; Ohno, M; Palmer, D M; Sanin, A B; Starr, R; Svinkin, D

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN2011fe using Swift-XRT, UVOT and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a "normal" SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass loss rate to be lower than 2x10^-9 M_sun/yr (3sigma c.l.) for wind velocity v_w=100 km/s. Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN2011fe and argues against Roche-lobe overflowing subgiants and main sequence secondary stars if >1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (particle density < 150 cm-3) for (2x10^15

  16. UV-Optical Observation of Type Ia Supernova SN 2013dy in NGC 7250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Qian; Wang, XiaoFeng; Zhang, TianMeng; Liu, ZhengWei; Brown, Peter J; Huang, Fan; Zhao, XuLin; Chang, Liang; Yi, WeiMin; Wang, ChuanJun; Xin, YuXin; Wang, JianGuo; Lun, BaoLi; Zhang, XiLiang; Fan, YuFeng; Zheng, XiangMing; Bai, JinMing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive and independent observations of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2013dy are presented, including a larger set of $UBVRI$ photometry and optical spectra since a few days before the peak brightness to $\\sim$ 200 days after explosion, and ultraviolet (UV) photometry spanning from $t \\approx -10$ days to $t \\approx +15$ days referring to the $B$ band maximum. The peak brightness (i.e., $M_{\\rm B} = -19.65 \\pm 0.40$ mag, $L_{\\rm max} = [1.95 \\pm 0.55] \\times 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$) and the mass of synthesised $^{56}$Ni (i.e., $M$($^{56}$Ni) = 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.26 M$_{\\sun}$) are calculated, which conform to the expectation of the slow decline rate (i.e., \\DR = 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03 mag, Phillip 1993). However, the near infrared (NIR) brightness of this SN (i.e., $M_{\\rm H} = -17.33 \\pm 0.30$ mag) is at least 1.0 mag fainter than usual. Besides, spectroscopy classification reveals that SN 2013dy resides on the border of "core-normal" and "shallow silicon" subclasses in the Branch et al. (2009) classification scheme, or o...

  17. Nearby Supernova Rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. III. The Rate-Size Relation, and the Rates as a Function of Galaxy Hubble Type and Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weidong; Leaman, Jesse; Filippenko, Alexei V; Poznanski, Dovi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Mannucci, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    This is the third paper of a series in which we present new measurements of the observed rates of supernovae (SNe) in the local Universe, determined from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). We have considered a sample of about 1000 SNe and used an optimal subsample of 726 SNe (274 SNe Ia, 116 SNe Ibc, and 324 SNe II) to determine our rates. We study the trend of the rates as a function of a few quantities available for our galaxy sample, such as luminosity in the B and K bands, stellar mass, and morphological class. We discuss different choices (SN samples, input SN luminosity functions, inclination correction factors) and their effect on the rates and their uncertainties. A comparison between our SN rates and the published measurements shows that they are consistent with each other to within uncertainties when the rate calculations are done in the same manner. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that the rates cannot be adequately described by a single parameter using either galaxy Hubble types or B...

  18. A unified explanation for the supernova rate-galaxy mass dependency based on supernovae discovered in Sloan galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Using a method to discover and classify supernovae (SNe) in galaxy spectra, we detect 91 Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) and 16 Type II SNe (SNe II) among ~740,000 galaxies of all types and ~215,000 star-forming galaxies without active galactic nuclei, respectively, in Data Release 9 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Of these SNe, 22 SNe Ia and 8 SNe II are new discoveries reported here for the first time. We use our SN samples to measure SN rates per unit mass as a function of galaxy stellar mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (sSFR), as derived by the MPA-JHU Galspec pipeline. We confirm the rate-mass correlations, first discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search, for both SNe Ia and SNe II at median redshifts of ~0.1 and ~0.075, respectively. The mass-normalized SN Ia and SN II rates, averaged over all masses and redshifts in their respective galaxy samples, are 0.10 +/- 0.01 (stat) +/- 0.01 (sys) X 10^-12 Msol^-1 yr^-1 and 0.52 +0.16 -0.13 (stat) +0.02 -0.05 (sys) X 10^-12 Msol^-1 yr^-1, respec...

  19. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search. I

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellaro, E; Pignata, G; Grado, L; Greggio, L; Limatola, L; Vaccari, M; Baruffolo, A; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Capaccioli, M; Cascone, E; Covone, G; De Cicco, D; Falocco, S; Della Valle, M; Jarvis, M; Marchetti, L; Napolitano, N R; Paolillo, M; Pastorello, A; Radovich, M; Schipani, P; Spiro, S; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the observing strategy, data reduction tools and early results of a supernova (SN) search project, named SUDARE, conducted with the ESO VST telescope aimed at measuring the rate of the different types of SNe in the redshift range 0.2SN rate per unit volume for SN Ia and core collapse SNe in different bin of redshifts. The values are consistent with other measurements from the literature. The dispersion of the rate measurements for SNe Ia is comparable with the scatter of the t...

  20. A massive hypergiant star as the progenitor of the supernova SN 2005gl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A; Leonard, D C

    2009-04-16

    Our understanding of the evolution of massive stars before their final explosions as supernovae is incomplete, from both an observational and a theoretical standpoint. A key missing piece in the supernova puzzle is the difficulty of identifying and studying progenitor stars. In only a single case-that of supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud-has a star been detected at the supernova location before the explosion, and been subsequently shown to have vanished after the supernova event. The progenitor of SN 1987A was a blue supergiant, which required a rethink of stellar evolution models. The progenitor of supernova SN 2005gl was proposed to be an extremely luminous object, but the association was not robustly established (it was not even clear that the putative progenitor was a single luminous star). Here we report that the previously proposed object was indeed the progenitor star of SN 2005gl. This very massive star was likely a luminous blue variable that standard stellar evolution predicts should not have exploded in that state.

  1. Type Ia supernova rate at a redshift of ~ 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, G; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Aldering, G; Amadon, A; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Balland, C; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Charlot, X; Conley, A; Coutures, C; Dahlen, T; Derue, F; Fan, X; Ferlet, R; Folatelli, G; Fouqué, P; Garavini, G; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Goobar, A; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M; Haïssinski, J; Hamadache, C; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; De Kat, J; Kent, S; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Le Guillou, Laurent; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; Moniez, M; Mouchet, M; Newberg, H; Nobili, S; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Rahal, Y R; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Spiro, M; Tisserand, P; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Walton, N A; Zylberajch, S

    2004-01-01

    We present the type Ia rate measurement based on two EROS supernova search campaigns (in 1999 and 2000). Sixteen supernovae identified as type Ia were discovered. The measurement of the detection efficiency, using a Monte Carlo simulation, provides the type Ia supernova explosion rate at a redshift ~ 0.13. The result is $0.125^{+0.044+0.028}_{-0.034-0.028} h_{70}^2$ SNu where 1 SNu = 1 SN / $10^{10} L_{sun}^B$ / century. This value is compatible with the previous EROS measurement (Hardin et al. 2000), done with a much smaller sample, at a similar redshift. Comparison with other values at different redshifts suggests an evolution of the type Ia supernova rate.

  2. Type Ia supernova rate at a redshift of ~;0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Afonso, C.; Alard, C.; Albert, J.N.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balland, C.; Bareyre,P.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Charlot, X.; Conley, A.; Coutures, C.; Dahlen, T.; Derue, F.; Fan, X.; Ferlet, R.; Folatelli, G.; Fouque, P.; Garavini, G.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Gould, A.; Graff, D.; Gros,M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; deKat, J.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.; Lasserre, T.; LeGuillou, L.; Lesquoy, E.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Marquette, J.B.; Maurice, E.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Palanque-Delabrouille,N.; Perdereau, O.; Prevot, L.; Rahal, Y.R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux,L.; Walton, N.A.; Zylberajch, S.

    2004-05-11

    We present the type Ia rate measurement based on two EROS supernova search campaigns (in 1999 and 2000). Sixteen supernovae identified as type Ia were discovered. The measurement of the detection efficiency, using a Monte Carlo simulation, provides the type Ia supernova explosion rate at a redshift {approx} 0.13. The result is 0.125{sub -0.034-0.028}{sup +0.044+0.028} h{sub 70}{sup 2} SNu where 1 SNu = 1 SN/10{sup 10} L{sub {circle_dot}}{sup B}/century. This value is compatible with the previous EROS measurement (Hardin et al. 2000), done with a much smaller sample, at a similar redshift. Comparison with other values at different redshifts suggests an evolution of the type Ia supernova rate.

  3. The evolution of the peculiar Type Ia supernova SN 2005hk over 400 days

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D K; Anupama, G C; Kawabata, Koji S; Maeda, Keiichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Mazzali, Paolo A

    2007-01-01

    $UBVRI$ photometry and medium resolution optical spectroscopy of peculiar Type Ia supernova SN 2005hk are presented and analysed, covering the premaximum phase to around 400 days after explosion. The supernova is found to be underluminous compared to "normal" Type Ia supernovae. The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2005hk is remarkably similar to the peculiar Type Ia event SN 2002cx. The expansion velocity of the supernova ejecta is found to be lower than normal Type Ia events. The late time spectra of SN 2005hk do not show the presence of forbidden [\\ion{Fe}{ii}], [\\ion{Fe}{iii}] and [\\ion{Co}{iii}] lines, but are dominated by narrow, permitted \\ion{Fe}{ii}, NIR \\ion{Ca}{ii} and \\ion{Na}{i} lines with P-Cygni profiles. Light curve modeling indicates SN 2005hk to be a thermonuclear explosion with the Chandrasekhar mass ejecta, but with a smaller kinetic energy ($\\KE = 0.3 \\times 10^{51} {\\rm ergs}$) than that of canonical Type Ia supernovae. The mass of \\Nifs\\ synthesized in this explosion is $0....

  4. Type-Ia Supernova Rates and the Progenitor Problem: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, D.; Mannucci, F.

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the progenitor systems of type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is a major unsolved problem in astrophysics. SN Ia rates are providing some striking clues. We review the basics of SN rate measurement, preach about some sins of SN rate measurement and analysis, and illustrate one of these sins with an analogy about Martian scientists. We review the recent progress in measuring SN Ia rates in various environments and redshifts, and their use to reconstruct the SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) - the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of star formation. A good number of DTD measurements, using a variety of methods, appear to be converging. At delays 1fairly good agreement (though perhaps some tension), among the various measurements, with a Hubble time-integrated DTD value of about 2+/-1 SNe Ia per 1000Msolar (stellar mass formed with a low-mass turnover initial mass function). The local WD binary population suggests that the WD merger rate can explain the Galactic SN Ia rate, but only if sub-Chandra mergers lead to SN Ia events. We point to some future directions that should lead to progress in the field, including measurement of the bivariate (delay and stretch) SN Ia response function.

  5. SN 1978K: The first millimetre detection of an evolved supernova outside of our Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Ryder, S D; Smith, I A; Tingay, S J; Kool, E C; Polshaw, J

    2016-01-01

    Supernova 1978K is one of the oldest-known examples of the class of Type IIn supernovae that show evidence for strong interaction between the blast wave and a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium. Here we report detections of SN 1978K at both 34 GHz and 94 GHz, making it only the second extragalactic supernova after SN 1987A to be detected at late-times at these frequencies. We find SN 1978K to be >400 times more luminous than SN 1987A at millimetre wavelengths in spite of the roughly nine year difference in ages, highlighting the risk in adopting SN 1987A as a template for the evolution of core-collapse supernovae in general. Additionally, from new VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz, we measure a deconvolved diameter for SN 1978K of ~5 milli-arcsec, and a corresponding average expansion velocity of <1500 km/s. These observations provide independent evidence of an extremely dense circumstellar medium surrounding the progenitor star.

  6. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017azk (= PS17bii) as a type-Ia supernova near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Vaisanen, P.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017azk (= PS17bii) on 2017 Feb 24.0 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows SN 2017azk is a type-Ia supernova near maximum light.

  7. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017erp as a type-Ia supernova well before maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Camacho, Y.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Skelton, R.

    2017-06-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017erp (discovered by K. Itagaki) on 2017 Jun 13.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows SN 2017erp is a type-Ia supernova before maximum light.

  8. TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA SN 2010jl: OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR OVER 500 DAYS AFTER EXPLOSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tianmeng; Wu Chao; Zhai Meng; Wu Hong; Fan Zhou; Zou Hu; Zhou Xu; Ma Jun [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang Xiaofeng; Chen Juncheng; Chen Jia; Liu Qin; Huang Fang; Liang Jide; Zhao Xulin [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lin Lin [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, JinZhai Road Baohe District, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Min [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Dennefeld, Michel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, and University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) (France); Zhang Jujia, E-mail: armengjade@gmail.com, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2012-11-01

    We present extensive optical observations of a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl for the first 1.5 years after its discovery. The UBVRI light curves demonstrated an interesting two-stage evolution during the nebular phase, which almost flatten out after about 90 days from the optical maximum. SN 2010jl has one of the highest intrinsic H{alpha} luminosities ever recorded for an SN IIn, especially at late phase, suggesting a strong interaction of SN ejecta with the dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the progenitor. This is also indicated by the remarkably strong Balmer lines persisting in the optical spectra. One interesting spectral evolution about SN 2010jl is the appearance of asymmetry of the Balmer lines. These lines can be well decomposed into a narrow component and an intermediate-width component. The intermediate-width component showed a steady increase in both strength and blueshift with time until t {approx} 400 days after maximum, but it became less blueshifted at t {approx} 500 days, when the line profile appeared relatively symmetric again. Owing to the fact that a pure reddening effect will lead to a sudden decline of the light curves and a progressive blueshift of the spectral lines, we therefore propose that the asymmetric profiles of H lines seen in SN 2010jl are unlikely due to the extinction by newly formed dust inside the ejecta, contrary to the explanation by some early studies. Based on a simple CSM-interaction model, we speculate that the progenitor of SN 2010jl may suffer a gigantic mass loss ({approx}30-50 M{sub Sun }) a few decades before explosion. Considering a slow-moving stellar wind (e.g., {approx}28 km s{sup -1}) inferred for the preexisting, dense CSM shell and the extremely high mass-loss rate (1-2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), we suggest that the progenitor of SN 2010jl might have experienced a red supergiant stage and may explode finally as a post-red supergiant star with an initial mass above 30-40 M{sub Sun }.

  9. Himalayan Chandra Telescope Observations of Type-Ia Supernova SN 2010at

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Brandon; Anupama, G.; Sahu, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We present BVRI photometry and spectroscopy of Type Ia Supernova SN 2010at. SN 2010at is located in the MCG+13-09-010 galaxy (z =0.04) and was discovered on 03-19-2010. Our analysis focuses on the follow up observations taken with the 2-meter Himalayan Chandra Telescope from 2010-03-21 to 2010-05-24. We present the light curve and color evolution of SN 2010at, along with MLCS2k2 and SALT-II light curve fits. We find that SN 2010at's color and photometric evolution are similar to SN 1999ac, but SN 2010at is brighter at maximum. Spectroscopically, SN 2010at appears to be normal at early times. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of International Science and Education, Grant Number 0854436: International Research Experience for Students, and managed by the National Solar Observatory's Global Oscillation Network.

  10. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: The Type Ia Supernova Rate in High-Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barbary, K; Amanullah, R; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanford, S A; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at 0.9 0.9 SNe. Finding 8 +/- 1 cluster SNe Ia, we determine a SN Ia rate of 0.50 +0.23-0.19 (stat) +0.10-0.09 (sys) SNuB (SNuB = 10^-12 SNe L_{sun,B}^-1 yr^-1). In units of stellar mass, this translates to 0.36 +0.16-0.13 (stat) +0.07-0.06 (sys) SNuM (SNuM = 10^-12 SNe M_sun^-1 yr^-1). This represents a factor of approximately 5 +/- 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z < 0.2. We parameterize the late-time SN Ia delay time distribution with a power law (proportional to t^s). Under the assumption of a cluster formation redshift of z_f = 3, our rate measurement in combination with lower-redshift cluster SN Ia rates constrains s = -1.31 +0.55-0.40, consistent with measurements of the delay time distribution in the field. This measurement is also consistent with the value of s ~ -1 typically expected for the "double degenerate" SN Ia progenitor scenario, and inconsistent with some models for the "single degenerat...

  11. A LUMINOUS AND FAST-EXPANDING TYPE Ib SUPERNOVA SN 2012au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Katsutoshi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ueno, Issei; Ui, Takahiro; Urano, Takeshi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, Ohmine-cho Kita Kazan, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kinugasa, Kenzo [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito, E-mail: takaki@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    We present a set of photometric and spectroscopic observations of a bright Type Ib supernova SN 2012au from -6 days until {approx} + 150 days after maximum. The shape of its early R-band light curve is similar to that of an average Type Ib/c supernova. The peak absolute magnitude is M{sub R} = -18.7 {+-} 0.2 mag, which suggests that this supernova belongs to a very luminous group among Type Ib supernovae. The line velocity of He I {lambda}5876 is about 15,000 km s{sup -1} around maximum, which is much faster than that in a typical Type Ib supernova. From the quasi-bolometric peak luminosity of (6.7 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, we estimate the {sup 56}Ni mass produced during the explosion as {approx}0.30 M{sub Sun }. We also give a rough constraint to the ejecta mass 5-7 M{sub Sun} and the kinetic energy (7-18) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. We find a weak correlation between the peak absolute magnitude and He I velocity among Type Ib SNe. The similarities to SN 1998bw in the density structure inferred from the light-curve model as well as the large peak bolometric luminosity suggest that SN 2012au had properties similar to energetic Type Ic supernovae.

  12. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another Type Ia Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Aldering, G; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bauer, A; Blanc, N; Bongard, S; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Gilles, S; Kessler, R; Kocevski, D; Lee, B C; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Thomas, R C; Wang, L; Weaver, B A

    2006-01-01

    We report Nearby Supernova Factory observations of SN 2005gj, the second confirmed case of a "hybrid" Type Ia/IIn supernova. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the interaction is much stronger than for the prototype, SN 2002ic. Our first spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H-alpha emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H-gamma, H-beta, H-alpha and HeI 5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [OIII] 5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. The early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clum...

  13. Implications for Galaxy Evolution from the Cosmic Evolution of Supernova Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, T; Yasuda, N; Sumi, T; Morokuma, T; Doi, M; Kosugi, G

    2008-01-01

    We report a comprehensive statistical analysis of the observational data of the cosmic evolution of supernova (SN) rate density, to derive constraints on cosmic star formation history and the nature of type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor. We use all available information of magnitude, SN type, and redshift information of both type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNe in GOODS and SDF, as well as SN Ia rate densities reported in the literature. Furthermore, we also add 157 SN candidates in the past Subaru/Suprime-Cam data that are newly reported here, to increase the statistics. We find that the current data set of SN rate density evolution already gives a meaningful constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) at z <~ 1, though strong constraints cannot be derived for the delay time distribution (DTD) of SNe Ia. We derive a constraint of the evolutionary index of SFR density alpha ~ 3--4 [(1+z)^alpha at z <~ 1] with an evidence for a significant evolution of mean extinction of CC SNe [E...

  14. The diffuse supernova neutrino background: Expectations and uncertainties derived from SN1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Vissani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background may be imminent, but theoretical predictions are affected by substantial uncertainties. AIMS. We calculate the signal and its uncertainty with the present configuration of Super-Kamiokande and consider the possibility of lowering the threshold by means of gadolinium loading. Methods: We model neutrino emission following the analysis of SN1987A by Pagliaroli and collaborators 2009 and use the number of expected events in the neutrino detector as a free parameter of the fit. The best-fit value of this parameter and its error are evaluated by means of standard maximum likelihood procedures, taking into account properly the correlations. Results: The uncertainties in the astrophysics of the emission dominates the total uncertainty in the expected signal rate, which conservatively ranges from 0.3 to 0.9 events per year and from 1.1 to 2.9 with gadolinium.

  15. LOSS Revisited - I: Unraveling correlations between supernova rates and galaxy properties, as measured in a re-analysis of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Huang, Shan; Modjaz, Maryam; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Most types of supernovae (SNe) have yet to be connected with their progenitor stellar systems. Here, we re-analyze the ten-year 1998-2008 SN sample collected by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) in order to constrain the progenitors of SNe Ia and stripped-envelope SNe (SE SNe; i.e., SNe IIb, Ib, Ic, and broad-lined Ic). We matched the LOSS galaxy sample with spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and measured SN rates as a function of galaxy stellar mass, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and oxygen abundance (metallicity). We find significant correlations between the SN rates and all three galaxy properties. The SN Ia correlations are consistent with other measurements, as well as with our previous explanation of these measurements in the form of a combination of the SN Ia delay-time distribution and the correlation between galaxy mass and age. Intriguingly, we measure a deficiency in the SE SN rates, relative to the SN II rates, in galaxies with low stellar masses, high sSFR values, an...

  16. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2005gj: Another TypeIa Supernova in a Massive Circumstellar Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bauer, A.; Blanc, N.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Kocevski, D.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.; Rabinowitz, D.; Bauer, A.

    2006-06-01

    We report the independent discovery and follow-up observations of supernova 2005gj by the Nearby Supernova Factory. This is the second confirmed case of a ''hybrid'' Type Ia/IIn supernova, which like the prototype SN 2002ic, we interpret as the explosion of a white dwarf interacting with a circumstellar medium. Our early-phase photometry of SN 2005gj shows that the strength of the interaction between the supernova ejecta and circumstellar material is much stronger than for SN 2002ic. Our .rst spectrum shows a hot continuum with broad and narrow H{alpha} emission. Later spectra, spanning over 4 months from outburst, show clear Type Ia features combined with broad and narrow H{gamma}, H{beta},H{alpha} and He I {lambda}{lambda}5876,7065 in emission. At higher resolution, P Cygni profiles are apparent. Surprisingly, we also observe an inverted P Cygni profile for [O III] {lambda}5007. We find that the lightcurve and measured velocity of the unshocked circumstellar material imply mass loss as recently as 8 years ago. This is in contrast to SN 2002ic, for which an inner cavity in the circumstellar material was inferred. Within the context of the thin-shell approximation, the early lightcurve is well-described by a flat radial density profile for the circumstellar material. However, our decomposition of the spectra into Type Ia and shock emission components allows for little obscuration of the supernova, suggesting an aspherical or clumpy distribution for the circumstellar material. We suggest that the emission line velocity profiles arise from electron scattering rather than the kinematics of the shock. This is supported by the inferred high densities, and the lack of evidence for evolution in the line widths. Ground- and space-based photometry, and Keck spectroscopy, of the host galaxy are used to ascertain that the host galaxy has low metallicity (Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}} < 0.3; 95% confidence) and that this galaxy is undergoing a significant star

  17. Spectrophotometric time series of SN 2011fe from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, R; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Baltay, C; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chen, J; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Fink, M; Fouchez, D; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hillebrandt, W; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Nordin, J; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Taubenberger, S; Tilquin, A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We present 32 epochs of optical (3300-9700 \\AA) spectrophotometric observations of the nearby quintessential "normal" type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101, extending from -15 to +97 d with respect to B-band maximum, obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration. SN 2011fe is the closest (\\mu = 29.04) and brightest (Bmax = 9.94 mag) SN Ia observed since the advent of modern large scale programs for the intensive periodic followup of supernovae. Both synthetic light curve measurements and spectral feature analysis attest to the normality of SN 2011fe. There is very little evidence for reddening in its host galaxy. The homogeneous calibration, intensive time sampling, and high signal-to-noise ratio of the data set make it unique. Thus it is ideal for studying the physics of SN Ia explosions in detail, and for furthering the use of SNe Ia as standardizable candles for cosmology. Several such applications are shown, from the creation of a bolometric light curve and measurement of the 56N...

  18. CONSTRAINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA MODELS: SN 2011fe AS A TEST CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F.; Hillebrandt, W.; Benitez-Herrera, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, 69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Sim, S. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Aldering, G.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2012-05-01

    The nearby supernova SN 2011fe can be observed in unprecedented detail. Therefore, it is an important test case for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) models, which may bring us closer to understanding the physical nature of these objects. Here, we explore how available and expected future observations of SN 2011fe can be used to constrain SN Ia explosion scenarios. We base our discussion on three-dimensional simulations of a delayed detonation in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and of a violent merger of two white dwarfs (WDs)-realizations of explosion models appropriate for two of the most widely discussed progenitor channels that may give rise to SNe Ia. Although both models have their shortcomings in reproducing details of the early and near-maximum spectra of SN 2011fe obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), the overall match with the observations is reasonable. The level of agreement is slightly better for the merger, in particular around maximum, but a clear preference for one model over the other is still not justified. Observations at late epochs, however, hold promise for discriminating the explosion scenarios in a straightforward way, as a nucleosynthesis effect leads to differences in the {sup 55}Co production. SN 2011fe is close enough to be followed sufficiently long to study this effect.

  19. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: II. SN environmental metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; Walcher, C J; Sánchez, S F; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Badenes, C; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mollá, M; Meidt, S; Pérez, E; van de Ven, G; Vílchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova (SN) progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that rules their outcome. We present a metallicity study of 115 nearby SN host galaxies (0.00510 dex) by targeted searches. We also found no evidence that the metallicity at the SN location differs from the average metallicity at the GCD of the SNe. By extending our SN sample with published metallicities at the SN location, we studied the metallicity distributions for all SN subtypes split into SN discovered in targeted and untargeted searches. We confirm a bias toward higher host masses and metallicities in the targeted searches. Combining data from targeted and untargeted searches we found a sequence from higher to lower local metallicity: SN Ia, Ic, and II show the highest metallicity, which is significantly higher than SN Ib, IIb, and Ic-BL. Our results support the picture of SN Ib resulting from binary progenitors and, at least part of, SN Ic being the result of single massive stars stripped of their out...

  20. A Luminous and Fast-Expanding Type Ib Supernova SN 2012au

    CERN Document Server

    Takaki, K; Yamanaka, M; Maeda, K; Tanaka, M; Akitaya, H; Fukazawa, Y; Itoh, R; Kinugasa, K; Moritani, Y; Ohsugi, T; Sasada, M; Uemura, M; Ueno, I; Ui, T; Urano, T; Yoshida, M; Nomoto, K

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of photometric and spectroscopic observations of a bright Type Ib supernova SN 2012au from -6d until ~+150d after maximum. The shape of its early R-band light curve is similar to that of an average Type Ib/c supernova. The peak absolute magnitude is M_R=-18.7+-0.2 mag, which suggests that this supernova belongs to a very luminous group among Type Ib supernovae. The line velocity of He I {\\lambda}5876 is about 15,000 km/s around maximum, which is much faster than that in a typical Type Ib supernova. From the quasi-bolometric peak luminosity of (6.7+-1.3)x10^(42) erg/s, we estimate the \\Ni mass produced during the explosion as ~0.30 Msun. We also give a rough constraint to the ejecta mass 5-7 Msun and the kinetic energy (7-18)x10^(51) erg. We find a weak correlation between the peak absolute magnitude and He I velocity among Type Ib SNe. The similarities to SN 1998bw in the density structure inferred from the light curve model as well as the large peak bolometric luminosity suggest that SN 2012...

  1. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On Sporadic Carbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Factory, T N S; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Baron, E; Bauer, A; Buton, C; Bongard, S; Copin, Y; Gangler, E; Gilles, S; Kessler, R; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Parrent, J; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigaudier, G; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Wang, L; Weaver, B A; Factory, The Nearby Supernova

    2006-01-01

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2006D extending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectra include the strongest signature of unburned material at photospheric velocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits C II absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C II \\lambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SN approaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications of photospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outline some factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before and around peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard, including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, and line-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburned material with low volume-filling factor.

  2. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  3. Classification of SN 2016gmg (=PTSS-16opy), as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Chang, Liang; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Yang, Zesheng; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2016-09-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2016gmg (=PTSS-16opy), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS: http://119.78.210.3/ptss2/), on UT Sep. 29.55 2016 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  4. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017cne as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Yang, Zesheng; Li, Bin; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Meng, Xianmin; Wang, J.; Jia, Junjun; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-840 nm) of SN 2017cne (=PTSS-17ntl),discovered by PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Mar.31.76 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ejd (=PTSS-17tal) as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Zhang, Kaicheng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Tan, Hanjie; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Jia, Junjun; Zhang, Tianmeng; Xiao, Jujia Zhang Feng; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-05-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-850 nm) of SN 2017ejd(=PTSS-17tal), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS,http://www.cneost.org/ptss/ ), on UT May 30.7 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  6. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2016jdw as a Type Ib Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Yu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Rui, Liming; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie

    2016-12-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2016jdw (=PTSS-16sjp), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), on UT Dec.30.9 2016 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  7. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017mt as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Rui, Liming; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2017-01-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-870 nm) of SN 2017mt, discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), on UT Jan.27.9 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  8. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017dgi (=PTSS-17qjg) as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Tan, Hanjie; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Yang, Qian; Wu, Xuebin; Jia, Junjun; Zhang, Tianmeng; Yang, Zesheng; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 390-830 nm) of SN 2017dgi (=PTSS-17qjg),discovered by PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.23.56 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  9. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017bke as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Zhang, Xiliang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Rui, Liming; ), Zesheng Yang

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-880 nm) of SN 2017bke (=PTSS-17hcz),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.25.7 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  10. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017mu as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Rui, Liming; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Yang, Hanjie Tan Zesheng; Song, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-800 nm) of SN 2017mu (=PTSS-17dgm), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), on UT Jan.26.7 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  11. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017dkb (=PTSS-17slg) as a Type IIP Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Yu, Xiaoguang; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Hanjie; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-05-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-880 nm) of SN 2017dkb (=PTSS-17slg), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.30.81 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  12. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ckc as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Yang, Zesheng; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-880 nm) of SN 2017ckc (=PTSS-17nip), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.06.82 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  13. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017aap as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-830 nm) of SN 2017aap (=PTSS-17die), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.02.9 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  14. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ckp as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Yang, Zesheng; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2017ckp (=PTSS-17npa), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.05.82 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  15. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017aas as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Lu, Kaixin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-830 nm) of SN 2017aas (=PTSS-17dib),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.04.86 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  16. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017auu as a Young Type II Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Lun, Baoli; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-860 nm) of SN 2017auu (=PTSS-17fhy),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.16.5 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  17. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ms as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Zheng, Xiangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Rui, Liming; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Xiao, Feng; Zhang, Tianmeng

    2017-01-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 330-870 nm) of SN 2017ms(= PTSS-17dfc), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS), on UT Jan.23.88 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  18. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017cff (=PTSS-17nem) as a Young Type IIP Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Xiang, Danfeng

    2017-03-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2017cff (=PTSS-17nem), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Mar.19.76 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  19. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ckc as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Yang, Zesheng; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-880 nm) of SN 2017ckc (=PTSS-17nip), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.06.82 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  20. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ckp as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Yang, Zesheng; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2017ckp (=PTSS-17npa), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Apr.05.82 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  1. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017cne as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Yang, Zesheng; Li, Bin; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Meng, Xianmin; Wang, J.; Jia, Junjun; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-840 nm) of SN 2017cne (=PTSS-17ntl),discovered by PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Mar.31.76 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  2. Supernova 2008J: early time observations of a heavily reddened SN 2002ic-like transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We provide additional observational evidence that some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show signatures of circumstellar interaction (CSI) with hydrogen-rich material. Methods: Early phase optical and near-infrared (NIR) light curves and spectroscopy of SN 2008J obtained by the Carnegie Supernov...

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017aap as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-830 nm) of SN 2017aap (=PTSS-17die), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.02.9 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  4. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017aas as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Lu, Kaixin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-830 nm) of SN 2017aas (=PTSS-17dib),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.04.86 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017auu as a Young Type II Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Lun, Baoli; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Yang, Zesheng

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-860 nm) of SN 2017auu (=PTSS-17fhy),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.16.5 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  6. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017cff (=PTSS-17nem) as a Young Type IIP Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Xin, Yuxin; Xu, Zhijian; Li, Wenxiong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Bin; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Tan, Hanjie; Rui, Liming; Xiang, Danfeng

    2017-03-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-900 nm) of SN 2017cff (=PTSS-17nem), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Mar.19.76 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  7. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017bke as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jujia; Zhang, Xiliang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Wenxiong; Li, Bin; Xu, Zhijian; Tan, Hanjie; Zhao, Haibin; Wang, Lifan; Rui, Liming; ), Zesheng Yang

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 340-880 nm) of SN 2017bke (=PTSS-17hcz),discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), on UT Feb.25.7 2017 with the 2.4 m telescope (LJT + YFOSC) at LiJiang Gaomeigu Observatory of Yunnan Observatories (YNAO).

  8. Supernova 2008J: early time observations of a heavily reddened SN 2002ic-like transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We provide additional observational evidence that some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show signatures of circumstellar interaction (CSI) with hydrogen-rich material. Methods: Early phase optical and near-infrared (NIR) light curves and spectroscopy of SN 2008J obtained by the Carnegie Supernov...

  9. The rate of Supernovae from the combined sample of five searches

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellaro, E; Tsvetkov, D Y; Bartunov, O S; Pollas, C; Evans, R; Hamuy, M

    1996-01-01

    With the purpose to obtain new estimates of the rate of supernovae we joined the logs of five SN searches, namely the Asiago, Crimea, Cal{á}n-Tololo and OCA photographic surveys and the visual search by Evans (the sample counts 110 SNe). We found that the most prolific galaxies are late spirals in which most SNe are of type II (0.88 SNu). SN Ib/c are rarer than SN Ia (0.16 and 0.24 SNu, respectively), ruling out previous claims of a very high rate of SNIb/c. We also found that the rate of SN Ia in ellipticals (0.13 SNu) is smaller than in spirals, supporting the hypothesis of different ages of the progenitor systems in early and late type galaxies. Finally, we estimated that even assuming that separate classes of faint SN Ia and SN II do exist (SNe 1991bg and 1987A could be the respective prototypes) the overall SN rate is raised only by 20-30%, therefore excluding that faint SNe represent the majority of SN explosions. Also, the bright SNIIn are intrinsically very rare (2 to 5% of all SNII in spirals).

  10. The core-collapse supernova rate in Arp 299 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cañizales, C.; Mattila, S.; Alberdi, A.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Kankare, E.; Ryder, S. D.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in nuclei A and B1, of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299, based on ˜11 yr of Very Large Array (VLA) monitoring of their radio emission at 8.4 GHz. Significant variations in the nuclear radio flux density can be used to identify the CCSN activity in the absence of high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In the case of the B1-nucleus, the small variations in its measured diffuse (synchrotron plus free-free) radio emission are below the fluxes expected from radio supernovae (RSNe), thus making it well-suited to detect RSNe through flux density variability. In fact, we find strong evidence for at least three RSNe this way, which results in a lower limit for the CCSN rateSN) of >0.28+0.27-0.15 yr-1. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the infrared (IR) luminosity based SN rate estimate, and with previously reported radio estimates. In the A-nucleus, we did not detect any significant variability and found a SN detection threshold luminosity of ≈3.1 × 1028 erg s-1 Hz-1, allowing only the detection of the most luminous RSNe known. Our method is basically blind to normal CCSN explosions occurring within the A-nucleus, which result in too small variations in the nuclear flux density, remaining diluted by the strong diffuse emission of the nucleus itself. Additionally, we have attempted to find near-IR (NIR) counterparts for the earlier reported RSNe in the Arp 299 nucleus A, by comparing NIR adaptive optics images from the Gemini-N Telescope with contemporaneous observations from the European VLBI Network (EVN). However, we were not able to detect NIR counterparts for the reported radio SNe within the innermost regions of nucleus A. While our NIR observations were sensitive to typical CCSNe at ˜300 mas (or 70 pc projected distance) from the centre of the nucleus A, suffering from extinction up to AV˜ 15 mag, they were not sensitive to such highly

  11. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  12. Constraining Type Ia supernova models: SN 2011fe as a test case

    CERN Document Server

    Roepke, F K; Seitenzahl, I R; Pakmor, R; Sim, S A; Taubenberger, S; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F; Hillebrandt, W; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Baltay, C; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Fink, M; Fouchez, D; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hachinger, S; Hsiao, E Y; Juncheng, C; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Smadja, G; Suzuki, N; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Tilquin, A; Wu, C

    2012-01-01

    The nearby supernova SN 2011fe can be observed in unprecedented detail. Therefore, it is an important test case for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) models, which may bring us closer to understanding the physical nature of these objects. Here, we explore how available and expected future observations of SN 2011fe can be used to constrain SN Ia explosion scenarios. We base our discussion on three-dimensional simulations of a delayed detonation in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf and of a violent merger of two white dwarfs-realizations of explosion models appropriate for two of the most widely-discussed progenitor channels that may give rise to SNe Ia. Although both models have their shortcomings in reproducing details of the early and near-maximum spectra of SN 2011fe obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), the overall match with the observations is reasonable. The level of agreement is slightly better for the merger, in particular around maximum, but a clear preference for one model over the other is s...

  13. SN 2008S: A Cool Super-Eddington Wind in a Supernova Impostor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea N; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Filippenko, Alexei V; Mobberley, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    We present visual-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy of SN2008S. Based on the relatively low peak luminosity for a supernova (SN) of M_R = -13.9 mag and moderate outflow speeds of \\la 600 km/s indicated by the spectrum, we find that SN2008S is not a true core-collapse SN or electron-capture SN. Instead, we interpret SN2008S as a "SN impostor" event much like SN1997bs, analogous to the giant eruptions of luminous blue variables. Its total radiated energy was ~10^47.8 ergs, and it may have ejected 0.05--0.2 Msun in the event. We note an uncanny similarity between the spectrum of SN2008S and that of the Galactic hypergiant IRC+10420, both of which are dominated by narrow H-alpha, [CaII], and CaII emission lines. We propose a scenario where the vastly super-Eddington (\\Gamma \\approx 40) wind of SN2008S partly fails because of a reduction in the electron-scattering opacity due to recombination. We favor a stellar mass of \\ga 20 Msun, and speculate that this outburst may have implications for the progenitor of ...

  14. Type Ia supernova rate at $z \\sim 0.1$

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, D P; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Amadon, A; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Blanc, G; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Kat, J; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S

    2000-01-01

    We present the EROS nearby supernova ($z \\sim 0.02 - 0.2$) search and the analysis of the first year of data (1997). A total of 80 square degrees were surveyed. Eight supernov{\\ae} were detected, four of which were spectroscopically identified as type Ia supernov{\\ae}. The search efficiency was determined with a Monte-Carlo simulation taking into account the efficiencies for both supernova detection and host galaxy identification. Assuming that for a given galaxy the supernova rate is proportional to the galactic luminosity, we compute a type Ia supernova explosion rate of: ${\\cal R} = 0.44 {}_{-0.21}^{+0.35} {}_{-0.07}^{+0.13} h^2: / 10^{10} \\lbsun / 100 {\\rm yrs}$ at an average redshift of $\\sim 0.1$ where the errors are respectively statistical and systematic (type misidentification included).

  15. Determination of a temporally and spatially resolved Supernova rate from OB-stars within 5kpc

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, J G; Neuhäuser, R

    2014-01-01

    We spatially and temporally resolve the future Supernova (SN) rate in the Solar vicinity and the whole Galaxy by comparing observational parameters of massive stars with theoretical models for estimating age and mass and, hence, the remaining life-time until the SN explosion. Our SN rate derived in time and space for the future (few Myr) should be the same as in the last few Myr by assuming a constant rate. From BVRIJHK photometry, parallax, spectral type, and luminosity class we compile a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R D) for 25027 massive stars and derive extinction, and luminosity, then mass, age, and remaining life-time from evolutionary models. Within 600pc our sample of SN progenitors and, hence, SN prediction, is complete, and all future SN events of our sample stars take place in 8% of the area of the sky, whereas 90% of the events take place in 7% of the area of the sky. The current SN rate within 600pc is increased by a factor of 5-6 compared with the Galactic rate. For a distance of 5kpc our samp...

  16. SN 1957D in M83: A Young Supernova Remnant Emerges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Soria, R.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Kuntz, K. D.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2012-05-01

    We report recent multi-wavelength observations of the remnant from SN 1957D, a core-collapse supernova in M83 and one of six SNe M83 has produced in the past century. SN 1957D was recovered as a radio SNR by Cowan & Branch (1983), and optically by Long et al. (1988). We have recently detected it for the first time in X-rays, in a long observation from Chandra. New HST WFC3 images resolve the SNR from the complex surrounding emission and reveal the local star field. The optical flux from SN 1957D is dominated by broad [O III] emission lines, the signature of fast-moving SN ejecta. The [O III] flux dropped precipitously between 1989 and 1991; a series of subsequent observations indicates continuing but more gradual decline. The width of the broad lines has remained roughly constant at about 3000 km/s (FWHM). At radio wavelengths, observations over the period 1990-2011 show a decline rate Sν t-3.9, far steeper than the rate observed between 1984 and 1990. Such evolution suggests early expansion into a circumstellar medium dominated by wind material from the progenitor, followed by a steeper decline as the blast wave overruns the edge of the wind material. The X-ray luminosity (0.3 - 10 keV) is 2.0 E37 erg/s, with a relatively hard spectrum. We cannot distinguish between a power law (indicating a probable pulsar and surrounding nebula) vs a hot thermal spectrum from the blast wave. However, the absorption is relatively high, NH 2 E22 cm-2, suggesting a dense local environment. Photometry of the local stellar population around SN 1957D, using HST WFC3 images, indicates a log(age) 7.3 and (remaining) stars up to about 11 M. This research is supported primarily by NASA through Chandra Grant G01-12115; PFW acknowledges additional support from NSF Grant AST-0908566.

  17. Early Radio and X-Ray Observations of the Youngest Nearby Type Ia Supernova PTF 11kly (SN 2011fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Fox, Derek B.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S. Bradley; deBruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; vanderHorst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil; Law, Nicolas M.; Poznanski, Dovi; Shara, Michael

    2012-01-01

    On August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of M(raised dot) less than or equal to 10(exp -8) (w /100 kilometers per second ) solar mass yr(exp -1) from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the proximity of PTF11kly and the sensitivity of our prompt observations we would have to wait for a long time (decade or longer) in order to more meaningfully probe the circumstellar matter of Ia supernovae.

  18. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ghm as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z.; Xiang, D.; Rui, L.; Lin, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, B.; Zhao, H.; Wang, L.; Tan, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    An optical spectrum (range 360-680 nm) of SN 2017ghm (=PTSS-17uyml), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), was obtained with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by S. Rostopchin on 2017 Aug 31.17 UT. The spectrum is consistent with that of a heavily reddened Type Ia supernova (with Av > 2.3 mag) around maximum light.

  19. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  20. Nearby Supernova Rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. II. The Observed Luminosity Functions and Fractions of Supernovae in a Complete Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Poznanski, Dovi; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Modjaz, Maryam; Jha, Saurabh; Foley, Ryan J; Smith, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series in which we present new measurements of the observed rates of supernovae (SNe) in the local Universe, determined from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS). In this paper, a complete SN sample is constructed, and the observed (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) luminosity functions (LFs) of SNe are derived. These LFs solve two issues that have plagued previous rate calculations for nearby SNe: the luminosity distribution of SNe and the host-galaxy extinction. We select a volume-limited sample of 175 SNe, collect photometry for every object, and fit a family of light curves to constrain the peak magnitudes and light-curve shapes. The volume-limited LFs show that they are not well represented by a Gaussian distribution. There are notable differences in the LFs for galaxies of different Hubble types (especially for SNe Ia). We derive the observed fractions for the different subclasses in a complete SN sample, and find significant fractions of SNe II-L (10%), IIb (...

  1. On type IIn/Ia-CSM supernovae as exemplified by SN 2012ca

    CERN Document Server

    Inserra, C; Smartt, S J; Benetti, S; Chen, T -W; Childress, M; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Kangas, T; Pignata, G; Polshaw, J; Sullivan, M; Smith, K W; Valenti, S; Young, D R; Parker, S; Seccull, T; McCrum, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the complete set of ultra-violet, optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy for SN 2012ca, covering the period from 6 days prior to maximum light, until 531 days after maximum. The spectroscopic time series for SN 2012ca is essentially unchanged over 1.5 years, and appear to be dominated at all epochs by signatures of interaction with a dense circumstellar medium rather than the underlying supernova (SN). SN 2012ca is a member of the class of type Ia-CSM/IIn SNe, the nature of which have been debated extensively in the literature. The two leading scenarios are either a type Ia SN exploding within a dense CSM from a non-degenerate, evolved companion, or a core-collapse SN from a massive star. While some members of the class have been unequivocally associated with type Ia SNe, in other cases the association is less certain. While it is possible that Sn 2012ca does arise from a thermonuclear SN, this would require a relatively high (between 20 and 70 per cent) efficiency in converting kine...

  2. BVRI Photometry of Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Wynn C. G.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Leonard, Douglas C.; Matheson, Thomas; Treffers, Richard R.; Richmond, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    We present optical photometry of one Type IIn supernova (1994Y) and nine Type Ia supernovae (1993Y, 1993Z, 1993ae, 1994B, 1994C, 1994M, 1994Q, 1994ae, and 1995D). SN 1993Y and SN 1993Z appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar rates of decline, but we do not have data near maximum brightness. The colors of SN 1994C suggest that it suffers from significant reddening or is intrinsically red. The light curves of SN 1994Y are complicated; they show a slow rise and gradual decline near maximum...

  3. Hubble space telescope and ground-based observations of the type Iax supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chornock, Ryan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Balam, David D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Branch, David [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Frieman, Joshua [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fynbo, Johan; Leloudas, Giorgos [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Leonard, Douglas C., E-mail: cmccully@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n{sub e} ≳ 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected 'infrared catastrophe', a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a 'complete deflagration' that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  4. LOSS Revisited - II: The relative rates of different types of supernovae vary between low- and high-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong; Smith, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In Paper I of this series, we showed that the ratio between stripped-envelope supernova (SE SN) and Type II SN rates reveals a significant SE SN deficiency in galaxies with stellar masses $\\lesssim 10^{10}~{\\rm M}_\\odot$. Here, we test this result by splitting the volume-limited subsample of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) SN sample into low- and high-mass galaxies and comparing the relative rates of various SN types found in them. The LOSS volume-limited sample contains 180 SNe and SN impostors and is complete for SNe Ia out to 80 Mpc and core-collapse SNe out to 60 Mpc. All of these transients were recently reclassified by us in Shivvers et al. (in prep.) We find that the relative rates of some types of SNe differ between low- and high-mass galaxies: SNe Ib and Ic are underrepresented by a factor of ~3 in low-mass galaxies. These galaxies also contain the only examples of SN 1987A-like SNe in the sample and host ~9 times as many SN impostors. Normal SNe Ia are ~30% more common in low-mass galax...

  5. A trio of gamma-ray burst supernovae:. GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, and GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Z.; et al., [Unknown; Hartoog, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry for three gamma-ray burst supernovae (GRB-SNe): GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, and GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu. For GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, we also present optical spectroscopy at t − t0 = 16.1 d, which covers rest-frame 3000-6250 Å. Based on Fe ii

  6. Type Ia Supernova Progenitors, Environmental Effects and Cosmic Supernova Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Nomoto, K; Hachisu, I; Kato, M; Kobayashi, C; Tsujimoto, T; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    1999-01-01

    Relatively uniform light curves and spectral evolution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have led to the use of SNe Ia as a ``standard candle'' to determine cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant, the density parameter, and the cosmological constant. Whether a statistically significant value of the cosmological constant can be obtained depends on whether the peak luminosities of SNe Ia are sufficiently free from the effects of cosmic and galactic evolutions. Here we first review the single degenerate scenario for the Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf (WD) models of SNe Ia. We identify the progenitor's evolution and population with two channels: (1) the WD+RG (red-giant) and (2) the WD+MS (near main-sequence He-rich star) channels. In these channels, the strong wind from accreting white dwarfs plays a key role, which yields important age and metallicity effects on the evolution. We then address the questions whether the nature of SNe Ia depends systematically on environmental properties such as metalli...

  7. The Core-Collapse Supernova Rate in Arp299 Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Alberdi, Antxon; Perez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Kankare, Erkki; Ryder, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the CCSN rate in nuclei A and B1 of the luminous infrared galaxy Arp299, based on 11 years of Very Large Array monitoring of their radio emission at 8.4 GHz. Significant variations in the nuclear radio flux density can be used to identify the CCSN activity in the absence of high-resolution very long baseline interferometry observations. In the case of the B1-nucleus, the small variations in its measured diffuse radio emission are below the fluxes expected from radio supernovae, thus making it well-suited to detect RSNe through flux density variability. In fact, we find strong evidence for at least three RSNe this way, which results in a lower limit for the CCSN rate of 0.28 +/- 0.16 per year. In the A-nucleus, we did not detect any significant variability and found a SN detection threshold luminosity which allows only the detection of the most luminous RSNe known. Our method is basically blind to normal CCSN explosions occurring within the A-nucleus, which result in too small variations ...

  8. Scattered-Light Echoes from the Historical Galactic Supernovae Cassiopeia A and Tycho (SN 1572)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Welch, D L; Suntzeff, N B; Oaster, L; Lanning, H; Olsen, K; Smith, R C; Becker, A C; Bergmann, M; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K H; Damke, G; Garg, A; Huber, M E; Matheson, T; Minniti, D; Prieto, J L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2008-05-06

    We report the discovery of an extensive system of scattered light echo arclets associated with the recent supernovae in the local neighborhood of the Milky Way: Tycho (SN 1572) and Cassiopeia A. Existing work suggests that the Tycho SN was a thermonuclear explosion while the Cas A supernova was a core collapse explosion. Precise classifications according to modern nomenclature require spectra of the outburst light. In the case of ancient SNe, this can only be done with spectroscopy of their light echo, where the discovery of the light echoes from the outburst light is the first step. Adjacent light echo positions suggest that Cas A and Tycho may share common scattering dust structures. If so, it is possible to measure precise distances between historical Galactic supernovae. On-going surveys that alert on the development of bright scattered-light echo features have the potential to reveal detailed spectroscopic information for many recent Galactic supernovae, both directly visible and obscured by dust in the Galactic plane.

  9. A Golden Standard Type Ia Supernova SN 2005cf: Observations from the Ultraviolet to the Near-Infrared Wavebands

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Modjaz, M; Bloom, J; Brown, P J; Carter, D; Friedman, A S; Gal-Yam, A; Ganeshalingam, M; Hicken, M; Krisciunas, K; Milne, P; Suntzeff, N B; Wood-Vasey, W M; Cenko, S B; Challis, P; Fox, D B; Kirkman, D; Li, J Z; Li, T P; Malkan, M A; Reitzel, D B; Rich, R M; Serduke, F; Shang, R C; Silverman, J M; Steele, T N; Swift, B J; Tao, C; Wong, D S; Zhang, S N

    2008-01-01

    We present extensive photometry at ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, as well as dense sampling of optical spectra, for the normal type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf. From the well-sampled light curves, we find that SN 2005cf reached a B-band maximum at 13.63+/-0.02 mag, with an observed luminosity decline rate dm_15(B) = 1.05+/-0.03 mag. The correlations between the decline rate and various color indexes, recalibrated on the basis of an expanded SN Ia sample, yielded E(B-V)_host=0.09+/-0.03 mag for SN2005cf. The UV photometry was obtained with the HST and the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, and the results match each other to within 0.1-0.2 mag. The UV light curves show similar evolution to the broadband U, with an exception in the 2000-2500 Angstrom spectral range (corresponding to the F220W/uvm2 filters), where the light curve appears broader and much fainter than that on either side (likely owing to the intrinsic spectral evolution). Combining the UV data with the ground-ba...

  10. A distorted radio shell in the young supernova SN1986J

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Marcaide, J M; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Mantovani, F; Ros, E; Weiler, K W

    2002-01-01

    We report 5 GHz global very-long-baseline interferometry observations of SN1986J, 16 yr after its explosion. We obtained a high-resolution image of the supernova, which shows a distorted shell of radio emission, indicative of a deformation of the shock front. The average speed of the shell has decreased from ~7600 km/s in 1988.74 down to about 6300 km/s in 1999.14, indicative of a mild deceleration in the expansion of SN1986J. Assuming a standard density profile for the progenitor wind, we obtain a swept-up mass by the shock front of ~2.2 solar masses. This large swept-up mass, coupled with the mild deceleration suffered by the supernova, suggests that the mass of the hydrogen-rich envelope ejected at explosion was >= 12 solar masses. Thus, the supernova progenitor must have kept intact most of its hydrogen-rich envelope by the time of explosion, which favours a single, massive star progenitor scenario. We find a flux density for SN 1986J of ~7.2 mJy at the observing frequency of 5 GHz, which results in a rad...

  11. Early Radio and X-Ray Observations of the Youngest nearby Type Ia Supernova PTF 11kly (SN 2011fe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, S. R.; Fox, Derek B.; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, Bradley; de Bruyn, A. G.; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter E.; Gehrels, Neil; Law, Nicholas M.; Poznanski, Dovi; Shara, Michael

    2012-01-01

    On 2011 August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion

  12. Rates of Superluminous Supernovae at z~0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Quimby, Robert M; Akerlof, Car; Wheeler, J Craig

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) based on 5 events discovered with the ROTSE-IIIb telescope. We gather light curves of 19 events from the literature and our own unpublished data and employ crude k-corrections to constrain the pseudo-absolute magnitude distributions in the rest frame ROTSE-IIIb (unfiltered) band pass for both the hydrogen poor (SLSN-I) and hydrogen rich (SLSN-II) populations. We find that the peak magnitudes of the available SLSN-I are narrowly distributed ($M = -21.7 \\pm 0.4$) in our unfiltered band pass and may suggest an even tighter intrinsic distribution when the effects of dust are considered, although the sample may be skewed by selection and publication biases. The presence of OII features near maximum light may uniquely signal a high luminosity event, and we suggest further observational and theoretical work is warranted to assess the possible utility of such SN 2005ap-like SLSN-I as distance indicators. Using the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribut...

  13. Core collapse supernovae from blue supergiant progenitors : The evolutionary history of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Athira

    2015-08-01

    SN 1987A is historically one of the most remarkable supernova explosions to be seen from Earth. Due to the proximity of its location in the LMC, it remains the most well-studied object outside the solar system. It was also the only supernova whose progenitor was observed prior to its explosion.SN 1987A however, was a unique and enigmatic core collapse supernova. It was the first Type II supernova to have been observed to have exploded while its progenitor was a blue supergiant (BSG). Until then Type II supernovae were expected to originate from explosions of red supergiants (RSGs). A spectacular triple-ring nebula structure, rich in helium and nitrogen, was observed around the remnant, indicating a recent RSG phase before becoming a BSG. Even today it is not entirely understood what the evolutionary history may have been to cause a BSG to explode. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for its origin is the merger of a massive binary star system.An evolutionary scenario for such a binary system, was proposed by Podsiadlowski (1992) (P92). Through SPH simulations of the merger and the stellar evolution of the post-merger remnant, Ivanova & Podsiadlowski (2002) and (2003) (I&M) could successfully obtain the RSG to BSG transition of the progenitor.The aim of the present work is to produce the evolutionary history of the progenitor of SN 1987A and its explosion. We construct our models based on the results of P92 and I&M. Here, the secondary (less massive) star is accreted on the primary, while being simultaneously mixed in its envelope over a period of 100 years. The merged star is evolved until the onset of core collapse. For this work we use the 1-dimensional, implicit, hydrodynamical stellar evolution code, KEPLER. A large parameter space is explored, consisting of primary (16-20 Ms) and secondary masses (5-8 Ms), mixing boundaries, and accreting timescales. Those models whose end states match the observed properties of the progenitor of SN 1987A are exploded. The

  14. The Unprecedented Third Outburst of SN 2009ip: A Luminous Blue Variable Becomes a Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Filippenko, Alexei; Blanchard, Kyle; Blanchard, Peter; Casper, Chadwick F E; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cohen, Daniel; Li, Gary; Silverman, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Some reports of supernova (SN) discoveries turn out not to be true core-collapse explosions. One such case was SN 2009ip, which was recognized to be a luminous blue variable (LBV) eruption. This source had a massive (50-80 Msun) hot progenitor star identified in pre-explosion data, it had documented evidence of pre-outburst variability, and it was subsequently discovered to have a 2nd outburst in 2010. This same source rebrightened again in 2012, and early spectra showed the same narrow-line profiles as before, suggesting another LBV-like eruption. We present new photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ip, indicating that its 3rd observed outburst in under 4 years appears to have transitioned into a genuine SN. The most striking discovery in these data is that unlike previous reports, the spectrum exhibited Balmer lines with very broad P-Cygni profiles characteristic of normal Type II supernovae (SNe II), in addition to narrow emission lines seen in SNe IIn and LBVs. Emission components have FWHM 8000 km/s, whi...

  15. The Unusual Super-luminous Supernovae SN 2011kl and ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Orellana, Mariana; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Two recently discovered very luminous supernovae (SNe) present stimulating cases to explore the extents of the available theoretical models. SN 2011kl represents the first detection of a supernova explosion associated with an ultra-long duration gamma-ray burst. ASASSN-15lh was even claimed as the most luminous SN ever discovered, challenging the scenarios so far proposed for stellar explosions. Here we use our radiation hydrodynamics code in order to simulate magnetar-powered SNe. To avoid explicitly assuming neutron star properties, we adopt the magnetar luminosity and spin-down timescale as free parameters of the model. We find that the light curve (LC) of SN 2011kl is consistent with a magnetar power source, as previously proposed, but we note that some amount of 56Ni (≳ 0.08{M}⊙ ) is necessary to explain the low contrast between the LC peak and tail. For the case of ASASSN-15lh, we find physically plausible magnetar parameters that reproduce the overall shape of the LC provided the progenitor mass is relatively large (an ejecta mass of ≈ 6{M}⊙ ). The ejecta hydrodynamics of this event is dominated by the magnetar input, while the effect is more moderate for SN 2011kl. We conclude that a magnetar model may be used for the interpretation of these events and that the hydrodynamical modeling is necessary to derive the properties of powerful magnetars and their progenitors.

  16. Type IIb supernova SN 2011dh: Spectra and photometry from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Friedman, Andrew S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Culliton, Chris; Curtis, Jason L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); France, Kevin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Garnavich, Peter, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). The data cover a wide wavelength range from 2000 Å in the ultraviolet (UV) to 2.4 μm in the near-infrared (NIR). Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of H I, He I, Ca II, and Fe II that trace the composition and kinematics of the supernova (SN). NIR spectra show that helium is present in the atmosphere as early as 11 days after the explosion. A UV spectrum obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph reveals that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. Modeling the spectrum with SYNOW suggests that the UV deficit is due to line blanketing from Ti II and Co II. The H I and He I velocities in SN 2011dh are separated by about 4000 km s{sup –1} at all phases. A velocity gap is consistent with models for a preexplosion structure in which a hydrogen-rich shell surrounds the progenitor. We estimate that the H shell of SN 2011dh is ≈8 times less massive than the shell of SN 1993J and ≈3 times more massive than the shell of SN 2008ax. Light curves (LCs) for 12 passbands are presented: UVW2, UVM2, UVW1, U, u', B, V, r', i', J, H, and K{sub s} . In the B band, SN 2011dh reached peak brightness of 13.17 mag at 20.0 ± 0.5 after the explosion. The maximum bolometric luminosity of 1.8 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} occurred ≈22 days after the explosion. NIR emission provides more than 30% of the total bolometric flux at the beginning of our observations, and the NIR contribution increases to nearly 50% of the total by day 34. The UV produces 16% of the total flux on day 4, 5% on day 9, and 1% on day 34. We compare the bolometric LCs of SN 2011dh, SN 2008ax, and SN 1993J. The LC are very different for the first 12 days after the explosions, but all three SN IIb display similar peak luminosities, times of peak, decline rates, and

  17. Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations of the Type Iax Supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    CERN Document Server

    McCully, Curtis; Foley, Ryan J; Chornock, Ryan; Holtzman, Jon A; Balam, David D; Branch, David; Filippenko, Alexei V; Frieman, Joshua; Fynbo, Johan; Galbany, Lluis; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Garnavich, Peter M; Graham, Melissa L; Hsiao, Eric Y; Leloudas, Giorgos; Leonard, Douglas C; Li, Weidong; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sollerman, Jesper; Steele, Thea N; Thomas, Rollin C; Wheeler, J Craig; Zheng, Chen

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). These objects are peculiar cousins of normal Type Ia SNe, with SN 2002cx as the prototype. Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from normal SNe Ia. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in normal SNe Ia at late phases (and indeed, in SNe of all other types), spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n_e >~ 10^9 cm^-3. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected "infrared catastrophe," a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photom...

  18. A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

  19. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Levesque, Emily M., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1} in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M{sub B} = -18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of {approx}10{sup 52} erg and {sup 56}Ni mass ejection of M{sub Ni} Almost-Equal-To 0.3 M{sub Sun} on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities {approx}> 4500 km s{sup -1}, as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities {approx}< 2000 km s{sup -1}. Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span -21 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  20. SN 2015U: a rapidly evolving and luminous Type Ibn supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivvers, Isaac; Zheng, Wei Kang; Mauerhan, Jon; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kumar, Sahana

    2016-09-01

    Supernova (SN) 2015U (also known as PSN J07285387+3349106) was discovered in NGC 2388 on 2015 Feb. 11. A rapidly evolving and luminous event, it showed effectively hydrogen-free spectra dominated by relatively narrow helium P-Cygni spectral features and it was classified as an SN Ibn. In this paper, we present photometric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric observations of SN 2015U, including a Keck/DEIMOS spectrum (resolution ≈5000) which fully resolves the optical emission and absorption features. We find that SN 2015U is best understood via models of shock breakout from extended and dense circumstellar material (CSM), likely created by a history of mass-loss from the progenitor with an extreme outburst within ˜1-2 yr of core collapse (but we do not detect any outburst in our archival imaging of NGC 2388). We argue that the high luminosity of SN 2015U was powered not through 56Ni decay but via the deposition of kinetic energy into the ejecta/CSM shock interface. Though our analysis is hampered by strong host-galaxy dust obscuration (which likely exhibits multiple components), our data set makes SN 2015U one of the best-studied Type Ibn SNe and provides a bridge of understanding to other rapidly fading transients, both luminous and relatively faint.

  1. SN 2009bb: a Peculiar Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Pignata, Giuliano; Soderberg, Alicia; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, M M; Morrell, Nidia; Anderson, J P; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; González, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Maza, José; Roth, Miguel; Levesque, Francisco Salgado Emily M; Rest, Armin; Crain, J Adam; Foster, Andrew C; Haislip, Joshua B; Ivarsen, Kevin M; LaCluyze, Aaron P; Nysewander, Melissa C; Reichart, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb are presented, following the flux evolution from -10 to +285 days past B-band maximum. Thanks to the very early discovery, it is possible to place tight constraints on the SN explosion epoch. The expansion velocities measured from near maximum spectra are found to be only slightly smaller than those measured from spectra of the prototype broad-lined SN 1998bw associated with GRB 980425. Fitting an analytical model to the pseudo-bolometric light curve of SN 2009bb suggests that 4.1+-1.9 Msun of material was ejected with 0.22 +-0.06 Msun of it being 56Ni. The resulting kinetic energy is 1.8+-0.7x10^52 erg. This, together with an absolute peak magnitude of MB=-18.36+-0.44, places SN 2009bb on the energetic and luminous end of the broad-lined Type Ic (SN Ic) sequence. Detection of helium in the early time optical spectra accompanied with strong radio emission, and high metallicity of its en...

  2. SN 2009ib: A Type II-P Supernova with an Unusually Long Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Takats, K; Pumo, M L; Paillas, E; Zampieri, L; Elias-Rosa, N; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Cappellaro, E; Ergon, M; Fraser, M; Hamuy, M; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Smartt, S J; Stritzinger, M D; Van Dyk, S D; Haislip, J B; LaCluyze, A P; Moore, J P; Reichart, D

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ib, a Type II-P supernova in NGC 1559. This object has moderate brightness, similar to those of the intermediate-luminosity SNe 2008in and 2009N. Its plateau phase is unusually long, lasting for about 130 days after explosion. The spectra are similar to those of the subluminous SN 2002gd, with moderate expansion velocities. We estimate the $^{56}$Ni mass produced as $0.046 \\pm 0.015\\,{\\rm M}_{\\sun}$. We determine the distance to SN 2009ib using both the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standard candle method. We also apply EPM to SN 1986L, a type II-P SN that exploded in the same galaxy. Combining the results of different methods, we conclude the distance to NGC 1559 as $D=19.8 \\pm 2.8$ Mpc. We examine archival, pre-explosion images of the field taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find a faint source at the position of the SN, which has a yellow colour ($(V-I)_0 = 0.85$ mag). Assuming it is a single star, we estimate i...

  3. SN 2012aa: A transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R.; Sollerman, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Pastorello, A.; Fransson, C.; Drake, A.; Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Kankare, E.; Kumar, B.; Cappellaro, E.; Bose, S.; Benetti, S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Valenti, S.; Nyholm, A.; Ergon, M.; Sutaria, F.; Kumar, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Nicholl, M.; Garcia-Álvarez, D.; Tomasella, L.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Migotto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by 2 mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes ≲-21 are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). The mechanism that powers the light curves of SLSNe is still not well understood. The proposed scenarios are circumstellar interaction, the emergence of a magnetar after core collapse, or disruption of a massive star through pair production. Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. They are important for constraining the nature of the progenitors of these two different populations and their environments and powering mechanisms. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: We observed and analysed the evolution of the luminous Type Ic SN 2012aa. The event was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search in an anonymous galaxy (z ≈ 0.08). The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With an absolute V-band peak of - 20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. SN 2012aa also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. For SN 2012aa, we interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). If we assume a 56Ni-powered ejecta, the quasi-bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M⊙ of 56Ni and an ejected mass of 14M⊙. This also implies a high kinetic energy of the explosion, 5.4 × 1051 erg. On the other hand, the unusually broad light curve along with the secondary peak indicate the possibility of interaction with CSM. The third alternative is the presence of a central engine releasing spin energy that eventually powers the light curve over a long time. The host of SN 2012aa is a star-forming Sa/Sb/Sbc galaxy. Conclusions

  4. Early radio and X-ray observations of the youngest nearby type Ia supernova PTF11kly (SN 2011fe)

    CERN Document Server

    Horesh, Assaf; Fox, Derek B; Carpenter, John; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Ofek, Eran O; Quimby, Robert; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Cenko, S Bradley; de Bruyn, A G; Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph A M J; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Maguire, Kate; Nugent, Peter E; Gehrels, Neil; Law, Nicholas M; Poznanski, Dovi; Shara, Michael

    2011-01-01

    On August 24 (UT) the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) discovered PTF11kly (SN 2011fe), the youngest and most nearby type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. We followed this event up in the radio (centimeter and millimeter bands) and X-ray bands, starting about a day after the estimated explosion time. We present our analysis of the radio and X-ray observations, yielding the tightest constraints yet placed on the pre-explosion mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of this supernova. We find a robust limit of dM/dt<10^-8 (w/100 km/s) [M_solar/yr] from sensitive X-ray non-detections, as well as a similar limit from radio data, which depends, however, on assumptions about microphysical parameters. We discuss our results in the context of single-degenerate models for SNe Ia and find that our observations modestly disfavor symbiotic progenitor models involving a red giant donor, but cannot constrain systems accreting from main-sequence or sub-giant stars, including the popular supersoft channel. In view of the...

  5. Type IIP Supernova SN 2004et: A Multi-Wavelength Study in X-Ray, Optical and Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Kuntal; Chandra, Poonam; Bhattacharya, D; Ray, Alak K; Sagar, Ram; Lewin, Walter H G

    2007-01-01

    We present X-ray, broad band optical and low frequency radio observations of the bright type IIP supernova SN 2004et. The \\cxo observed the supernova at three epochs, and the optical coverage spans a period of $\\sim$ 470 days since explosion. The X-ray emission softens with time, and we characterise the X-ray luminosity evolution as $\\Lx \\propto t^{-0.4}$. We use the observed X-ray luminosity to estimate a mass-loss rate for the progenitor star of $\\sim \\ee{2}{-6} M_\\odot \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. The optical light curve shows a pronounced plateau lasting for about 110 days. Temporal evolution of photospheric radius and color temperature during the plateau phase is determined by making black body fits. We estimate the ejected mass of $^{56}$Ni to be 0.06 $\\pm$ 0.03 M$_\\odot$. Using the expressions of Litvinova & Nad\\"{e}zhin (1985) we estimate an explosion energy of (0.98 $\\pm$ 0.25) $\\times 10^{51}$ erg. We also present a single epoch radio observation of SN 2004et. We compare this with the predictions of the m...

  6. Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    We live in a Universe that is getting bigger faster. This astonishing discovery of Universal acceleration was made in the late 1990s by two teams who made observations of a special type of exploded star known as a `Supernova Type Ia'. (SNeIa) Since the discovery of the accelerating Universe, one of the biggest questions in modern cosmology has been to determine the cause of that acceleration - the answer to this question will have far reaching implications for our theories of cosmology and fundamental physics more broadly. The two main competing explanations for this apparent late time acceleration of the Universe are modified gravity and dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) has been designed and commissioned to find to find answers to these questions about the nature of dark energy and modified gravity. The new 570 megapixel Dark Energy Camera is currently operating with the Cerro-Tololo Inter American Observatory's 4m Blanco teleccope, carrying out a systematic search for SNeIa, and mapping out the large scale structure of the Universe by making observations of galaxies. The DES science program program which saw first light in September 2013 will run for five years in total. DES SNeIa data in combination with the other DES observations of large scale structure will enable us to put increasingly accurate constraints on the expansion history of the Universe and will help us distinguish between competing theories of dark energy and modified gravity. As we draw to the close of the first observing season of DES in March 2014, we will report on the current status of the DES supernova survey, presenting first year supernovae data, preliminary results, survey strategy, discovery pipeline, spectroscopic target selection and data quality. This talk will give the first glimpse of the DES SN first year data and initial results as we begin our five year survey in search of dark energy. On behalf of the Dark Energy Survey collaboration.

  7. SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc: Early and late-time behavior consistent with core-collapse Type IIn supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Prieto, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The recent supernova (SN) 2009ip had pre-SN eruptions followed by a final explosion in 2012. Its pre-SN observations make 2009ip the best observed SN progenitor in history, but the unprecedented data on the pre-SN activity has fueled debate about the nature of the 2012 explosion, whether it was a true SN or some extreme non-terminal event. In principle, both types of events could power shock interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), but here we argue that only a core-collapse SN provides a self-consistent explanation. Previously, we demonstrated that the light curves of SN 2009ip and another Type IIn, SN 2010mc, were nearly identical. Here we expand that comparison to their spectra as well, demonstrating that they are both consistent with known Type IIn events. The late-time spectra of SN 2009ip resemble those of the super-luminous SN 2006tf, and the underlying broad component in SN 2009ip's spectra resembles Type II-P events. The recent claim that the late-time spectrum of SN 2009ip is returning to its ...

  8. The Core-collapse rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bazin, G; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Aubourg, E; Guillou, L Le; Astier, P; Balland, C; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Sullivan, M; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Baumont, S; Fabbro, S; Du, J Le; Lidman, C; Mouchet, M; Mourão, A; Walker, E S

    2009-01-01

    We use three years of data from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) to study the general properties of core-collapse and type Ia supernovae. This is the first such study using the "rolling search" technique which guarantees well-sampled SNLS light curves and good efficiency for supernovae brighter than $i^\\prime\\sim24$. Using host photometric redshifts, we measure the supernova absolute magnitude distribution down to luminosities $4.5 {\\rm mag}$ fainter than normal SNIa. Using spectroscopy and light-curve fitting to discriminate against SNIa, we find a sample of 117 core-collapse supernova candidates with redshifts $z<0.4$ (median redshift of 0.29) and measure their rate to be larger than the type Ia supernova rate by a factor $4.5\\pm0.8(stat.) \\pm0.6 (sys.)$. This corresponds to a core-collapse rate at $z=0.3$ of $[1.42\\pm 0.3(stat.) \\pm0.3(sys.)]\\times10^{-4}\\yr^{-1}(h_{70}^{-1}\\Mpc)^{-3}$.

  9. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search II. Rates in a galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Greggio, L.; Pignata, G.; Della Valle, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Baruffolo, A.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Cascone, E.; Covone, G.; De Cicco, D.; Falocco, S.; Haeussler, B.; Harutyunyan, V.; Jarvis, M.; Marchetti, L.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Pastorello, A.; Radovich, M.; Schipani, P.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This is the second paper of a series in which we present measurements of the supernova (SN) rates from the SUDARE survey. The aim of this survey is to constrain the core collapse (CC) and Type Ia SN progenitors by analysing the dependence of their explosion rate on the properties of the parent stellar population averaging over a population of galaxies with different ages in a cosmic volume and in a galaxy sample. In this paper, we study the trend of the SN rates with the intrinsic colours, the star formation activity and the masses of the parent galaxies. To constrain the SN progenitors we compare the observed rates with model predictions assuming four progenitor models for SNe Ia with different distribution functions of the time intervals between the formation of the progenitor and the explosion, and a mass range of 8-40 M⊙ for CC SN progenitors. Methods: We considered a galaxy sample of approximately 130 000 galaxies and a SN sample of approximately 50 events. The wealth of photometric information for our galaxy sample allows us to apply the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique to estimate the intrinsic rest frame colours, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) for each galaxy in the sample. The galaxies have been separated into star-forming and quiescent galaxies, exploiting both the rest frame U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and the best fit values of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) from the SED fitting. Results: We found that the SN Ia rate per unit mass is higher by a factor of six in the star-forming galaxies with respect to the passive galaxies, identified as such both on the U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and for their sSFR. The SN Ia rate per unit mass is also higher in the less massive galaxies that are also younger. These results suggest a distribution of the delay times (DTD) less populated at long delay times than at short delays. The CC SN rate per unit mass is proportional to both the sSFR and the galaxy

  10. Late-time spectral line formation in Type IIb supernovae, with application to SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, A; Smartt, S J; Fransson, C; Sollerman, J; Taubenberger, S; Bersten, M; Spyromilio, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate line formation processes in Type IIb supernovae (SNe) from 100 to 500 days post-explosion using spectral synthesis calculations. The modeling identifies the nuclear burning layers and physical mechanisms that produce the major emission lines, and the diagnostic potential of these. We compare the model calculations with data on the three best observed Type IIb SNe to-date - SN 1993J, SN 2008ax, and SN 2011dh. Oxygen nucleosynthesis depends sensitively on the main-sequence mass of the star and modeling of the [O I] 6300, 6364 lines constrains the progenitors of these three SNe to the M_ZAMS=12-16 M_sun range (ejected oxygen masses 0.3-0.9 M_sun), with SN 2011dh towards the lower end and SN 1993J towards the upper end of the range. The high ejecta masses from M_ZAMS >= 17 M_sun progenitors give rise to brighter nebular phase emission lines than observed. Nucleosynthesis analysis thus supports a scenario of low/moderate mass progenitors for Type IIb SNe, and by implication an origin in binary syste...

  11. X-ray and radio emission from Type In supernova SN 2010jl

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Poonam; Chugai, Nikolai; Fransson, Claes; Soderberg, Alicia M

    2015-01-01

    We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Swift-XRT. The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for \\chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day $\\sim 300$. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with t...

  12. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-14

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

  13. The Unusual Super-Luminous Supernovae SN 2011kl and ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Bersten, Melina C; Orellana, Mariana; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Two recently discovered very luminous supernovae (SNe) present stimulating cases to explore the extents of the available theoretical models. SN 2011kl represents the first detection of a supernova explosion associated with an ultra-long duration gamma ray burst. ASASSN-15lh was even claimed as the most luminous SN ever discovered, challenging the scenarios so far proposed for stellar explosions. Here we use our radiation hydrodynamics code in order to simulate magnetar powered SNe. To avoid explicitly assuming neutron star properties we adopt the magnetar luminosity and spin-down timescale as free parameters of the model. We find that the light curve (LC) of SN 2011kl is consistent with a magnetar power source, as previously proposed, but we note that some amount of 56^Ni (> 0.08 M_sun) is necessary to explain the low contrast between the LC peak and tail. For the case of ASASSN-15lh we find physically plausible magnetar parameters that reproduce the overall shape of the LC provided the progenitor mass is rel...

  14. SN 2013ej - A type IIL supernova with weak signs of interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh; Duggal, Chetna; Misra, Kuntal; Brown, Peter J; Singh, Mridweeka; Dwarkadas, Vikram; York, Donald G; Chakraborti, Sayan; Chandola, H C; Dahlstrom, Julie; Ray, Alak; Safonova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova 2013ej. It is one of the brightest type II supernovae exploded in a nearby ($\\sim 10$ Mpc) galaxy NGC 628. The light curve characteristics are similar to type II SNe, but with a relatively shorter ($ \\sim85 $ day) and steeper ($ \\sim1.7 $ mag (100 d)$^{-1} $ in V) plateau phase. The SN shows a large drop of 2.4 mag in V band brightness during plateau to nebular transition. The absolute ultraviolet (UV) light curves are identical to SN 2012aw, showing a similar UV plateau trend extending up to 85 days. The radioactive $^{56}$Ni mass estimated from the tail luminosity is $ 0.02 $M$_{\\odot}$ which is significantly lower than typical type IIP SNe. The characteristics of spectral features and evolution of line velocities indicate that SN 2013ej is a type II event. However, light curve characteristics and some spectroscopic features provide strong support in classifying it as a type IIL event. A detailed SYNOW modelling of spectra indicates ...

  15. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  16. The core collapse supernova rate from the SDSS-II supernova survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Dilday, Ben [Spokane, WA 99203 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Gupta, Ravi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kessler, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, John [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2FX (United Kingdom); Richmond, Michael [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: cinabro@physics.wayne.edu [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-10

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10{sup –4}((h/0.7){sup 3}/(yr Mpc{sup 3})) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  17. On the progenitor of SN 2005gl and the nature of Type IIn supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, A; Fox, D B; Cenko, S B; Soderberg, A M; Moon, D S; Sand, D J; Li, W; Filippenko, A V; Aldering, G; Copin, Y; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the type IIn supernova (SN) 2005gl, in the relatively nearby (d~66 Mpc) galaxy NGC 266. Photometry and spectroscopy of the SN indicate it is a typical member of its class. Pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the location of the SN, along with a precise localization of this event using the Laser-Guide-Star assisted Adaptive Optics (LGS-AO) system at Keck Observatory, are combined to identify a luminous (M_V=-10.3) point source as the possible progenitor of SN 2005gl. If the source is indeed a single star, it was likely a member of the class of luminous blue variable stars (LBVs). This finding leads us to consider the possible general association of SNe IIn with LBV progenitors. We find this is indeed supported by observations of other SNe, and the known properties of LBV stars. For example, we argue that should the prototypical Galactic LBV eta Carina explode in a phase similar to its current state, it will likely produce a type IIn SN. We discuss our findings in the con...

  18. SN 2015U: A Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Type Ibn Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Shivvers, Isaac; Mauerhan, Jon; Kleiser, Io K W; Kelly, Patrick L; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Graham, Melissa L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Kumar, Sahana; Van Dyk, Schuyler D

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) 2015U (also known as PSN J07285387+3349106) was discovered in NGC 2388 on 2015 Feb. 11. A rapidly evolving and luminous event, it showed hydrogen-free spectra dominated by relatively narrow helium P-Cygni spectral features and it was classified as a SN Ibn. In this paper we present photometric, spectroscopic, and spectropolarimetric observations of SN 2015U, including a Keck/DEIMOS spectrum (resolution $\\approx 5000$) which fully resolves the optical emission and absorption features. We find that SN 2015U is best understood via models of shock breakout from extended and dense circumstellar material (CSM), likely created by a history of mass loss from the progenitor with an extreme outburst within $\\sim$1-2 yr of core collapse (but we do not detect any outburst in our archival imaging of NGC 2388). We argue that the high luminosity of SN 2015U was powered not through $^{56}$Ni decay but via the deposition of kinetic energy into the ejecta/CSM shock interface, and we place an upper limit on the a...

  19. Type IIn Supernova SN 2010jl: Optical Observations for Over 500 Days After Explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Tianmeng; Wu, Chao; Chen, Juncheng; Chen, Jia; Liu, Qin; Huang, Fang; Liang, Jide; Zhao, Xulin; Li, Lin; Wang, Min; Dennefeld, Michel; Zhang, Jujia; Zhai, Meng; Wu, Hong; Fan, Zhou; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Ma, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We present extensive optical observations of a Type IIn supernova (SN) 2010jl for the first 1.5 years after the discovery. The UBVRI light curves demonstrated an interesting two-stage evolution during the nebular phase, which almost flatten out after about 90 days from the optical maximum. SN 2010jl has one of the highest intrinsic H_alpha luminosity ever recorded for a SN IIn, especially at late phase, suggesting a strong interaction of SN ejecta with the dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the progenitor. This is also indicated by the remarkably strong Balmer lines persisting in the optical spectra. One interesting spectral evolution about SN 2010jl is the appearance of asymmetry of the Balmer lines. These lines can be well decomposed into a narrow component and an intermediate-width component. The intermediate-width component showed a steady increase in both strength and blueshift with time until t ~ 400 days after maximum, but it became less blueshifted at t ~ 500 days when the line profile appe...

  20. SN Refsdal : Photometry and Time Delay Measurements of the First Einstein Cross Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Rodney, S A; Kelly, P L; Bradac, M; Brammer, G; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R J; Graur, O; Hjorth, J; Jha, S W; McCully, C; Molino, A; Riess, A G; Schmidt, K B; Selsing, J; Sharon, K; Treu, T; Weiner, B J; Zitrin, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first year of Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the unique supernova (SN) 'Refsdal', a gravitationally lensed SN at z=1.488 +- 0.001 with multiple images behind the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223. The first four observed images of SN Refsdal (images S1-S4) exhibited a slow rise (over ~150 days) to reach a broad peak brightness around 20 April, 2015. Using a set of light curve templates constructed from the family of SN 1987A-like peculiar Type II SNe, we measure time delays for the four images relative to S1 of 4+-4 (for S2), 2+-5 (S3), and 24+-7 days (S4). The measured magnification ratios relative to S1 are 1.15+-0.05 (S2), 1.01+-0.04 (S3), and 0.34+-0.02 (S4). We find, however, that none of the template light curves fully captures the photometric behavior of SN Refsdal, so we also derive complementary measurements for these parameters using polynomials to represent the intrinsic light curve shape. These more flexible fits deliver fully consistent time delays of 7+-2 days (S2), 0.6+-3 days ...

  1. SN 2011fu: A type IIb Supernova with a luminous double-peaked light curve

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Garoffolo, A; Bersten, M; Jerkstrand, A; Taubenberger, S; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Kotak, R; Pastorello, A; Bufano, F; Domínguez, R M; Ergon, M; Fraser, M; Gao, X; García, E; Howell, D A; Isern, J; Smartt, S J; Tomasella, L; Valenti, S

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near infrared observations of the type IIb supernova (SN) 2011fu from a few days to $\\sim300$ d after explosion. The SN presents a double-peaked light curve (LC) similar to that of SN 1993J, although more luminous and with a longer cooling phase after the primary peak. The spectral evolution is also similar to SN 1993J's, with hydrogen dominating the spectra to $\\sim40$ d, then helium gaining strength, and nebular emission lines appearing from $\\sim60$ d post-explosion. The velocities derived from the P-Cygni absorptions are overall similar to those of other type IIb SNe. We have found a strong similarity between the oxygen and magnesium line profiles at late times, which suggests that these lines are forming at the same location within the ejecta. The hydrodynamical modelling of the pseudo-bolometric LC and the observed photospheric velocities suggest that SN 2011fu was the explosion of an extended star ($\\rm R\\sim450$ R$_\\odot$), in which 1.3 $\\times 10^{51}$ erg of kinetic energy wer...

  2. Cepheid Calibration of the Peak Brightness of Type Ia Supernovae. XI. SN 1998aq in NGC 3982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Sandage, Allan; Tammann, G. A.; Dolphin, A. E.; Christensen, J.; Panagia, N.; Macchetto, F. D.

    2001-11-01

    Repeated imaging observations have been made of NGC 3982 with the Hubble Space Telescope between 2000 March and May, over an interval of 53 days. Images were obtained on 12 epochs in the F555W band and on five epochs in the F814W band. The galaxy hosted the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 1998aq. A total of 26 Cepheid candidates were identified, with periods ranging from 10 to 45 days, using photometry with the DoPHOT program. The dereddened distance to NGC 3982 is estimated from these data using various criteria to maximize signal-to-noise ratio and reliability: the values lie between 31.71 and 31.82, with uncertainties in the mean of typically +/-0.14 mag for each case. A parallel analysis using photometry with HSTphot discovered 13 variables, yielding a distance modulus of 31.85+/-0.16. The final adopted modulus is (M-m)0=31.72+/-0.14 (22+/-1.5 Mpc). Photometry of SN 1998aq that is available in the literature is used in combination with the derived distance to NGC 3982 to obtain the peak absolute magnitude of this supernova. The lower limit (no extinction within the host galaxy) for MV is -19.47+/-0.15 mag. Corrections for decline rate and intrinsic color to carry these to the reduced system of Parodi and collaborators have been performed. The derived luminosities at hand are fully consistent with the mean of the eight normal SNe Ia previously calibrated with Cepheids. Together they yield H0~60+/-2(internal) km s-1 Mpc-1 based on an assumed LMC distance modulus of 18.50. We point out that correcting some of the systematic errors and including uncertainty estimates due to them leads to H0=58.7+/-6.3(internal) km s-1 Mpc-1.

  3. Cepheid Calibration of the Peak Brightness of Type IA Supernovae. VI. SN 1960F in NGC 4496A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Sandage, Allan; Labhardt, Lukas; Tammann, G. A.; Macchetto, F. D.; Panagia, N.

    1996-12-01

    Cepheid variables have been found in the SBcII galaxy NGC 4496A, parent to the Type Ia supernova 1960F. Of the 130 variables discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) over a 70 day observing internal from 1994 June to August, comprising 17 epochs in the F555W band and four epochs in the F814W band, 95 are bona fide Cepheids. The periods range from 7 days to greater than 70 days, with the mean magnitudes ranging from = 24.4 to 26.8. The distance modulus of NGC 4496A, based on the Cepheids, is (rn-Al)0 = 31.03±0.14, where a formal reddening of E(V-I) = 0.04±0.06 derived from the colors of the Cepheids has been used to account for possible extinction. There is no measurable differential reddening over the field. The absolute magnitudes of SN 1960F at maximum are M(B)max = -19.43±0.17 and M(V)max =-19.52±0.21. Combining these absolute magnitudes with the Hubble diagrams of "Branch normal" Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), determined earlier, gives Hubble constants, based on SN 1960F alone, of HO(B)=56±9 km s-1, (1) and H0(V) = 55±9 km s-1. (2) Combining the calibration of SN 1960F here with six other extant calibrations set out in Paper VII gives interim mean absolute magnitude calibrations of M(B) = -19.45±0.07 and 4M(V) max = -19.47±0.07, with no evidence for appreciable dependence on the light-curve decay rate. These mean interim calibrations require H0(B) = 57±4 km s-1 and H0(V) = 58±4 km s-1 Mpc-1.

  4. Superluminous Supernova SN 2015bn in the Nebular Phase: Evidence for the Engine-powered Explosion of a Stripped Massive Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Blanchard, P. K.; Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Arcavi, I.; Challis, P.; Chambers, K. C.; Chen, T.-W.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Magnier, E. A.; Maguire, K.; Mazzali, P. A.; McCully, C.; Milisavljevic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Yaron, O.; Young, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    We present nebular-phase imaging and spectroscopy for the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn, at redshift z = 0.1136, spanning +250-400 days after maximum light. The light curve exhibits a steepening in the decline rate from 1.4 mag (100 days)-1 to 1.7 mag (100 days)-1, suggestive of a significant decrease in the opacity. This change is accompanied by a transition from a blue continuum superposed with photospheric absorption lines to a nebular spectrum dominated by emission lines of oxygen, calcium, and magnesium. There are no obvious signatures of circumstellar interaction or large 56Ni mass. We show that the spectrum at +400 days is virtually identical to a number of energetic SNe Ic such as SN 1997dq, SN 2012au, and SN 1998bw, indicating similar core conditions and strengthening the link between “hypernovae”/long gamma-ray bursts and SLSNe. A single explosion mechanism may unify these events that span absolute magnitudes of -22 < M B < -17. Both the light curve and spectrum of SN 2015bn are consistent with an engine-driven explosion ejecting 7-30 M ⊙ of oxygen-dominated ejecta (for reasonable choices in temperature and opacity). A strong and relatively narrow O i λ7774 line, seen in a number of these energetic events but not in normal supernovae, may point to an inner shell that is the signature of a central engine.

  5. Optical and near infrared observations of SN 2014ck: an outlier among the Type Iax supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasella, L; Benetti, S; Pastorello, A; Hsiao, E Y; Sand, D J; Stritzinger, M; Valenti, S; McCully, C; Arcavi, I; Elias-Rosa, N; Harmanen, J; Harutyunyan, A; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Kankare, E; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taddia, F; Tartaglia, L; Terreran, G; Turatto, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive set of optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations for SN 2014ck, extending from pre-maximum to six months later. These data indicate that SN 2014ck is photometrically nearly identical to SN 2002cx, which is the prototype of the class of peculiar transients named SNe Iax. Similar to SN 2002cx, SN 2014ck reached a peak brightness $M_B=-17.37 \\pm 0.15$ mag, with a post-maximum decline-rate $\\Delta m_{15} (B) = 1.76 \\pm 0.15$ mag. However, the spectroscopic sequence shows similarities with SN 2008ha, which was three magnitudes fainter and faster declining. In particular, SN 2014ck exhibits extremely low ejecta velocities, $\\sim 3000$ km s$^{-1}$ at maximum, which are close to the value measured for SN 2008ha and half the value inferred for SN 2002cx. The bolometric light curve of SN 2014ck is consistent with the production of $0.10^{+0.04}_{-0.03} M_{\\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni. The spectral identification of several iron-peak features, in particular Co II lines in th...

  6. Supernova Explosions in Winds and Bubbles, with Applications to SN 1987A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram V. Dwarkadas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas masivas pueden modi car signi cativamente el medio que las rodea durante sus vidas. Cuando las estrellas explotan como supernovas, la onda de choque resultante se expande dentro de este medio modi cado y no en el medio interestelar. Exploramos la evoluci on del medio alrededor de las estrellas masivas, y la expansi on de la onda de choque dentro de este medio. Entonces aplicamos estos resultados para comprender la expansi on de la onda de choque en el medio ambiente que rodea a SN 1987A, y la evoluci on de la emisi on en radio y rayos X en este caso

  7. Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Development of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer has been used to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period as it develops into a supernova remnant through interaction with its surrounding environment. This interaction is dominated by the collision of the ejecta with the pre-existing equatorial ring. The mid-IR continuum indicates an increasing mass of shock-heated silicate dust, but without any significant change in temperature of the dust grains. Comparison of the IR and X-ray evolution of the remnant can be used to infer plasma conditions and the processing of the dust in the shock-heated X-ray emitting gas.

  8. SALT spectroscopic classification of DLT17ar (= SN 2017cyy) as a type-Ia supernova before maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Sand, D.; Tartaglia, L.; Valenti, S.; Kuhn, R.

    2017-04-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of DLT17ar (= SN 2017cyy) on 2017 Apr 12.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-725 nm under cloudy conditions. Cross-correlation of the noisy supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows DLT17ar is a type-Ia supernova before maximum light.

  9. SALT spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-17bu (= SN 2017yv) as a type-Ia supernova before maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Kotze, M.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of ASASSN-17bu (= SN 2017yv; ATel #10033) on 2017 Feb 3.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows ASASSN-17bu is a type-Ia supernova several days before maximum light.

  10. LOSS Revisited. II. The Relative Rates of Different Types of Supernovae Vary between Low- and High-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Or; Bianco, Federica B.; Modjaz, Maryam; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Smith, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    In Paper I of this series, we showed that the ratio between stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN) and Type II SN rates reveals a significant SE SN deficiency in galaxies with stellar masses ≲ {10}10 {M}ȯ . Here, we test this result by splitting the volume-limited subsample of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) SN sample into low- and high-mass galaxies and comparing the relative rates of various SN types found in them. The LOSS volume-limited sample contains 180 SNe and SN impostors and is complete for SNe Ia out to 80 Mpc and core-collapse SNe out to 60 Mpc. All of these transients were recently reclassified by us in Shivvers et al. We find that the relative rates of some types of SNe differ between low- and high-mass galaxies: SNe Ib and Ic are underrepresented by a factor of ∼3 in low-mass galaxies. These galaxies also contain the only examples of SN 1987A-like SNe in the sample and host about nine times as many SN impostors. Normal SNe Ia seem to be ∼30% more common in low-mass galaxies, making these galaxies better sources for homogeneous SN Ia cosmology samples. The relative rates of SNe IIb are consistent in both low- and high-mass galaxies. The same is true for broad-line SNe Ic, although our sample includes only two such objects. The results presented here are in tension with a similar analysis from the Palomar Transient Factory, especially as regards SNe IIb.

  11. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-degenerate Binary Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.

  12. Supernovae in the Subaru Deep Field: the rate and delay-time distribution of type Ia supernovae out to redshift 2

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Maoz, Dan; Yasuda, Naoki; Totani, Tomonori; Fukugita, Masataka; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Horesh, Assaf; Jannuzi, Buell T

    2011-01-01

    The type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate, when compared to the cosmic star formation history (SFH), can be used to derive the delay-time distribution (DTD) of SNe Ia, which can distinguish among progenitor models. We present the results of a SN survey to ~27 mag in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). Over a period of 3 years, we have observed the SDF on 4 independent epochs with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope, with 2 nights of exposure per epoch, in the R, i', and z' bands. We have discovered 150 SNe out to redshift z~2. Using 11 photometric bands from the observer-frame far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, we derive photometric redshifts for the SN host galaxies (for 24 we also have spectroscopic redshifts). This information is combined with the SN photometry to determine the type and redshift distribution of the SN sample. Our final sample includes 26 SNe Ia in the range 1.0SN Ia rate measurements are consistent with those derived from the HST/GOODS sampl...

  13. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2016iae (= ATLAS16dvr) as a type-Ic supernova before maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Foley, R. J.; Skelton, R.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2016iae (= ATLAS16dvr; Tonry et al. 2016, ATel #9749) on 2016 Nov 12.9 UT covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. The spectrum shows a relatively blue continuum, with well-developed broad absorption features, including strong Si II (rest 635.5 nm). Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows SN 2016iae is a type-Ic supernova approaching maximum light.

  14. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of SN 1987A from the supernova explosion till the Athena era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The proximity of SN 1987A and the wealth of observations collected at all wavelenght bands since its outburst allow us to study in details the evolution of a supernova remnant (SNR) from the immediate aftermath of the SN explosion till its expansion through the highly inhomogeneous circumstellar medium (CSM). We investigate the interaction between SN 1987A and the surrounding CSM through three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling. The aim is to determine the contribution of shocked ejecta and shocked CSM to the detected X-ray flux and to derive the density structure of the inhomogeneous CSM and clues on the early structure of ejecta. We show that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A reproduces also the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between supernovae and supernova remnants. By comparing model results with observations, we constrain the explosion energy in the range 1.2 - 1.4 × 10^(51) erg and the envelope mass in the range 15 - 17 M_{⊙}) . We find that the shape of X-ray lightcurves and spectra at early epochs (environment, and to constrain the pre-supernova structure of the nebula. Finally the remnant evolution is followed for 40 years, providing predictions on the future of SN 1987A until the adventof Athena.

  15. SN 2003du: 480 days in the Life of a Normal Type Ia Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Stanishev, V; Benetti, S; Kotak, R; Pignata, G; Navasardyan, H; Mazzali, P A; Amanullah, R; Garavini, G; Nobili, S; Qiu, Y; Elias-Rosa, N; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Méndez, J; Meikle, P; Patat, F; Pastorello, A; Altavilla, G; Gustafsson, M; Harutyunyan, A; Iijima, T; Jakobsson, P; Kichizhieva, M V; Lundqvist, P; Mattila, S; Melinder, J; Pavlenko, E P; Pavlyuk, N N; Sollerman, J; Tsvetkov, D Yu; Turatto, M; Hillebrandt, W

    2007-01-01

    An extensive set of optical and NIR photometry and low-resolution spectra the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2003du was obtained using a number of facilities. The observations started 13 days before B-band maximum light and continued for 480 days with exceptionally good time sampling. The optical photometry was calibrated through the S-correction technique. The UBVRIJHK light curves and the color indices of SN 2003du closely resemble those of normal SNe Ia. SN 2003du reached a B-band maximum of 13.49 (+/-0.02) mag on JD2452766.38 (+/-0.5). We derive a B-band stretch parameter of 0.988 (+/-0.003), which corresponds to dM15=1.02 (+/-0.05), indicative of a SN Ia of standard luminosity. The reddening in the host galaxy was estimated by three methods, and was consistently found to be negligible. We estimate a distance modulus of 32.79 (+/-0.15) mag to the host galaxy, UGC 9391. The peak UVOIR bolometric luminosity of 1.35(+/-0.20) 10^43 erg/s and Arnett's rule implies that M(Ni56)=0.68 (+/-0.14)M_sun of Ni56 was synthe...

  16. Sn 2008in - bridging the gap between normal and faint supernovae of type IIP

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Rupak; Benetti, Stefano; Pastorello, Andrea; Yuan, Fang; Brown, Peter J; Immler, Stefan; Fatkhullin, Timur A; Moskvitin, Alexander S; Maund, Justyn; Akerlof, Carl W; Wheeler, J Craig; Sokolov, Vladimir V; Quimby, Rorbert M; Bufano, Filomena; Kumar, Brajesh; Misra, Kuntal; Pandey, S B; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Roming, Peter W A; Sagar, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We present optical photometric and low-resolution spectroscopic observations of the Type II plateau supernova (SN) 2008in, which occurred in the outskirts of the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M 61. Photometric data in the X-rays, ultraviolet and near-infrared bands have been used to characterize this event. The SN field was imaged with the ROTSE-IIIb optical telescope about seven days before the explosion. This allowed us to constrain the epoch of the shock breakout to JD = 2454825.6. The duration of the plateau phase, as derived from the photometric monitoring, was ~ 98 days. The spectra of SN 2008in show a striking resemblance to those of the archetypal low-luminosity IIP SNe 1997D and 1999br. A comparison of ejecta kinematics of SN 2008in with the hydrodynamical simulations of Type IIP SNe by Dessart et al. (2010) indicates that it is a less energetic event (~ 5$\\times10^{50}$ erg). However, the light curve indicates that the production of radioactive $^{56}$Ni is significantly higher than that in the low-l...

  17. The Supernova Impostor Impostor SN 1961V: Spitzer Shows That Zwicky Was Right (Again)

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanek, C S; Stanek, K Z

    2010-01-01

    SN 1961V, one of Zwicky's defining Type V supernovae (SN), was a peculiar transient in NGC 1058 that has variously been categorized as either a true core collapse SN leaving a black hole (BH) or neutron star (NS) remnant, or an eruption of a luminous blue variable (LBV) star. The former case is suggested by its association with a decaying non-thermal radio source, while the latter is suggested by its peculiar transient light curve and its low initial expansion velocities. The crucial difference is that the star survives a transient eruption but not an SN. All stars identified as possible survivors are significantly fainter, L_opt ~ 10^5 Lsun, than the L_opt ~ 3 10^6 Lsun progenitor star at optical wavelengths. While this can be explained by dust absorption in a shell of material ejected during the transient, the survivor must then be present as a L_IR ~ 3 10^6 Lsun mid-infrared source. Using archival Spitzer observations of the region, we show that such a luminous mid-IR source is not present. The brightest s...

  18. Abundance stratification in Type Ia supernovae - II. The rapidly declining, spectroscopically normal SN2004eo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, Paolo A.; Sauer, D. N.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2008-06-01

    The variation in properties of Type Ia supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, is caused by different nucleosynthetic outcomes of these explosions, which can be traced from the distribution of abundances in the ejecta. The composition stratification of the spectroscopically normal but rapidly declining SN2004eo is studied by performing spectrum synthesis of a time-series of spectra obtained before and after maximum, and of one nebular spectrum obtained about eight months later. Early-time spectra indicate that the outer ejecta are dominated by oxygen and silicon, and contain other intermediate-mass elements, implying that the outer part of the star was subject only to partial burning. In the inner part, nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material dominates, but the production of 56Ni was limited to ~0.43 +/- 0.05 Msolar. An innermost zone containing ~0.25 Msolar of stable Fe-group material is also present. The relatively small amount of NSE material synthesized by SN2004eo explains both the dimness and the rapidly evolving light curve of this supernova.

  19. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from CANDELS : Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rodney, Steven A; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E; Ferguson, Henry C; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Jha, Saurabh W; Jones, David O; Kirshner, Robert P; Koekemoer, Anton M; McCully, Curtis; Mobasher, Bahram; Patel, Brandon; Weiner, Benjamin J; Cenko, Bradley S; Clubb, Kelsey I; Cooper, Michael; Filippenko, Alexei V; Frederiksen, Teddy F; Hjorth, Jens; Leibundgut, Bruno; Matheson, Thomas; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Penner, Kyle; Trump, Jonathan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; U, Vivian; Bostroem, K Azalee; Challis, Peter; Rajan, Abhijith; Wolff, Schuyler; Faber, S M; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ~0.25 deg^2 with ~900 HST orbits spread across 5 fields over 3 years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SN) of all types, out to z~2.5. We classify ~24 of these as Type Ia SN (SN Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of 6 SN). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z=2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SN that exploded when the universe was only ~3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SN Ia that explode promptly after formation (40 Myr. However, a mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z...

  20. The Type Ia supernovae rate with Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Jun E; Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Pain, Reynald; Totani, Tomonori; Barbary, Kyle; Takanashi, Naohiro; Yasuda, Naoki; Aldering, Greg; Dawson, Kyle; Goldhaber, Gerson; Hook, Isobel; Lidman, Chris; Perlmutter, Saul; Spadafora, Anthony; Suzuki, Nao; Wang, Lifan

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the rates of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae derived from the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). We carried out repeat deep imaging observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, and detected 1040 variable objects over 0.918 deg$^2$ in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. From the imaging observations, light curves in the observed $i'$-band are constructed for all objects, and we fit the observed light curves with template light curves. Out of the 1040 variable objects detected by the SXDS, 39 objects over the redshift range $0.2 < z < 1.4$ are classified as Type Ia supernovae using the light curves. These are among the most distant SN Ia rate measurements to date. We find that the Type Ia supernova rate increase up to $z \\sim 0.8$ and may then flatten at higher redshift. The rates can be fitted by a simple power law, $r_V(z)=r_0(1+z)^\\alpha$ with $r_0=0.20^{+0.52}_{-0.16}$(stat.)$^{+0.26}_{-0.07}$(syst.)$\\times 10^{-4} {\\rm yr}^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$, and $\\alpha=2.04^{...

  1. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-Degenerate Binary Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, G H; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Sand, David J; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Wheeler, J Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R; Calkins, Michael L; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J; Friedman, Andrew S; Graham, Melissa L; Howell, D Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y; Irwin, Jonathan M; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Rines, Kenneth J; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2015-01-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova SN~2012cg at fifteen and sixteen days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN~Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN~2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN~Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN~Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected M_B = -19.62 \\pm 0.02 mag and Delta m_{15}(B) = 0.86 \\pm 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in 7 filters from 5 independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity v_{Si} = -10,500 km/s. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen (2010) favors a main-sequence companion of about 6 solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-...

  2. Very-high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2014J with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. In this work we present data from observations with the MAGIC telescopes of SN 2014J detected on January 21 2014, the closest Type Ia supernova since Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes started to operate. Aims: We aim to probe the possibility of very-high-energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays produced in the early stages of Type Ia supernova explosions. Methods: We performed follow-up observations after this supernova (SN) explosion for five days, between January 27 and February 2 2014. We searched for gamma-ray signals in the energy range between 100 GeV and several TeV from the location of SN 2014J using data from a total of 5.5 h of observations. Prospects for observing gamma rays of hadronic origin from SN 2014J in the near future are also being addressed. Results: No significant excess was detected from the direction of SN 2014J. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the integral flux, assuming a power-law spectrum, dF/dE ∝ E- Γ, with a spectral index of Γ = 2.6, for energies higher than 300 GeV and 700 GeV, are established at 1.3 × 10-12 and 4.1 × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1, respectively. Conclusions: For the first time, upper limits on the VHE emission of a Type Ia supernova are established. The energy fraction isotropically emitted into TeV gamma rays during the first 10 days after the supernova explosion for energies greater than 300 GeV is limited to 10-6 of the total available energy budget ( 1051 erg). Within the assumed theoretical scenario, the MAGIC upper limits on the VHE emission suggest that SN 2014J will not be detectable in the future by any current or planned generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.

  3. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS16atu (SN 2016atv) as a type-Ia supernova after maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-03-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS16atu (SN 2016atv) on 2016 Mar 10.1 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS16atu is a type-Ia supernova approximately a week past maximum light.

  4. Recurring X-ray Outbursts in the Supernova Impostor SN~2010da in NGC~300

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Kong, A K H; Gaetz, T J; Plucinsky, P P; Skillman, E D; Dolphin, A

    2016-01-01

    We present new observations of the "supernova impostor" SN 2010da using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. During the initial 2010 outburst, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was observed by Swift to be $\\sim5\\times10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and faded by a factor of $\\sim$25 in a four month period. Our two new Chandra observations show a factor of $\\sim$10 increase in the 0.35-8 keV X-ray flux, from $\\sim$4$\\times10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ to $4\\times10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in $\\sim$6 months, and the X-ray spectrum is consistent in both observations with a power law photon index of $\\Gamma\\sim0$. We find evidence of X-ray spectral state changes: when SN 2010da is in a high-luminosity state, the X-ray spectrum is harder ($\\Gamma\\sim0$) compared to the low-luminosity state ($\\Gamma\\sim1.2\\pm0.8$). Using our Hubble observations, we fit the color magnitude diagram of the coeval stellar population to estimate a time since formation of the SN 2010da progenitor system of $\\lesssim$5 Myr. Our observations are ...

  5. SN 2012aa - a transient between Type Ibc core-collapse and superluminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, R; Silverman, J M; Pastorello, A; Fransson, C; Drake, A; Taddia, F; Fremling, C; Kankare, E; Kumar, B; Cappellaro, E; Bose, S; Benetti, S; Filippenko, A V; Valenti, S; Nyholm, A; Ergon, M; Sutaria, F; Kumar, B; Pandey, S B; Nicholl, M; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Tomasella, L; Karamehmetoglu, E; Migotto, K

    2016-01-01

    Context: Research on supernovae (SNe) over the past decade has confirmed that there is a distinct class of events which are much more luminous (by $\\sim2$ mag) than canonical core-collapse SNe (CCSNe). These events with visual peak magnitudes $\\lesssim-21$ are called superluminous SNe (SLSNe). Aims: There are a few intermediate events which have luminosities between these two classes. Here we study one such object, SN 2012aa. Methods: The optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the event were conducted over a time span of about 120 days. Results: With V_abs at peak ~-20 mag, the SN is an intermediate-luminosity transient between regular SNe Ibc and SLSNe. It also exhibits an unusual secondary bump after the maximum in its light curve. We interpret this as a manifestation of SN-shock interaction with the CSM. If we would assume a $^{56}$Ni-powered ejecta, the bolometric light curve requires roughly 1.3 M_sun of $^{56}$Ni and an ejected mass of ~14 M_sun. This would also imply a high kin...

  6. An Arabic report about supernova SN 1006 by Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Ehrig-Eggert, C.; Kunitzsch, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present here an Arabic report about supernova 1006 (SN 1006) written by the famous Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Lat. Avicenna, AD 980-1037), which was not discussed in astronomical literature before. The short observational report about a new star is part of Ibn Sina's book called al-Shifa', a work about philosophy including physics, astronomy, and meteorology. We present the Arabic text and our English translation. After a detailed discussion of the dating of the observation, we show that the text specifies that the transient celestial object was stationary and/or tail-less ("a star among the stars"), that it "remained for close to three months getting fainter and fainter until it disappeared", that it "threw out sparks", i.e. it was scintillating and very bright, and that the color changed with time. The information content is consistent with the other Arabic and non-Arabic reports about SN 1006. Hence, it is quite clear that Ibn Sina refers to SN 1006 in his report, given as an example for transient celestial objects in a discussion of Aristotle's "Meteorology". Given the wording and the description, e.g. for the color evolution, this report is independent from other reports known so far.

  7. SN 2013ab : A normal type IIP supernova in NGC 5669

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Subhash; Misra, Kuntal; Pumo, Maria Letizia; Zampieri, Luca; Sand, David; Kumar, Brijesh; Pastorello, Andrea; Sutaria, Firoza; Maccarone, Thomas J; Kumar, Brajesh; Graham, M L; Howell, D Andy; Ochner, Paolo; Chandola, H C; Pandey, Shashi B

    2015-01-01

    We present densely-sampled ultraviolet/optical photometric and low-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the type IIP supernova 2013ab in the nearby ($\\sim$24 Mpc) galaxy NGC 5669, from 2 to 190d after explosion. Continuous photometric observations, with the cadence of typically a day to one week, were acquired with the 1-2m class telescopes in the LCOGT network, ARIES telescopes in India and various other telescopes around the globe. The light curve and spectra suggest that the SN is a normal type IIP event with a plateau duration of $ \\sim80 $ days with mid plateau absolute visual magnitude of -16.7, although with a steeper decline during the plateau (0.92 mag 100 d$ ^{-1} $ in $ V $ band) relative to other archetypal SNe of similar brightness. The velocity profile of SN 2013ab shows striking resemblance with those of SNe 1999em and 2012aw. Following the Rabinak & Waxman (2011) prescription, the initial temperature evolution of the SN emission allows us to estimate the progenitor radius to be...

  8. SN2010jp (PTF10aaxi): A Jet-Driven Type II Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Butler, Nat; Bloom, Joshua S; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Law, Nicholas M; Nugent, Peter E; Ofek, Eran O; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Sesar, Branimir; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Polishook, David; Xu, Dong; Yaron, Ofer; Frail, Dale A; Sullivan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of the peculiar TypeII supernova (SN) 2010jp, also named PTF10aaxi. The light curve exhibits a linear decline with a relatively low peak absolute magnitude of only -15.9, and a low radioactive decay luminosity at late times that suggests a nickel mass below 0.003 $M_{\\odot}$. Spectra of SN2010jp display an unprecedented triple-peaked H$\\alpha$ line profile, showing: (1) a narrow (800 km/s) central component that suggests shock interaction with dense CSM; (2) high-velocity blue and red emission features centered at -12600 and +15400 km/s; and (3) broad wings extending from -22000 to +25000 km/s. These features persist during 100 days after explosion. We propose that this line profile indicates a bipolar jet-driven explosion, with the central component produced by normal SN ejecta and CSM interaction at mid latitudes, while the high-velocity bumps and broad line wings arise in a nonrelativistic bipolar jet. Two variations of the jet interpretation seem plausible: (1) A fas...

  9. An Arabic report about supernova SN 1006 by Ibn Sina (Avicenna)

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Kunitzsch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present here an Arabic report about supernova 1006 (SN 1006) written by the famous Arabic scholar Ibn Sina (Lat. Avicenna, AD 980-1037), which was not discussed in astronomical literature before. The short observational report about a new star is part of Ibn Sina's book called al-Shifa', a work about philosophy including physics, astronomy, and meteorology. We present the Arabic text and our English translation. After a detailed discussion of the dating of the observation, we show that the text specifies that the transient celestial object was stationary and/or tail-less ("a star among the stars"), that it "remained for close to three months getting fainter and fainter until it disappeared", that it "threw out sparks", i.e. it was scintillating and very bright, and that the color changed with time. The information content is consistent with the other Arabic and non-Arabic reports about SN 1006. Hence, it is quite clear that Ibn Sina refers to SN 1006 in his report, given as an example for transient celesti...

  10. Endurance of SN 2005ip after a decade: X-rays, radio and Hα like SN 1988Z require long-lived pre-supernova mass-loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Kilpatrick, Charles D.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-Fai; Graham, Melissa L.; Zheng, WeiKang; Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-04-01

    Supernova (SN) 2005ip was a Type IIn event notable for its sustained strong interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), coronal emission lines and infrared (IR) excess, interpreted as shock interaction with the very dense and clumpy wind of an extreme red supergiant. We present a series of late-time spectra of SN 2005ip and a first radio detection of this SN, plus late-time X-rays, all of which indicate that its CSM interaction is still strong a decade post-explosion. We also present and discuss new spectra of geriatric SNe with continued CSM interaction: SN 1988Z, SN 1993J and SN 1998S. From 3 to 10 yr post-explosion, SN 2005ip's Hα luminosity and other observed characteristics were nearly identical to those of the radio-luminous SN 1988Z, and much more luminous than SNe 1993J and 1998S. At 10 yr after explosion, SN 2005ip showed a drop in Hα luminosity, followed by a quick resurgence over several months. We interpret this Hα variability as ejecta crashing into a dense shell located ≲ 0.05 pc from the star, which may be the same shell that caused the IR echo at earlier epochs. The extreme Hα luminosities in SN 2005ip and SN 1988Z are still dominated by the forward shock at 10 yr post-explosion, whereas SN 1993J and SN 1998S are dominated by the reverse shock at a similar age. Continuous strong CSM interaction in SNe 2005ip and 1988Z is indicative of enhanced mass-loss for ∼103 yr before core collapse, longer than Ne, O or Si burning phases. Instead, the episodic mass-loss must extend back through C burning and perhaps even part of He burning.

  11. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Redshift 0.5-0.9 Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Keren; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ebeling, Harald; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Ofek, Eran O.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Donahue, Megan; Ellis, Richard S.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mulchaey, John S.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Voit, G. Mark

    2010-08-01

    Supernova (SN) rates are potentially powerful diagnostics of metal enrichment and SN physics, particularly in galaxy clusters with their deep, metal-retaining potentials and relatively simple star formation histories. We have carried out a survey for SNe in galaxy clusters, at a redshift range of 0.5 background and foreground events. Keck spectra of the host galaxies were obtained to establish cluster membership. We conducted detailed efficiency simulations, and measured the stellar luminosities of the clusters using Subaru images. We derive a cluster SN rate of 0.35SNu B +0.17 -0.12(statistical) ±0.13(classification) ±0.01(systematic) (where SNu B = SNe (100 yr 1010 L B,sun)-1) and 0.112SNu M +0.055 -0.039(statistical) ±0.042(classification) ±0.005(systematic) (where SNu M = SNe (100 yr 1010 M sun)-1). As in previous measurements of cluster SN rates, the uncertainties are dominated by small-number statistics. The SN rate in this redshift bin is consistent with the SN rate in clusters at lower redshifts (to within the uncertainties), and shows that there is, at most, only a slight increase of cluster SN rate with increasing redshift. The low and fairly constant SN Ia rate out to z ≈ 1 implies that the bulk of the iron mass in clusters was already in place by z ≈ 1. The recently observed doubling of iron abundances in the intracluster medium between z = 1 and 0, if real, is likely to be the result of redistribution of existing iron, rather than new production of iron. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-10493 and GO-10793, and with archival programs GO-9033, GO-9090, GO-9290, GO-9292, GO-9722, GO-9744, GO-9836, and GO-10509. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the

  12. OISTER optical and near-infrared observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova candidate SN 2012dn: Dust emission from the circumstellar shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S.; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from -11 to +140 d after the date of its B-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO (Optical and Infrared Synergetic Telescopes for Education and Research Target of Opportunity) program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the B-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as an SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from 30 d after the B-band maximum. The H- and Ks-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at 40 and 70 d after the B-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The H- and Ks-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating an NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to 4.8-6.4 × 10-2 pc. No emission lines were found in its early phase spectra, suggesting that the ejecta-circumstellar material interaction could not occur. On the other hand, we found no signature that strongly supports the scenario of dust formation. The mass-loss rate of the pre-explosion system is estimated to be 10-6-10-5 M⊙ yr-1, assuming that the wind velocity of the system is 10-100 km s-1, which suggests that the progenitor of SN 2012dn could be a recurrent nova system. We conclude that the progenitor of this SC SN could be explained by the single-degenerate scenario.

  13. Chandra and ASCA X-ray Observations of the Radio Supernova SN1979C IN NGC 4321

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A; Schlegel, E M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the X-ray observation of the radio selected supernova SN1979C carried out with ASCA in 1997 December and serendipitously available from a Chandra Guaranteed Time Observation in 1999 November. The supernova, of type SN II-Linear (SN IIL), was first observed in the optical and occurred in the weakly barred, almost face on spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (M100). The galaxy, a member of the Virgo S cluster, is at a distance of 17.1 Mpc, and contains at least three other supernovae discovered in this century. The useful exposure time was ~25 ks for the Solid-State Imaging Spectrometer (SIS), ~28 ks for the Gas Scintillation Imaging Spectrometer (GIS), and ~2.5 ks for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). No point source was detected at the radio position of SN1979C in a 3' diameter half power response circle in the ASCA data. The background and galaxy subtracted SN signal had a 3sigma upper limit to the flux of 6.3x10^-14 ergs/s/cm^-2 in the full ASCA SIS band (0.4-10.0 keV) and a 3sigma upper li...

  14. Optical detection of the radio supernova SN 2000ft in the circumnuclear region of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 7469

    CERN Document Server

    Colina, L; Alonso-Herrero, A; Panagia, N; Alberdi, A; Torrelles, J M; Wilson, A S

    2007-01-01

    SN 2000ft is detected in two independent Planetary Camera images (F547W and F814W) taken May 13, 2000, about two months before the predicted date of the explosion (July 19, 2000), based on the analysis of its radio light evolution by Alberdi and collaborators. The apparent optical magnitudes and red color of SN 2000ft indicate that it is observed through an extinction of at least A$_V$= 3.0 magnitudes. The extinction corrected lower limit to the absolute visual magnitude (M$_V$ $\\leq -$ 18.0), identifies SN 2000ft as a luminous supernova in the optical, as other luminous radio supernovae before. SN 2000ft exploded in a region located at only 0.1 arcsec (i.e. 34 +/- 3 pc) west of a faint cluster (C24). No parent cluster is identified within the detection limits of the HST short exposures. The unambiguous detection of SN 2000ft in the visual shows that multi-epoch sub-arcsecond (FWHM less than 0.1 arcsec) optical imaging is also a valid tool that should be explored further to detect supernovae in the dusty (cir...

  15. Photometric and spectroscopic observations, and abundance tomography modelling of the type Ia supernova SN 2014J located in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Ashall, C; Bersier, D; Hachinger, S; Phillips, M; Percival, S; James, P; Maguire, K

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) SN 2014J are presented. Spectroscopic observations were taken -8 to +10 d relative to $B$-band maximum, using FRODOSpec, a multi-purpose integral-field unit spectrograph. The observations range from 3900 \\AA\\ to 9000 \\AA. SN 2014J is located in M82 which makes it the closest SN Ia studied in at least the last 28 years. It is a spectrosopically normal SN Ia with high velocity features. We model the spectra of SN 2014J with a Monte Carlo (MC) radiative transfer code, using the abundance tomography technique. SN 2014J is highly reddened, with a host galaxy extinction of ${E(B-V)}$=1.2 (R$_{V}$=1.38). It has a Delta m_{15}(B) of 1.08$\\pm$0.03 when corrected for extinction. As SN 2014J is a normal SN Ia, the density structure of the classical W7 model was selected. The model and photometric luminosities are both consistent with $B$-band maximum occurring on JD 2456690.4$\\pm$0.12. The abundance of the SN 2014J behaves like other norm...

  16. SN 2010LP—A TYPE IA SUPERNOVA FROM A VIOLENT MERGER OF TWO CARBON-OXYGEN WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Fink, M.; Röpke, F. K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Sim, S. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-20

    SN 2010lp is a subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with slowly evolving lightcurves. Moreover, it is the only subluminous SN Ia observed so far that shows narrow emission lines of [O I] in late-time spectra, indicating unburned oxygen close to the center of the ejecta. Most explosion models for SNe Ia cannot explain the narrow [O I] emission. Here, we present hydrodynamic explosion and radiative transfer calculations showing that the violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs of 0.9 and 0.76 M {sub ☉} adequately reproduces the early-time observables of SN 2010lp. Moreover, our model predicts oxygen close to the center of the explosion ejecta, a pre-requisite for narrow [O I] emission in nebular spectra as observed in SN 2010lp.

  17. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et.al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  18. OGLE-2013-SN-079: A LONELY SUPERNOVA CONSISTENT WITH A HELIUM SHELL DETONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Sim, S. A.; Smartt, S. J.; Nicholl, M.; Jerkstrand, A.; Chen, T.-W. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wyrzykowski, L. [University of Warsaw, Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 400-478 Warszawa (Poland); Fraser, M.; Blagorodnova, N.; Campbell, H. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shen, K. J. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Howell, D. A.; Valenti, S. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102 Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Maguire, K. [European Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching b. Munchen (Germany); Mazzali, P.; Bersier, D. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Taubenberger, S.; Benitez-Herrera, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Elias-Rosa, N., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z = 0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M{sub I} ∼ –17.6 mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 Å. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. The data are broadly consistent with existing models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and ''double-detonation'' models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.

  19. The radio evolution of supernova SN$\\,$2008iz in M$\\,$82

    CERN Document Server

    Kimani, N; Brunthaler, A; Menten, K M; Martí-Vidal, I; Henkel, C; Falcke, H; Muxlow, T W B; Beswick, R J; Bower, G C

    2016-01-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN$\\,$2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M$\\,$82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S$\\propto$ t$^\\beta$, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices, $\\beta$ of -1.22$\\pm$0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41$\\pm$0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light curve evolution shows flux-density flares at $\\sim\\,$970 and $\\sim\\,$1400 days which are a factor of $\\sim\\,$2 and $\\sim\\,$4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, besides being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23, day 2167). We derive the spectral index, $\\alpha$, S$\\propto$ $\

  20. SN REFSDAL: PHOTOMETRY AND TIME DELAY MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST EINSTEIN CROSS SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, 712 Main St., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Strolger, L.-G.; Brammer, G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kelly, P. L.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Bradač, M. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Graur, O. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Selsing, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Jha, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); McCully, C. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, California 93117 (United States); Molino, A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090, São Paulo (Brazil); Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schmidt, K. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sharon, K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

    2016-03-20

    We present the first year of Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the unique supernova (SN) “Refsdal,” a gravitationally lensed SN at z = 1.488 ± 0.001 with multiple images behind the galaxy cluster MACS J1149.6+2223. The first four observed images of SN Refsdal (images S1–S4) exhibited a slow rise (over ∼150 days) to reach a broad peak brightness around 2015 April 20. Using a set of light curve templates constructed from SN 1987A-like peculiar Type II SNe, we measure time delays for the four images relative to S1 of 4 ± 4 (for S2), 2 ± 5 (S3), and 24 ± 7 days (S4). The measured magnification ratios relative to S1 are 1.15 ± 0.05 (S2), 1.01 ± 0.04 (S3), and 0.34 ± 0.02 (S4). None of the template light curves fully captures the photometric behavior of SN Refsdal, so we also derive complementary measurements for these parameters using polynomials to represent the intrinsic light curve shape. These more flexible fits deliver fully consistent time delays of 7 ± 2 (S2), 0.6 ± 3 (S3), and 27 ± 8 days (S4). The lensing magnification ratios are similarly consistent, measured as 1.17 ± 0.02 (S2), 1.00 ± 0.01 (S3), and 0.38 ± 0.02 (S4). We compare these measurements against published predictions from lens models, and find that the majority of model predictions are in very good agreement with our measurements. Finally, we discuss avenues for future improvement of time delay measurements—both for SN Refsdal and for other strongly lensed SNe yet to come.

  1. SN 2009js AT THE CROSSROADS BETWEEN NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE IIP SUPERNOVAE: OPTICAL AND MID-INFRARED EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yamanaka, M.; Itoh, R. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, T.; Maeda, K.; Moriya, T. J. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Saviane, I. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sasada, M. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of SN 2009js in NGC 918. Multi-band Kanata optical photometry covering the first {approx}120 days shows the source to be a Type IIP SN. Reddening is dominated by that due to our Galaxy. One-year-post-explosion photometry with the New Technology Telescope and a Subaru optical spectrum 16 days post-discovery both imply a good match with the well-studied subluminous SN 2005cs. The plateau-phase luminosity of SN 2009js and its plateau duration are more similar to the intermediate luminosity IIP SN 2008in. Thus, SN 2009js shares characteristics with both subluminous and intermediate luminosity supernovae (SNe). Its radioactive tail luminosity lies between SN 2005cs and SN 2008in, whereas its quasi-bolometric luminosity decline from peak to plateau (quantified by a newly defined parameter {Delta}logL, which measures adiabatic cooling following shock breakout) is much smaller than both the others'. We estimate the ejected mass of {sup 56}Ni to be low ({approx}0.007 M{sub Sun }). The SN explosion energy appears to have been small, similar to that of SN 2005cs. SN 2009js is the first subluminous SN IIP to be studied in the mid-infrared. It was serendipitously caught by Spitzer at very early times. In addition, it was detected by WISE 105 days later with a significant 4.6 {mu}m flux excess above the photosphere. The infrared excess luminosity relative to the photosphere is clearly smaller than that of SN 2004dj, which has been extensively studied in the mid-infrared. The excess may be tentatively assigned to heated dust with mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun }, or to CO fundamental emission as a precursor to dust formation.

  2. Beta decay rates of nuclei with 65 < < 75 for pre-supernova and supernova evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar; Kamales Kar

    2007-03-01

    The half-lives are calculated for the - decay process for nuclei in the mass range ∼ 65-75 relevant for the core of a massive star at the late burning stage of stellar evolution and the collapse that leads to supernova explosion. These half-lives and rates are calculated by expressing the - Gamow-Teller decay strengths in terms of smoothed bivariate strength densities. These strength densities are constructed in the framework of spectral averaging theory for two-body nuclear Hamiltonian in a large nuclear shell model space. The method has a natural extension to electron captures as well as weak interaction rates for and -processes.

  3. The Spectral SN-GRB Connection: Systematic Spectral Comparisons between Type Ic Supernovae, broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae with and without Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 10 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. We analyze a total of 396 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra data of Modjaz et al. (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, along with standard deviation and maximum deviation contours. We find that SN~1994I is not a typical SN Ic, in contrast to common belief, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities (as traced by FeII 5169) and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher ab...

  4. The early phases of the type Iax supernova SN 2011ay

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Tamás; Sárneczky, Krisztián; Takáts, Katalin; Benkő, József M; Kelemen, János; Kuli, Zoltán; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marion, G Howie; Wheeler, J Craig

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the early phases of the peculiar supernova 2011ay based on BVRI photometry obtained at Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, and optical spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas. The spectral analysis carried out with SYN++ and SYNAPPS confirms that SN 2011ay belongs to the recently defined class of SNe Iax, which is also supported by the properties of its light and color curves. The estimated photospheric temperature around maximum light, T_{phot} ~8,000 K, is lower than in most Type Ia SNe, which results in the appearance of strong Fe II features in the spectra of SN 2011ay, even during the early phases. We also show that strong blending with metal features (those of Ti II, Fe II, Co II) makes the direct analysis of the broad spectral features very difficult, and this may be true for all SNe Iax. We find two alternative spectrum models that both describe the observed spectra adequately, but their photospheric velocities differ by at least 3,000 km/s...

  5. The type Iax supernova, SN 2015H: a white dwarf deflagration candidate

    CERN Document Server

    Magee, M R; Sim, S A; Kromer, M; Rabinowitz, D; Smartt, S J; Baltay, C; Campbell, H C; Chen, T -W; Fink, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Hillebrandt, W; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Guillou, L Le; Lyman, J D; Maguire, K; Ruiter, A J; Seitenzahl, I R; Sullivan, M; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present results based on observations of SN 2015H which belongs to the small group of objects similar to SN 2002cx, otherwise known as type Iax supernovae. The availability of deep pre-explosion imaging allowed us to place tight constraints on the explosion epoch. Our observational campaign began approximately one day post-explosion, and extended over a period of about 150 days post maximum light, making it one of the best observed objects of this class to date. We find a peak magnitude of M$_r$ = -17.27 $\\pm$ 0.07, and a ($\\Delta m_{15})_r$ = 0.69 $\\pm$ 0.04. Comparing our observations to synthetic spectra generated from simulations of deflagrations of Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, we find reasonable agreement with models of weak deflagrations that result in the ejection of ~0.2 M$_{\\odot}$ of material containing ~0.07 M$_{\\odot}$ of 56Ni. The model light curve however, evolves more rapidly than observations, suggesting that a higher ejecta mass is to be favoured. Nevertheless, empirical ...

  6. SN 1999ga: a low-luminosity linear type II supernova?

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, A; Martin, R; Smartt, S J; Altavilla, G; Benetti, S; Botticella, M T; Cappellaro, E; Mattila, S; Maund, J R; Ryder, S D; Salvo, M; Taubenberger, S; Turatto, M

    2009-01-01

    Type II-linear supernovae are thought to arise from progenitors that have lost most of their H envelope by the time of the explosion, and they are poorly understood because they are only occasionally discovered. It is possible that they are intrinsically rare, but selection effects due to their rapid luminosity evolution may also play an important role in limiting the number of detections. In this context, the discovery of a subluminous type II-linear event is even more interesting. We investigate the physical properties and characterise the explosion site of the type II SN 1999ga, which exploded in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2442. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of SN 1999ga allow us to constrain the energetics of the explosion and to estimate the mass of the ejected material, shedding light on the nature of the progenitor star in the final stages of its life. The study of the environment in the vicinity of the explosion site provides information on a possible relation between these unusual supe...

  7. SN 2015bn: a detailed multi-wavelength view of a nearby superluminous supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Margutti, R; Kamble, A; Alexander, K D; Chen, T -W; Inserra, C; Arcavi, I; Blanchard, P K; Cartier, R; Chambers, K C; Childress, M J; Chornock, R; Cowperthwaite, P S; Drout, M; Flewelling, H A; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Harmanen, J; Holoien, T W -S; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Huber, M E; Jerkstrand, A; Kankare, E; Kochanek, C S; Lin, Z -Y; Lunnan, R; Magnier, E A; Maguire, K; McCully, C; McDonald, M; Metzger, B D; Milisavljevic, D; Mitra, A; Reynolds, T; Saario, J; Shappee, B J; Smith, K W; Valenti, S; Villar, V A; Waters, C; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of SN 2015bn (= PS15ae = CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) at $z=0.1136$. As well as being one of the closest SLSNe, it is intrinsically brighter ($M_U\\approx-23.1$) and in a fainter host ($M_B\\approx-16.0$) than other SLSNe at $z\\sim0.1$. We collected the most extensive dataset for an SLSN I to date, including spectroscopy and UV to NIR photometry from $-$50 to +250 d from maximum light. SN 2015bn is a slowly-declining SLSN, but exhibits surprising undulations in the light curve on a timescale of 30-50 d, which are more pronounced in the UV. The spectrum resembles other SLSNe, but our well-sampled data reveal extraordinarily slow evolution except for a rapid transformation between +7 and +30 d. We detect weak features that we tentatively suggest may be hydrogen and helium. At late times, blue colours and a trio of lines around 6000 \\AA\\ seem to distinguish slowly-declining SLSNe from faster ones. We derive physical properties i...

  8. Type Ia Supernovae and their Environment: Theory and Applications to SN 2014J

    CERN Document Server

    Dragulin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present theoretical semi-analytic models for the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium (ISM) or prior mass loss implemented in our code SPICE (Supernovae Progenitor Interaction Calculator for parameterized Environments, available on request), assuming spherical symmetry and power-law ambient density profiles and using the Pi-theorem. This allows us to test a wide variety of configurations, their functional dependencies, and to find classes of solutions for given observations. Here, we study Type Ia (SN~Ia) surroundings of single and double degenerate systems, and their observational signatures. Winds may originate from the progenitor prior to the white dwarf (WD) stage, the WD, a donor star, or an accretion disk (AD). For M_Ch explosions,the AD wind dominates and produces a low-density void several light years across surrounded by a dense shell. The bubble explains the lack of observed interaction in late time SN light curves for, at least, several years. The shell produces narrow ISM l...

  9. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  10. SN 2011dh: DISCOVERY OF A TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA FROM A COMPACT PROGENITOR IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Sternberg, Assaf; Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gorbikov, Evgeny, E-mail: iair.arcavi@weizmann.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, the Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); and others

    2011-12-15

    On 2011 May 31 UT a supernova (SN) exploded in the nearby galaxy M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy). We discovered this event using small telescopes equipped with CCD cameras and also detected it with the Palomar Transient Factory survey, rapidly confirming it to be a Type II SN. Here, we present multi-color ultraviolet through infrared photometry which is used to calculate the bolometric luminosity and a series of spectra. Our early-time observations indicate that SN 2011dh resulted from the explosion of a relatively compact progenitor star. Rapid shock-breakout cooling leads to relatively low temperatures in early-time spectra, compared to explosions of red supergiant stars, as well as a rapid early light curve decline. Optical spectra of SN 2011dh are dominated by H lines out to day 10 after explosion, after which He I lines develop. This SN is likely a member of the cIIb (compact IIb) class, with progenitor radius larger than that of SN 2008ax and smaller than the eIIb (extended IIb) SN 1993J progenitor. Our data imply that the object identified in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images at the SN location is possibly a companion to the progenitor or a blended source, and not the progenitor star itself, as its radius ({approx}10{sup 13} cm) would be highly inconsistent with constraints from our post-explosion spectra.

  11. Supernova 2013fc in a circumnuclear ring of a luminous infrared galaxy: the big brother of SN 1998S

    CERN Document Server

    Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Lundqvist, P; Väisänen, P; Childress, M; Pignata, G; McCully, C; Valenti, S; Vinko, J; Pastorello, A; Elias-Rosa, N; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Kotak, R; Kotilainen, J; Smartt, S J; Galbany, L; Harmanen, J; Howell, D A; Inserra, C; Marion, G H; Quimby, R M; Silverman, J M; Szalai, T; Wheeler, C J; Ashall, C; Benetti, S; Romero-Cañizales, C; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Takáts, K; Young, D R

    2015-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013fc, a bright type II supernova (SN) in a circumnuclear star-forming ring in the luminous infrared galaxy ESO 154-G010, observed as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). SN 2013fc is both photometrically and spectroscopically similar to the well-studied type IIn SN 1998S and to the bright type II-L SN 1979C. It exhibits an initial linear decline after maximum, followed by a short plateau phase and a tail phase with a decline too fast for $^{56}$Co decay with full gamma-ray trapping. Initially the spectrum was blue and featureless. Later on, a strong broad ($\\sim 8000$ km s$^{-1}$) H$\\alpha$ emission profile became prominent. We apply a Starlight stellar population model fit to the SN location (observed when the SN had faded) to estimate both a high extinction of $A_V = 2.9 \\pm 0.2$ mag and an age of $10_{-2}^{+3}$ Myr for the underlying cluster. We compare the SN to SNe 1998S and 1979C and discuss its possible ...

  12. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  13. Supernova detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahata, Masayuki [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray research, University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu, Japan, 506-1205 (Japan)], E-mail: nakahata@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2008-11-01

    The detection of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, focusing on the current status of experiments to detect supernova burst neutrinos and supernova relic neutrinos. The capabilities of each detector currently operating and in development are assessed and the likely neutrino yield for a future supernova is estimated. It is expected that much more information will be obtained if a supernova burst were to occur in our Galaxy than was obtained for supernova SN1987A. The detection of supernova relic neutrinos is considered and it is concluded that a large volume detector with a neutron tagging technique is necessary.

  14. Near-Infrared observations of the type Ib Supernova SN2006jc: evidence of interactions with dust

    CERN Document Server

    Di Carlo, E; Arkharov, A A; Massi, F; Larionov, V M; Efimova, N V; Dolci, M; Napoleone, N; Di Paola, A

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of a program for the monitoring of Supernovae in the Near-Infrared (NIR) carried out by the Teramo, Rome and Pulkovo observatories with the AZT-24 telescope, we observed the Supernova SN2006jc in the J,H,K photometric bands during a period of 7 months, starting ~36 days after its discovery. Our observations evidence a NIR re-brightening, peaking ~70 days after discovery, along with a reddening of H-K and J-H colors until 120 days from discovery. After that date, J-H seems to evolve towards bluer colors. Our data, complemented by IR, optical, UV and X-ray observations found in the literature, show that the re-brightening is produced by hot dust surrounding the supernova, formed in the interaction of the ejecta with dense circumstellar matter.

  15. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS16efm (= SN 2016fxu) as a type-Ic supernova after maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS16efm (= SN 2016fxu) on 2016 Sep 8.0 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS16efm is a type-Ic supernova approximately two to three weeks past maximum light.

  16. The Origin of the Near-infrared Excess in SN Ia 2012dn: Circumstellar Dust around the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Yamanaka, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The nature of progenitors of the so-called super-Chandrasekhar candidate Type Ia supernovae (SC-SNe Ia) has been actively debated. Recently, Yamanaka et al. reported a near-infrared (NIR) excess for SN 2012dn and proposed that the excess originates from an echo by circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we examine a detailed distribution of the CS dust around SN 2012dn and investigate implications of the CS dust echo scenario for general cases of SC-SNe Ia. We find that a disk/bipolar CS medium configuration reproduces the NIR excess fairly well, where the radial density distribution is given by a stationary mass loss. The inner radius of the CS dust is 0.04 pc. The mass-loss rate of the progenitor system is estimated to be 1.2× {10}-5 and 3.2× {10}-6 M⊙ yr‑1 for the disk and bipolar CS medium configurations, respectively, which adds further support for the single-degenerate scenario. Our models limit SN 2009dc, another SC-SN Ia, to have a dust mass less than 0.16 times that of SN 2012dn. While this may merely indicate some variation on the CS environment among SC-SNe Ia, this could raise another interesting possibility. There could be two classes among SC-SNe Ia: the brighter SC-SNe Ia in a clean environment (SN 2009dc) and the fainter SC-SNe Ia in a dusty environment (SN 2012dn).

  17. Helium Burning Reaction Rate Uncertainties and Consequences for Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, C.; Heger, A.; Austin, S. M.

    2007-10-01

    The triple alpha and ^12C(,)^16O reaction rates determine the carbon to oxygen ratio at the completion of core helium burning in stars, which, in turn, influences the later stellar burning stages. We explored the dependence of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis yields on the experimental uncertainties in the triple alpha rate (10 to 12%) and the ^12C(,)^16O rate (25 to 35%) using full stellar models followed to core collapse and including supernova explosion. The production factors of medium-weight elements obtained by using the Lodders (2003) solar abundances for the initial star composition, rather than the abundances of Anders & Grevesse (1989), provide a less stringent constraint on the ^12C(,)^16O rate. Variations within the current uncertainties in both reaction rates, however, induce significant changes in the central carbon abundance at core carbon ignition and in the mass of the supernova remnant. An experiment is being carried out by an NSCL/WMU collaboration to improve the accuracy of the triple alpha reaction rate.

  18. Late-Time Photometry of Type Ia Supernova SN2012cg Reveals the Radioactive Decay of $^{57}$Co

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Shara, Michael M; Riess, Adam G

    2015-01-01

    Seitenzahl et al. (2009) have predicted that $\\sim 3$ years after its explosion, the light we receive from a Type Ia supernova will come mostly from reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the radioactive decay chain $^{57}{\\rm Co}~\\to~^{57}{\\rm Fe}$, instead of positrons from the decay chain $^{56}{\\rm Co}~\\to~^{56}{\\rm Fe}$ that dominates the supernova light at earlier times. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we followed the light curve of the Type Ia supernova SN2012cg out to $1055$ days after maximum light. Our measurements are consistent with the light curves predicted by the contribution of energy from the reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the decay of $^{57}$Co. This provides conclusive evidence that $^{57}$Co is produced in Type Ia supernova explosions. The ratio of luminosities produced by the decays of $^{57}$Co and $^{56}$Co, a strong constraint on any Type Ia supernova explosion model, is in the range $(0.4$ - $8.5)\\times10^{-3}$.

  19. SN1987A-Neutrino emission from Supernova': in Dynamic universe model of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    SN1987A-Neutrino emission from supernova before the star bursts' is an important discovery, when viewed from `Dynamic universe model of cosmology' point of view. In OMEG05, we have successfully presented the reasons for calculation error called `missing mass' in an inhomoge-neous, anisotropic and multi-body Dynamic universe Model, where this error is not occurring. But there are some new voices that say about generation of some flavors of neutrinos during Bigbang. We find from SN1987A Neutrino generation covers all flavors. Remaining flavors of Neutrinos are generated from sun and stars. This covers the whole spectrum. This paper covers all these aspects. And other earlier results by Dynamic Universe Model 1. Offers Singularity free solutions 2. Non-collapsing Galaxy structures 3. Solving Missing mass in Galaxies, and it finds reason for Galaxy circular velocity curves. . . . 4. Blue shifted and red shifted Galaxies co-existence. . . 5. Explains the force behind expansion of universe. 6. Explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities. 7. Explains the Pioneer anomaly 8. Predicts the trajectory of New Horizons satellite. 9 Jeans swindle test 10. Existence of large number of blue shifted Galaxies `SITA Simulations' software was developed about 18 years back for Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology. It is based on Newtonian physics. It is Classical singularity free N-body tensor solution to the old problem announced by King Oscar II and tried by Poincare in year AD1888 for 133 masses, tested extensively for so many years. This was developed on 486 based PC of those days; the same software was used repeatedly for so many years for solving different Physical problems on Different PCs and Laptops. It is based on Dynamic Universe Model's mathematical back ground.

  20. SN 2015BN: A Detailed Multi-wavelength View of a Nearby Superluminous Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S. J.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Alexander, K. D.; Chen, T.-W.; Inserra, C.; Arcavi, I.; Blanchard, P. K.; Cartier, R.; Chambers, K. C.; Childress, M. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Drout, M.; Flewelling, H. A.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Galbany, L.; Harmanen, J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Huber, M. E.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kankare, E.; Kochanek, C. S.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Lunnan, R.; Magnier, E. A.; Maguire, K.; McCully, C.; McDonald, M.; Metzger, B. D.; Milisavljevic, D.; Mitra, A.; Reynolds, T.; Saario, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Smith, K. W.; Valenti, S.; Villar, V. A.; Waters, C.; Young, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present observations of SN 2015bn (=PS15ae = CSS141223-113342+004332 = MLS150211-113342+004333), a Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) at redshift z = 0.1136. As well as being one of the closest SLSNe I yet discovered, it is intrinsically brighter ({M}U≈ -23.1) and in a fainter galaxy ({M}B≈ -16.0) than other SLSNe at z˜ 0.1. We used this opportunity to collect the most extensive data set for any SLSN I to date, including densely sampled spectroscopy and photometry, from the UV to the NIR, spanning -50 to +250 days from optical maximum. SN 2015bn fades slowly, but exhibits surprising undulations in the light curve on a timescale of 30-50 days, especially in the UV. The spectrum shows extraordinarily slow evolution except for a rapid transformation between +7 and +20-30 days. No narrow emission lines from slow-moving material are observed at any phase. We derive physical properties including the bolometric luminosity, and find slow velocity evolution and non-monotonic temperature and radial evolution. A deep radio limit rules out a healthy off-axis gamma-ray burst, and places constraints on the pre-explosion mass loss. The data can be consistently explained by a ≳ 10 M {}⊙ stripped progenitor exploding with ˜ {10}51 erg kinetic energy, forming a magnetar with a spin-down timescale of ˜20 days (thus avoiding a gamma-ray burst) that reheats the ejecta and drives ionization fronts. The most likely alternative scenario—interaction with ˜20 M {}⊙ of dense, inhomogeneous circumstellar material—can be tested with continuing radio follow-up.

  1. An Upper Mass Limit on a Red Supergiant Progenitor for the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2006my

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Douglas C.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Fox, Derek B.; Cameron, P. B.; Johansson, Erik M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Le Mignant, David; van Dam, Marcos A.

    2008-12-01

    We analyze two pre-supernova (SN) and three post-SN high-resolution images of the site of the Type II-Plateau supernova SN 2006my in an effort to either detect the progenitor star or to constrain its properties. Following image registration, we find that an isolated stellar object is not detected at the location of SN 2006my in either of the two pre-SN images. In the first, an I-band image obtained with the Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the offset between the SN 2006my location and a detected source (“Source 1”) is too large: ≥0.08‧‧, which corresponds to a confidence level of non-association of 96% from our most liberal estimates of the transformation and measurement uncertainties. In the second, a similarly obtained V-band image, a source is detected (“Source 2”) that has overlap with the SN 2006my location but is definitively an extended object. Through artificial star tests carried out on the precise location of SN 2006my in the images, we derive a 3 σ upper bound on the luminosity of a red supergiant that could have remained undetected in our pre-SN images of log L/L⊙ = 5.10, which translates to an upper bound on such a star’s initial mass of 15 M⊙ from the STARS stellar evolutionary models. Although considered unlikely, we can not rule out the possibility that part of the light comprising Source 1, which exhibits a slight extension relative to other point sources in the image, or part of the light contributing to the extended Source 2, may be due to the progenitor of SN 2006my. Only additional, high-resolution observations of the site taken after SN 2006my has faded beyond detection can confirm or reject these possibilities. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was

  2. Abundance stratification in Type Ia Supernovae - II: The rapidly declining, spectroscopically normal SN 2004eo

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, P A; Pastorello, A; Benetti, S; Hillebrandt, W

    2008-01-01

    The variation of properties of Type Ia supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, is caused by different nucleosynthetic outcomes of these explosions, which can be traced from the distribution of abundances in the ejecta. The composition stratification of the spectroscopically normal but rapidly declining SN2004eo is studied performing spectrum synthesis of a time-series of spectra obtained before and after maximum, and of one nebular spectrum obtained about eight months later. Early-time spectra indicate that the outer ejecta are dominated by oxygen and silicon, and contain other intermediate-mass elements (IME), implying that the outer part of the star was subject only to partial burning. In the inner part, nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material dominates, but the production of 56Ni was limited to ~0.43 \\pm 0.05 Msun. An innermost zone containing ~0.25 Msun of stable Fe-group material is also present. The relatively small amount of NSE material synthes...

  3. OGLE-2013-SN-079: a lonely supernova consistent with a helium shell detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Inserra, C; Wyrzykowski, L; Smartt, S J; Fraser, M; Nicholl, M; Shen, K J; Jerkstrand, A; Gal-Yam, A; Howell, D A; Maguire, K; Mazzali, P; Valenti, S; Taubenberger, S; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bersier, D; Blagorodnova, N; Campbell, H; Chen, T -W; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kozlowski, S; Kromer, M; Lyman, J D; Polshaw, J; Ropke, F K; Ruiter, A J; Smith, K; Spiro, S; Sullivan, M; Yaron, O; Young, D; Yuan, F

    2014-01-01

    We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 \\AA. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. Our multi band and bolometric lightcurves, as well as the spectral evolution, are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.

  4. SN2003bg: a broad-lined Type IIb Supernova with Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Hamuy, Mario; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Models for the spectra and the light curve, in the photospheric as well as in the late nebular phase, are used to infer the properties of the very radio-bright, broad-lined type IIb Supernova 2003bg. Consistent fits to the light curve and the spectral evolution are obtained with an explosion that ejected ~ 4 M_sun of material with a kinetic energy of ~ 5 10^51 erg. A thin layer of hydrogen, comprising ~ 0.05 M_sun, is inferred to be present in the ejecta at the highest velocities (v >~ 9000 km/s), while a thicker helium layer, comprising ~ 1.25 M_sun, was ejected at velocities between 6500 and 9000 km/s. At lower velocities, heavier elements are present, including ~ 0.2 M_sun of 56Ni that shape the light curve and the late-time nebular spectra. These values suggest that the progenitor star had a mass of ~ 20-25 M_sun (comparable to, but maybe somewhat smaller than that of the progenitor of the XRF/SN 2008D). The rather broad-lined early spectra are the result of the presence of a small amount of material (~ 0...

  5. Highly Luminous Supernovae associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts I.: GRB 111209A/SN 2011kl in the Context of Stripped-Envelope and Superluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Kann, D A; E., F Olivares; Klose, S; Rossi, A; Perley, D A; Krühler, T; Greiner, J; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Elliott, J; Knust, F; Filgas, R; Pian, E; Mazzali, P; Fynbo, J P U; Leloudas, G; Afonso, P M J; Delvaux, C; Graham, J F; Rau, A; Schmidl, S; Schulze, S; Tanga, M; Updike, A C; Varela, K

    2016-01-01

    We address the question whether GRB 111209A was a special event beyond its extreme duration alone, and whether it is a classical GRB or another kind of high-energy transient. Furthermore, we place SN 2011kl into the context of large samples of SNe, addressing in more detail the question of whether it could be radioactively powered. We present afterglow photometry obtained in seven bands with the GROND imager as well as in further seven bands with the UVOT telescope on-board \\emph{Swift}. The light curve is analysed by multi-band modelling and joint fitting with power-laws and broken power-laws. We model SN 2011kl using SN 1998bw as a template and derive a bolometric light curve including near-infrared data. We compare the optical afterglow and the properties of SN 2011kl to large ensembles we have analysed in earlier works, additional GRB-SNe analysed here, as well as literature results on stripped-envelope and superluminous supernovae. We find a strong, chromatic rebrightening event at $\\approx0.8$ days afte...

  6. SN 2010mb: Direct evidence for a supernova interacting with a large amount of hydrogen-free circumstellar material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Rabinak, Itay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, Paolo A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University. Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Modjaz, Maryam [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, room 529, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Poznanski, Dovi [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 Israel (Israel); Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Quimby, Robert [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Xu, Dong, E-mail: sagi.ben-ami@weizmann.ac.il [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-04-10

    We present our observations of SN 2010mb, a Type Ic supernova (SN) lacking spectroscopic signatures of H and He. SN 2010mb has a slowly declining light curve (LC) (∼600 days) that cannot be powered by {sup 56}Ni/{sup 56}Co radioactivity, the common energy source for Type Ic SNe. We detect signatures of interaction with hydrogen-free circumstellar material including a blue quasi-continuum and, uniquely, narrow oxygen emission lines that require high densities (∼10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}). From the observed spectra and LC, we estimate that the amount of material involved in the interaction was ∼3 M {sub ☉}. Our observations are in agreement with models of pulsational pair-instability SNe described in the literature.

  7. SN 2006oz: rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, Georgios; Chatzopoulos, E.; Dilday, B.;

    2012-01-01

    to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods. We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ~ 0...

  8. Abundance stratification in Type Ia supernovae - V. SN 1986G bridging the gap between normal and subluminous SNe Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Ashall, C; Pian, E; James, P A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed spectroscopic analysis of SN 1986G has been performed. SN 1986G `bridges the gap' between normal and sub luminous type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). The abundance tomography technique is used to determine the abundance distribution of the elements in the ejecta. SN 1986G was found to be a low energy Chandrasekhar mass explosion. Its kinetic energy was 70% of the standard W7 model (0.9x10$^{51}$erg). Oxygen dominates the ejecta from the outermost layers down to $\\sim$9000kms$^{-1}$ , intermediate mass elements (IME) dominate from $\\sim$ 9000kms$^{-1}$ to $\\sim$ 3500kms$^{-1}$ with Ni and Fe dominating the inner layers $<\\sim$ 3500kms$^{-1}$. The final masses of the main elements in the ejecta were found to be, O=0.33M, IME=0.69M, stable NSE=0.21M, $^{56}$Ni=0.14M. An upper limit of the carbon mass is set at C=0.02M. The spectra of SN1986G consist of almost exclusively singly ionised species. SN1986G can be thought of as a low luminosity extension of the main population of SN Ia, with a large deflagratio...

  9. Optical and near infrared coverage of SN 2004et: physical parameters and comparison with other type IIP supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, K; Smartt, S J; Pastorello, A; Tsvetkov, D Yu; Benetti, S; Spiro, S; Arkharov, A A; Beccari, G; Botticella, M T; Cappellaro, E; Cristallo, S; Dolci, M; Elias-Rosa, N; Fiaschi, M; D., Gorshanov; Harutyunyan, A; Larionov, V M; Navasardyan, H; Pietrinferni, A; Raimondo, G; Di Rico, G; Valenti, S; Valentini, G; Zampieri, L

    2009-01-01

    We present new optical and near infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy of the type IIP supernova, SN 2004et. In combination with already published data, this provides one of the most complete studies of optical and NIR data for any type IIP SN from just after explosion to +500 days. The contribution of the NIR flux to the bolometric light curve is estimated to increase from 15% at explosion to around 50% at the end of the plateau and then declines to 40% at 300 days. SN 2004et is one of the most luminous IIP SNe which has been well studied, and with a luminosity of log L = 42.3 erg/s, it is 2 times brighter than SN 1999em. We provide parametrised bolometric corrections as a function of time for SN 2004et and three other IIP SNe that have extensive optical and NIR data, which can be used as templates for future events. We compare the physical parameters of SN 2004et with those of other IIP SNe and find kinetic energies spanning the range of 10^50-10^51 ergs. We compare the ejected masses calculated from hy...

  10. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2007if: First Total Mass Measurement of a Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Scalzo, R A; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Bongard, C; Buton, C; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gal-Yam, A; Gangler, E; Hoyer, S; Kasliwal, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P E; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rau, A; Rigaudier, G; Runge, K; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B; Wu, C

    2010-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2007if, an overluminous (M_V = -20.4), red (B-V = 0.16 at B-band maximum), slow-rising (t_rise = 24 days) type Ia supernova in a very faint (M_g = -14.10) host galaxy. A spectrum at 5 days past B-band maximum light is a direct match to the super-Chandrasekhar-mass candidate SN Ia 2003fg, showing Si II and C II at ~9000 km/s. A high signal-to-noise co-addition of the SN spectral time series reveals no Na I D absorption, suggesting negligible reddening in the host galaxy, and the late-time color evolution has the same slope as the Lira relation for normal SNe Ia. The ejecta appear to be well mixed, with no strong maximum in I-band and a diversity of iron-peak lines appearing in near-maximum-light spectra. SN2007 if also displays a plateau in the Si II velocity extending as late as +10 days, which we interpret as evidence for an overdense shell in the SN ejecta. We calculate the bolometric light curve of the SN and use it and the \\ion{Si}{2} velocity ev...

  11. Exclusion of a luminous red giant as a companion star to the progenitor of supernova SN 2011fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Miller, Adam A; Cenko, S Bradley; Jha, Saurabh W; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Nugent, Peter E; Butler, Nathaniel R; Ofek, Eran O; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Richards, Joseph W; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Bildsten, Lars; Shara, Michael M; Bibby, Joanne; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, S R; Law, Nicholas M; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon; Maguire, Kate; Shen, Ken J

    2011-12-14

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to result from a thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system, but little is known of the precise nature of the companion star and the physical properties of the progenitor system. There are two classes of models: double-degenerate (involving two white dwarfs in a close binary system) and single-degenerate models. In the latter, the primary white dwarf accretes material from a secondary companion until conditions are such that carbon ignites, at a mass of 1.38 times the mass of the Sun. The type Ia supernova SN 2011fe was recently detected in a nearby galaxy. Here we report an analysis of archival images of the location of SN 2011fe. The luminosity of the progenitor system (especially the companion star) is 10-100 times fainter than previous limits on other type Ia supernova progenitor systems, allowing us to rule out luminous red giants and almost all helium stars as the mass-donating companion to the exploding white dwarf.

  12. The Extinction properties of and distance to the highly reddened Type~Ia supernova SN 2012cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Raha, Zachary; Aldering, Greg Scott; Antilogus, Pierre; Bailey, Stephen J.; Charles, Baltay; Barbary, Kyle H.; Baugh, Derek; Boone, Kyle; Bongard, Sebastien; Buton, Clement; Chen, Juncheng; Chotard, Nicolas; Copin, Yannick; Fagrelius, Parker; Fakhouri, Hannah; Feindt, Ulrich; Fouchez, Dominique; Gangler, Emmanuel; Hayden, Brian; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Leget, Pierre-Francois; Lombardo, Simona; Nordin, Jakob; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Pereira, Rui; Perlmutter, Saul; Rabinowitz, David L.; Rigault, Mickael; Rubin, David; Runge, Karl; Saunders, Clare; Smadja, Gerard; Sofiatti, Caroline; Stocker, Andrew; Suzuki, Nao; Taubenberger, Stefan; Tao, Charling; Thomas, Rollin

    2017-01-01

    Correction of Type Ia SN brightnesses for extinction by dust has proven to be a vexing problem. Here we study the dust foreground to the highly reddened SN 2012cu, which is projected onto a dust lane in the galaxy NGC 4772. The analysis is based on multi-epoch, spectrophotometric observations spanning 3,300 - 9,200 A, obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Phase-matched comparison of the spectroscopically twinned SN 2012cu and SN 2011fe across 10 epochs results in the best-fit color excess of (E(B - V ), RMS) = (1.00, 0.03) and total-to-selective extinction ratio of (RV , RMS) = (2.95, 0.09) toward SN 2012cu within its host galaxy. We further identify several diffuse interstellar bands, and compare the 5780 A band with the dust-to-band ratio for the Milky Way. Overall, we find the foreground dust-extinction properties for SN 2012cu to be consistent with those of the Milky Way. Furthermore we find no evidence for significant time variation in any of these extinction tracers. We also compare the dust extinction curves of Cardelli et al. (1989), O’Donnell (1994), and Fitzpatrick (1999), and find the predictions of Fitzpatrick (1999) fit SN 2012cu the best. Finally, the distance to NGC4772, the host of SN 2012cu, at a redshift of z = 0.0035, often assigned to the Virgo Southern Extension, is determined to be 16.6±1.1 Mpc. We compare this result with distance measurements in the literature.

  13. Supernova VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, N.

    2009-08-01

    We review VLBI observations of supernovae over the last quarter century and discuss the prospect of imaging future supernovae with space VLBI in the context of VSOP-2. From thousands of discovered supernovae, most of them at cosmological distances, ˜50 have been detected at radio wavelengths, most of them in relatively nearby galaxies. All of the radio supernovae are Type II or Ib/c, which originate from the explosion of massive progenitor stars. Of these, 12 were observed with VLBI and four of them, SN 1979C, SN 1986J, SN 1993J, and SN 1987A, could be imaged in detail, the former three with VLBI. In addition, supernovae or young supernova remnants were discovered at radio wavelengths in highly dust-obscured galaxies, such as M82, Arp 299, and Arp 220, and some of them could also be imaged in detail. Four of the supernovae so far observed were sufficiently bright to be detectable with VSOP-2. With VSOP-2 the expansion of supernovae can be monitored and investigated with unsurpassed angular resolution, starting as early as the time of the supernova's transition from its opaque to transparent stage. Such studies can reveal, in a movie, the aftermath of a supernova explosion shortly after shock break out.

  14. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Ohio State U., CCAPP /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2017-05-11

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  15. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations Using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-06-01

    We describe two new open-source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program that uses Gaussian mixtures to perform density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms. Additionally, it has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML and Bovy et al. fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms. Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model that is conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an exemplary application of this functionality, which can be used to fit an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host data sets and predict likely supernova parameters using a model conditioned on observed host properties. It is primarily intended to simulate realistic supernovae for LSST data simulations based on empirical galaxy properties.

  16. SN Refsdal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, P. L.; Brammer, G.; Selsing, J.;

    2016-01-01

    We have acquired Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Very Large Telescope near-infrared spectra and images of supernova (SN) Refsdal after its discovery as an Einstein cross in Fall 2014. The HST light curve of SN Refsdal matches the distinctive, slowly rising light curves of SN 1987A-like supernovae...

  17. A Wolf-Rayet-like progenitor of supernova SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a wind

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, E O; Ben-Ami, S; Cenko, S B; Kasliwal, M M; Cao, Y; Yaron, O; Tal, D; Silverman, J M; Horesh, A; De Cia, A; Taddia, F; Sollerman, J; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P M; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Filippenko, A V; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    The explosive fate of massive stripped Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars is a key open question in stellar physics. An appealing option is that hydrogen-deficient W-R stars are the progenitors of some H-poor supernova (SN) explosions of Types IIb, Ib, and Ic. A blue object, having luminosity and colors consistent with those of some W-R stars, has been recently identified at the location of a SN~Ib in pre-explosion images but has not yet been conclusively determined to have been the progenitor. Similar previous works have so far only resulted in nondetections. Comparison of early photometric observations of Type Ic supernovae with theoretical models suggests that the progenitor stars had radii <10^12 cm, as expected for some W-R stars. However, the hallmark signature of W-R stars, their emission-line spectra, cannot be probed by such studies. Here, we report the detection of strong emission lines in an early-time spectrum of SN 2013cu (iPTF13ast; Type IIb) obtained ~15.5 hr after explosion ("flash spectroscopy"). We i...

  18. Radio and X-Ray Observations of SN 2006jd: Another Strongly Interacting Type IIn Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Poonam; Chevalier, Roger A.; Chugai, Nikolai; Fransson, Claes; Irwin, Christopher M.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chakraborti, Sayan; Immler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array at X-ray wavelengths with Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density approximately 10(exp 6) per cubic meter at a radius r approximately 2 x 10(exp 16) centimeter, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than r2 because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.

  19. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  20. Comparison of Catabolic Rates of sn-1, sn-2, and sn-3 Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols Using (13)CO2 Breath Test in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Kawamatsu, Takashi; Yamatani, Yoshio; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAGs) are catabolized after digestion. However, the catabolic rates of the fatty acids at the sn-1, sn-2, and sn-3 positions of TAGs have not been compared. To elucidate the differences, we studied the catabolic rates of (13)C-labeled palmitic acid, oleic acid, and capric acid at the sn-1, sn-2, or sn-3 position of TAGs using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Specifically, we measured the (13)C-to-(12)C ratio in CO2 (Δ(13)C (‰)) exhaled by mice. For all analyzed fatty acids, we observed significant differences between sn-2 and other binding positions. In contrast, no significant difference was detected between the sn-1 and sn-3 positions. These results indicated that the catabolic rates of fatty acids are strongly influenced by their positions in TAGs.

  1. SN 2013ej IN M74: A LUMINOUS AND FAST-DECLINING TYPE II-P SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Fang [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Juncheng; Mo, Jun; Zhao, Xulin [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Jujia [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zampieri, Luca [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Pumo, Maria Letizia [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo “Giuseppe S. Vaiana,” Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Zhang, Tianmeng, E-mail: huangfang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-07-01

    We present extensive ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of the Type IIP supernova (SN IIP) 2013ej in the nearby spiral galaxy M74. The multicolor light curves, spanning from ∼8–185 days after explosion, show that it has a higher peak luminosity (i.e., M{sub V} ∼ −17.83 mag at maximum light), a faster post-peak decline, and a shorter plateau phase (i.e., ∼50 days) compared to the normal Type IIP SN 1999em. The mass of {sup 56}Ni is estimated as 0.02 ± 0.01 M{sub ⊙} from the radioactive tail of the bolometric light curve. The spectral evolution of SN 2013ej is similar to that of SN 2004et and SN 2007od, but shows a larger expansion velocity (i.e., v{sub Fe} {sub ii} ∼ 4600 km s{sup −1} at t ∼ 50 days) and broader line profiles. In the nebular phase, the emission of the Hα line displays a double-peak structure, perhaps due to the asymmetric distribution of {sup 56}Ni produced in the explosion. With the constraints from the main observables such as bolometric light curve, expansion velocity, and photospheric temperature of SN 2013ej, we performed hydrodynamical simulations of the explosion parameters, yielding the total explosion energy as ∼0.7× 10{sup 51} erg, the radius of the progenitor as ∼600 R{sub ⊙}, and the ejected mass as ∼10.6 M{sub ⊙}. These results suggest that SN 2013ej likely arose from a red supergiant with a mass of 12–13 M{sub ⊙} immediately before the explosion.

  2. Progenitors of supernova Ibc: a single Wolf-Rayet star as the possible progenitor of the SN Ib iPTF13bvn

    CERN Document Server

    Groh, Jose H; Ekstrom, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse supernova (SN) explosions mark the end of the tumultuous life of massive stars. Determining the nature of their progenitors is a crucial step towards understanding the properties of SNe. Until recently, no progenitor has been directly detected for SN of type Ibc, which are believed to come from massive stars that lose their Hydrogen envelope through stellar winds and from binary systems where the companion has stripped the H envelope from the primary. Here we analyze recently-reported observations of iPTF13bvn, which could possibly be the first detection of a SN Ib progenitor based on pre-explosion images. Very interestingly, the recently published Geneva models of single stars can reproduce the observed photometry of the progenitor candidate and its mass-loss rate, confirming the scenario from Cao et al 2013. We find that a single WR star with initial mass in the range 31-35 Msun fits the observed photometry of the progenitor of iPTF13bvn. The progenitor likely has a luminosity of log (L/Lsun)~...

  3. Non-thermal emission from supernova shock breakout and the origin of the X-ray transient associated with SN2008D

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Waxman, Eli; Meszaros, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that non-thermal emission can be produced by multiple scatterings of the photons between the supernova ejecta and pre-shock material in supernova shock breakout. Such bulk-Comptonization process may significantly change the original thermal photon spectrum, forming a power-law non-thermal component at higher energies. We then show that the luminous X-ray outburst XRO081009 associated with SN2008D is likely to be such shock breakout emission from an ordinary type Ib/c supernova.

  4. OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA SN 2011fe IN M101 FOR NEARLY 500 DAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kaicheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Xulin; Chen, Jia; Chen, Juncheng; Huang, Fang; Mo, Jun; Rui, Liming; Song, Hao; Sai, Hanna; Li, Wenxiong [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhang, JuJia; Bai, Jinming [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650011 (China); Zhang, Tianmeng; Wu, Chao [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, Weikang [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wang, Lifan, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We present well-sampled optical observations of the bright Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe in M101. Our data, starting from ∼16 days before maximum light and extending to ∼463 days after maximum, provide an unprecedented time series of spectra and photometry for a normal SN Ia. Fitting the early-time rising light curve, we find that the luminosity evolution of SN 2011fe follows a t{sup n} law, with the index n being close to 2.0 in the VRI bands but slightly larger in the U and B bands. Combining the published ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) photometry, we derive the contribution of UV/NIR emission relative to the optical. SN 2011fe is found to have stronger UV emission and reaches its UV peak a few days earlier than other SNe Ia with similar Δm{sub 15}(B), suggestive of less trapping of high-energy photons in the ejecta. Moreover, the U-band light curve shows a notably faster decline at late phases (t ≈ 100–300 days), which also suggests that the ejecta may be relatively transparent to UV photons. These results favor the notion that SN 2011fe might have a progenitor system with relatively lower metallicity. On the other hand, the early-phase spectra exhibit prominent high-velocity features (HVFs) of O i λ7773 and the Ca ii NIR triplet, but only barely detectable in Si ii 6355. This difference can be caused by either an ionization/temperature effect or an abundance enhancement scenario for the formation of HVFs; it suggests that the photospheric temperature of SN 2011fe is intrinsically low, perhaps owing to incomplete burning during the explosion of the white dwarf.

  5. SN 2010jl in UGC 5189: Yet another luminous type IIn supernova in a metal-poor galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R; Stanek, K Z; Pogge, R W; Szczygiel, D M; Pojmanski, G; Antognini, J; Yan, H

    2010-01-01

    We present ASAS data starting 25 days before the discovery of the recent type IIn SN 2010jl, and we compare its light curve to other luminous IIn SNe, showing that it is a luminous (M_I ~ -20.5) event. Its host galaxy, UGC 5189, has a low gas-phase oxygen abundance (12 + log(O/H) = 8.2), which reinforces the emerging trend that over-luminous core-collapse supernovae are found in the low-metallicity tail of the galaxy distribution, similar to the known trend for the hosts of long GRBs. We compile oxygen abundances from the literature and from our own observations of UGC 5189, and we present an unpublished spectrum of the luminous type Ic SN 2010gx that we use to estimate its host metallicity. We discuss these in the context of host metallicity trends for different classes of core-collapse objects. The earliest generations of stars are known to be enhanced in [O/Fe] relative to the Solar mixture; it is therefore likely that the stellar progenitors of these overluminous supernovae are even more iron-poor than th...

  6. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen [Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa (Israel); Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari [Physics Department, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27 Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  7. LOSS'S First Supernova: New Limits on the "Impostor" SN 1997bs

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    We present new, late-time Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the archetypal SN impostor SN 1997bs. We show that SN 1997bs remains much fainter than its progenitor, ruling out the canonical picture of late-time obscuration by dust forming in a shell ejected during the transient. The possibility that the star survived cloaked behind a dusty, steady wind is also disfavored. The simplest explanation is that SN 1997bs was a subluminous Type IIn SN, although it is impossible to rule out the possibility that the star survived, but with a significantly decreased intrinsic luminosity.

  8. METAMORPHOSIS OF SN 2014C: DELAYED INTERACTION BETWEEN A HYDROGEN POOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA AND A NEARBY CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Challis, P.; Drout, M. R.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Eldridge, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Fong, W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bietenholz, M. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Fransson, C. [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Lab, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mackey, J., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hgel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2015-12-20

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star’s stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf–Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30–300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  9. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  10. Nonlinear decline-rate dependence and intrinsic variation of typeIa supernova luminosities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan; Strovink, Mark; Conley, Alexander; Goldhaber,Gerson; Kowalski, Marek; Perlmutter, Saul; Siegrist, James

    2005-12-14

    Published B and V fluxes from nearby Type Ia supernova are fitted to light-curve templates with 4-6 adjustable parameters. Separately, B magnitudes from the same sample are fitted to a linear dependence on B-V color within a post-maximum time window prescribed by the CMAGIC method. These fits yield two independent SN magnitude estimates B{sub max} and B{sub BV}. Their difference varies systematically with decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15} in a form that is compatible with a bilinear but not a linear dependence; a nonlinear form likely describes the decline-rate dependence of B{sub max} itself. A Hubble fit to the average of B{sub max} and B{sub BV} requires a systematic correction for observed B-V color that can be described by a linear coefficient R = 2.59 {+-} 0.24, well below the coefficient R{sub B} {approx} 4.1 commonly used to characterize the effects of Milky Way dust. At 99.9% confidence the data reject a simple model in which no color correction is required for SNe that are clustered at the blue end of their observed color distribution. After systematic corrections are performed, B{sub max} and B{sub BV} exhibit mutual rms intrinsic variation equal to 0.074 {+-} 0.019 mag, of which at least an equal share likely belongs to B{sub BV}. SN magnitudes measured using maximum-luminosity or cmagic methods show comparable rms deviations of order {approx}0.14 mag from the Hubble line. The same fit also establishes a 95% confidence upper limit of 486 km s{sup -1} on the rms peculiar velocity of nearby SNe relative to the Hubble flow.

  11. Interpreting the strongly lensed supernova iPTF16geu: time delay predictions, microlensing, and lensing rates

    CERN Document Server

    More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud; Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well-known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hours reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. Howev...

  12. Interpreting the Strongly Lensed Supernova iPTF16geu: Time Delay Predictions, Microlensing, and Lensing Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Anupreeta; Suyu, Sherry H.; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud; Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2017-02-01

    We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the Hubble Space Telescope F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hr reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. However, the observed total magnification of iPTF16geu is larger than expected, given its redshift. This may be a further indication of ongoing microlensing in this system.

  13. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z {approx} 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stephane [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 < z < 0.15. Utilizing our real-time analysis pipeline, we spectroscopically confirmed twenty-three cluster SNe Ia, four of which were intracluster events. Using our deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam imaging, we measured total stellar luminosities in each of our galaxy clusters, and we performed detailed supernova (SN) detection efficiency simulations. Bringing these ingredients together, we measure an overall cluster SN Ia rate within R{sub 200} (1 Mpc) of 0.042{sup +0.012}{sub -0.010}{sup +0.010}{sub -0.008} SNuM (0.049{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041{sup +0.015}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.010} SNuM (0.041{sup +0.019}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z {approx} 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z{sub f} = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, {Psi}(t){proportional_to}t{sup s} , we find s = -1.62 {+-} 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s {approx} -1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s {approx} -2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate {approx}6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  14. The Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at z~0.2 from SDSS-I Overlapping Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O; Maoz, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In the course of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I), a large fraction of the surveyed area was observed more than once due to field tiling overlap, usually at different epochs. We utilize some of these data to perform a supernova (SN) survey at a mean redshift of z=0.2. Our archival search, in ~ 5% of the SDSS-I overlap area, produces 29 SN candidates clearly associated with host galaxies. Using the Bayesian photometric classification algorithm of Poznanski et al., and correcting for classification bias, we find 17 of the 29 candidates are likely Type Ia SNe. Accounting for the detection efficiency of the survey and for host extinction, this implies a Type Ia SN rate of R=14.0+(2.5,1.4}-(2.5,1.1}+/-2.5 10^-14 h(70)^2 yr^-1 L_sun^-1, where the errors are Poisson error, systematic detection efficiency error, and systematic classification error, respectively. The volumetric rate is R=1.89+(0.42,0.18)-(0.34,0.15)+/-0.42 10^-5 yr^-1 h(70)^3 Mpc^-3. Our measurement is consistent with other rate measurements at l...

  15. Nurseries of Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Teddy

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have long been the gold standard for precision cosmology and after several decades of intense research the supernova (SN) community was in 2011 honored by giving the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of Dark Energy to the leaders of the two big SN collaborations...... the gasphase metallicity, stellar mass and stellar age for this z = 1.55 host galaxy. I am also able to rule out the presence of any AGN though emission-line ratios. The host is classified as a highly star forming, low mass, low metallicity galaxy. It is a clear outlier in star formation and stellar mass...... compared to most low redshift (z 1) redshift SNe. This is mainly due to the change in specific star-formation rate as a function of redshift. This can potentially impact the use of high redshift SN Ia as standard candels...

  16. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Nathan E; Valenti, S; Chomiuk, L; Berger, E; Smartt, S; Hurley, K; Barthelmy, S D; Chornock, R; Foley, R J; Levesque, E M; Narayan, G; Kirshner, R P; Botticella, M T; Briggs, M S; Connaughton, V; Terada, Y; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Mazets, E; Cline, T; von Kienlin, A; Boynton, W; Chambers, K C; Grav, T; Heasley, J N; Hodapp, K W; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Luppino, G A; Lupton, R H; Magnier, E A; Monet, D G; Morgan, J S; Onaka, P M; Price, P A; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waterson, M F

    2011-01-01

    [abridged] We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2010ay at z\\approx0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{\\pi} survey just \\sim3 days after explosion. We estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, MR\\approx-20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion, v_ph\\approx19.2x10^3 km/s at \\sim40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN 2010ay is 2-5x higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56 Ni, M_Ni=0.9+0.2 M_solar. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, Mej\\approx4.7M_so...

  17. Constraints on the Progenitor System of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weidong; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Miller, Adam A; Cenko, S Bradley; Jha, Saurabh W; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D Andrew; Nugent, Peter E; Butler, Nathaniel R; Ofek, Eran O; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Richards, Joseph W; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Bildsten, Lars; Shara, Michael M; Bibby, Joanne; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, S R; Law, Nicholas M; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon; Maguire, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) serve as a fundamental pillar of modern cosmology, owing to their large luminosity and a well-defined relationship between light-curve shape and peak brightness. The precision distance measurements enabled by SNe Ia first revealed the accelerating expansion of the universe, now widely believed (though hardly understood) to require the presence of a mysterious "dark" energy. General consensus holds that Type Ia SNe result from thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf (WD) in a binary system; however, little is known of the precise nature of the companion star and the physical properties of the progenitor system. Here we make use of extensive historical imaging obtained at the location of SN 2011fe/PTF11kly, the closest SN Ia discovered in the digital imaging era, to constrain the visible-light luminosity of the progenitor to be 10-100 times fainter than previous limits on other SN Ia progenitors. This directly rules out luminous red giants and the vast majority of helium stars as the ...

  18. The effect of helium accretion efficiency on rates of Type Ia supernovae: double-detonations in accreting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiter, Ashley J; Sim, Stuart A; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Kwiatkowski, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The double-detonation explosion scenario of Type Ia supernovae has gained increased support from the SN Ia community as a viable progenitor model, making it a promising candidate alongside the well-known single degenerate and double degenerate scenarios. We present delay times of double-detonation SNe, in which a sub-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf accretes non-dynamically from a helium-rich companion. One of the main uncertainties in quantifying SN rates from double-detonations is the (assumed) retention efficiency of He-rich matter. Therefore, we implement a new prescription for the treatment of accretion/accumulation of He-rich matter on white dwarfs. In addition, we test how the results change depending on which criteria are assumed to lead to a detonation in the helium shell. In comparing the results to our standard case (Ruiter et al. 2011), we find that regardless of the adopted He accretion prescription, the SN rates are reduced by only 25% if low-mass He shells (< 0.05 Msun) are suffi...

  19. The Rate of Core Collapse Supernovae to Redshift 2.5 From The CANDELS and CLASH Supernova Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Rodney, Steven A; Graur, Or; Riess, Adam G; McCully, Curtis; Ravindranath, Swara; Mobasher, Bahram; Shahady, A Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) multi-cycle treasury programs with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have provided new opportunities to probe the rate of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) at high redshift, now extending to $z\\approx2.5$. Here we use a sample of approximately 44 CCSNe to determine volumetric rates, $R_{CC}$, in six redshift bins in the range $0.195\\%$ confidence) with SFRs from IR luminous galaxies, or with SFR models that include simple evolution in the initial mass function over time. This scaling factor is expected if the fraction of the IMF contributing to CCSN progenitors is in the 8 to 50 $M_{\\odot}$ range. It is not supportive, however, of an upper mass limit for progenitors at $<20\\,M_{\\odot}$.

  20. Spectroscopy of supernova host galaxies from the SDSS-II SN survey with the SDSS and BOSS spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Matthew Dwaune

    Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) have been used as standard candles to measure cosmological distances. The initial discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe was performed using ~50 SNe Ia. Large SNe surveys have increased the number of spectroscopically-confirmed SNe Ia to over a thousand with redshift coverage beyond z = 1. We are now in the age of abundant photometry without the ability for full follow-up spectroscopy of all SN candidates. SN cosmology using these large samples will increasingly rely on robust photometric classification of SN candidates. Photometric classification will increase the sample by including faint SNe as these are preferentially not observed with follow-up spectroscopy. The primary concern with using photometrically classified SNe Ia in cosmology is when a core-collapse SNe is incorrectly classified as an SN Ia. This can be mitigated by obtaining the host galaxy redshift of each SN candidate and using this information as a prior in the photometric classification, removing one degree of freedom. To test the impact of redshift on photometric classification, I have performed an assessment on photometric classification of candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) SN Survey. I have tested the classification with and without redshift priors by looking at the change of photometric classification, the effect of data quality on photometric classification, and the effect of SN light curve properties on photometric classification. Following our suggested classification scheme, there are a total of 1038 photometrically classified SNe Ia when using a flat redshift prior and 1002 SNe~Ia with the spectroscopic redshift. For 912 (91.0%) candidates classified as likely SNe Ia without redshift information, the classification is unchanged when adding the host galaxy redshift. Finally, I investigate the differences in the interpretation of the light curve properties with and without knowledge of the redshift. When using the SALT2

  1. Spectroscopic Determination of the Low Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krughoff, K.Simon; Connolly, Andrew J.; Frieman, Joshua; SubbaRao, Mark; Kilper, Gary; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-10

    Supernova rates are directly coupled to high mass stellar birth and evolution. As such, they are one of the few direct measures of the history of cosmic stellar evolution. In this paper we describe an probabilistic technique for identifying supernovae within spectroscopic samples of galaxies. We present a study of 52 type Ia supernovae ranging in age from -14 days to +40 days extracted from a parent sample of \\simeq 50,000 spectra from the SDSS DR5. We find a Supernova Rate (SNR) of 0.472^{+0.048}_{-0.039}(Systematic)^{+0.081}_{-0.071}(Statistical)SNu at a redshift of = 0.1. This value is higher than other values at low redshift at the 1{\\sigma}, but is consistent at the 3{\\sigma} level. The 52 supernova candidates used in this study comprise the third largest sample of supernovae used in a type Ia rate determination to date. In this paper we demonstrate the potential for the described approach for detecting supernovae in future spectroscopic surveys.

  2. On the Nature of Type Ia-CSM Supernovae: Optical and Near-Infrared Spectra of SN 2012ca and SN 2013dn

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ori D; Filippenko, Alexei V; Mauerhan, Jon; Becker, Juliette; Borish, H Jacob; Cenko, S Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I; Graham, Melissa; Hsiao, Eric; Kelly, Patrick L; Lee, William H; Marion, G H; Milisavljevic, Dan; Parrent, Jerod; Shivvers, Isaac; Skrutskie, Michael; Smith, Nathan; Wilson, John; Zheng, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    A growing subset of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show evidence for unexpected interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (SNe Ia-CSM). The precise nature of the progenitor, however, remains debated owing to spectral ambiguities arising from a strong contribution from the CSM interaction. Late-time spectra offer potential insight if the post-shock cold, dense shell becomes sufficiently thin and/or the ejecta begin to cross the reverse shock. To date, few high-quality spectra of this kind exist. Here we report on the late-time optical and infrared spectra of the SNe~Ia-CSM 2012ca and 2013dn. These SNe Ia-CSM spectra exhibit low [Fe III]/[Fe II] ratios and strong [Ca II] at late epochs. Such characteristics are reminiscent of the super-Chandrasekhar-mass (SC) candidate SN 2009dc, for which these features suggested a low-ionisation state due to high densities, although the broad Fe features admittedly show similarities to the blue "quasi-continuum" observed in some core-collapse SNe Ibn and IIn. Neither SN 2012...

  3. SN 2009kn - the twin of the Type IIn supernova 1994W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kankare, E.; Ergon, M.; Bufano, F.;

    2012-01-01

    . Contrarily, the photometric evolution resembles more that of a Type IIP SN with a large drop in luminosity at the end of the plateau phase. These characteristics are similar to those of SN 1994W, whose nature has been explained with two different models with different approaches. The well-sampled data set...

  4. SN 2010ay IS A LUMINOUS AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA WITHIN A LOW-METALLICITY HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valenti, S.; Smartt, S.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Terada, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less

  5. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  6. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  7. Constraining the Progenitor of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2012cg

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the progenitors of SNe Ia is not yet fully understood. In the single-degenerate (SD) scenario, the collision of the SN ejecta with its companion star is expected to produce detectable UV emission in the first few days after the SN explosion within certain viewing angles. It was recently found that the $B-V$ colour of the nearby SN Ia SN 2012cg at about sixteen days before the maximum $B$-band brightness was about 0.2 mag bluer than those of other normal SNe Ia, which was reported as the first evidence for excess blue light from the interaction of normal SN Ia ejecta with its companion star. In this work, we compare current observations for SN 2012cg from its pre-explosion phase to the late-time nebular phase with theoretical predictions from binary evolution and population synthesis calculations for a variety of popular progenitor scenarios. We find that a main-sequence donor or a carbon-oxygen white dwarf donor binary system is more likely to be the progenitor of SN 2012cg. However, both scenar...

  8. Metamorphosis of SN 2014C: Delayed Interaction Between a Hydrogen Poor Core-collapse Supernova and a Nearby Circumstellar Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Kamble, A; Patnaude, D; Raymond, J; Eldridge, J; Fong, W; Bietenholz, M; Challis, P; Chornock, R; Drout, M; Fransson, C; Fesen, R; Grindlay, J; Kirshner, R; Lunnan, R; Mackey, J; Miller, G; Parrent, J; Sanders, N; Soderberg, A; Zauderer, B

    2015-01-01

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star's stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf-Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Halpha absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 ...

  9. EmpiriciSN: Re-sampling Observed Supernova/Host Galaxy Populations using an XD Gaussian Mixture Model

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, Thomas W -S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We describe two new open source tools written in Python for performing extreme deconvolution Gaussian mixture modeling (XDGMM) and using a conditioned model to re-sample observed supernova and host galaxy populations. XDGMM is new program for using Gaussian mixtures to do density estimation of noisy data using extreme deconvolution (XD) algorithms that has functionality not available in other XD tools. It allows the user to select between the AstroML (Vanderplas et al. 2012; Ivezic et al. 2015) and Bovy et al. (2011) fitting methods and is compatible with scikit-learn machine learning algorithms (Pedregosa et al. 2011). Most crucially, it allows the user to condition a model based on the known values of a subset of parameters. This gives the user the ability to produce a tool that can predict unknown parameters based on a model conditioned on known values of other parameters. EmpiriciSN is an example application of this functionality that can be used for fitting an XDGMM model to observed supernova/host datas...

  10. No Evidence for an Early Seventeenth-Century Indian Sighting of Kepler's Supernova (SN1604)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification

  11. Neutrino Signal of Collapse-Induced Thermonuclear Supernovae: The Case for Prompt Black Hole Formation in SN1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Kfir

    2016-01-01

    Collapse-induced thermonuclear explosion (CITE) may explain core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We present a preliminary analysis of the neutrino signal predicted by CITE and compare it to the neutrino burst of SN1987A. For strong CCSNe, as SN1987A, CITE predicts a proto-neutron star (PNS) accretion phase, accompanied by the corresponding neutrino luminosity, that can last a few seconds and that is cut-off abruptly by black hole (BH) formation. The neutrino luminosity can later be revived by accretion disc emission after a dead time of few to a few ten seconds. In contrast, the neutrino mechanism for CCSNe predicts a shorter PNS accretion phase, followed by a slowly declining PNS cooling luminosity. We repeat statistical analyses used in the literature to interpret the neutrino mechanism, and apply them to CITE. The first 1-2 sec of the neutrino burst are equally compatible with CITE and with the neutrino mechanism. However, the data hints to a luminosity drop at t=2-3 sec, in some tension with the neutrino mec...

  12. Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations of the Type Iax Supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Holtzman, Jon A.; Balam, David D.; Branch, David; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frieman, Joshua; Fynbo, Johan; Galbany, Lluis; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sollerman, Jesper; Steele, Thea N.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Zheng, Chen

    2014-04-24

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with ne109 cm–3. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected "infrared catastrophe," a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a "complete deflagration" that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  13. Neutrino Signal of Collapse-induced Thermonuclear Supernovae: The Case for Prompt Black Hole Formation in SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Kushnir, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Collapse-induced thermonuclear explosion (CITE) may explain core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We analyze the neutrino signal in CITE and compare it to the neutrino burst of SN 1987A. For strong (≳ {10}51 erg) CCSNe, such as SN 1987A, CITE predicts a proto-neutron star (PNS) accretion phase lasting up to a few seconds that is cut off by black hole (BH) formation. The neutrino luminosity can later be revived by accretion disk emission after a dead time of a few to a few tens of seconds. In contrast, the neutrino mechanism for CCSNe predicts a short (≲s) PNS accretion phase, followed by slowly declining PNS cooling luminosity. We repeat statistical analyses used in the literature to interpret the neutrino mechanism, and apply them to CITE. The first 1-2 s of the neutrino burst are equally compatible with CITE and with the neutrino mechanism. However, the data points toward a luminosity drop at t = 2-3 s, which is in some tension with the neutrino mechanism but can be naturally attributed to BH formation in CITE. The occurrence of neutrino signal events at 5 s suggests that, within CITE, the accretion disk formed by that time. We perform two-dimensional numerical simulations showing that CITE may be able to accommodate this disk formation time while reproducing the ejected 56Ni mass and ejecta kinetic energy within factors of 2-3 of observations. We estimate the accretion disk neutrino luminosity, finding it to be on the low side but compatible with the data to a factor of 10. Given comparable uncertainties in the disk luminosity simulation, we conclude that direct BH formation may have occurred in SN 1987A.

  14. Cepheid Calibration of the Peak Brightness of Type IA Supernovae: Calibration of SN 1990N in NGC 4639 Averaged with Six Earlier Type IA Supernova Calibrations to Give H 0 Directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Allan; Saha, A.; Tammann, G. A.; Labhardt, Lukas; Panagia, N.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1996-03-01

    Periods and light curves have been measured with the Hubble Space Telescope for 20 Cepheids in NGC 4639, parent galaxy to the Type Ia, prototypical supernova SN 1990N. The periods range from 17 to 69 days. The mean apparent magnitudes, averaged over the light curves, range from = 25.6 to = 27.3. Well-determined period-luminosity relations exist in V and I. Corrected for differential extinction, these give a true modulus for NGC 4639 of (m - M)0 = 32.00 +/- 0.23. Combining the light curves for SN 1990N with this modulus gives MB(max) = -19.30 +/- 0.23 and MV(max) = -19.39 +/- 0.23. This, together with six previous calibrations of Type Ia supernovae, gives the mean calibrations of "Branch normal" supernovae to date as = -19.47 +/- 0.07 and = -19.48 +/- 0.07. The resulting Hubble constants, reading the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagrams at very large redshifts beyond any possible local velocity anomalies, give global values of the Hubble constant of H0(B) = 56 +/- 4 (internal) km s-1 Mpc-1 and H0(V) = 58 +/- 4 (internal) km s-1 Mpc-1.

  15. SN 2004A: Another Type II-P Supernova with a Red Supergiant Progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Hendry, M A; Cenko, S B; Crockett, R M; Fox, D W; Gal-Yam, A; Kudritzki, R P; Maund, J R; Moon, D S; Smartt, S J

    2006-01-01

    We present a monitoring study of SN 2004A and probable discovery of a progenitor star in pre-explosion HST images. The photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2004A show that it was a normal Type II-P which was discovered in NGC 6207 about two weeks after explosion. We compare SN 2004A to the similar Type II-P SN 1999em and estimate an explosion epoch of 2004 January 6. We also calculate three new distances to NGC 6207 of 21.0 +/-4.3, 21.4 +/-3.5 and 25.1 +/-1.7Mpc. The former was calculated using the Standard Candle Method (SCM) for SNe II-P, and the latter two from the Brightest Supergiants Method (BSM). We combine these three distances with existing kinematic distances, to derive a mean value of 20.3 +/-3.4Mpc. Using this distance we estimate that the ejected nickel mass in the explosion is 0.046(+0.031,-0.017) Msolar. The progenitor of SN 2004A is identified in pre-explosion WFPC2 F814W images with a magnitude of mF814W = 24.3 +/-0.3, but is below the detection limit of the F606W images. We show th...

  16. The detection rate of early UV emission from supernovae: A dedicated GALEX/PTF survey and calibrated theoretical estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Ganot, Noam; Ofek, Eran O; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Udi; Maoz, Dan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Neill, James D; Barlow, Thomas A; Martin, Christofer D; Gezari, Suvi; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua s; Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early UV emission from SNe. Six Type II SNe and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX NUV data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R_solar, explosion energies of 10^51 erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M_solar. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition and explosion energy per u...

  17. Hubble Space Telescope spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2011fe: A low-energy delayed detonation of a white dwarf with Z

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, Paolo; Hachinger, Stephan; Ellis, Richard; Nugent, Peter E; Howell, D Andrew; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maguire, Kate; Cooke, Jeff; Thomas, Rollin

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic observations of the nearby type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe, taken on 10 epochs from -13.5 to +41 days relative to B-band maximum light, and spanning the far-ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (IR) are presented. This spectroscopic coverage makes SN 2011fe the best-studied local SN Ia to date. SN 2011fe is a typical moderately-luminous SN Ia with no evidence for dust extinction. Its near-UV spectral properties are representative of a larger sample of local events studied in Maguire et al. (2012). As a result, conclusions inferred from our detailed investigations are likely representative of those for other normal SNe Ia. The near-UV to optical spectra of SN 2011fe are modelled with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code using the technique of 'abundance tomography', providing tight constraints on the density structure and abundance stratification of the event. SN 2011fe was a relatively weak explosion, with moderate Fe-group yields. Although its density structure is c...

  18. SALT spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) as a type-II supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Miszalski, B.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of ASASSN-16cc (SN 2016aqf) on 2016 February 27.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-920 nm. The spectrum features a blue continuum with prominent P-Cygni lines of H and He. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows a good match to the type-IIP SN 2014et at -3 days, confirming the results of Hosseinzadeh et al. (ATel 8748).

  19. Nebular spectra and abundance tomography of the type Ia supernova SN 2011fe: a normal SN Ia with a stable Fe core

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, P A; Filippenko, A V; Garnavich, P M; Clubb, K I; Maguire, K; Pan, Y -C; Shappee, R; Silverman, J M; Benetti, S; Hachinger, S; Nomoto, K; Pian, E

    2015-01-01

    A series of optical and one near-infrared nebular spectra covering the first year of the Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe are presented and modelled. The density profile that proved best for the early optical/ultraviolet spectra, "rho-11fe", was extended to lower velocities to include the regions that emit at nebular epochs. Model rho-11fe is intermediate between the fast deflagration model W7 and a low-energy delayed-detonation. Good fits to the nebular spectra are obtained if the innermost ejecta are dominated by neutron-rich, stable Fe-group species, which contribute to cooling but not to heating. The correct thermal balance can thus be reached for the strongest [FeII] and [FeIII] lines to be reproduced with the observed ratio. The 56Ni mass thus obtained is 0.47 +/- 0.05 Mo. The bulk of 56Ni has an outermost velocity of ~8500 km/s. The mass of stable iron is 0.23 +/- 0.03 Mo. Stable Ni has low abundance, ~10^{-2} Mo. This is sufficient to reproduce an observed emission line near 7400 A. A sub-Chandrasekhar exp...

  20. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017coa as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Danfeng; Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tan, Hanjie; Li, Wenxiong; Zhang, Tianmeng; Xu, Zhijian; Yang, Zesheng; Song, Hao; Mo, Jun; Wang, Yuanhao; Zhou, Ziheng; Meng, Xianmin; Qian, Shenban; Jia, Junjun; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 360-840 nm) of SN 2017coa,discovered by Tsinghua-NAOC Transient Survey (TNTS), on UT Mar.31.49 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  1. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017yi as a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Danfeng; Li, Wenxiong; Jia, Junjun; He, Min; Zhang, Tianmeng; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jujia

    2017-02-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 370-850 nm) of SN 2017yi, discovered by J. Vales,on UT Feb.01.5 2017 with the 2.16-m telescope (+BFOSC) at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC).

  2. Spectroscopic classification of Gaia16cdi (SN 2016iyf) as Type Ia supernova with SEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, James D.; Walters, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of Gaia16cdi (SN 2016iyf), discovered by the Gaia ESA survey. The follow-up spectroscopic observations were performed with the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/sedm/, range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R 100) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope.

  3. Supernova matter at subnuclear densities as a resonant Fermi gas: enhancement of neutrino rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, A; Pethick, C J; Schwenk, A

    2014-08-22

    At low energies nucleon-nucleon interactions are resonant and therefore supernova matter at subnuclear densities has many similarities to atomic gases with interactions dominated by a Feshbach resonance. We calculate the rates of neutrino processes involving nucleon-nucleon collisions and show that these are enhanced in mixtures of neutrons and protons at subnuclear densities due to the large scattering lengths. As a result, the rate for neutrino pair bremsstrahlung and absorption is significantly larger below 10(13) g cm(-3) compared to rates used in supernova simulations.

  4. SALT spectroscopic classification of LSQ16acz (= PS16bby = SN 2016bew) as a type-Ia supernova approaching maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-03-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of LSQ16acz (= PS16bby = SN 2016bew; Baltay et al. 2013, PASP, 125, 683) on 2016 Mar 14.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows LSQ16acz is a type-Ia supernova a few days before maximum light.

  5. OISTER Optical and Near-Infrared Observations of the Super-Chandrasekhar Supernova Candidate SN 2012dn: Dust Emission from the Circumstellar Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kawabata, Koji S; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ueno, Issei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Takahashi, Jun; Honda, Satoshi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Miyanoshita, Ryo; Nagao, Takashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Isogai, Mizuki; Arai, Akira; Itoh, Ryosuke; Ui, Takahiro; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ukita, Nobuharu; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Masumoto, Kazunari; Ono, Rikako; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nogami, Daisaku; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present extensively dense observations of the super-Chandrasekhar supernova (SC SN) candidate SN 2012dn from $-11$ to $+140$ days after the date of its $B$-band maximum in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths conducted through the OISTER ToO program. The NIR light curves and color evolutions up to 35 days after the $B$-band maximum provided an excellent match with those of another SC SN 2009dc, providing a further support to the nature of SN 2012dn as a SC SN. We found that SN 2012dn exhibited strong excesses in the NIR wavelengths from $30$ days after the $B$-band maximum. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves exhibited much later maximum dates at $40$ and $70$ days after the $B$-band maximum, respectively, compared with those of normal SNe Ia. The $H$ and $K_{s}$-band light curves subtracted by those of SN 2009dc displayed plateaued evolutions, indicating a NIR echo from the surrounding dust. The distance to the inner boundary of the dust shell is limited to be $4.8 - 6.4\\times10^{-2}$ pc. No ...

  6. Neutrino energy loss rates and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co for presupernova and supernova physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.055802

    2011-01-01

    Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for calculation of stellar weak interaction rates of $fp$-shell nuclide with success. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a pivotal role to decide if these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. The product of abundance and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co is substantial and as such can play a role in fine tuning of input parameters of simulation codes specially in the presupernova evolution. Recently we introduced our calculation of capture rates on $^{55}$Co, in a luxurious model space of $7 \\hbar \\omega$, employing the pn-QRPA theory with a separable interaction. Simulators, however, may require these rates on a fine scale. Here we present for the first time an expanded calculation of the neutrino energy loss rates and positron capture rates on $^{55}$Co on an extensive temperature-density scale. These type of scale is appropriate for interpolation purposes and of greate...

  7. Diversity of Decline-Rate-Corrected Type 1a Supernova Rise times:One Mode or Two?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strovink, Mark

    2007-05-01

    B-band light-curve rise times for eight unusually well-observed nearby Type Ia supernova (SNe) are fitted by a newly developed template-building algorithm, using light-curve functions that are smooth, flexible, and free of potential bias from externally derived templates and other prior assumptions. From the available literature, photometric BVRI data collected over many months, including the earliest points, are reconciled, combined, and fitted to a unique time of explosion for each SN. On average, after they are corrected for light-curve decline rate, three SNe rise in 18.81 {+-} 0.36 days, while five SNe rise in 16.64 {+-} 0.21 days. If all eight SNe are sampled from a single parent population (a hypothesis not favored by statistical tests), the rms intrinsic scatter of the decline-rate-corrected SN rise time is 0.96{sub -0.25}{sup +0.52} days--a first measurement of this dispersion. The corresponding global mean rise time is 17.44 {+-} 0.39 days, where the uncertainty is dominated by intrinsic variance. This value is {approx}2 days shorter than two published averages that nominally are twice as precise, though also based on small samples. When comparing high-z to low-z SN luminosities for determining cosmological parameters, bias can be introduced by use of a light-curve template with an unrealistic rise time. If the period over which light curves are sampled depends on z in a manner typical of current search and measurement strategies, a two-day discrepancy in template rise time can bias the luminosity comparison by {approx}0.03 magnitudes.

  8. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate.

  9. Rates, Progenitors and Cosmic Mix of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Greggio, Laura; Daddi, Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Following an episode of star formation, Type Ia supernova events occur over an extended period of time, following a distribution of delay times (DDT). We critically discuss some empirically-based DDT functions that have been proposed in recent years, some favoring very early (prompt) events, other very late (tardy) ones, and therefore being mutually exclusive. We point out that in both cases the derived DDT functions are affected by dubious assumptions, and therefore there is currently no ground for claiming either a DDT strongly peaked at early times, or at late ones. Theoretical DDT functions are known to accommodate both prompt as well as late SNIa events, and can account for all available observational constraints. Recent observational evidence exists that both single degenerate and double degenerate precursors may be able of producing SNIa events. We then explore on the basis of plausible theoretical models the possible variation with cosmic time of the mix between the events produced by the two differen...

  10. A Spitzer Space Telescope Study of SN 2003gd: Still No Direct Evidence that Core-Collapse Supernovae are Major Dust Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, W P S; Pastorello, A; Gerardy, C L; Kotak, R; Sollerman, J; Van Dyk, S D; Farrah, D; Filippenko, A V; Höflich, P; Lundqvist, P; Pozzo, M; Wheeler, J C

    2007-01-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of late-time mid-infrared (IR) observations of the Type II-P supernova (SN) 2003gd. At about 16 months after the explosion, the mid-IR flux is consistent with emission from 4 x 10^(-5) M(solar) of newly condensed dust in the ejecta. At 22 months emission from point-like sources close to the SN position was detected at 8 microns and 24 microns. By 42 months the 24 micron flux had faded. Considerations of luminosity and source size rule out the ejecta of SN 2003gd as the main origin of the emission at 22 months. A possible alternative explanation for the emission at this later epoch is an IR echo from pre-existing circumstellar or interstellar dust. We conclude that, contrary to the claim of Sugerman et al. (2006, Science, 313, 196), the mid-IR emission from SN 2003gd does not support the presence of 0.02 M(solar) of newly formed dust in the ejecta. There is, as yet, no direct evidence that core-collapse supernovae are major dust factories.

  11. PTF11eon/SN2011dh: Discovery of a Type IIb Supernova From a Compact Progenitor in the Nearby Galaxy M51

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, Iair; Yaron, Ofer; Sternberg, Assaf; Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Quimby, Robert M; Ofek, Eran O; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Cenko, S Bradley; Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S; Sullivan, Mark; Fox, Derek B; Nugent, Peter E; Poznanski, Dovi; Gorbikov, Evgeny; Riou, Amedee; Lamotte-Bailey, Stephane; Griga, Thomas; Cohen, Judith G; Polishook, David; Xu, Dong; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Manulis, Ilan; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paulo A; Pian, Elena; Matheson, Thomas; Maquire, Kate; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bersier, David; James, Philip; Marchant, Jonathan M; Smith, Robert J; Mottram, Chris J; Barnsley, Robert M; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Clubb, Kelsey I

    2011-01-01

    On May 31, 2011 UT a supernova (SN) exploded in the nearby galaxy M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy). We discovered this event using small telescopes equipped with CCD cameras, as well as by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey, and rapidly confirmed it to be a Type II supernova. Our early light curve and spectroscopy indicates that PTF11eon resulted from the explosion of a relatively compact progenitor star as evidenced by the rapid shock-breakout cooling seen in the light curve, the relatively low temperature in early-time spectra and the prompt appearance of low-ionization spectral features. The spectra of PTF11eon are dominated by H lines out to day 10 after explosion, but initial signs of He appear to be present. Assuming that He lines continue to develop in the near future, this SN is likely a member of the cIIb (compact IIb; Chevalier and Soderberg 2010) class, with progenitor radius larger than that of SN 2008ax and smaller than the eIIb (extended IIb) SN 1993J progenitor. Our data imply that the object...

  12. Sn1987a Revisited after 20 Years: May the Supernova Bang More Than Once?

    CERN Document Server

    Galeotti, P

    2007-01-01

    The observations of supernova 1987A in underground detectors are revisited. It is shown that, while the LSD detector in the Mont Blanc Laboratory observed only one burst at 2h 52min 36.8sec U.T., the Kamiokande data show a possible second burst, in addition to the well known one at 7h 35min 33.7sec U.T. This second burst consists of a cluster of seven pulses, well above the energy threshold of the detector, observed during 6.2 seconds starting at 7h 54min 22.2sec U.T. Do these observations imply a long duration of the collapse?

  13. Type Ia supernova rate at a redshift of ­0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanc ...[et al], G.; Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    stars: supernovae: general; galaxies: evolution; cosmology: miscellaneous; methods: observational......stars: supernovae: general; galaxies: evolution; cosmology: miscellaneous; methods: observational...

  14. Spectropolarimetry of SN 2011dh in M51: geometric insights on a Type IIb supernova progenitor and explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mauerhan, Jon C; Leonard, Douglas C; Smith, Paul S; Filippenko, Alexei V; Smith, Nathan; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Huk, Leah; Clubb, Kelsey I; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Cenko, S Bradley; Milne, Peter; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi

    2015-01-01

    We present seven epochs of spectropolarimetry of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh in M51, spanning 86 days of its evolution. The first epoch was obtained 9 days after the explosion, when the photosphere was still in the depleted hydrogen layer of the stripped-envelope progenitor. Continuum polarization is securely detected at the level of P~0.5% through day 14 and appears to diminish by day 30, which is different from the prevailing trends suggested by studies of other core-collapse SNe. Time-variable modulations in P and position angle are detected across P-Cygni line features. H-alpha and HeI polarization peak after 30 days and exhibit position angles roughly aligned with the earlier continuum, while OI and CaII appear to be geometrically distinct. We discuss several possibilities to explain the evolution of the continuum and line polarization, including the potential effects of a tidally deformed progenitor star, aspherical radioactive heating by fast-rising plumes of Ni-56 from the core, oblique shock b...

  15. Aspherical supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3

  16. Aspherical supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    2004-05-21

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3

  17. SN 2015bh: NGC 2770's 4th supernova or a luminous blue variable on its way to a Wolf-Rayet star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gall, C.; Cano, Z.; Maeda, K.; Schulze, S.; Campana, S.; Wiersema, K.; Groh, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Malesani, D.; Maund, J.; Morrell, N.; Beletsky, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Very massive stars in the final phases of their lives often show unpredictable outbursts that can mimic supernovae, so-called, "SN impostors", but the distinction is not always straightforward. Here we present observations of a luminous blue variable (LBV) in NGC 2770 in outburst over more than 20 yr that experienced a possible terminal explosion as type IIn SN in 2015, named SN 2015bh. This possible SN (or "main event") had a precursor peaking 40 days before maximum. The total energy release of the main event is 1.8 × 1049 erg, consistent with a single narrow P Cygni profile during the LBV phase and a double P Cygni profile post maximum suggesting an association of the second component with the possible SN. Since 1994 the star has been redder than an LBV in an S-Dor-like outburst. SN 2015bh lies within a spiral arm of NGC 2770 next to several small star-forming regions with a metallicity of 0.5 solar and a stellar population age of 7-10 Myr. SN 2015bh shares many similarities with SN 2009ip and may form a new class of objects that exhibit outbursts a few decades prior to a "hyper eruption" or final core-collapse. If the star survives this event it is undoubtedly altered, and we suggest that these "zombie stars" may evolve from an LBV to a Wolf-Rayet star over the timescale of only a few years. The final fate of these stars can only be determined with observations a decade or more after the SN-like event.

  18. SN 2015bh: NGC 2770's 4th supernova or a luminous blue variable on its way to a Wolf-Rayet star?

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Leloudas, G; Gall, C; Cano, Z; Maeda, K; Schulze, S; Campana, S; Wiersema, K; Groh, J; de la Rosa, J; Bauer, F E; Malesani, D; Maund, J; Morrell, N; Beletsky, Y

    2016-01-01

    Very massive stars in the final phases of their lives often show unpredictable outbursts that can mimic supernovae, so-called, "SN impostors", but the distinction is not always straigthforward. Here we present observations of a luminous blue variable (LBV) in NGC 2770 in outburst over more than 20 years that experienced a possible terminal explosion as type IIn SN in 2015, named SN 2015bh. This possible SN or "main event" was preceded by a precursor peaking $\\sim$ 40 days before maximum. The total energy release of the main event is $\\sim$1.8$\\times$10$^{49}$ erg, which can be modeled by a $<$ 0.5 M$_\\odot$ shell plunging into a dense CSM. All emission lines show a single narrow P-Cygni profile during the LBV phase and a double P-Cygni profile post maximum suggesting an association of this second component with the possible SN. Since 1994 the star has been redder than during a typical S-Dor like outburst. SN 2015bh lies within a spiral arm of NGC 2770 next to a number of small star-forming regions with a m...

  19. The Superluminous Supernova SN 2017egm in the Nearby Galaxy NGC 3191: A Metal-rich Environment Can Support a Typical SLSN Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Matt; Berger, Edo; Margutti, Raffaella; Blanchard, Peter K.; Guillochon, James; Leja, Joel; Chornock, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    At redshift z = 0.03, the recently discovered SN 2017egm is the nearest Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN) to date and first near the center of a massive spiral galaxy (NGC 3191). Using SDSS spectra of NGC 3191, we find a metallicity ˜2 {Z}⊙ at the nucleus and ˜1.3 {Z}⊙ for a star-forming region at a radial offset similar to SN 2017egm. Archival radio-to-UV photometry reveals a star formation rate of ˜15 {M}⊙ yr-1 (with ˜70% dust obscured), which can account for a Swift X-ray detection and a stellar mass of ˜ {10}10.7 {M}⊙ . We model the early UV-optical light curves with a magnetar central-engine model, using the Bayesian light curve fitting tool MOSFiT. The fits indicate an ejecta mass of 2-4 {M}⊙ , a spin period of 4-6 ms, a magnetic field of (0.7{--}1.7)× {10}14 G, and a kinetic energy of 1{--}2× {10}51 erg. These parameters are consistent with the overall distributions for SLSNe, modeled by Nicholl et al., although the derived mass and spin are toward the low end, possibly indicating an enhanced loss of mass and angular momentum before explosion. This has two implications: (i) SLSNe can occur at solar metallicity, although with a low fraction of ˜10%, and (ii) metallicity has at most a modest effect on their properties. Both conclusions are in line with results for long gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a monotonic rise gives an explosion date of MJD 57889 ± 1. However, a short-lived excess in the data relative to the best-fitting models may indicate an early-time “bump.” If confirmed, SN 2017egm would be the first SLSN with a spectrum during the bump phase; this shows the same O ii lines seen at maximum light, which may be an important clue for explaining these bumps.

  20. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  1. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Jha, S. W.; McCully, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Benetti, S. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bufano, F., E-mail: mjc@mso.anu.edu.au [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2013-06-10

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II {lambda}6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II {lambda}6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of {approx}12,000 km s{sup -1} until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v Almost-Equal-To 12,000 km s{sup -1} with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v Almost-Equal-To 31,000 km s{sup -1} two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  2. A new statistical model for Population III supernova rates: discriminating between ΛCDM and WDM cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magg, Mattis; Hartwig, Tilman; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2016-11-01

    With new observational facilities becoming available soon, discovering and characterizing supernovae from the first stars will open up alternative observational windows to the end of the cosmic dark ages. Based on a semi-analytical merger tree model of early star formation, we constrain Population III supernova rates. We find that our method reproduces the Population III supernova rates of large-scale cosmological simulations very well. Our computationally efficient model allows us to survey a large parameter space and to explore a wide range of different scenarios for Population III star formation. Our calculations show that observations of the first supernovae can be used to differentiate between cold and warm dark matter models and to constrain the corresponding particle mass of the latter. Our predictions can also be used to optimize survey strategies with the goal to maximize supernova detection rates.

  3. A New Statistical Model for Population III Supernova Rates: Discriminating Between $\\Lambda$CDM and WDM Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Magg, Mattis; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S; Whalen, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    With new observational facilities becoming available soon, discovering and characterising supernovae from the first stars will open up alternative observational windows to the end of the cosmic dark ages. Based on a semi-analytical merger tree model of early star formation we constrain Population III supernova rates. We find that our method reproduces the Population III supernova rates of large-scale cosmological simulations very well. Our computationally efficient model allows us to survey a large parameter space and to explore a wide range of different scenarios for Population III star formation. Our calculations show that observations of the first supernovae can be used to differentiate between cold and warm dark matter models and to constrain the corresponding particle mass of the latter. Our predictions can also be used to optimize survey strategies with the goal to maximize supernova detection rates.

  4. The nuclear starburst in Arp 299-A: from the 5.0 GHz VLBI radio light-curves to its core-collapse supernova rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Alberdi, A.

    2012-03-01

    Context. The nuclear region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299-A hosts a recent ( ≃ 10 Myr) intense burst of massive star formation that is expected to lead to numerous core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Previous VLBI observations, carried out with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5.0 GHz and with the VLBA at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz, resulted in the detection of many compact, bright, non-thermal sources in a region ≲ 150 pc in size. Aims: We aim to establish the nature of all non-thermal compact components in Arp 299-A, as well as to estimate its core-collapse supernova rate. While the majority of the compact components are expected to be young radio supernovae (RSNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs), a definitive classification is still lacking. Yet, this is very relevant for eventually establishing the CCSN rate, as well as the star formation rate, for this galaxy. Methods: We used multi-epoch EVN observations taken at 5.0 GHz to image the compact radio sources in the nuclear region of Arp 299-A with milliarcsecond resolution. We also used one single-epoch 5.0 GHz Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) observation to image the extended emission in which these compact radio sources are embedded. Results: We present the first 5.0 GHz radio light-curve (spanning ~2.5 yr) of all compact components in the nuclear starburst of Arp 299-A. Twenty-six compact sources are detected, eight of which are new objects. The properties of all detected objects are consistent with them being a mixed population of CCSNe and SNRs. We find clear evidence for at least two new CCSNe, implying a lower limit to the CCSN rate of νSN ≳ 0.80 SN/yr, indicating that the bulk of the current star formation in Arp 299-A is taking place in the innermost ~150 pc.A few more objects show variability consistent with them being recently exploded SNe, but only future observations will clarify this point. Our MERLIN observations trace a region of diffuse extended emission that

  5. On the Radio Polarization Signature of Efficient and Inefficient Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnant SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso, Estela M; Moffett, David A

    2013-01-01

    We present a radio polarization study of SN 1006, based on combined VLA and ATCA observations at 20 cm that resulted in sensitive images with an angular resolution of 10 arcsec. The fractional polarization in the two bright radio and X-ray lobes of the SNR is measured to be 0.17, while in the southeastern sector, where the radio and non-thermal X-ray emission are much weaker, the polarization fraction reaches a value of 0.6 +- 0.2, close to the theoretical limit of 0.7. We interpret this result as evidence of a disordered, turbulent magnetic field in the lobes, where particle acceleration is believed to be efficient, and a highly ordered field in the southeast, where the acceleration efficiency has been shown to be very low. Utilizing the frequency coverage of our observations, an average rotation measure of ~12 rad/m2 is determined from the combined data set, which is then used to obtain the intrinsic direction of the magnetic field vectors. While the orientation of magnetic field vectors across the SNR shel...

  6. Separating Thermal and Nonthermal X-Rays in Supernova Remnants. I. Total Fits to SN 1006 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Borkowski, K. J.; Allen, G. E.; Petre, R.

    2001-04-01

    The remnant of SN 1006 has an X-ray spectrum dominated by nonthermal emission, and pre-ASCA observations were well described by a synchrotron calculation with electron energies limited by escape. We describe the results of a much more stringent test: fitting spatially integrated ASCA GIS (0.6-8 keV) and RXTE PCA (3-10 keV) data with a combination of the synchrotron model SRESC newly ported to XSPEC and a new thermal shock model VPSHOCK. The new model can describe the continuum emission above 2 keV well, in both spatial distribution and spectrum. We find that the emission is dominantly nonthermal, with a small but noticeable thermal component: Mg and Si are clearly visible in the integrated spectrum. The synchrotron component rolls off smoothly from the extrapolated radio spectrum, with a characteristic rolloff frequency of 3.1×1017 Hz, at which the spectrum has dropped about a factor of 6 below a power-law extrapolation from the radio spectrum. Comparison of TeV observations with new TeV model images and spectra based on the X-ray model fits gives a mean postshock magnetic field strength of about 9 μG, implying (for a compression ratio of 4) an upstream magnetic field of 3 μG, and fixing the current energy content in relativistic electrons at about 7×1048 ergs, resulting in a current electron-acceleration efficiency of about 5%. This total energy is about 100 times the energy in the magnetic field. The X-ray fit also implies that electrons escape ahead of the shock above an energy of about 30 TeV. This escape could result from an absence of scattering magnetohydrodynamic waves above a wavelength of about 1017 cm. Our results indicate that joint thermal and nonthermal fitting, using sophisticated models, will be required for analysis of most supernova-remnant X-ray data in the future.

  7. Effects of stellar rotation on star formation rates and comparison to core-collapse supernova rates

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bothwell, Matt S; Thompson, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rate (SFR) calibrations in light of recent developments in the modeling of stellar rotation. Using new published non-rotating and rotating stellar tracks, we study the integrated properties of synthetic stellar populations and find that the UV to SFR calibration for the rotating stellar population is 30% smaller than for the non-rotating stellar population, and 40% smaller for the Halpha to SFR calibration. These reductions translate to smaller SFR estimates made from observed UV and Halpha luminosities. Using the UV and Halpha fluxes of a sample of ~300 local galaxies, we derive a total (i.e., sky-coverage corrected) SFR within 11 Mpc of 120-170 Msun/yr and 80-130 Msun/yr for the non-rotating and rotating estimators, respectively. Independently, the number of core-collapse supernovae discovered in the same volume requires a total SFR of 270^{+110}_{-80} Msun/yr, suggesting a mild tension with the SFR estimates made with rotating calibrations. More generally, when compared with t...

  8. Analysis of the flux and polarization spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2001el: Exploring the geometry of the high-velocity Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Howell, D.A.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoeflich, Peter; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P.H.

    2003-01-15

    SN 2001el is the first normal Type Ia supernova to show a strong, intrinsic polarization signal. In addition, during the epochs prior to maximum light, the CaII IR triplet absorption is seen distinctly and separately at both normal photospheric velocities and at very high velocities. The unusual, high-velocity triplet absorption is highly polarized, with a different polarization angle than the rest of the spectrum. The unique observation allows us to construct a relatively detailed picture of the layered geometrical structure of the supernova ejecta: in our interpretation, the ejecta layers near the photosphere (v approximately 10,000 km/s) obey a near axial symmetry, while a detached, high-velocity structure (v approximately 18,000-25,000 $ km/s) of CaII line opacity deviates from the photospheric axisymmetry. By partially obscuring the underlying photosphere, the high-velocity structure causes a more incomplete cancellation of the polarization of the photospheric light, and so gives rise to the polarization peak of the high-velocity IR triplet feature. In an effort to constrain the ejecta geometry, we develop a technique for calculating 3-D synthetic polarization spectra and use it to generate polarization profiles for several parameterized configurations. In particular, we examine the case where the inner ejecta layers are ellipsoidal and the outer, high-velocity structure is one of four possibilities: a spherical shell, an ellipsoidal shell, a clumped shell, or a toroid. The synthetic spectra rule out the clearly discriminated if observations are obtained from several different lines of sight. Thus, assuming the high velocity structure observed for SN 2001el is a consistent feature of at least known subset of type Ia supernovae, future observations and analyses such as these may allow one to put strong constraints on the ejecta geometry and hence on supernova progenitors and explosion mechanisms.

  9. Constraining spacetime variations of nuclear decay rates from light curves of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Karpikov, Ivan; Troitsky, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The luminosity of fading type Ia supernovae is governed by radioactive decays of 56Ni and 56Co. The decay rates are proportional to the Fermi coupling constant G_F and, therefore, are determined by the vacuum expectation value v of the Brout--Englert--Higgs field. We use the publicly available SNLS and UNION2.1 sets of light curves of type Ia supernova at various redshifts to constrain possible spacetime variations of the 56Ni decay rate. The resulting constraint is not very tight; however, it is the only direct bound on the variation of the decay rate for redshifts up to z~1. We discuss potential applications of the result to searches for non-constancy of G_F and v.

  10. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A1689

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushevska, Tanja; Goobar, Ariel; Fabbro, Sebastien; Johansson, Joel; Kjellsson, Tor; Lidman, Chris; Paech, Kerstin; Richard, Johan; Dahle, Hakon; Ferretti, Raphael; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Limousin, Marceau; Nordin, Jakob; Stanishev, Vallery

    2016-01-01

    We present a ground-based near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z=0.18, one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Our survey was based on multi-epoch $J$-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Our search resulted in the discovery of five high-redshift, $0.671supernovae with magnifications in the range $\\Delta m$ = $-0.31$ to $-1.58$ mag, as calculated from lensing models in the literature. Thanks to the power of the lensing cluster, the survey had the sensitivity to detect supernovae up to very high-redshifts, $z$$\\sim$$3$, albeit for a limited region of space. We present a study of the core-collapse supernova rates for $0.4\\leq z< 2.9$, and find good agreement with both previous estimates, and the predictions from the star formation history. During our survey, we also discovered 2 type Ia supernov...

  11. The Extended HST Supernova Survey: The Rate of SNe Ia at z>1.4 Remains Low

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G

    2008-01-01

    We use the HST ACS imaging of the two GOODS fields during Cycles 11, 12, and 13 to derive the Type Ia supernova rate in four redshift intervals in the range 0.21.4 supports our previous result that there is a drop in the Type Ia supernova rate at high redshift, suggesting a long time delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. If described by a simple one-parameter model, we find a characteristic delay time of 2-3 Gyr. However, a number of recent results based on e.g., low redshift supernova samples and supernova host galaxy properties suggest that the supernova delay time distribution is bimodal. In this model, a major fraction of the Type Ia supernova rate is 'prompt' and follows the star formation rate, while a smaller fraction of the rate has a long delay time, making this channel proportional to mass. While our results are fully consistent with the bimodal model at low redshifts, the low rate we find at z>1.4 appears to contradict these results. Models that corr...

  12. Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Type Ia Supernovae 1991T, 1991bg, 1999ek, 2001bt, 2001cn, 2001cz, and 2002bo

    CERN Document Server

    Krisciunas, K; Phillips, M M; Candia, P; Prieto, J L; Antezana, R; Chassagne, R; Chen, H W; Dickinson, M; Eisenhardt, P R M; Espinoza, J; Garnavich, P M; González, D; Harrison, T E; Hamuy, M; Ivanov, V D; Krzeminski, W; Kulesa, C; McCarthy, P; Moro-Martin, A; Muena, C; Noriega-Crespo, A; Persson, S E; Pinto, P A; Roth, M; Rubenstein, E P; Stanford, S A; Stringfellow, G B; Zapata, A; Porter, A; Wischnjewsky, M; Krisciunas, Kevin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Phillips, Mark M.; Candia, Pablo; Prieto, Jose Luis; Porter, Alain; Wischnjewsky, Marina

    2004-01-01

    We present optical and/or infrared photometry of the Type Ia supernovae SN 1991T, SN 1991bg, SN 1999ek, SN 2001bt, SN 2001cn, SN 2001cz, and SN 2002bo. All but one of these supernovae have decline rate parameters Delta m_15(B) close to the median value of 1.1 for the whole class of Type Ia supernovae. The addition of these supernovae to the relationship between the near-infrared absolute magnitudes and Delta m_15(B) strengthens the previous relationships we have found, in that the maximum light absolute magnitudes are essentially independent of the decline rate parameter. (SN 1991bg, the prototype of the subclass of fast declining Type Ia supernovae, is a special case.) The dispersion in the Hubble diagram in JHK is only ~0.15 mag. The near-infrared properties of Type Ia supernovae continue to be excellent measures of the luminosity distances to the supernova host galaxies, due to the need for only small corrections from the epoch of observation to maximum light, low dispersion in absolute magnitudes at maxim...

  13. Upper limits on the luminosity of the progenitor of type Ia supernova SN2014J

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. T. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray source progenitor with a photospheric radius comparable to the radius of white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass (~1.38 M_sun) and mass accretion rate in the interval where stable nuclear burning can occur. However, due to a relatively large hydrogen column density implied by optical...

  14. Supernovae in the Subaru Deep Field: An Initial Sample, and Type Ia Rate, out to Redshift 1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Poznanski, Dovi; Yasuda, Naoki; Foley, Ryan J; Doi, Mamoru; Filippenko, Alexei V; Fukugita, Masataka; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Jannuzi, Buell T; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oda, Takeshi; Schweiker, Heidi; Sharon, Keren; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Totani, Tomonori

    2007-01-01

    Large samples of high-redshift supernovae (SNe) are potentially powerful probes of cosmic star formation, metal enrichment, and SN physics. We present initial results from a new deep SN survey, based on re-imaging in the R, i', z' bands, of the 0.25 deg2 Subaru Deep Field (SDF), with the 8.2-m Subaru telescope and Suprime-Cam. In a single new epoch consisting of two nights of observations, we have discovered 33 SNe, down to a z'-band magnitude of 26.3 (AB). We have measured the photometric redshifts of the SN host galaxies, obtained Keck spectroscopic redshifts for 17 of the host galaxies, and classified the SNe using the Bayesian photometric algorithm of Poznanski et al. (2007) that relies on template matching. After correcting for biases in the classification, 55% of our sample consists of Type Ia supernovae and 45% of core-collapse SNe. The redshift distribution of the SNe Ia reaches z ~ 1.6, with a median of z ~ 1.2. The core-collapse SNe reach z ~ 1.0, with a median of z ~ 0.5. Our SN sample is comparabl...

  15. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v approx. 20,000 km s(exp. -1) that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v approx. greater than 27,000 km s(exp. -1)). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Solar mass, a kinetic energy of 1.0×1052 erg, and a (56)Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Solar mass. Nebular spectra (t > 200 d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN2012ap joins SN2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black-hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable properties including above-average environmental metallicities of Z approx. greater than Solar Z, moderate to high levels of host-galaxy extinction (E(B -V ) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] > 1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  16. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Maeda, K. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Pickering, T. E. [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Kawabata, K. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsiao, E. Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  17. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, H.; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J. P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.18, which is one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Methods: Our survey was based on multi-epoch J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results: Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae with high redshifts of 0.671 formula>math id="mml_eq2" type="inline">10-12 SNe L⊙,B-1 yr-1math>formula->), where the error bars indicate 1σ confidence intervals, statistical and systematic, respectively. The cluster rate normalized by the stellar mass is 0.10+0.13-0.096±0.02 in SNuM h2 (SNuM ≡10-12SNe M-1⊙ yr-1). Furthermore, we explore the optimal future survey for improving the core-collapse supernova rate measurements at z ≳ 2 using gravitational telescopes, and for detections with multiply lensed images, and we find that the planned WFIRST space mission has excellent prospects. Conclusions: Massive clusters can be used as gravitational telescopes to significantly expand the survey range of supernova searches, with important implications for the study of the high-z transient Universe. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 082.A-0431; 0.83.A-0398, 091.A-0108 and ID 093.A-0278, PI: A. Goobar.The deep average image (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A54

  18. SN 2009js at the crossroads between normal and subluminous Type IIP supernovae: optical and mid-infrared evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, T; Kawabata, K S; Saviane, I; Maeda, K; Moriya, T J; Hattori, T; Sasada, M; Itoh, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of SN 2009js in NGC 918. Multi-band Kanata optical photometry covering the first ~120 days show the source to be a Type IIP SN. Reddening is dominated by that due to our Galaxy. One-year-post-explosion photometry with the NTT, and a Subaru optical spectrum 16 days post-discovery, both imply a good match with the well-studied subluminous SN 2005cs. The plateau phase luminosity of SN 2009js and its plateau duration are more similar to the intermediate luminosity IIP SN 2008in. Thus, SN 2009js shares characteristics with both subluminous and intermediate luminosity SNe. Its radioactive tail luminosity lies between SN 2005cs and SN 2008in, whereas its quasi-bolometric luminosity decline from peak to plateau (quantified by a newly-defined parameter Delta[logL] measuring adiabatic cooling following shock breakout) is much smaller than both the others. We estimate the ejected mass of 56Ni to be low (~0.007 Msun). The SN explosion energy appears to have been small, similar to SN 2005cs. SN 2009js i...

  19. Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    We have publicly released a blinded mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ib, Ic, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation is realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). We challenge scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type for each SN. A spectroscopically confirmed subset is provided for training. The goals of this challenge are to (1) learn the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different classification algorithms, (2) use the results to improve classification algorithms, and (3) understand what spectroscopically confirmed sub-...

  20. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, N; Connolly, B; Kim, A G; Pain, R; Roe, N A; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Dawson, K; Doi, M; Fadeev, V; Fruchter, A S; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Gude, A; Knop, R A; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Morokuma, T; Meyers, J; Perlmutter, S; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanishev, V; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Wang, L; Yasuda, N

    2007-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of pos...

  1. Constraints from $^{26}Al$ Measurements on the Galaxy's Recent Global Star Formation Rate and Core Collapse Supernovae Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Timmes, F X; Hartmann, D H

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-rays from the decay of $^{26}$Al offer a stringent constraint on the Galaxy's global star formation rate over the past million years, supplementing other methods for quantifying the recent Galactic star formation rate, such as equivalent widths of H$\\alpha$ emission. Advantages and disadvantages of using $^{26}$Al gamma-ray measurements as a tracer of the massive star formation rate are analyzed. Estimates of the Galactic $^{26}$Al mass derived from COMPTEL measurements are coupled with a simple, analytical model of the $^{26}$Al injection rate from massive stars and restrict the Galaxy's recent star formation rate to \\hbox{5 $\\pm$ 4 M\\sun yr$^{-1}$}. In addition, we show that the derived $^{26}$Al mass implies a present day \\hbox{Type II + Ib} supernovae rate of 3.4 $\\pm$ 2.8 per century, which seems consistent with other independent estimates of the Galactic core collapse supernova rate. If some independent measure of the massive star initial mass function or star formation rate or \\hbox{Type II + Ib}...

  2. A Decade of SN1993J: Discovery of Wavelength Effects in the Expansion Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Marcaide, J M; Alberdi, A; Pérez-Torres, M A; Ros, E; Diamond, P J; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Shapiro, I I; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W; Mantovani, F; Preston, R A; Schilizzi, R T; Sramek, R A; Trigilio, C; Van Dyk, S D; Whitney, A R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the growth of the shell-like radio structure of supernova SN1993J in M81 from September 1993 through October 2003 with very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at the wavelengths of 3.6, 6, and 18cm. For this purpose, we have developed a method to accurately determine the outer radius (R) of any circularly symmetric compact radio structure like SN1993J. The source structure of SN1993J remains circularly symmetric (with deviations from circularity under 2%) over almost 4000 days. We characterize the decelerated expansion of SN 1993J through approximately day 1500 after explosion with an expansion parameter $m= 0.845\\pm0.005$ ($R \\propto t^{m}$). However, from that day onwards the expansion is different when observed at 6 and 18cm. Indeed, at 18cm, the expansion can be well characterized by the same $m$ as before day 1500, while at 6cm the expansion appears more decelerated, and is characterized by another expansion parameter, $m_{6}= 0.788\\pm0.015$. Therefore, since about day 1500 ...

  3. Spectroscopic Observations of SN 2012fr: A Luminous Normal Type Ia Supernova with Early High Velocity Features and Late Velocity Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Sim, S A; Tucker, B E; Yuan, F; Schmidt, B P; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Contreras, C; Hsiao, E Y; Phillips, M; Morrell, N; Jha, S W; McCully, C; Filippenko, A V; Anderson, J P; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; de Jaeger, T; Forster, F; Gal-Yam, A; Guillou, L Le; Maguire, K; Maund, J; Mazzali, P A; Pignata, G; Smartt, S; Spyromilio, J; Sullivan, M; Taddia, F; Valenti, S; Bayliss, D D R; Bessell, M; Blanc, G A; Carson, D J; Clubb, K I; de Burgh-Day, C; Desjardins, T D; Fang, J J; Fox, O D; Gates, E L; Ho, I-T; Keller, S; Kelly, P L; Lidman, C; Loaring, N S; Mould, J R; Owers, M; Ozbilgen, S; Pei, L; Pickering, T; Pracy, M B; Rich, J A; Schaefer, B E; Scott, N; Stritzinger, M; Vogt, F P A; Zhou, G

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012fr, of which 33 were obtained before maximum light. At early times SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II 6355 line which can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II 6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of v~12,000 km/s until at least 5 weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared (IR) triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v~12,000 km/s with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as a high-velocity component beginning at v~31,000 km/s two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the "shallow silicon" and "core-normal" subclasses in the Branch et al. (2009) classification scheme, and on the border between normal and "high-velocity" SNe Ia in the Wang et al. (2009a) system. Though it is a ...

  4. Coronal lines and dust formation in SN 2005ip: Not the brightest, but the hottest Type IIn supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Weidong; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Foley, Ryan J; Rex, Jacob; Steele, Thea N

    2008-01-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of SN2005ip for the first 3yr after discovery, showing an underlying Type II-L SN interacting with a steady wind to yield an unusual Type IIn spectrum. For the first 160d, it had a fast linear decline from a modest peak absolute magnitude of about -17.4 (unfiltered), followed by a plateau at roughly -14.8 mag for more than 2yr. Initially having a normal broad-lined spectrum superposed with sparse narrow lines from the photoionized circumstellar medium (CSM), it quickly developed signs of strong CSM interaction with a spectrum similar to that of SN1988Z. As the underlying SN II-L faded, SN2005ip exhibited a rich high-ionization spectrum with a dense forest of narrow coronal lines, unprecedented among SNe but reminiscent of some active galactic nuclei. The line-profile evolution of SN 2005ip confirms that dust formation caused its recently reported infrared excess, but these lines reveal that it is the first SN to show clear evidence for dust in both the fast SN ej...

  5. The rates and time-delay distribution of multiply imaged supernovae behind lensing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Richard, Johan, E-mail: lixue@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: johan.richard@univ-lyon1.fr [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France)

    2012-11-01

    Time delays of gravitationally lensed sources can be used to constrain the mass model of a deflector and determine cosmological parameters. We here present an analysis of the time-delay distribution of multiply imaged sources behind 17 strong lensing galaxy clusters with well-calibrated mass models. We find that for time delays less than 1000 days, at z = 3.0, their logarithmic probability distribution functions are well represented by P(log Δt) = 5.3 × 10{sup −4}Δt{sup β-tilde}/M{sub 250}{sup 2β-tilde}, with β-tilde = 0.77, where M{sub 250} is the projected cluster mass inside 250 kpc (in 10{sup 14}M{sub ☉}), and β-tilde is the power-law slope of the distribution. The resultant probability distribution function enables us to estimate the time-delay distribution in a lensing cluster of known mass. For a cluster with M{sub 250} = 2 × 10{sup 14}M{sub ☉}, the fraction of time delays less than 1000 days is approximately 3%. Taking Abell 1689 as an example, its dark halo and brightest galaxies, with central velocity dispersions σ≥500kms{sup −1}, mainly produce large time delays, while galaxy-scale mass clumps are responsible for generating smaller time delays. We estimate the probability of observing multiple images of a supernova in the known images of Abell 1689. A two-component model of estimating the supernova rate is applied in this work. For a magnitude threshold of m{sub AB} = 26.5, the yearly rate of Type Ia (core-collapse) supernovae with time delays less than 1000 days is 0.004±0.002 (0.029±0.001). If the magnitude threshold is lowered to m{sub AB} ∼ 27.0, the rate of core-collapse supernovae suitable for time delay observation is 0.044±0.015 per year.

  6. Constraints on neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and Supernova neutrino fluxes from the LSD neutrino signal from SN1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Lychkovskiy, O

    2006-01-01

    Detection of 5 events by the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) on February, 23, 1987 was recently interpreted as a detection of the electron neutrino flux from the first stage of the two-stage Supernova collapse. We show that, if neutrino mass hierarchy is normal, such interpretation excludes values of neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13} larger than 3\\cdot 10^{-2}, independently of the particular Supernova collapse model. Also constraints on the original fluxes of neutrinos and antineutrinos of different flavours are obtained.

  7. Intermediate-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Zhang, T; Li, Z; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Li, Zongwei

    2004-01-01

    We present optical light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (2002er, 2002fk, 2003cg, 2003du, 2003fk). The photometric observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters. SNe 2002er, 2003du appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar light curve shapes, while SN 2003kf shows the behavior of a brighter SN Ia with slower decline rate after maximum. The light curves of SN 2003cg is unusual; they show a fast rise and dramatic decline near maximum and do not display secondary peak at longer wavelengths during 15-30 days after maximum light. This suggests that SN 2003cg is likely to be an intrinsically subluminous, 91bg-like SN Ia. Exploration of SN Ia feature lines through intermediate-band photometry is briefly discussed.

  8. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-ray Burst Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Parrent, J T; Soderberg, A M; Fesen, R A; Mazzali, P; Maeda, K; Sanders, N E; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Filippenko, A V; Kamble, A; Chakraborti, S; Drout, M R; Kirshner, R P; Pickering, T E; Kawabata, K; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E Y; Stritzinger, M D; Marion, G H; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of 20,000 km/s that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (> 27,000 km/s). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Msolar, a kinetic energy of 1.0x10^{52} erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Msolar. Nebular spectra (t > 200d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [OI] 6300,6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an al...

  9. Expanding molecular bubble surrounding Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572) observed with IRAM 30 m telescope: evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Whether the progenitors of Type-Ia Supernovae, single degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems, is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of the Type Ia Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J=1-0 mapping and a 3-mm line survey towards the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at the local standard of rest velocity $\\sim 61$ km s$^{-1}$ which expands at a speed $\\sim 4.5$ km s$^{-1}$ and has a mass of $\\sim 220$ $M_\\odot$ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J=2-1 line emission relative to 12CO J=1-0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range -64-- -60 km s$^{-1}$) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at velocity range -66-- -57 km s$^{-1}$. The most plau...

  10. Supernova 2013by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valenti, S.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present multiband ultraviolet and optical light curves, as well as visual-wavelength and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type II linear (IIL) supernova (SN) 2013by. We show that SN 2013by and other SNe IIL in the literature, after their linear decline phase that start after maximum, have...

  11. A luminous, blue progenitor system for the type Iax supernova 2012Z.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W; Foley, Ryan J; Bildsten, Lars; Fong, Wen-fai; Kirshner, Robert P; Marion, G H; Riess, Adam G; Stritzinger, Maximilian D

    2014-08-07

    Type Iax supernovae are stellar explosions that are spectroscopically similar to some type Ia supernovae at the time of maximum light emission, except with lower ejecta velocities. They are also distinguished by lower luminosities. At late times, their spectroscopic properties diverge from those of other supernovae, but their composition (dominated by iron-group and intermediate-mass elements) suggests a physical connection to normal type Ia supernovae. Supernovae of type Iax are not rare; they occur at a rate between 5 and 30 per cent of the normal type Ia rate. The leading models for type Iax supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that do not completely unbind the star, implying that they are 'less successful' versions of normal type Ia supernovae, where complete stellar disruption is observed. Here we report the detection of the luminous, blue progenitor system of the type Iax SN 2012Z in deep pre-explosion imaging. The progenitor system's luminosity, colours, environment and similarity to the progenitor of the Galactic helium nova V445 Puppis suggest that SN 2012Z was the explosion of a white dwarf accreting material from a helium-star companion. Observations over the next few years, after SN 2012Z has faded, will either confirm this hypothesis or perhaps show that this supernova was actually the explosive death of a massive star.

  12. Atomic and molecular supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.

    1997-12-01

    Atomic and molecular physics of supernovae is discussed with an emphasis on the importance of detailed treatments of the critical atomic and molecular processes with the best available atomic and molecular data. The observations of molecules in SN 1987A are interpreted through a combination of spectral and chemical modelings, leading to strong constraints on the mixing and nucleosynthesis of the supernova. The non-equilibrium chemistry is used to argue that carbon dust can form in the oxygen-rich clumps where the efficient molecular cooling makes the nucleation of dust grains possible. For Type Ia supernovae, the analyses of their nebular spectra lead to strong constraints on the supernova explosion models.

  13. ON THE RATES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN DWARF AND GIANT HOSTS WITH ROTSE-IIIb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quimby, Robert M. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yuan Fang [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Akerlof, Carl [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wheeler, J. Craig [Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Warren, Michael S. [Theoretical Division, Mail Stop B227, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present a sample of 23 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were discovered in the background of galaxy clusters targeted by ROTSE-IIIb and use up to 18 of these to determine the local (z-bar 0.05) volumetric rate. Since our survey is flux limited and thus biased against fainter objects, the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribution (pAMD) of SNe Ia in a given volume is an important concern, especially the relative frequency of high- to low-luminosity SNe Ia. We find that the pAMD derived from the volume-limited Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) sample is incompatible with the distribution of SNe Ia in a volume-limited (z < 0.12) sub-sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II). The LOSS sample requires far more low-luminosity SNe Ia than the SDSS-II can accommodate. Even though LOSS and SDSS-II have sampled different SNe Ia populations, their volumetric rates are surprisingly similar. Using the same model pAMD adopted in the SDSS-II SNe Ia rate calculation and excluding two high-luminosity SNe Ia from our sample, we derive a rate that is marginally higher than previous low-redshift determinations. With our full sample and the LOSS pAMD, our rate is more than double the canonical value. We also find that 5 of our 18 SNe Ia are hosted by very low luminosity (M{sub B} > -16) galaxies, whereas only 1 out of 79 nearby SDSS-II SNe Ia have such faint hosts. It is possible that previous works have undercounted either low-luminosity SNe Ia, SNe Ia in low-luminosity hosts, or peculiar SNe Ia (sometimes explicitly), and the total SNe Ia rate may be higher than the canonical value.

  14. The Reddening-Free Decline Rate Versus Luminosity Relationship for Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, N B; Schommer, R A; Hamuy, M; Maza, J

    1999-01-01

    We develop a method for estimating the host galaxy dust extinction for type Ia supernovae based on an observational coincidence first noted by Lira (1995), who found that the B-V evolution during the period from 30-90 days after V maximum is remarkably similar for all events, regardless of light curve shape. This fact is used to calibrate the dependence of the B(max)-V(max) and V(max)-I(max) colors on the light curve decline rate parameter delta-m15, which can, in turn, be used to separately estimate the host galaxy extinction. Using these methods to eliminate the effects of reddening, we reexamine the functional form of the decline rate versus luminosity relationship and provide an updated estimate of the Hubble constant of Ho = 63.3 +- 2.2(internal) +- 3.5(external) km/s/Mpc.

  15. Updated Physical Parameters of SN 2012cg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. H.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Mandel, K.; Meyer, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Foley, R. J.; Friedman, A.; Irwin, J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Rines, K.; Wilhelmy, S.; Macri, L.

    2012-06-01

    The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Supernova Group reports photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012cg (ATEL #4115, #4159). We find that SN 2012cg has a slow decline rate and low expansion velocities. BayeSN fits to the data show that SN 2012cg has significant dust extinction (A_v ~ 0.67 mag). We find R_v = 2.7 +/- 0.5, which is consistent with the Milky Way value of 3.1 and mildly inconsistent with the extremely low values reported for some highly reddened SN (e.g., R_v = 1.59 +/- 0.07 for SN 2002cv; Elias-Rosa et al.

  16. A High-Resolution X-Ray and Optical Study of SN1006: Asymmetric Expansion and Small-Scale Structure in a Type Ia Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Brian J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a deep (670 ks) X-ray survey of the entire SN 1006 remnant from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, together with a deep Ha image of SN 1006 from the 4 m Blanco telescope at CTIO. Comparison with Chandra images from 2003 gives the first measurement of the X-ray proper motions around the entire periphery, carried out over a 9 yr baseline. We find that the expansion velocity varies significantly with azimuth. The highest velocity of approx.7400 km/s (almost 2.5 times that in the northwest (NW)) is found along the southeast (SE) periphery, where both the kinematics and the spectra indicate that most of the X-ray emission stems from ejecta that have been decelerated little, if at all. Asymmetries in the distribution of ejecta are seen on a variety of spatial scales. Si-rich ejecta are especially prominent in the SE quadrant, while O and Mg are more uniformly distributed, indicating large-scale asymmetries arising from the explosion itself. Neon emission is strongest in a sharp filament just behind the primary shock along the NWrim, where the pre-shock density is highest. Here the Ne is likely interstellar, while Ne within the shell may include a contribution from ejecta. Within the interior of the projected shell we find a few isolated "bullets" of what appear to be supernova ejecta that are immediately preceded by bowshocks seen in Ha, features that we interpret as ejecta knots that have reached relatively dense regions of the surrounding interstellar medium, but that appear in the interior in projection. Recent three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for Type Ia supernovae display small-scale features that strongly resemble the ones seen in X-rays in SN 1006; an origin in the explosion itself or from subsequent hydrodynamic instabilities both remain viable options. We have expanded the search for precursor X-ray emission ahead of a synchrotron-dominated shock front, as expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, to numerous regions along both the

  17. The Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Wood-Vasey, W M; Lee Byung Cheol; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Perlmutter, S; Siegrist, J L; Wang, L; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Hardin, D; Pain, R; Copin, Y; Smadja, G; Gangler, E; Castera, A; Adam, G; Bacon, R; Lemonnier, J P; Pecontal, A; Pécontal, E; Kessler, R

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) at redshifts 0.03SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ~12 SNe/month in 2003.

  18. Constraints on Type IIn Supernova Progenitor Outbursts from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search

    CERN Document Server

    Bilinski, Christopher; Li, Weidong; Williams, G Grant; Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2015-01-01

    We searched through roughly 12 years of archival survey data acquired by the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) as part of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) in order to detect or place limits on possible progenitor outbursts of Type IIn supernovae (SNe~IIn). The KAIT database contains multiple pre-SN images for 5 SNe~IIn (plus one ambiguous case of a SN IIn/imposter) within 50 Mpc. No progenitor outbursts are found using the false discovery rate (FDR) statistical method in any of our targets. Instead, we derive limiting magnitudes (LMs) at the locations of the SNe. These limiting magnitudes (typically reaching $m_R \\approx 19.5\\,\\mathrm{mag}$) are compared to outbursts of SN 2009ip and $\\eta$ Car, plus additional simulated outbursts. We find that the data for SN 1999el and SN 2003dv are of sufficient quality to rule out events $\\sim40$ days before the main peak caused by initially faint SNe from blue supergiant (BSG) precursor stars, as in the cases of SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc. These SNe~IIn...

  19. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  20. The Beijing Astronomical Observatory supernova survey (Ⅱ)——Results in 1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 裘予雷; 乔琪源; 胡景耀; 李启斌

    1999-01-01

    Six supernovae (SNe) discovered in 1996 by the Beijing Astronomical Observatory Supernova (SN) Survey (BAOSS) are reported. SN 1996W, the first supernova discovered by the survey, has been monitored photometrically and spectroscopically for a long time. The spectra and photometry showed that it was a typical type Ⅱ-P supernova. SN 1996cb, the sixth SN discovered in 1996 and a peculiar one like SN 1993J, has also been observed intensively for a long time.

  1. Tycho Brahe's Supernova: Light from Centuries Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

    2004-09-01

    The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572-1574 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that within the SN Ia family, the event should have been an SN Ia with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being s~0.9. The visual light curve near maximum, late-time decline, and color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova as observed at maximum is found to be MV=-19.24-5log(D/3.0kpc)+/-0.42. From stretch fitting of the overall light curve, the maximum in V would imply a luminosity difference of +0.17+/-0.1 mag, with the maximum brightness of an s=1 SN Ia. The quantity MV is consistent with a distance of 2.8+/-0.4 kpc for the scale of H0=65 km s-1 Mpc-1.

  2. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Longitudinal Modulus of Cu3Sn Phase of Ag-Sn-Cu Amalgam Alloy (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Rusli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cooling rate (at the time of solidification on the elastic constants of Cu3Sn phase of Ag-Sn-Cu dental amalgam alloy were studied. In this study, three types of alloys were made, with the composition Cu-38-37 wt% Sn by means of casting, where each alloy was subjected to different cooling rate, such as cooling on the air (AC, air blown (AB, and quenched in the water (WQ. X-ray diffraction, metallography, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy studies of three alloys indicated the existence of Cu3Sn phase. Determination of the modulus of elasticity of Cu3Sn (ε phase was carried out by the measurement of longitudinal and transversal waves velocity using ultrasonic technique. The result shows that Cu3Sn (ε phase on AC gives higher modulus of elasticity values than those of Cu3Sn (ε on AB and WQ. The high modulus of elasticity value will produce a strong Ag-Sn-Cu dental amalagam alloy.

  3. Type IIb Supernova SN 2011dh: Spectra and Photometry from the Ultraviolet to the Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, G H "Howie''; Kirshner, Robert P; Foley, Ryan J; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Bloom, Joshua S; Calkins, Michael L; Challis, Peter; Chevalier, Roger A; Chornock, Ryan; Culliton, Chris; Curtis, Jason L; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Everett, Mark E; Falco, Emilio E; France, Kevin; Fransson, Claes; Friedman, Andrew S; Garnavich, Peter; Leibundgut, Bruno; Meyer, Samuel; Smith, Nathan; Soderberg, Alicia M; Sollerman, Jesper; Starr, Dan L; Szklenar, Tamas; Takats, Katalin; Wheeler, J Craig

    2013-01-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). These data cover a wide wavelength range from 2000 Angstroms in the ultraviolet (UV) to 2.4 microns in the near-infrared (NIR). NIR spectra reveal helium in the atmosphere 3 days before the B-band maximum and confirm the classification of SN 2011dh as a Type IIb. Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of H I, He I, Ca II and Fe II. UV spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. H I features are strong early and weaken during the period of our observations. He I features are first detected eleven days after the explosion and become progressively stronger. For all phases at which He is detected, the hydrogen line-forming region is separated from the helium layer by about 4000 km/s. This velocity gap is consistent with a H-rich shell surroun...

  4. SALT spectroscopic classification of DLT17ch (= SN 2017gax) as a type-Ib/c supernova before maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Camacho, Y.; Dettman, K.; Sand, D.; Wyatt, S.; Tartaglia, L.; Valenti, S.; Miszalski, B.

    2017-08-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of DLT17ch (= SN 2017gax; ATel #10638) on 2017 Aug 15.1 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. The spectrum shows a blue continuum with well-developed, broad absorption features.

  5. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) as a type-Ia supernova near maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kuhn, R.

    2017-01-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017lm (= ATLAS17aix) on 2017 Jan 19.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-930 nm. The longslit was also placed through the host galaxy nucleus, and numerous emission lines yield a host redshift z = 0.03052.

  6. X-Ray Synchrotron Emission from 10-100 TeV Cosmic-Ray Electrons in the Supernova Remnant SN 1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. E.; Petre, R.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2001-09-01

    We present the results of a joint spectral analysis of RXTE PCA, ASCA SIS, and ROSAT PSPC data of the supernova remnant SN 1006. This work represents the first attempt to model both the thermal and nonthermal X-ray emission over the entire X-ray energy band from 0.12 to 17 keV. The thermal flux is described by a nonequilibrium ionization model with an electron temperature kTe=0.6 keV, an ionization timescale n0t=9×109 cm-3 s, and a relative elemental abundance of silicon that is 10-18 times larger than the solar abundance. The nonthermal X-ray spectrum is described by a broken power law model with low- and high-energy photon indices Γ1=2.1 and Γ2=3.0, respectively. Since the nonthermal X-ray spectrum steepens with increasing energy, the results of the present analysis corroborate previous claims that the nonthermal X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation. We argue that the magnetic field strength is significantly larger than previous estimates of about 10 μG and arbitrarily use a value of 40 μG to estimate the parameters of the cosmic-ray electron, proton, and helium spectra of the remnant. The results for the ratio of the number densities of protons and electrons (R=160 at 1 GeV), the total energy in cosmic rays (Ecr=1×1050 ergs), and the spectral index of the electrons at 1 GeV (Γe=2.14+/-0.12) are consistent with the hypothesis that Galactic cosmic rays are accelerated predominantly in the shocks of supernova remnants. Yet, the remnant may or may not accelerate nuclei to energies as high as the energy of the ``knee,'' depending on the reason why the maximum energy of the electrons is only 10 TeV.

  7. Supernova Feedback and Multiphase Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Without feedback, galaxies in cosmological simulations fail to generate outflows and tend to be too massive and too centrally concentrated, in contrast to the prominent disks observed ubiquitously in our universe. The nature of supernova (SN) feedback remains, however, highly uncertain, and most galaxy simulations so far adopt ad hoc models. Here we perform parsec-resolution simulations of a patch of the interstellar medium (ISM), and show that the unresolved multiphase gas in cosmological simulations can greatly affect the SN feedback by allowing blastwaves to travel in-between the clouds. We also show how ISM clumping varies with the mean gas density and SN rate encountered in real galactic environments. We emphasize that the inhomogeneity of the ISM must be considered in coarse-resolution simulations. We discuss how the gas pressure maintained by SN explosions can help to launch the galactic winds, and compare our results with the sub-grid models adopted in current cosmological simulations.

  8. Revealing Type Ia supernova physics with cosmic rates and nuclear gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) remain mysterious despite their central importance in cosmology and their rapidly increasing discovery rate. The progenitors of SNIa can be probed by the delay time between stellar birth and death. The explosions and progenitors of SNIa can be probed by MeV nuclear gamma rays emitted in the decays of radioactive nickel and cobalt into iron. We compare the cosmic star formation and SNIa rates, finding that their different redshift evolution requires a large fraction of SNIa to have large delay times. A delay time distribution of the form t^{-1.0+/-0.3} provides a good fit, implying 50% of SNIa explode more than ~ 1 Gyr after progenitor birth. The extrapolation of the cosmic SNIa rate to z = 0 agrees with the rate we deduce from catalogs of local SNIa. We investigate prospects for gamma-ray telescopes to exploit the facts that escaping gamma rays directly reveal the power source of SNIa and uniquely provide tomography of the expanding ejecta. We find large improvements relative to earl...

  9. Interpretation of the historic Yemeni reports of supernova SN 1006: early discovery in mid-April 1006 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Rada, Wafiq; Chapman, Jesse; Luge, Daniela; Kunitzsch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The recently published Yemeni observing report about SN 1006 from al-Yamani clearly gives AD 1006 Apr $17 \\pm 2$ (mid-Rajab 396h) as first observation date. Since this is about 1.5 weeks earlier than the otherwise earliest reports (Apr 28 or 30) as discussed so far, we were motivated to investigate an early sighting in more depth. We searched for additional evidences from other areas like East Asia and Europe. We found that the date given by al-Yamani is fully consistent with other evidence, including: (a) SN 1006 "rose several times half an hour after sunset" (al-Yamani), which is correct for the location of Sana in Yemen for the time around Apr 17, but it would not be correct for late Apr or early May; (b) the date (3rd year, 3rd lunar month, 28th day wuzi, Ichidai Yoki) for an observation of a guest star in Japan is inconsistent (there is no day wuzi in that lunar month), but may be dated to Apr 16 by reading wuwu date rather than a wuzi date; (c) there is observational evidence that SN 1006 was observed i...

  10. The GRB060218/SN 2006aj link to Supernova-GRBs blazing and re-brightening by precessing showering Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2006-01-01

    A list of puzzles are unanswered by Fireball (even milli-steradiant beamed) explosive GRB and Magnetar spherical one-shoot SGR models. The early GRB 980425 and the last longest GRB060218 are the most emblematic GRBs out of the tune of any Fireball cone models. Too nearby, too soft, too underluminous and too long events. The huge flare of SGR 1806-20 and its radio rebrightening disagree with Magnetar model. Only a persistent, thin (even less than micro steradiant) precessing and spinning gamma jet evolution explains X-gamma time structure and afterglow bumps. The late relic neutron star, X-ray pulsar jet, its spinning and precessing lepton-gamma jet is the candidate blazing sources as anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXRPs) and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs). Precessing jet are like SS433 spiral jets. At SN power and in-axis they are GRBs. Late (weeks-months) GRB blazing jets are seldom orphan of their bright SN-OT. The last GRB060218 occurred within its SN2006aj smoothly and soft (because off-axis), ruled by outer j...

  11. The Peak Luminosity of Type Ia Supernovae and its Implications for the Cosmic Expansion Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) are confirmed to be the best distance indicators to derive the cosmic expansion rate. The dispersion of their peak lumi nosity at optical bands (BVI) is approximate to 0.13 mag, after taking into account the effects of the second parameters (i,e., the initial decline rate △m15(B) and (B - V) color at maximum light). The local calibrations from HST indicate an absolute magnitude of 19.48 ± 0.08 mag (in V band) for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. The current expansion rate, H0, is found to be 63.6 ± 1.8 (random) ±5.7 (system-atic) kms-1 Mpc-1. This value will decrease by 3% when the metallicity effect on the cepheid distances is considered. In addition, a marginal local outward flow of 4.0 ± 4.5% within the velocity-distance of 7 000 km s-1 can be inferred from SNe Ia for the Einstein-de Sitter universe; however, this outward flow is only 2.2 ± 4.4% for an accelerating expansion universe (which is supported by high-z SNe Ia).

  12. Separating Thermal and Non-Thermal X-Rays in Supernova Remnants II: Spatially Resolved Fits to SN1006 AD

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J

    2004-01-01

    We present a spatially resolved spectral analysis of full ASCA observations of the remnant of the supernova of 1006 AD. This remnant shows both nonthermal X-ray emission from bright limbs, generally interpreted as synchrotron emission from the loss-steepened tail of the nonthermal electron population also responsible for radio emission, and thermal emission from elsewhere in the remnant. In earlier work, we showed that the spatially integrated spectrum was well described by a theoretical synchrotron model in which shock acceleration of electrons was limited by escape, in combination with thermal models indicating high levels of iron from ejecta. Here we use new spatially resolved subsets of the earlier theoretical nonthermal models for the analysis. We find that emission from the bright limbs remains well described by those models, and refine the values for the characteristic break frequency. We show that differences between the northeast and southwest nonthermal limbs are small, too small to account easily f...

  13. Keck Observations of the Young Metal-Poor Host Galaxy of the Super-Chandrasekhar-Mass Type Ia Supernova SN 2007if

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Hsiao, E Y; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Thomas, R C; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy and $g$-band photometry of the metal-poor, low-luminosity host galaxy of the super-Chandrasekhar mass Type Ia supernova SN 2007if. Deep imaging of the host reveals its apparent magnitude to be $m_g=23.15\\pm0.06$, which at the spectroscopically-measured redshift of $z_{helio}=0.07450\\pm0.00015$ corresponds to an absolute magnitude of $M_g=-14.45\\pm0.06$. Galaxy $g-r$ color constrains the mass-to-light ratio, giving a host stellar mass estimate of $\\log(M_*/M_\\odot)=7.32\\pm0.17$. Balmer absorption in the stellar continuum, along with the strength of the 4000\\AA\\ break, constrain the age of the dominant starburst in the galaxy to be $t_\\mathrm{burst}=123^{+165}_{-77}$ Myr, corresponding to a main-sequence turn-off mass of $M/M_\\odot=4.6^{+2.6}_{-1.4}$. Using the R$_{23}$ method of calculating metallicity from the fluxes of strong emission lines, we determine the host oxygen abundance to be $12+\\log(O/H)_\\mathrm{KK04}=8.01\\pm0.09$, significantly lower than any previously reported...

  14. X-Ray Synchrotron Emission from 10-100 TeV Cosmic-Ray Electrons in the Supernova Remnant SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, G E; Gotthelf, E V

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a joint spectral analysis of RXTE PCA, ASCA SIS, and ROSAT PSPC data of the supernova remnant SN 1006. This work represents the first attempt to model both the thermal and nonthermal X-ray emission over the entire X-ray energy band from 0.12 to 17 keV. The thermal flux is described by a nonequilibrium ionization model with an electron temperature kT = 0.6 keV, an ionization timescale n0t = 9 x 10^9 s / cm^3, and a relative elemental abundance of silicon that is 10-18 times larger than the solar abundance. The nonthermal X-ray spectrum is described by a broken power law model with low- and high-energy photon indices Gamma_1 = 2.1 and Gamma_2 = 3.0, respectively. Since the nonthermal X-ray spectrum steepens with increasing energy, the results of the present analysis corroborate previous claims that the nonthermal X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation. We argue that the magnetic field strength is significantly larger than previous estimates of about 1 x 10^-5 G and arbitra...

  15. Probing Dark Energy via Neutrino and Supernova Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Lawrence; Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Papucci, Michele; Perez, Gilad

    2006-07-10

    A novel method for extracting cosmological evolution parameters is proposed, using a probe other than light: future observations of the diffuse anti-neutrino flux emitted from core-collapse supernovae (SNe), combined with the SN rate extracted from future SN surveys. The relic SN neutrino differential flux can be extracted by using future neutrino detectors such as Gadolinium-enriched, megaton, water detectors or 100-kiloton detectors of liquid Argon or liquid scintillator. The core-collapse SN rate can be reconstructed from direct observation of SN explosions using future precision observatories. Our method, by itself, cannot compete with the accuracy of the optical-based measurements but may serve as an important consistency check as well as a source of complementary information. The proposal does not require construction of a dedicated experiment, but rather relies on future experiments proposed for other purposes.

  16. Molecules in supernova ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The first molecules detected at infrared wavelengths in the ejecta of a Type II supernova, namely SN1987A, consisted of CO and SiO. Since then, confirmation of the formation of these two species in several other supernovae a few hundred days after explosion has been obtained. However, supernova environments appear to hamper the synthesis of large, complex species due to the lack of microscopically-mixed hydrogen deep in supernova cores. Because these environments also form carbon and silicate dust, it is of importance to understand the role played by molecules in the depletion of elements and how chemical species get incorporated into dust grains. In the present paper, we review our current knowledge of the molecular component of supernova ejecta, and present new trends and results on the synthesis of molecules in these harsh, explosive events.

  17. The effect of cooling rate on undercooling of pure Sn single drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schmelzer, Juern; Schick, Christoph [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock (Germany); Gao, Yulai [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and MaterialsProcessing, Shanghai University (China); Abyzov, Alexander S. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    The cooling rate dependence of undercooling of pure Sn single drop is studied by the non-adiabatic fast scanning calorimetry in a large range of cooling rate spanning four orders of magnitude. The experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the undercooling can be obviously increased first with increasing cooling rate going over to a stage of slow increase for high cooling rates, which indicates a shelf-like dependence of undercooling on cooling rate before and after a ''crossover'' at higher cooling rate where two different heterogeneous mechanisms act simultaneously.

  18. A luminous, blue progenitor system for a type-Iax supernova

    CERN Document Server

    McCully, Curtis; Foley, Ryan J; Bildsten, Lars; Fong, Wen-fai; Kirshner, Robert P; Marion, G H; Riess, Adam G; Stritzinger, Maximilian D

    2014-01-01

    Type-Iax supernovae (SN Iax) are stellar explosions that are spectroscopically similar to some type-Ia supernovae (SN Ia) at maximum light, except with lower ejecta velocities. They are also distinguished by lower luminosities. At late times, their spectroscopic properties diverge from other SN, but their composition (dominated by iron-group and intermediate-mass elements) suggests a physical connection to normal SN Ia. These are not rare; SN Iax occur at a rate between 5 and 30% of the normal SN Ia rate. The leading models for SN Iax are thermonuclear explosions of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that do not completely unbind the star, implying they are "less successful" cousins of normal SN Ia, where complete disruption is observed. Here we report the detection of the luminous, blue progenitor system of the type-Iax SN 2012Z in deep pre-explosion imaging. Its luminosity, colors, environment, and similarity to the progenitor of the Galactic helium nova V445 Puppis, suggest that SN 2012Z was the explosio...

  19. Separating Thermal and Nonthermal X-Rays in Supernova Remnants. II. Spatially Resolved Fits to SN 1006 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Borkowski, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a spatially resolved spectral analysis of full ASCA observations of the remnant of the supernova of A.D. 1006. This remnant shows both nonthermal X-ray emission from bright limbs, generally interpreted as synchrotron emission from the loss-steepened tail of the nonthermal electron population also responsible for radio emission, and thermal emission from elsewhere in the remnant. In earlier work, we showed that the spatially integrated spectrum was well described by a theoretical synchrotron model in which shock acceleration of electrons was limited by escape, in combination with thermal models indicating high levels of iron from ejecta. Here we use new spatially resolved subsets of the earlier theoretical nonthermal models for the analysis. We find that emission from the bright limbs remains well described by those models and refine the values for the characteristic break frequency. We show that differences between the northeast and southwest nonthermal limbs are small, too small to account easily for the presence of the northeast limb, but not the southwest, in TeV γ-rays. Comparison of spectra of the nonthermal limbs and other regions confirms that simple cylindrically symmetric nonthermal models cannot describe the emission, and we put limits on nonthermal contributions to emission from the center and the northwest and southeast limbs. We can rule out solar-abundance models in all regions, finding evidence for elevated abundances. However, more sophisticated models will be required to accurately characterize these abundances.

  20. High-resolution radio imaging of young supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Ros, E; Guirado, J C; Lara, L; Mantovani, F; Stockdale, C J; Weiler, K W; Diamond, P J; Van Dyk, S D; Lundqvist, P; Panagia, N; Shapiro, I I; Sramek, R

    2004-01-01

    The high resolution obtained through the use of VLBI gives an unique opportunity to directly observe the interaction of an expanding radio supernova with its surrounding medium. We present here results from our VLBI observations of the young supernovae SN 1979C, SN 1986J, and SN 2001gd.

  1. How to Find Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ($z\\gtrsim 2$), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on $H_0$, $w$, and $\\Omega_m$ via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to have an elliptical galaxy as their host with an absolute magnitude implied by the host's photometric redshift that is far brighter than the absolute magnitude of a normal SN Ia (the brightest type of supernova found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. The primary sources of contamination that affect...

  2. Effects of cooling rates on microstructure and microhardness of lead-free Sn-3.5%Ag solders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of Sn-3.5%Ag solders were explored in the cooling rate ranging from 0.08 to 104 K/s.Under rapid cooling condition, the strong kinetic undercooling effect leads to the actual solidification process starting at the temperature lower than the equilibrium eutectic point, and the actual metastable eutectic point shifts to the higher Ag concentration. Hence, the higher the applied cooling rate is, the more the volume fraction of primaryβ-Sn crystal forms. At the same time, the separation of primaryβ-Sn crystal favors restraining the formation of bulk Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in solder due to the mismatch crystalline orientation relationship, those Ag3Sn phase separating through the eutectic reaction could hardly cling to the primary β-Sn crystal and grow up. Additionally, the Vickers hardness test shows that fineβ-Sn and spherical Ag3Sn phase in the rapidly solidified alloy strongly improves the microhardness of the Sn-3.5%Ag solder.

  3. Graphene supported Sn-Sb rate at carbon core-shell particles as a superior anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuangqiang; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University (China); Wu, Minghong; Pan, Dengyu [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai Univ. (China)

    2010-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation and Li-storage properties of graphene nanosheets(GNS), GNS supported Sn-Sb rate at carbon (50-150 nm) and Sn-Sb nanoparticles (5-10 nm). The best cycling performance and excellent high rate capabilities were observed for GNS-supported Sn-Sb rate at carbon core-shell particles, which exhibited initial capacities of 978, 850 and 668 mAh/g respectively at 0.1C, 2C and 5C (1C = 800 mA/g) with good cyclability. Besides the GNS support, the carbon skin around Sn-Sb particles is believed to be a key factor to improve electrochemical properties of Sn-Sb. (author)

  4. Separating Thermal and Nonthermal X-Rays in Supernova Remnants I Total Fits to SN 1006 AD

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J; Allen, G E; Petre, R

    2001-01-01

    The remnant of SN 1006 has an X-ray spectrum dominated by nonthermal emission, and pre-ASCA observations were well described by a synchrotron calculation with electron energies limited by escape. We describe the results of a much more stringent test: fitting spatially integrated ASCA GIS (0.6-8 keV) and RXTE PCA (3-10 keV) data with a combination of the synchrotron model SRESC newly ported to XSPEC and a new thermal shock model VPSHOCK. The new model can describe the continuum emission above 2 keV well, in both spatial distribution and spectrum. We find that the emission is dominantly nonthermal, with a small but noticeable thermal component: Mg and Si are clearly visible in the integrated spectrum. The synchrotron component rolls off smoothly from the extrapolated radio spectrum, with a characteristic rolloff frequency of 3.1E17 Hz, at which the spectrum has dropped about a factor of 6 below a powerlaw extrapolation from the radio spectrum. Comparison of TeV observations with new TeV model images and spectra...

  5. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M */M ⊙) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  6. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and H{alpha}-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  7. Host Galaxy Properties and Hubble Residuals of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star-formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-AGN) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low and high mass hosts is 0.077 +- 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 <= log(M_*/M_Sun) <= 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored i...

  8. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Observations of open star clusters in the solar neighborhood are used to calculate local supernova (SN) rates for the past 510 million years (Myr). Peaks in the SN rates match passages of the Sun through periods of locally increased cluster formation which could be caused by spiral arms of the Galaxy. A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar System has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby supernovae. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record of climate over the past 510 million years with the fluctuating local SN rates. Surprisingly a simple combination of tectonics (long-term changes in sea level) and astrophysical activity (SN rates) largely accounts for the observed variations in marine biodiversity over the past 510 Myr. An inverse correspondence between SN rates and carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) levels is discussed in terms of a possible drawdow...

  9. The Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, S; Kirshner, R P; Mandel, K S; Berlind, P; Calkins, M; Challis, P; Garnavich, P M; Jha, S W; Modjaz, M; Riess, A G; Schmidt, B P

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the FLWO 1.5m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. We study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SN Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SN Ia with broader lines. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II 6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ~0 to ~400 km/s/day considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B-V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more ...

  10. Cooling rate dependence of undercooling of pure Sn single drop by fast scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Shanghai University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai (China); University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Rostock (Germany); Gao, Yulai; Zou, Changdong; Zhai, Qijie [Shanghai University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai (China); Abyzov, A.S. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Science Center, Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhuravlev, E.; Schmelzer, J.W.P.; Schick, C. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Rostock (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Non-adiabatic fast scanning calorimetry has been developed to in-situ measure the response of single metallic drops to temperature changes in a large range of cooling rate spanning four orders of magnitude. In particular, the effect of cooling rate on the degree of undercooling of one 10 {mu}m Sn-drop is studied. The experimental results show that the undercooling could be increased first significantly with increasing cooling rate going over to a stage of slow increase for high cooling rates, which indicates a shelf-like dependence of undercooling level on cooling rate before and after a ''crossover'' at a cooling rate of about 1000 K/s where two different heterogeneous mechanisms act simultaneously. First theoretical estimates are developed on the specific feature of the heterogeneous nucleation process of the effect analyzed and possible directions of further research are anticipated. (orig.)

  11. SnS absorber thin films by co-evaporation: Optimization of the growth rate and influence of the annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Víctor, E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, Juan Francisco; Guillén, Cecilia; Herrero, José

    2015-05-01

    Tin sulfide thin films were prepared by co-evaporation on soda-lime glass substrates, for use as absorber layers. The synthesis was carried out at 350 °C substrate temperature and varying the growth rate in the 2-6 Å/s range, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses in the 700-1500 nm range. After evaporation, the samples were heated at 400 °C and 500 °C under various atmospheres. The evolution of the morphological, structural and optical properties has been analyzed as a function of the thickness and deposition rate, before and after annealing. For the samples grown at the lowest rate, SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase mixing has been observed by X-ray diffraction. Samples with reduced thickness preferably crystallize in the SnS phase, whereas thicker layers become richer in the Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase. The sulfur treatment of samples prepared at the lowest rate results in the formation of SnS{sub 2} phase. Otherwise, the samples obtained at the highest rates show single-phase SnS after heating at 400 °C in sulfur atmosphere, with gap energy values around 1.24 eV. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide thin films were deposited by co-evaporation at different growth rates. • The influence of the growth rate and post-annealing at different conditions was studied. • The SnS phase was obtained by optimizing the growth rate and the annealing process. • The SnS phase presented properties for use as absorber layer.

  12. THE FAST AND FURIOUS DECAY OF THE PECULIAR TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA 2005ek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drout, M. R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Sanders, N. E.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Chakraborti, S.; Challis, P.; Friedman, A.; Hicken, M.; Jensen, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, P. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, CH41 1LD Liverpool (United Kingdom); Parrent, J. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Cenko, S. B.; Ganeshalingam, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Brown, P. J., E-mail: mdrout@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); and others

    2013-09-01

    We present extensive multi-wavelength observations of the extremely rapidly declining Type Ic supernova (SN Ic), SN 2005ek. Reaching a peak magnitude of M{sub R} = -17.3 and decaying by {approx}3 mag in the first 15 days post-maximum, SN 2005ek is among the fastest Type I supernovae observed to date. The spectra of SN 2005ek closely resemble those of normal SN Ic, but with an accelerated evolution. There is evidence for the onset of nebular features at only nine days post-maximum. Spectroscopic modeling reveals an ejecta mass of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} that is dominated by oxygen ({approx}80%), while the pseudo-bolometric light curve is consistent with an explosion powered by {approx}0.03 M{sub Sun} of radioactive {sup 56}Ni. Although previous rapidly evolving events (e.g., SN 1885A, SN 1939B, SN 2002bj, SN 2010X) were hypothesized to be produced by the detonation of a helium shell on a white dwarf, oxygen-dominated ejecta are difficult to reconcile with this proposed mechanism. We find that the properties of SN 2005ek are consistent with either the edge-lit double detonation of a low-mass white dwarf or the iron-core collapse of a massive star, stripped by binary interaction. However, if we assume that the strong spectroscopic similarity of SN 2005ek to other SNe Ic is an indication of a similar progenitor channel, then a white-dwarf progenitor becomes very improbable. SN 2005ek may be one of the lowest mass stripped-envelope core-collapse explosions ever observed. We find that the rate of such rapidly declining Type I events is at least 1%-3% of the normal SN Ia rate.

  13. Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae at High Redshift from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Sullivan, M; Conley, A; Howell, D A; Carlberg, R G; Astier, P; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J

    2010-01-01

    The rate evolution of subluminous Type Ia Supernovae is presented using data from the Supernova Legacy Survey. This sub-sample represents the faint and rapidly-declining light-curves of the observed supernova Ia (SN Ia) population here defined by low stretch values (s<0.8). Up to redshift z=0.6, we find 18 photometrically-identified subluminous SNe Ia, of which six have spectroscopic redshift (and three are spectroscopically-confirmed SNe Ia). The evolution of the subluminous volumetric rate is constant or slightly decreasing with redshift, in contrast to the increasing SN Ia rate found for the normal stretch population, although a rising behaviour is not conclusively ruled out. The subluminous sample is mainly found in early-type galaxies with little or no star formation, so that the rate evolution is consistent with a galactic mass dependent behavior: $r(z)=A\\times M_g$, with $A=(1.1\\pm0.3)\\times10^{-14}$ SNe per year and solar mass.

  14. HAWK-I infrared supernova search in starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Miluzio, M; Botticella, M T; Cresci, G; Greggio, L; Mannucci, F; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Elias-Rosa, N; Pastorello, A; Turatto, M; Zampieri, L

    2013-01-01

    The use of SN rates to probe explosion scenarios and to trace the cosmic star formation history received a boost from a number of synoptic surveys. There has been a recent claim of a mismatch by a factor of two between star formation and core collapse SN rates, and different explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy.} We attempted an independent test of the relation between star formation and supernova rates in the extreme environment of starburst galaxies, where both star formation and extinction are extremely high. To this aim we conducted an infrared supernova search in a sample of local starburts galaxies. The rational to search in the infrared is to reduce the bias due to extinction, which is one of the putative reasons for the observed discrepancy between star formation and supernova rates. To evaluate the outcome of the search we developed a MonteCarlo simulation tool that is used to predict the number and properties of the expected supernovae based on the search characteristics and the curr...

  15. A Search for New Candidate Super-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia Supernovae in the Nearby Supernova Factory Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.; Nearby Supernova Factory, The

    2012-09-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of five Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Nearby Supernova Factory selected to be spectroscopic analogs of the candidate super-Chandrasekhar-mass events SN 2003fg and SN 2007if. Their spectra are characterized by hot, highly ionized photospheres near maximum light, for which SN 1991T supplies the best phase coverage among available close spectral templates. Like SN 2007if, these supernovae are overluminous (-19.5 constant in time from phases as early as a week before, and up to two weeks after, B-band maximum light. We interpret the velocity plateaus as evidence for a reverse-shock shell in the ejecta formed by interaction at early times with a compact envelope of surrounding material, as might be expected for SNe resulting from the mergers of two white dwarfs. We use the bolometric light curves and line velocity evolution of these SNe to estimate important parameters of the progenitor systems, including 56Ni mass, total progenitor mass, and masses of shells and surrounding carbon/oxygen envelopes. We find that the reconstructed total progenitor mass distribution of the events (including SN 2007if) is bounded from below by the Chandrasekhar mass, with SN 2007if being the most massive. We discuss the relationship of these events to the emerging class of super-Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia, estimate the relative rates, compare the mass distribution to that expected for double-degenerate SN Ia progenitors from population synthesis, and consider implications for future cosmological Hubble diagrams.

  16. A SEARCH FOR NEW CANDIDATE SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY DATA SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalzo, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nugent, P., E-mail: rscalzo@mso.anu.edu.au [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Collaboration: Nearby Supernova Factory; and others

    2012-09-20

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of five Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Nearby Supernova Factory selected to be spectroscopic analogs of the candidate super-Chandrasekhar-mass events SN 2003fg and SN 2007if. Their spectra are characterized by hot, highly ionized photospheres near maximum light, for which SN 1991T supplies the best phase coverage among available close spectral templates. Like SN 2007if, these supernovae are overluminous (-19.5 < M{sub V} < -20) and the velocity of the Si II {lambda}6355 absorption minimum is consistent with being constant in time from phases as early as a week before, and up to two weeks after, B-band maximum light. We interpret the velocity plateaus as evidence for a reverse-shock shell in the ejecta formed by interaction at early times with a compact envelope of surrounding material, as might be expected for SNe resulting from the mergers of two white dwarfs. We use the bolometric light curves and line velocity evolution of these SNe to estimate important parameters of the progenitor systems, including {sup 56}Ni mass, total progenitor mass, and masses of shells and surrounding carbon/oxygen envelopes. We find that the reconstructed total progenitor mass distribution of the events (including SN 2007if) is bounded from below by the Chandrasekhar mass, with SN 2007if being the most massive. We discuss the relationship of these events to the emerging class of super-Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia, estimate the relative rates, compare the mass distribution to that expected for double-degenerate SN Ia progenitors from population synthesis, and consider implications for future cosmological Hubble diagrams.

  17. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  18. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, Marco; Marassi, Stefania; Schneider, Raffaella; Bianchi, Simone; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, A.

    2016-06-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. We have developed a new code (GRASH_Rev) which follows the newly-formed dust evolution throughout the supernova explosion until the merging of the forward shock with the circumstellar ISM. We have considered four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN1987A, CasA, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations and estimate that between 1 and 8% of the observed mass will survive, leading to a SN dust production rate of (3.9± 3.7)×10^(-4) MM_{⊙})/yr in the Milky Way. This value is one order of magnitude larger than the dust production rate by AGB stars but insufficient to counterbalance the dust destruction by SNe, therefore requiring dust accretion in the gas phase.

  19. Simulation tool of a Supernova search with VST

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, R.; Cappellaro, E; Botticella, M. T.; Riello, M.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the estimate of SN rates for all types as a function of redshift has been proposed and accepted a three years SN search with the VST telescope. To help planning an optimal strategy for the search, we have developed a simulation tool used to predict the numbers of Supernovae of different types which are expected to be discovered in a magnitude-limited survey. In our simulation a most important ingredient has been the determination of the K-correction as function of redshift for ever...

  20. Results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Richard; Belov, Pavel; Bhatnagar, Vasudha; Campbell, Heather; Conley, Alex; Frieman, Joshua A; Glazov, Alexandre; Hlozek, Santiago Gonzalez-Gaitan Renee; Jha, Saurabh; Kuhlmann, Stephen; Kunz, Martin; Lampeitl, Hubert; Mahabal, Ashish; Newling, James; Nichol, Robert C; Parkinson, David; Philip, Ninan Sajeeth; Poznanski, Dovi; Richards, Joseph W; Rodney, Steven A; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Varughese, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge (SNPCC), a publicly released mix of simulated SNe, with types (Ia, Ibc, II) selected in proportion to their expected rate. The simulation was realized in the griz filters of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with realistic observing conditions (sky noise, point spread function and atmospheric transparency) based on years of recorded conditions at the DES site. Simulations of non-Ia type SNe are based on spectroscopically confirmed light curves that include unpublished non-Ia samples donated from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP), the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II). A spectroscopically confirmed subset was provided for training. We challenged scientists to run their classification algorithms and report a type and photo-z for each SN. Participants from 10 groups contributed 13 entries for the sample that included a host galaxy photo-z for each SN, and 9 entries for the sample that had no redshi...

  1. Type Ia supernovae yielding distances with 3-4% precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Burke, David L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hicken, Malcolm [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Weikang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-26

    The luminosities of Type Ia supernovae (SN), the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and light-curve decline rate. These relationships have been used to calibrate their luminosities to within ~0.14–0.20 mag from broadband optical light curves, yielding individual distances accurate to ~7–10%. Here we identify a subset of SN Ia that erupt in environments having high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, these SN can be calibrated to within ~0.065–0.075 mag, corresponding to ~3–4% in distance — the best yet with SN Ia by a substantial margin. The small scatter suggests that variations in only one or two progenitor properties account for their light-curve-width/color/luminosity relation.

  2. Supernova 2013by: A Type IIL Supernova with a IIP-like light curve drop

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, S; Stritzinger, M; Howell, D A; Arcavi, I; McCully, C; Childress, M J; Hsiao, E Y; Contreras, C; Morrell, N; Phillips, M M; Gromadzki, M; Kirshner, R P; Marion, G H

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-band ultraviolet and optical light curves, as well as visual-wavelength and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type II linear (IIL) supernova (SN) 2013by. We show that SN 2013by and other SNe IIL in the literature, after their linear decline phase that start after maximum, have a sharp light curve decline similar to that seen in Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. This light curve feature has rarely been observed in other SNe IIL due to their relative rarity and the intrinsic faintness of this particular phase of the light curve. We suggest that the presence of this drop could be used as a physical parameter to distinguish between subclasses of SNe II, rather than their light curve decline rate shortly after peak. Close inspection of the spectra of SN 2013by indicate asymmetric line profiles and signatures of high-velocity hydrogen. Late (less than 90 days after explosion) near-infrared spectra of SN 2013by exhibit oxygen lines, indicating significant mixing within the ejecta. From the late-time...

  3. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). Combining GALEX UV data with optical and near infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Halpha-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from SDSS for stellar masses log(M_*/M_Sun)>8.5 where the relation is well-defined. The star-formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, thou...

  4. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  5. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Cunha, Carlos E.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  6. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; et al.

    2016-04-20

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  7. Nurseries of Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Teddy

    mechanisms that governs the SN explosions. In the first of three papers I investigate the host galaxy of the first SN Ia found in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) SN search. From long slit spectroscopy using the Xshooter spectrograph and broadband photometry I determine....... In the second paper I investigate one of the high redshift SN Ia hosts found in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) SN search. The SDF SN search relies heavily on photometric redshifts and transients previously identified as active galactic nuclei (AGN) to reproduce the cosmic SN rate. Due to the small number statistic...... activity. I found a young host galaxy with high star-formation rate and sub-solar metallicity. In the last paper I analyze the full high redshift (z > 1) SN host sample from the CANDELS and CLASH SN search. I determine the stellar properties of each host by fitting the broad-band photometry using the Gal...

  8. Tests of Environmental Effects on Type Ia Supernova Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Suzanna M.; Strolger, L.; Wolff, S.

    2011-01-01

    The host galaxy environments of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide our best opportunity for constraining the mechanism(s) of the SN Ia progenitor system, i.e., the stars involved, the incubation times, and the sensitivity of SNe Ia to changes in the local gas-phase metallicity. The latter can affect the luminosity of the resultant event, and possibly the success in ultimately yielding a SN Ia. We seek to solidify possible environmental trends in SN Ia rates from direct measures of host galaxy properties, using the sample collected by the Nearby Galaxies Supernova Search project. This study will uncover which has the greatest influence on SN Ia production efficiency: parent population age, rate of star-formation, or metallicity. Here, we will show some preliminary results from SSP model fitting (of age and [Fe/H]) to a selection of hosts obtained thus far from this study. The complete sample will provide a validity test of the mostly indirect trends being established for SNe Ia from the LOSS, SDSS, SNfactory and other surveys, and may ultimately steer future investigations towards more precise SN Ia cosmology.

  9. Light-echo spectroscopy of historic Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Oliver

    Young Galactic supernova remnants are unique laboratories for supernova physics. Due to their proximity they provide us with the most detailed view of the outcome of a supernova. However, the exact spectroscopic types of their original explosions have been undetermined so far -hindering to link the wealth of multi-wavelength knowledge about their remnants with the diverse population of supernovae. Light echoes, reflektions of the brilliant supernova burst of light by interstellar dust, provide a unique opportunity to reobserve today -with powerful scientific instruments of the 21st century -historic supernova exlosions even after hundreds of years and to conclude on their nature. We report on optical light-echo spectroscopy of two famous Galactic supernovae: Tycho Brahe's SN 1572 and the supernova that created the Cassiopeia A remnant around the year 1680. These observations finally recovered the missing spectroscopic classifications and provide new constraints on explosion models for future studies.

  10. Tycho Brahe's supernova: light from centuries past

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Lapuente, P

    2003-01-01

    The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize SNeIa. By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572--74 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that, within the SNe Ia family, the event should have been a SNIa with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being {\\it s} $\\sim$ 0.9. Visual light curve near maximum, late--time decline and the color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova is found to be M$_{V}$ $=$ --19.58 --5 log (D/3.5 kpc) $\\pm$ 0.42.

  11. SN 2009E: a faint clone of SN 1987A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, A.; Pumo, M. L.; Navasardyan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Context.1987A-like events form a rare sub-group of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae that are thought to originate from the explosion of blue supergiant stars. Although SN 1987A is the best known supernova, very few objects of this group have been discovered and, hence, studied. Aims. In thi...

  12. Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Della Valle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el estatus observacional de la conexi on Supernova (SN/Estallido de Rayos-Gamma (GRB. Recientes (y no tan recientes observaciones de GRBs largos sugieren que una fracci on signi cativa de ellos (pero no todos est an asociados con supernovas brillantes del tipo Ib/c. Estimaciones actuales de las tasas de producci on de GRBs y SNs dan una raz on para GRB/SNe-Ibc en el rango 0:4%

  13. Emission from Pair-Instability Supernovae with Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Wheeler, J Craig; Whalen, Daniel J; Smidt, Joseph; Wiggins, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Pair Instability Supernovae have been suggested as candidates for some Super Luminous Supernovae, such as SN 2007bi, and as one of the dominant types of explosion occurring in the early Universe from massive, zero-metallicity Population III stars. The progenitors of such events can be rapidly rotating, therefore exhibiting different evolutionary properties due to the effects of rotationally-induced mixing and mass-loss. Proper identification of such events requires rigorous radiation hydrodynamics and radiative transfer calculations that capture not only the behavior of the light curve but also the spectral evolution of these events. We present radiation hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations for 90-300 Msun rotating pair-instability supernovae covering both the shock break-out and late light curve phases. We also investigate cases of different initial metallicity and rotation rate to determine the impact of these parameters on the detailed spectral characteristics of these events. In agreement wi...

  14. MDM OSMOS Spectroscopic classification of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Klusmeyer, J.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Shappee, B.; Shields, J.; Brown, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C.

    2016-11-01

    We report optical spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates 2016hgd (ATel #9651), 2016hli (ATel #9685), CSS161013:015319+171853 and CSS161013:020130+141534 (http://nesssi.cacr.caltech.edu/catalina/AllSN.html).

  15. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchio, M; Schneider, R; Bianchi, S; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A

    2016-01-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. We have developed a new code (GRASH\\_Rev) which follows the newly-formed dust evolution throughout the supernova explosion until the merging of the forward shock with the circumstellar ISM. We have considered four well studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN1987A, CasA, the Crab Nebula, and N49. For all the simulated models, we find good agreement with observations and estimate that between 1 and 8$\\%$ of the observed mass will survive, leading to a SN dust production rate of $(3.9 \\pm 3.7) \\times 10^{-4}$ M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$ in the Milky Way. This value i...

  16. VLBI observations of young Type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Marcaide, J M

    2005-01-01

    We give an overview of circumstellar interaction in young Type II supernovae, as seen through the eyes of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. The resolution attained by such observations (best than 1 mas) is a powerful tool to probe the interaction that takes place after a supernova goes off. The direct imaging of a supernova permits, in principle, to estimate the deceleration of its expansion, and to obtain information on the eject and circumstellar density profiles, as well as estimates of the magnetic field intensity and relativistic particle energy density in the supernova. Unfortunately, only a handful of radio supernovae are close and bright enough as to permit their study with VLBI. We present results from our high-resolution observations of the nearby Type II radio supernovae SN1986J and SN2001gd.

  17. SLOW-SPEED SUPERNOVAE FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY: TWO CHANNELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Christopher J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Howell, D. Andrew [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Goobar, Ariel [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bloom, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Masci, Frank; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hook, Isobel M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Jönsson, Jakob [Savantic AB, Rosenlundsgatan 50, SE-118 63 Stockholm (Sweden); Matheson, Thomas [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719-4933 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    Since the discovery of the unusual prototype SN 2002cx, the eponymous class of Type I (hydrogen-poor) supernovae with low ejecta speeds has grown to include approximately two dozen members identified from several heterogeneous surveys, in some cases ambiguously. Here we present the results of a systematic study of 1077 Type I supernovae discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, leading to nine new members of this peculiar class. Moreover, we find there are two distinct subclasses based on their spectroscopic, photometric, and host galaxy properties: ''SN 2002cx-like'' supernovae tend to be in later-type or more irregular hosts, have more varied and generally dimmer luminosities, have longer rise times, and lack a Ti II trough when compared to ''SN 2002es-like'' supernovae. None of our objects show helium, and we counter a previous claim of two such events. We also find that the occurrence rate of these transients relative to Type Ia supernovae is 5.6{sub −3.8}{sup +22}% (90% confidence), lower compared to earlier estimates. Combining our objects with the literature sample, we propose that these subclasses have two distinct physical origins.

  18. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ravi R; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D'Andrea, Chris B; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J; Nichol, Robert C; Finley, David A; Fischer, John A; Foley, Ryan J; Kim, Alex G; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M C; Abdalla, Filipe B; Benoit-Levy, Aurelien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F; Evrard, August E; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andres A; Romer, A Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E C; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R; Wester, William

    2016-01-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated alg...

  19. Enhanced momentum feedback from clustered supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Eric S.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; Madau, Piero

    2017-02-01

    Young stars typically form in star clusters, so the supernovae (SNe) they produce are clustered in space and time. This clustering of SNe may alter the momentum per SN deposited in the interstellar medium (ISM) by affecting the local ISM density, which in turn affects the cooling rate. We study the effect of multiple SNe using idealized 1D hydrodynamic simulations which explore a large parameter space of the number of SNe, and the background gas density and metallicity. The results are provided as a table and an analytic fitting formula. We find that for clusters with up to ˜100 SNe, the asymptotic momentum scales superlinearly with the number of SNe, resulting in a momentum per SN which can be an order of magnitude larger than for a single SN, with a maximum efficiency for clusters with 10-100 SNe. We argue that additional physical processes not included in our simulations - self-gravity, breakout from a galactic disc, and galactic shear - can slightly reduce the momentum enhancement from clustering, but the average momentum per SN still remains a factor of 4 larger than the isolated SN value when averaged over a realistic cluster mass function for a star-forming galaxy. We conclude with a discussion of the possible role of mixing between hot and cold gas, induced by multidimensional instabilities or pre-existing density variations, as a limiting factor in the build-up of momentum by clustered SNe, and suggest future numerical experiments to explore these effects.

  20. Exact and approximate expressions of energy generation rates and their impact on the explosion properties of Pair Instability Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Energetics of nuclear reaction is fundamentally important to understand the mechanism of pair instability supernovae (PISNe). Based on the hydrodynamic equations and thermodynamic relations, we derive exact expressions for energy conservation suitable to be solved in simulation. We also show that some formulae commonly used in the literature are obtained as approximations of the exact expressions. We simulate the evolution of very massive stars of ~100-320 Msun with zero- and 1/10 Zsun, and calculate further explosions as PISNe, applying each of the exact and approximate formulae. The calculations demonstrate that the explosion properties of PISN, such as the mass range, the 56Ni yield, and the explosion energy, are significantly affected by applying the different energy generation rates. We discuss how these results affect the estimate of the PISN detection rate, which depends on the theoretical predictions of such explosion properties.

  1. Collective supernova neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Neutrinos emitted by core-collapse supernovae (SNe) represent an important laboratory for both particle physics and astrophysics. While propagating in the dense SN environment, they can feel not only the presence of background matter (via ordinary Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects) but also of the gas of neutrinos and antineutrinos (via neutrino-neutrino interaction effects). The neutrino-neutrino interactions appear to modify the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos in a collective way, completely different from the ordinary matter effects. In these conditions, the flavor evolution equations become highly nonlinear, sometimes resulting in surprising phenomena when the entire neutrino system oscillates coherently as a single collective mode. In this talk, I present the recent results on collective supernova neutrino flavor conversions and I discuss about the sensitivity of these effects to the ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum.

  2. The Scientific Potential of Supernova Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliaroli, G.; Vissani, F.

    2013-04-15

    Thanks to recent theoretical progresses and to the test bench of SN1987A, it has been possible to improve our ability to extract information from the future observations. In this paper we discuss a parameterized model of the neutrino emission. Two applications of this model are considered: 1) the investigation of the scientific potential of a future supernova for the study of the astrophysical parameters; 2) the expectations regarding the diffuse supernova neutrino background, namely, the relic supernova neutrinos.

  3. Magnetares como fuentes para potenciar supernovas superluminosas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersten, M. C.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetars have been proposed as one of the possible sources to power the light curve of super-luminous supernovae. We have included the energy deposited by a hypothetical magnetar in our one-dimensional hydrodynamical code, and analyzed the dynamical effect on the supernova ejecta. In particular, we present a model for SN 2011kl, the first object associated with a ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst. Finally, we show its effect on the light curves of hydrogen rich supernovae.

  4. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srubabati Goswami

    2000-01-01

    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos from a nearby supernova explosion in future detectors will also be discussed.

  5. Two Type Ic supernovae in low-metallicity, dwarf galaxies: diversity of explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Young, D R; Valenti, S; Pastorello, A; Benetti, S; Benn, C R; Bersier, D; Botticella, M T; Corradi, R L M; Harutyunyan, A H; Hrudkova, M; Hunter, I; Mattila, S; de Mooij, E J W; Navasardyan, H; Snellen, I A G; Tanvir, N R; Zampieri, L

    2009-01-01

    We present BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy of two Type Ic supernovae SN 2007bg and SN 2007bi discovered in wide-field, non-targeted surveys and associated with sub-luminous blue dwarf galaxies. Neither SNe 2007bg nor 2007bi were found in association with an observed GRB, but are found to inhabit similar low-metallicity environments as GRB associated supernovae. The radio-bright SN 2007bg is hosted by an extremely sub-luminous galaxy of magnitude MB = -12.4+/-0.6 mag with an estimated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 8.18+/-0.17. The lightcurve of SN 2007bg displays one of the fastest post-maximum decline rates of all broad-lined Type Ic supernovae known to date and, when combined with its high expansion velocities, a high kinetic energy to ejected mass ratio (E_K/Mej ~ 2.7). We show that SN 2007bi is possibly the most luminous Type Ic known, reaching a peak magnitude of MR ~ 21.3 mag and displays a remarkably slow decline, following the radioactive decay rate of 56Co to 56Fe throughout the course of...

  6. Energetics and Birth Rates of Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Published X-ray emission properties for a sample of 50 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are used as input for SNR evolution modeling calculations. The forward shock emission is modeled to obtain the initial explosion energy, age, and circumstellar medium density for each SNR in the sample. The resulting age distribution yields a SNR birthrate of 1/(500 yr) for the LMC. The explosion energy distribution is well fit by a log-normal distribution, with a most-probable explosion energy of 0.5× {10}51 erg, with a 1σ dispersion by a factor of 3 in energy. The circumstellar medium density distribution is broader than the explosion energy distribution, with a most-probable density of ∼0.1 cm‑3. The shape of the density distribution can be fit with a log-normal distribution, with incompleteness at high density caused by the shorter evolution times of SNRs.

  7. Six Months of Multi-Wavelength Follow-up of the Tidal Disruption Candidate ASASSN-14li and Implied TDE Rates from ASAS-SN

    CERN Document Server

    Holoien, T W -S; Prieto, J L; Stanek, K Z; Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Grupe, D; Brown, J S; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Guo, Z; Jose, J; Herczeg, G J; Long, F; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Thompson, T A; Thorstensen, J R; Wozniak, P R

    2016-01-01

    We present ground-based and Swift photometric and spectroscopic observations of the candidate tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-14li, found at the center of PGC 043234 ($d\\simeq90$~Mpc) by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). The source had a peak bolometric luminosity of $L\\simeq10^{44}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ and a total integrated energy of $E\\simeq7\\times10^{50}$ ergs radiated over the $\\sim6$ months of observations presented. The UV/optical emission of the source is well-fit by a blackbody with roughly constant temperature of $T\\sim35,000$ K, while the luminosity declines by roughly a factor of 16 over this time. The optical/UV luminosity decline is broadly consistent with an exponential decline, $L\\propto e^{-t/t_0}$, with $t_0\\simeq60$ days. ASASSN-14li also exhibits soft X-ray emission comparable in luminosity to the optical and UV emission but declining at a slower rate, and the X-ray emission now dominates. Spectra of the source show broad Balmer and helium lines in emission as well as st...

  8. Type Ia supernova science 2010-2020

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, D A; Della Valle, M; Nugent, P E; Perlmutter, S; Marion, G H; Krisciunas, K; Badenes, C; Mazzali, P; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Baron, E; Becker, A; Baltay, C; Benetti, S; Blondin, S; Branch, D; Brown, E F; Deustua, S; Ealet, A; Ellis, Richard S; Fouchez, D; Freedman, W; Gal-Yam, A; Jha, S; Kasen, D; Kessler, R; Kim, A G; Leonard, D C; Li, W; Livio, M; Maoz, D; Mannucci, F; Matheson, T; Neill, J D; Nomoto, K; Panagia, N; Perrett, K; Phillips, M; Poznanski, D; Quimby, R; Rest, A; Riess, A; Sako, M; Soderberg, A M; Strolger, L; Thomas, R; Turatto, M; van Dyk, S; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2009-01-01

    In the next decade Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) will be used to test theories predicting changes in the Dark Energy equation of state with time. Ultimately this requires a dedicated space mission like JDEM. SNe Ia are mature cosmological probes --- their limitations are well characterized, and a path to improvement is clear. Dominant systematic errors include photometric calibration, selection effects, reddening, and population-dependent differences. Building on past lessons, well-controlled new surveys are poised to make strides in these areas: the Palomar Transient Factory, Skymapper, La Silla QUEST, Pan-STARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, LSST, and JDEM. They will obviate historical calibrations and selection biases, and allow comparisons via large subsamples. Some systematics follow from our ignorance of SN Ia progenitors, which there is hope of determining with SN Ia rate studies from 0

  9. Nurseries of Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Teddy

    . In the second paper I investigate one of the high redshift SN Ia hosts found in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) SN search. The SDF SN search relies heavily on photometric redshifts and transients previously identified as active galactic nuclei (AGN) to reproduce the cosmic SN rate. Due to the small number statistic......, especially at high redshift, catastrophic redshift outliers and miss-identified transients can bias the inferred SN rate. The host galaxy of the SDF transient was observed with the Xshooter spectrograph. I confirm the photometric redshift of z = 1.55 and from emission-line ratios I can also rule out AGN...

  10. Luminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2012-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe), the luminous explosions of stars, were observed since antiquity, with typical peak luminosity not exceeding 1.2x10^{43} erg/s (absolute magnitude >-19.5 mag). It is only in the last dozen years that numerous examples of SNe that are substantially super-luminous (>7x10^{43} erg/s; <-21 mag absolute) were well-documented. Reviewing the accumulated evidence, we define three broad classes of super-luminous SN events (SLSNe). Hydrogen-rich events (SLSN-II) radiate photons diffusing out from thick hydrogen layers where they have been deposited by strong shocks, and often show signs of interaction with circumstellar material. SLSN-R, a rare class of hydrogen-poor events, are powered by very large amounts of radioactive 56Ni and arguably result from explosions of very massive stars due to the pair instability. A third, distinct group of hydrogen-poor events emits photons from rapidly-expanding hydrogen-poor material distributed over large radii, and are not powered by radioactivity (SLSN-I). Thes...

  11. Tests of Environmental Effects on SN Ia Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; van Dyk, Schuyler; Wolff, Schuyler; Campbell, Lachlan; Sadler, Suzanna; Pease, April

    2011-02-01

    The largely unknown type Ia supernova mechanism remains one of the largest sources of possible systematic uncertainty in achieving precise measures of dark energy. The host galaxy environments of SNe Ia provide our best opportunity for constraining the mechanism(s) of the SN Ia progenitor system, i.e., the stars involved, the incubation times, and the sensitivity of SNe Ia to changes in the local gas-phase metallicity. The latter can affect the luminosity of the resultant Ia event, and possibly the success in ultimately yielding a SN Ia event. We seek to solidify possible environmental trends in SN Ia rates from direct measures of host galaxy properties, using the sample collected by the Nearby Galaxies Supernova Search project. This study will uncover which has the greatest influence on SN Ia production efficiency: parent population age, rate of star-formation, or metallicity. Here, we propose to continue our analysis using the Mayall 4m + RCSP to obtain broad SEDs, R_23 metallicities, and star formation rates for 18 of the 25 remaining host galaxies (all z≤0.15) from the NGSS sample (20 targets were obtained in the 2010 semesters). These data will be combined with the remaining sample to be completed in the 2011B semester. The sample will provide a validity test of the mostly indirect trends being established for SNe Ia from the LOSS, SDSS, SNfactory and other surveys, and ultimately steer future investigations towards more precise SN Ia cosmology.

  12. Ages of Type Ia Supernovae Over Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, Michael J; Zahid, H Jabran

    2014-01-01

    We derive empirical models for galaxy mass assembly histories, and convolve these with theoretical delay time distribution (DTD) models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to derive the distribution of progenitor ages for all SNe Ia occurring at a given epoch of cosmic time. In actively star-forming galaxies, the progression of the star formation rate is shallower than a $t^{-1}$ SN Ia DTD, so mean SN Ia ages peak at the DTD peak in all star-forming galaxies at all epochs of cosmic history. In passive galaxies which have ceased star formation through some quenching process, the SN Ia age distribution peaks at the quenching epoch, which in passive galaxies evolves in redshift to track the past epoch of major star formation. Our models reproduce the SN Ia rate evolution in redshift, the relationship between SN Ia stretch and host mass, and the distribution of SN Ia host masses in a manner qualitatively consistent with observations. Our model naturally predicts that low-mass galaxies tend to be actively star-forming...

  13. Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Della Valle, M.; Deustua, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I. M.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R. G.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.

    1997-12-16

    The ultimate fate of the universe, infinite expansion or a big crunch, can be determined by measuring the redshifts, apparent brightnesses, and intrinsic luminosities of very distant supernovae. Recent developments have provided tools that make such a program practicable: (1) Studies of relatively nearby Type la supernovae (SNe la) have shown that their intrinsic luminosities can be accurately determined; (2) New research techniques have made it possible to schedule the discovery and follow-up observations of distant supernovae, producing well over 50 very distant (z = 0.3-0.7) SNe Ia to date. These distant supernovae provide a record of changes in the expansion rate over the past several billion years. By making precise measurements of supernovae at still greater distances, and thus extending this expansion history back far enough in time, we can even distinguish the slowing caused by the gravitational attraction of the universe's mass density {Omega}{sub M} from the effect of a possibly inflationary pressure caused by a cosmological constant {Lambda}. We report here the first such measurements, with our discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN 1997ap) at z = 0.83. Measurements at the Keck II 10-m telescope make this the most distant spectroscopically confirmed supernova. Over two months of photometry of SN 1997ap with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, when combined with previous measurements of nearer SNe la, suggests that we may live in a low mass-density universe. Further supernovae at comparable distances are currently scheduled for ground and space-based observations.

  14. Non-stationary Rayleigh-Taylor instability in supernovae ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeyre, X; Tikhonchuk, V T; Bouquet, S; Sanz, J; Ribeyre, Xavier; Hallo, Ludovic; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Bouquet, Serge; Sanz, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability plays an important role in the dynamics of several astronomical objects, in particular, in supernovae (SN) evolution. In this paper we develop an analytical approach to study the stability analysis of spherical expansion of the SN ejecta by using a special transformation in the co-moving coordinate frame. We first study a non-stationary spherical expansion of a gas shell under the pressure of a central source. Then we analyze its stability with respect to a no radial, non spherically symmetric perturbation of the of the shell. We consider the case where the polytropic constant of the SN shell is $\\gamma=5/3$ and we examine the evolution of a arbitrary shell perturbation. The dispersion relation is derived. The growth rate of the perturbation is found and its temporal and spatial evolution is discussed. The stability domain depends on the ejecta shell thickness, its acceleration, and the perturbation wavelength.

  15. Carnegie Supernova Project: Observations of Type IIn Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Taddia, F; Sollerman, J; Phillips, M M; Anderson, J P; Boldt, L; Campillay, A; Castellón, S; Contreras, C; Folatelli, G; Hamuy, M; Heinrich-Josties, E; Krzeminski, W; Morrell, N; Burns, C R; Freedman, W L; Madore, B F; Persson, S E; Suntzeff, N B

    2013-01-01

    The observational diversity displayed by various Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) is explored and quantified. In doing so a more coherent picture ascribing the variety of observed SNe IIn types to particular progenitor scenarios is sought. Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) optical and near-infrared light curves and visual-wavelength spectroscopy of the Type IIn SNe 2005kj, 2006aa, 2006bo, 2006qq and 2008fq are presented. Combined with previously published observations of the Type IIn SNe 2005ip and 2006jd (Stritzinger et al. 2012), the full CSP sample is used to derive physical parameters which describe the nature of the interaction between the expanding SN ejecta and the circum-stellar material (CSM). For each SN of our sample we find counterparts, identifying objects similar to SNe 1994W (SN 2006bo), 1998S (SN 2008fq) and 1988Z (SN 2006qq). We present the unprecedented initial u-band plateau of SN 2006aa, and its peculiar late-time luminosity and temperature evolution. For each SN, assuming the CSM was formed b...

  16. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Allam, S; Althouse, W E; Amanullah, R; Annis, J; Astier, Pierre; Aumeunier, M; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Barrelet, E; Basa, S; Bebek, C; Bergström, L; Bernstein, G; Bester, M; Besuner, B; Bigelow, B; Blandford, R; Bohlin, R; Bonissent, A; Bower, C; Brown, M; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Cole, D; Commins, Eugene D; Craig, W; Davis, T; Dawson, K; Day, C; De Harveng, M; De Jongh, F; Deustua, S; Diehl, H; Dobson, T; Dodelson, S; Ealet, A; Ellis, R; Emmet, W; Figer, D; Fouchez, D; Frerking, M; Frieman, J A; Fruchter, A; Gerdes, D; Gladney, L; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D; Heetderks, H; Hoff, M; Holland, S; Huffer, M; Hui, L; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Jelinsky, P; Juramy, C; Karcher, A; Kent, S; Kahn, S; Kim, A; Kolbe, W; Krieger, B; Kushner, G; Kuznetsova, N; Lafever, R; Lamoureux, J; Lampton, M; Lefèvre, O; Lebrun, V; Levi, M; Limon, P; Lin, H; Linder, E; Loken, S; Lorenzon, W; Malina, R; Marian, L; Marriner, J P; Marshall, P; Massey, R; Mazure, A; McGinnis, B; McKay, T; McKee, S; Miquel, R; Mobasher, B; Morgan, N; Mortsell, E; Mostek, N; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nakajima, R; Nugent, P; Olus, H; Pain, R; Palaio, N; Pankow, D; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Peterson, D; Prieto, E; Rabinowitz, D; Réfrégier, A; Rhodes, J; Roe, N; Rusin, D; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Seiffert, M; Sholl, M; Shukla, H; Smadja, G; Smith, R M; Smoot, George F; Snyder, J; Spadafora, A; Stabenau, F; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Szymkowiak, A; Tarle, G; Taylor, K; Tilquin, A; Tomasch, A; Tucker, D; Vincent, D; Von der Lippe, H; Walder, J P; Wang, G; Weinstein, A; Wester, W; White, M

    2005-01-01

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a companion White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties lead to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. SNAP has achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction.

  17. Swift Observations of Supernovae during and after Shock Breakout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, space-based observatories have allowed detailed studies of energetic supernova explosions in previously unexplored time domains and wavelength regimes. NASA's Swift observatory is playing an important role in probing the early emission of SNe during and after shock breakout due to its fast response, flexible scheduling capabilities, and large wavelength band coverage, ranging from the optical, W, and X-ray to the Gamma-ray bands. By studying the outgoing SN shocks with material in its surroundings, the explosion physics and nature of progenitor stars can be studied. Furthermore, monitoring the X-ray emission of SNe with space-based X-ray observatories is being used to map the density structure in SN environments out to large radii from the sites of the explosions (>E20 cm), the transition of a SN into an old supernova remnant can be studied, and the mass-loss rates of the progenitor stars are being probed over significant timescales (>E4 years) in the stellar wind history. In combination, these observations give unprecedented insights into the nature of energetic explosions and their environments. During this talk, I will present highlights from recent observations, among them the first observation of a SN DURING the actual explosion with Swift, and I will discuss the "naked eye" burst at a redshift of -1, which was the most distant object humans could ever see with their own eyes.

  18. Spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia Supernova 2012fr

    CERN Document Server

    Maund, J R; Hoeflich, P A; Wheeler, J C; Baade, D; Clocchiatti, A; Patat, F; Reilly, E; Wang, L; Zelaya, P

    2013-01-01

    Spectropolarimetry provides the means to probe the 3D geometries of Supernovae at early times. We report spectropolarimetric observations of the Type Ia Supernova 2012fr at four epochs: -11, -5, +2 and +24 days, with respect to B-lightcurve maximum. SN 2012fr is a normal Type Ia SN, similar to SNe 1990N, 2000cx and 2005hj (that all exhibit low velocity decline rates for the principal Si II line). The SN displays high velocity components at -11 days that are highly polarized. The polarization of these features decreases as they become weaker from -5 days. At +2 days, the polarization angles of the low velocity components of silicon and calcium are identical and oriented at 90 degrees relative to the high velocity Ca component. In addition to having very different velocities, the high and low velocity Ca components have orthogonal distributions in the plane of the sky. The continuum polarization for the SN at all four epochs is low <0.1%. We conclude that the low level of continuum polarization is inconsiste...

  19. Supernova 1987A: The Supernova of a Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Supernova 1987A, the brightest supernova since Kepler's in 1604, was detected 30 years ago at a distance of 160 000 light years in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. Visible with the naked eye and detected with the full range of technology constructed since Kepler's time, SN 1987A has continued to be a rich source of empirical information to help understand supernova explosions and their evolution into supernova remnants. While the light output has faded by a factor of 10 000 000 over those 30 years, instrumentation, like the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array has continued to improve so that this supernova continues to be visible in X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared light and in radio emission. In this review, I will sketch what has been learned from these observations about the pre-supernova star and its final stages of evolution, the explosion physics, the energy sources for emission, and the shock physics as the expanding debris encounters the circumstellar ring that was created about 20 000 years before the explosion. Today, SN 1987A is making the transition to a supernova remnant- the energetics are no longer dominated by the radioactive elements produced in the explosion, but by the interaction of the expanding debris with the surrounding gas. While we are confident that the supernova explosion had its origin in gravitational collapse, careful searches for a compact object at the center of the remnant place upper limits of a few solar luminosities on that relic. Support for HST GO programs 13401 and 13405 was provided by NASA through grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  1. Connecting supernovae with their environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, L.

    2017-03-01

    We present MUSE observations of galaxy NGC 7469 from its Science Verification to show how powerful is the combination of high-resolution wide-field integral field spectroscopy with both photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) explosions. Using STARLIGHT and H II explorer, we selected all H II regions of the galaxy and produced 2-dimensional maps of the Hα equivalent width, average luminosity-weighted stellar age, and oxygen abundance. We measured deprojected galactocentric distances for all H II regions, and radial gradients for all above-mentioned parameters. We positioned the type Ia SN2008ec in the Branch et al. diagram, and finally discussed the characteristics of the SN parent H II region compared to all other H II regions in the galaxy. In a near future, the AMUSING survey will be able to reproduce this analysis and construct statistical samples to enable the characterization of the progenitors of different supernova types.

  2. Modeling Type-IIn Interacting Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Austin; Duffell, Paul; Kasen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Spectra of Type-IIn Supernovae (SNe) have shown evidence of interaction between SN ejecta and a surrounding circumstellar medium (CSM). Namely, narrow Hydrogen lines indicate that the fast moving ejecta slows after it collides with the slow moving CSM. However, observations of eta-Carinae and spectropolarimetry of SN2009ip during its 2012 explosion have shown that the CSM may often be asymmetric. In this study, we investigate the ability of an asymmetric CSM to disguise the characteristic narrow H lines expected from Type-IIn SNe. We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between supernova ejecta and CSM. The simulations are run using the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code JET. Previous studies have ignored possible asymmetries by limiting their calculations to one-dimension or assuming a spherically symmetric CSM. We calculate shock propagation within the disk and CSM heating rate to produce mock-bolometric light curves. We also track unshocked CSM mass and speculate on its effects on the observation of H lines.

  3. The Shape of Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What causes the tremendous explosions of superluminous supernovae? New observations reveal the geometry of one such explosion, SN 2015bn, providing clues as to its source.A New Class of ExplosionsImage of a type Ia supernova in the galaxy NGC 4526. [NASA/ESA]Supernovae are powerful explosions that can briefly outshine the galaxies that host them. There are several different classifications of supernovae, each with a different physical source such as thermonuclear instability in a white dwarf, caused by accretion of too much mass, or the exhaustion of fuel in the core of a massive star, leading to the cores collapse and expulsion of its outer layers.In recent years, however, weve detected another type of supernovae, referred to as superluminous supernovae. These particularly energetic explosions last longer months instead of weeks and are brighter at their peaks than normal supernovae by factors of tens to hundreds.The physical cause of these unusual explosions is still a topic of debate. Recently, however, a team of scientists led by Cosimo Inserra (Queens University Belfast) has obtained new observations of a superluminous supernova that might help address this question.The flux and the polarization level (black lines) along the dominant axis of SN 2015bn, 24 days before peak flux (left) and 28 days after peak flux (right). Blue lines show the authors best-fitting model. [Inserra et al. 2016]Probing GeometryInserra and collaborators obtained two sets of observations of SN 2015bn one roughly a month before and one a month after the superluminous supernovas peak brightness using a spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope in Chile. These observations mark the first spectropolarimetric data for a superluminous supernova.Spectropolarimetry is the practice of obtaining information about the polarization of radiation from an objects spectrum. Polarization carries information about broken spatial symmetries in the object: only if the object is perfectly symmetric can it

  4. Software Based Supernova Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes software for detecting Supernova (SN) in images. The software can operate in real-time to discover SN while data is being collected so the instrumentation can immediately be re-tasked to perform spectroscopy or photometry of a discovery. Because the instrumentation captures two images per minute, the realtime budget is constrained to 30 seconds per target, a challenging goal. Using a set of two to four images, the program creates a "Reference" (REF) image and a "New" (NEW) image where all images are used in both NEW and REF but any SN survives the combination process only in the NEW image. This process produces good quality images having similar noise characteristics but without artifacts that might be interpreted as SN. The images are then adjusted for seeing and brightness differences using a variant of Tomaney and Crotts method of Point Spread Function (PSF) matching after which REF is subtracted from NEW to produce a Difference (DIF) image. A Classifier is then trained on a grid of artificial SN to estimate the statistical properties of four attributes and used in a process to mask false positives that can be clearly identified as such. Further training to avoid any remaining false positives sets the range, in standard deviations for each attribute, that the Classifier will accept as a valid SN. This training enables the Classifier to discriminate between SN and most subtraction residue. Lastly, the DIF image is scanned and measured by the Classifier to find locations where all four properties fall within their acceptance ranges. If multiple locations are found, the one best conforming to the training estimates is chosen. This location is then declared as a Candidate SN, the instrumentation re-tasked and the operator notified.

  5. A New Method to Constrain Supernova Fractions Using X-ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Loewenstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112.We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% plus or minus 5.4% to 37.1% plus or minus 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 plus or minus 0.34) x 10(exp 9), to (1.28 plus or minus 0.43) x 10(exp 9), fromsnapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kiloparsecs of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

  6. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS16fbb (= Gaia16bvg = SN 2016ick) as a type-Ia supernova at maximum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS16fbb (= Gaia16bvg = SN 2016ick) on 2016 Nov 25.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Emission and absorption lines from the anonymous host galaxy give a redshift z = 0.0525.

  7. Spectroscopy of SN 2016hnk (= ATLAS16dpc) with SOAR and SALT: A Peculiar Type-Ia Supernova Similar to PTF09dav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Duarte, A. S.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kniazev, A.

    2016-11-01

    We obtained spectroscopic observations of SN 2016hnk (= ATLAS16dpc) with the Goodman spectrograph on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope on UT 2016 Oct 30.3 and with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) on UT 2016 Oct 31.0.

  8. Measuring the Properties of Dark Energy with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae. I. Systematic Uncertainty from Core-collapse Supernova Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. O.; Scolnic, D. M.; Riess, A. G.; Kessler, R.; Rest, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Berger, E.; Ortega, C. A.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Challis, P. J.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Pan-STARRS (PS1) Medium Deep Survey discovered over 5000 likely supernovae (SNe) but obtained spectral classifications for just 10% of its SN candidates. We measured spectroscopic host galaxy redshifts for 3147 of these likely SNe and estimate that ˜1000 are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) with light-curve quality sufficient for a cosmological analysis. We use these data with simulations to determine the impact of core-collapse SN (CC SN) contamination on measurements of the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Using the method of Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), distances to SNe Ia and the contaminating CC SN distribution are simultaneously determined. We test light-curve-based SN classification priors for BEAMS as well as a new classification method that relies upon host galaxy spectra and the association of SN type with host type. By testing several SN classification methods and CC SN parameterizations on large SN simulations, we estimate that CC SN contamination gives a systematic error on w ({σ }w{CC}) of 0.014, 29% of the statistical uncertainty. Our best method gives {σ }w{CC}=0.004, just 8% of the statistical uncertainty, but could be affected by incomplete knowledge of the CC SN distribution. This method determines the SALT2 color and shape coefficients, α and β, with ˜3% bias. However, we find that some variants require α and β to be fixed to known values for BEAMS to yield accurate measurements of w. Finally, the inferred abundance of bright CC SNe in our sample is greater than expected based on measured CC SN rates and luminosity functions.

  9. Simultaneous Modelling of the Complete SN1993J Expansion and Radio Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Marcaide, J. M.; Alberdi, A.

    We report on our modelling of all the available VLBI data and radio light curves of supernova SN1993J. We have used the most complete expansion curve of a supernova ever, which spans more than a decade at several frequencies. For the data modelling, we have developed a new software capable of simulating the evolution of the radio emission of a supernova. We find that for explaining both the radio light curves and the expansion curve simultaneously, a radial structure of the magnetic field inside the radiating region and opacity effects from the ejected material have to be considered, together with a constant pre-supernova mass-loss rate (contrary to some results found by other authors).

  10. Immediate dense circumstellar environment of supernova progenitors caused by wind acceleration: its effect on supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Gräfener, Götz; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2017-07-01

    Type IIP supernova progenitors are often surrounded by dense circumstellar media that may result from mass-loss enhancement of the progenitors shortly before their explosions. Previous light-curve studies suggest that the mass-loss rates are enhanced up to ∼0.1 M⊙ yr-1, assuming a constant wind velocity. However, the density of circumstellar media at the immediate stellar vicinity can be much higher than previously inferred for a given mass-loss rate if wind acceleration is taken into account. We show that the wind acceleration has a huge impact when we estimate mass-loss rates from early light curves of Type IIP supernovae by taking SN 2013fs as an example. We perform numerical calculations of the interaction between supernova ejecta and circumstellar media with a constant mass-loss rate but with a β-law wind velocity profile. We find that the mass-loss rate of the progenitor of SN 2013fs shortly before the explosion, which was inferred to be ∼0.1 M⊙ yr-1 with a constant wind velocity of 10 km s-1 by a previous light-curve modelling, can be as low as ∼10-3 M⊙ yr-1 with the same terminal wind velocity of 10 km s-1 but with a wind velocity profile with β ≃ 5. In both cases, the mass of the circumstellar medium is similar (≃0.5 M⊙). Therefore, the beginning of the progenitor's mass-loss enhancement in our interpretation is ∼100 yr before the explosion, not several years. Our result indicates that the immediate dense environment of Type II supernova progenitors may be significantly influenced by wind acceleration.

  11. How to Find Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts (z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H0, w, and Ωm via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z-band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R-band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  12. The ultraviolet properties of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.

    2009-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of supernovae (SNe) probe an important wavelength region where hot temperatures, extinction, and metallicity have strong effects. In addition, they provide a comparison set against which to compare and better understand rest frame UV observations of high redshift SNe observed in the optical. UV observations, however, are rare due to the need for telescopes above the atmosphere and the difficulty in observing transient objects with space based observatories. Limited observations with space based observatories, primarily the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope, are reviewed, after which the Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on the Swift spacecraft is introduced. With Swift we have observed more SNe than all previous UV missions combined. Case studies of two individual SNe are first presented: SNe 2005am and 2005cs. SN 2005am is the first young SN observed with Swift, and the near-UV (uvw1: central wavelength ~ 2600 λ) light curve is consistent with the previous "template" derived from IUE and HST observations of SNe 1990N and 1992A. SN 2005cs is the first plateau-type II (IIP) with a well observed UV light curve. UVOT observations show a dramatic drop in the UV brightness and shift in the spectral energy distribution from blue to red caused by the dropping temperature and resulting line blanketing in the UV. These case studies demonstrate the information available from the UV data for individual SNe. A photometry method for proper accounting of coincidence loss, aperture corrections, and subtraction of the underlying galaxy is detailed. This method is then applied to a large sample of SNe observed with UVOT. We present 25 light curves and compare SNe by type and across types. The SNe Ia, with a few exceptions, are shown to have very similar light curves in the near UV, whereas, the three SNe Ib/c we have observed are very different. The SNe IIP all have rapidly fading UV light curves, though with

  13. High rate capability pure Sn-based nano-architectured electrode assembly for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, L.; Mitra, S.; Taberna, P.L.; Gressier, M.; Menu, M.J.; Barnabe, A.; Simon, P. [CIRIMAT-UMR 5085- Universite Paul Sabatier, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Poizot, P.; Tarascon, J.-M. [LRCS-UMR 6007-Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2009-03-15

    New high surface area nano-architectured copper current collectors have been designed based on simple electrodeposition method. The nano-architectured electrode design not only increases the effective surface area of the electrode but it is also very suitable for sustaining the mechanical and structural strain during electrochemical reaction. In this work, a nano-architectured Sn anode for Li-ion battery, based on Li-Sn alloying reaction, delivers very high cycle life and good power performance compared to planar tin films. This electrode could be successfully used in the field of 3D microbatteries. (author)

  14. Optical Signatures of Circumstellar Interaction in Type IIP Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chugai, N N; Utrobin, V P; Chugai, Nikolai N.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Utrobin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new diagnostics for circumstellar interaction in Type IIP supernovae by the detection of high velocity (HV) absorption features in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines during the photospheric stage. To demonstrate the method, we compute the ionization and excitation of H and He in supernova ejecta taking into account time-dependent effects and X-ray irradiation. We find that the interaction with a typical red supergiant wind should result in the enhanced excitation of the outer layers of unshocked ejecta and the emergence of corresponding HV absorption, i.e. a depression in the blue absorption wing of Halpha and a pronounced absorption of He I 10830 A at a radial velocity of about -10,000 km/s. We identify HV absorption in Halpha and He I 10830 A lines of SN 1999em and in Halpha of SN 2004dj as being due to this effect. The derived mass loss rate is close to 10^{-6} Msun/yr for both supernovae, assuming a wind velocity 10 km/s. We argue that, in addition to the HV absorption formed in the unshocked ejecta...

  15. Quantifying the Multiphase Galactic Outflows Driven by Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Bryan, Greg; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-01-01

    Galactic outflows are ubiquitously observed in star-forming disk galaxies and are critical for galaxy formation. Supernovae (SN) play a key role in driving the outflows, but there is no consensus as to how much energy, mass and metals they can launch out of the disk. We perform 3D, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study SN-driven outflows from stratified media. We study various conditions along the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, and examine the loading factors of energy, mass and metals as a function of the star formation rate. We find that the hot phase, being fast and metal-enriched, would have a broad impact on the circum-galactic medium. We explore how various physical processes, including SN scale height, photoelectric heating, external gravitational field and SN rate, affect the loading factors. We find that the mass loading factor can achieve unity for a gas surface density similar to the solar neighborhood, but is lower for higher densities. The mass loading is in general a factor of a few smaller than what is currently adopted in cosmological simulations. SN-driven outflows are expected to efficiently transport out of the galaxies both energy and metals.

  16. Supernova progenitors, their variability and the Type IIP Supernova ASASSN-16fq in M66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.; Fraser, M.; Adams, S. M.; Sukhbold, T.; Prieto, J. L.; Müller, T.; Bock, G.; Brown, J. S.; Dong, Subo; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Khan, R.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2017-05-01

    We identify a pre-explosion counterpart to the nearby Type IIP supernova ASASSN-16fq (SN 2016cok) in archival Hubble Space Telescope data. The source appears to be a blend of several stars that prevents obtaining accurate photometry. However, with reasonable assumptions about the stellar temperature and extinction, the progenitor almost certainly had an initial mass M* ≲ 17 M⊙, and was most likely in the mass range of M* = 8-12 M⊙. Observations once ASASSN-16fq has faded will have no difficulty accurately determining the properties of the progenitor. In 8 yr of Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) data, no significant progenitor variability is detected to rms limits of roughly 0.03 mag. Of the six nearby supernova (SN) with constraints on the low-level variability, SN 1987A, SN 1993J, SN 2008cn, SN 2011dh, SN 2013ej and ASASSN-16fq, only the slowly fading progenitor of SN 2011dh showed clear evidence of variability. Excluding SN 1987A, the 90 per cent confidence limit implied by these sources on the number of outbursts over the last decade before the SN that last longer than 0.1 yr (full width at half-maximum) and are brighter than MR < -8 mag is approximately Nout ≲ 3. Our continuing LBT monitoring programme will steadily improve constraints on pre-SN progenitor variability at amplitudes far lower than achievable by SN surveys.

  17. Discovery of Shell-Like Radio-Structure in SN 1993J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaide, J.; Alberdi, A.; Ros, E.; Diamond, P.; Schmidt, B.; Shapiro, I.; Baath, L.; De Bruyn, G.; Elosegui, P.; Guirado, J.; Davis, R.; Jones, D.; Krichbaum, T.; Manntovani, F.; Preston, R.; Ratner, M.; Rius, A.; Rogers, A.; Schilizzi, R.; Trigilio, C.; Whitney, A.; Witzel, A.; Zensus, A.

    1994-01-01

    The radio-luminous supernova SN 1993J in M81 offers an unprecedented opportunity to study with high linear resolution the details of the growth of a supernova radio structure by means of the VLBI technique.

  18. Large-scale low temperature fabrication of SnO2 hollow/nanoporous nanostructures: the template-engaged replacement reaction mechanism and high-rate lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan-Li; Wen, Yuren; van Aken, Peter A.; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2014-09-01

    The morphology-controlled synthesis of SnO2 hollow/nanoporous nanostructures (nanotubes, urchin-like morphologies and nanospheres) was achieved via a template-engaged replacement reaction at a mild temperature (lower than 80 °C). The formation mechanism of hollow interior and nanoporous walls for the obtained SnO2 nanostructures (SnO2 nanotubes were used as an example) was investigated based on TEM and HRTEM observations during different reaction stages. It is found that bridge voids firstly form at the MnO2/SnO2 interface, followed by the inward development of voids before the MnO2 core is completely consumed. Two types of short-circuited galvanic cells, MnO2/Mn2+|SnO2/Sn2+ and concentration cell-SnO2/Sn2+ (interior)|SnO2/Sn2+ (exterior), are probably responsible for the formation of SnO2 nanotubes and outward growth of SnO2 along MnO2. Moreover, the calculation result of the outer diameter of SnO2 nanotubes is in good agreement with the observation results by SEM and TEM. When evaluated as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the three SnO2 nanostructures exhibit superior rate capability and cycling performance. Especially, SnO2 nanotubes present the best rate capability: specific capacities of above 800 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and about 500 mA h g-1 at 4000 mA g-1 were achieved, respectively. Importantly, the 1D morphology of SnO2 nanotubes can be well preserved after prolonged cycling at a relatively high current density, indicating good structural stability of the resulting nanotubes during the Li+ insertion/extraction process. These results indicate that the obtained SnO2 hollow/nanoporous nanostructures would be promising anode materials for next-generation LIBs.The morphology-controlled synthesis of SnO2 hollow/nanoporous nanostructures (nanotubes, urchin-like morphologies and nanospheres) was achieved via a template-engaged replacement reaction at a mild temperature (lower than 80 °C). The formation mechanism of hollow interior and nanoporous walls

  19. Infrared Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Andrew Samuel

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents the CfAIR2 data set, which includes over 4000 near-Infrared (NIR) JHK8-band measurements of 104 Type Ia Supernovae (SN Ia) observed from 2005-2011 using PAIRITEL, the 1.3-m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. While the discovery of dark energy and most subsequent supernova cosmology has been performed using optical and Ultraviolet wavelength observations of SN Ia, a growing body of evidence suggests that NIR SN Ia observations will be crucial for future cosmological studies. Whereas SN Ia observed at optical wavelengths have been shown to be excellent standardizeable candles, using empirical correlations between luminosity, light curve shape, and color, the CfAIR2 data set strengthens the evidence that SN Ia at NIR wavelengths are essentially standard candles, even without correction for light-curve shape or for reddening. CfAIR2 was obtained as part of the CfA Supernova Program, an ongoing multi-wavelength follow-up effort at FLWO designed to observe high-quality, densely sampled light curves and spectra of hundreds of low-redshift SN Ia. CfAIR2 is the largest homogeneously observed and processed NIR data set of its kind to date, nearly tripling the number of individual JHK8-band observations and nearly doubling the set of SN Ia with published NIR light curves in the literature. Matched only by the recently published Carnegie Supernova Project sample, CfAIR2 complements the large and growing set of low-redshift optical and NIR SN Ia observations obtained by the CfA and other programs, making this data set a unique and particularly valuable local universe anchor for future supernova cosmology.

  20. The influence of oxygen flow rate on properties of SnO{sub 2} thin films grown epitaxially on c-sapphire by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.M. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Jiang, J. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Xia, C. [Physical Chemistry Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kramm, B.; Polity, A. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); He, Y.B., E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Klar, P.J.; Meyer, B.K. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2015-11-02

    Tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition using SnI{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as reactants. The growth experiments were carried out at a fixed substrate temperature of 510 °C and different O{sub 2} flow rates. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis–IR spectrophotometry and Hall-effect measurement were used to characterize the films. All films consisted of pure-phase SnO{sub 2} with a rutile structure and showed an epitaxial relationship with the substrate of SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. The crystalline quality and properties of the films were found to be sensitively dependent on the O{sub 2} flow rate during the film growth. The absolute average transmittance of the SnO{sub 2} films exceeded 85% in the visible and infrared spectral region. The films had optical band-gaps (3.72–3.89 eV) that are in line with the band gap of single-crystal SnO{sub 2}. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the films decreased from 3.3 × 10{sup 19} to 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and from 19 to 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, while the resistivity increased from 0.01 to 3 Ω cm with increasing of the O{sub 2} flow rate from 5 to 60 sccm. - Highlights: • SnI{sub 2} (Sn{sup 2+}) was used as tin precursor to prepare tin oxide films by CVD. • Epitaxial SnO{sub 2} (100) films were obtained on c-sapphire with thickness more than 1 μm. • The epitaxial relationship is SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. • B{sub 2g} Raman mode was found to be absent in (100)-orientated SnO{sub 2} films on c-sapphire. • The crystal quality and properties of SnO{sub 2} films depended sensitively on the O{sub 2} flow rate.

  1. Herschel Detects a Massive Dust Reservoir in Supernova 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Meixner, M; Otsuka, M; Babler, B; Barlow, M J; Roman-Duval, J; Engelbracht, C; Sandstrom, K; Lakicevic, M; van Loon, J Th; Sonneborn, G; Clayton, G C; Long, K S; Lundqvist, P; Nozawa, T; Gordon, K D; Hony, S; Okumura, K; Misselt, K A; Montiel, E; Sauvage, M

    2011-01-01

    We report far-infrared and submillimeter observations of Supernova 1987A, the star that exploded on February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a galaxy located 160,000 lightyears away. The observations reveal the presence of a population of cold dust grains radiating with a temperature of ~17-23 K at a rate of about 220 solar luminosity. The intensity and spectral energy distribution of the emission suggests a dust mass of ~0.4-0.7 solar mass. The radiation must originate from the SN ejecta and requires the efficient precipitation of all refractory material into dust. Our observations imply that supernovae can produce the large dust masses detected in young galaxies at very high redshifts.

  2. Type Ia supernovae and the ^{12}C+^{12}C reaction rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E; Domínguez, I; Straniero, O; Isern, J; Escartín, J A

    2011-01-01

    The experimental determination of the cross-section of the ^{12}C+^{12}C reaction has never been made at astrophysically relevant energies (E<2 MeV). The profusion of resonances throughout the measured energy range has led to speculation that there is an unknown resonance at E\\sim1.5 MeV possibly as strong as the one measured for the resonance at 2.14 MeV. We study the implications that such a resonance would have for the physics of SNIa, paying special attention to the phases that go from the crossing of the ignition curve to the dynamical event. We use one-dimensional hydrostatic and hydrodynamic codes to follow the evolution of accreting white dwarfs until they grow close to the Chandrasekhar mass and explode as SNIa. In our simulations, we account for a low-energy resonance by exploring the parameter space allowed by experimental data. A change in the ^{12}C+^{12}C rate similar to the one explored here would have profound consequences for the physical conditions in the SNIa explosion, namely the centra...

  3. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  4. It's Alive! The Supernova Impostor 1961V

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D

    2011-01-01

    Reports of the death of the precursor of Supernova (SN) 1961V in NGC 1058 are exaggerated. Consideration of the best astrometric data shows that the star, known as "Object 7," lies at the greatest proximity to SN 1961V and is the likely survivor of the "SN impostor" super-outburst. SN 1961V does not coincide with a neighboring radio source and is therefore not a radio SN. Additionally, the current properties of Object 7, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, are consistent with it being a quiescent Luminous Blue Variable (LBV). Furthermore, post-explosion non-detections by the Spitzer Space Telescope do not necessarily and sufficiently rule out a surviving LBV. We therefore consider, based on the available evidence, that it is yet a bit premature to reclassify SN 1961V as a bona fide SN. The inevitable demise of this star, though, may not be too far off.

  5. The Host Galaxies of Fast-Ejecta Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Modjaz, Maryam; Kocevski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic-BL), the only kind of SN observed at the locations of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), exhibit wide features indicative of high ejecta velocities ((is) approximately 0.1c). We study the host galaxies of a sample of 245 low-redshift (z (is) less than 0.2) core-collapse SN, including 17 SN Ic-BL, discovered by galaxy-untargeted searches, and 15 optically luminous and dust-obscured z (is) less than 1.2 LGRBs. We show that, in comparison with SDSS galaxies having similar stellar masses, the hosts of low-redshift SN Ic- BL and z (is) is less than 1.2 LGRBs have high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities. Core-collapse SN having typical ejecta velocities, in contrast, show no preference for such galaxies. Moreover, we find that the hosts of SN Ic-BL, unlike those of SN Ib/Ic and SN II, exhibit high gas velocity dispersions for their stellar masses. The patterns likely reflect variations among star-forming environments, and suggest that LGRBs can be used as probes of conditions in high-redshift galaxies. They may be caused by efficient formation of massive binary progenitors systems in densely star-forming regions, or, less probably, a higher fraction of stars created with the initial masses required for a SN Ic-BL or LGRB. Finally, we show that the preference of SN Ic-BL and LGRBs for galaxies with high stellar-mass and star-formation-rate densities cannot be attributed to a preference for low metal abundances but must reflect the influence of a separate environmental factor.

  6. Characterising the environments of supernovae with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Kuncarayakti, H; Krühler, T; Sánchez, S F; Falcón-Barroso, J; Pérez, E; Maureira, J C; Hamuy, M; González-Gaitán, S; Förster, F; Moral, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the environments of 11 supernovae (SNe) which occurred in 6 nearby galaxies (z $\\lesssim$ 0.016). All galaxies were observed with MUSE, the high spatial resolution integral field spectrograph mounted to the 8m VLT UT4. These data enable us to map the full spatial extent of host galaxies up to $\\sim$3 effective radii. In this way, not only can one characterise the specific host environment of each SN, one can compare their properties with stellar populations within the full range of other environments within the host. We present a method that consists of selecting all HII regions found within host galaxies from 2D extinction-corrected H$\\alpha$ emission maps. These regions are then characterised in terms of their H$\\alpha$ equivalent widths, star formation rates, and oxygen abundances. Identifying HII regions spatially coincident with SN explosion sites, we are thus able to determine where within the distributions of host galaxy e.g. metallicities and ages each SN is found,...

  7. RX-J0852−4622: THE NEAREST HISTORICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT – AGAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Aschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RX-J0852−4622, a supernova remnant, is demonstrated to be closer than 500 pc, based on the measurements of the angular radius, the angular expansion rate and the TeV g-ray flux. This is a new method of limiting the distance to any supernova remnant with hadronic induced TeV g-ray flux. The progenitor star of RX-J0852−4622 probably exploded in its blue supergiant wind, like SN 1987A, preceeded by a red supergiant phase. A cool dense shell, expected around the outskirts of the red wind, my have been identified. The distance (200 pc and age (680 yr of the supernova remnant, originally proposed, are supported.

  8. Supernova deleptonization asymmetry: Impact on self-induced flavor conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    During the accretion phase of a core-collapse supernova (SN), the deleptonization flux has recently been found to develop a global dipole pattern (LESA---Lepton Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry). The $\

  9. Hydrogen and helium in the spectra of Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Kozma, Cecilia; Baron, E; Cox, Nick L J; Fransson, Claes; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modeling. ESO/VLT optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to 70 days after maximum. We detect no hydrogen and helium lines, and place an upper limit on the mass loss rate for the putative wind of less than 1.3EE{-5} solar masses per year, assuming a speed of 10 km/s and solar abundances for the wind. In a helium-enriched case, the best line to constrain the mass loss would be He I 10,830 A. We confirm the details of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., but also find evidence for 6613.56 A Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) absorption in the Milky Way. We discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained 16 days after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find a...

  10. Neutrinos from Type Ia Supernovae: The Gravitationally Confined Detonation Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Warren P; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Roepke, Friedrich K; Scholberg, Kate; Seitenzahl, Ivo R

    2016-01-01

    Despite their use as cosmological distance indicators and their importance in the chemical evolution of Galaxies, the unequivocal identification of the progenitor systems and explosion mechanism of normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains elusive. The leading hypothesis is that such a supernova is a thermonuclear explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf but the exact explosion mechanism is still a matter of debate. Observation of a Galactic SN Ia would be of immense value in answering the many open questions related to these events. One potentially useful source of information about the explosion mechanism and progenitor is the neutrino signal. In this paper we compute the expected neutrino signal from a Gravitationally Confined Detonation (GCD) explosion scenario for a SN~Ia and show how the flux at Earth contains features in time and energy unique to this scenario. We then calculate the expected event rates in the Super-K, Hyper-K, JUNO, DUNE, and IceCube detectors and find both Hyper-K and IceCube would se...

  11. Revisiting the Lick Observatory Supernova Search Volume-Limited Sample: Updated Classifications and Revised Stripped-envelope Supernova Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Shivvers, Isaac; Zheng, Weikang; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Liu, Yuqian; Matheson, Thomas; Pastorello, Andrea; Graur, Or; Foley, Ryan J; Chornock, Ryan; Smith, Nathan; Leaman, Jesse; Benetti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine the classifications of supernovae (SNe) presented in the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) volume-limited sample with a focus on the stripped-envelope SNe. The LOSS volumetric sample, presented by Leaman et al. (2011) and Li et al. (2011b), was calibrated to provide meaningful measurements of SN rates in the local universe; the results presented therein continue to be used for comparisons to theoretical and modeling efforts. Many of the objects from the LOSS sample were originally classified based upon only a small subset of the data now available, and recent studies have both updated some subtype distinctions and improved our ability to perform robust classifications, especially for stripped-envelope SNe. We re-examine the spectroscopic classifications of all events in the LOSS volumetric sample (180 SNe and SN impostors) and update them if necessary. We discuss the populations of rare objects in our sample including broad-lined Type Ic SNe, Ca-rich SNe, SN 1987A-like events (we identify...

  12. High-rate, long-life Ni-Sn nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoun, J.; Panero, S.; Scrosati, B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Simon, P.; Taberna, P.L. [CIRIMAT-UMR 5085 - Universite Paul Sabatier, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France)

    2007-06-18

    Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallic electrodes prepared into a revolutionary nanostructure, obtained by electrodeposition on a nanoarchitectured Cu substrate, are described. This structure controls the volume stress that accompanies the electrochemical process yielding a performance rarely observed with lithium metal storage electrodes. The new electrode shows impressive electrochemical behavior and cycles in lithium cells for more than 200 cycles with a stable high capacity. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. The Discovery of the Most Distant Known Type Ia Supernova at Redshift 1.914

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David O; Riess, Adam G; Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; McCully, Curtis; Frederiksen, Teddy F; Casertano, Stefano; Hjorth, Jens; Keeton, Charles R; Koekemoer, Anton; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wiklind, Tommy G; Challis, Peter; Graur, Or; Hayden, Brian; Patel, Brandon; Weiner, Benjamin J; Filippenko, Alexei V; Garnavich, Peter; Jha, Saurabh W; Kirshner, Robert P; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift $z = 1.914$ from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope (HST)}. This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify this object as a SN\\,Ia by comparing its light curve and spectrum with those of a large sample of Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae (SNe). Its apparent magnitude is consistent with that expected from the $\\Lambda$CDM concordance cosmology. We discuss the use of spectral evidence for classification of $z > 1.5$ SNe\\,Ia using {\\it HST} grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe\\,II, but distinguishing between SNe\\,Ia and SNe\\,Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic classification methods can aid the determination of SN rates and cosmolog...

  14. EMISSION FROM PAIR-INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE WITH ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Van Rossum, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Craig, Wheeler J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Whalen, Daniel J. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Smidt, Joseph [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon, E-mail: manolis@flash.uchicago.edu [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) have been suggested as candidates for some superluminous supernovae, such as SN 2007bi, and as one of the dominant types of explosion occurring in the early universe from massive, zero-metallicity Population III stars. The progenitors of such events can be rapidly rotating, therefore exhibiting different evolutionary properties due to the effects of rotationally induced mixing and mass-loss. Proper identification of such events requires rigorous radiation hydrodynamics and radiative transfer calculations that capture not only the behavior of the light curve but also the spectral evolution of these events. We present radiation hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations for 90-300 M {sub ☉} rotating PISNe covering both the shock breakout and late light curve phases. We also investigate cases of different initial metallicity and rotation rate to determine the impact of these parameters on the detailed spectral characteristics of these events. In agreement with recent results on non-rotating PISNe, we find that for a range of progenitor masses and rotation rates these events have intrinsically red colors in contradiction with observations of superluminous supernovae. The spectroscopic properties of rotating PISNe are similar to those of non-rotating events with stripped hydrogen and helium envelopes. We find that the progenitor metallicity and rotation rate properties are erased after the explosion and cannot be identified in the resulting model spectra. It is the combined effects of pre-supernova mass-loss and the basic properties of the supernova ejecta such as mass, temperature, and velocity that have the most direct impact in the model spectra of PISNe.

  15. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  16. Spectroscopic classification of SN2017gvr as a peculiar type Ib SN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jorge; Galbany, L.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.

    2017-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of SN2017gvr as a peculiar type Ib supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV Real-time Transient Search (Wyrzykowski et al., 2014 arxiv:1409.1095; http://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl/).

  17. A statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors from supernova SN 1987 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I. (Institut Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-11-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors on UT 07:35, 2/23'87 is carried out. Distribution functions of the mean scattering angles in the reaction anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n and 4ue->4ue are constructed with account taken of the multiple Coulomb scattering and the experimental angular errors. The Smirnov and Wald-Wolfowitz run tests are used to test the hypothesis that the angular distributions of events from the two detectors agree with each other. We test with the use of the Kolmogorov and Mises statistical criterions the hypothesis that the recorded events all represent anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n inelastic scatterings. Then the Neyman-Pearson test is applied to each event in testing the hypothesis anti 4u{sub e}p->e{sup +}n against the alternative 4ue->4ue. The hypotheses that the number of elastic events equals s=0, 1, 2, ... against the alternatives snot =0, 1, 2, ... are tested on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio criterion. The confidence intervals for the number of elastic events are also constructed. The current supernova models fail to give a satisfactory account of the angular distribution data. (orig.).

  18. Snapping Supernovae at z>1.7

    CERN Document Server

    Aldering, G; Kowalski, M; Linder, E V; Perlmutter, S; Aldering, Greg; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric V.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2006-01-01

    We examine the utility of very high redshift Type Ia supernovae for cosmology and systematic uncertainty control. Next generation space surveys such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will obtain thousands of supernovae at z>1.7, beyond the design redshift for which the supernovae will be exquisitely characterized. We find that any z\\gtrsim2 standard candles' use for cosmological parameter estimation is quite modest and subject to pitfalls; we examine gravitational lensing, redshift calibration, and contamination effects in some detail. The very high redshift supernovae - both thermonuclear and core collapse - will provide copious interesting information on star formation, environment, and evolution. However, the new observational systematics that must be faced, as well as the limited expansion of SN-parameter space afforded, does not point to high value for 1.7

  19. Pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposites as high-rate and long-life anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingang; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we report on the preparation of the pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposite with an aerosol spray pyrolysis and its application as a high-rate and long-life anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology analysis of the as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite shows that Sn nanoparticles with a size of about 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix (denoted as Sn8@C). The Sn8@C nanocomposite exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 1007.1 mA h g-1 and maintains a reversible capacity of 910 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 200 mA g-1 (0.305 C). A capacity of 410 mA h g-1 was obtained after 1000 cycles at 4000 mA g-1 (6.1 C). Furthermore, the Sn8@C nanocomposite displays a charge-discharge capacity of 205.3 mA h g-1 at 16 000 mA g-1 (24.4 C). This high-rate performance is owing to the fact that the ultrasmall tin nanoparticles can effectively alleviate the absolute stress/strain during the lithiation/delithiation process and that the uniformly embedded nanoparticles in the stable carbon framework can accommodate the large volume change with a buffering effect to prevent Sn nanoparticles from aggregating.In this article, we report on the preparation of the pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposite with an aerosol spray pyrolysis and its application as a high-rate and long-life anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology analysis of the as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite shows that Sn nanoparticles with a size of about 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix (denoted as Sn8@C). The Sn8@C nanocomposite exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 1007.1 mA h g-1 and maintains a reversible capacity of 910 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 200 mA g-1 (0.305 C). A capacity of 410 mA h g-1 was obtained after 1000 cycles at 4000 mA g-1 (6.1 C). Furthermore, the Sn8@C nanocomposite displays a charge-discharge capacity of 205.3 mA h g-1 at 16 000 mA g-1 (24.4 C). This high-rate performance is owing to the

  20. A New Supernova Discovery/Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Sullivan, M.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2010-10-01

    The Type Ia supernova science working group of the Palomar Transient Factory (ATEL#1964) reports the discovery of the Type Ia supernova PTF10ygu at RA=09:37:30.30, Dec=+23:09:33.6 (J2000) in the host galaxy NGC 2929 at z=0.025. The supernova was discovered on Oct. 12.5 UT when it was at magnitude 19.2 in R-band (calibrated wrt the USNO catalog). There was nothing at this location on Oct 8.5 UT to a limiting magnitude of 20.3, and a marginal detection (S/N=5) at R=19.6 on Oct.

  1. Effect of 0.5 wt % Cu addition in Sn-3.5%Ag solder on the dissolution rate of Cu metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. O.; Chan, Y. C.; Tu, K. N.

    2003-12-01

    The dissolution of thin film under-bump-metallization (UBM) by molten solder has been one of the most serious processing problems in electronic packaging technology. Due to a higher melting temperature and a greater Sn content, a molten lead-free solder such as eutectic SnAg has a faster dissolution rate of thin film UBM than the eutectic SnPb. The work presented in this paper focuses on the role of 0.5 wt % Cu in the base Sn-3.5%Ag solder to reduce the dissolution of the Cu bond pad in ball grid array applications. We found that after 0.5 wt % Cu addition, the rate of dissolution of Cu in the molten Sn-3.5%Ag solder slows down dramatically. Systematic experimental work was carried out to understand the dissolution behavior of Cu by the molten Sn-3.5%Ag and Sn-3.5%Ag-0.5%Cu solders at 230-250 °C, for different time periods ranging from 1 to 10 min. From the curves of consumed Cu thickness, it was concluded that 0.5 wt % Cu addition actually reduces the concentration gradient at the Cu metallization/molten solder interface which reduces the driving force of dissolution. During the dissolution, excess Cu was found to precipitate out due to heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu6Sn5 at the solder melt/oxide interface. In turn, more Cu can be dissolved again. This process continues with time and leads to more dissolution of Cu from the bond pad than the amount expected from the solubility limit, but it occurs at a slower rate for the molten Sn-3.5%Ag-0.5%Cu solder.

  2. Optical Spectra and Light Curves of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Filippenko, A V

    2003-01-01

    I review recent optical observations of supernovae (SNe) conducted by my group. The Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope is currently the world's most successful search for nearby SNe. We also use this telescope to obtain multicolor light curves of SNe. One of the more interesting SNe we discovered is SN 2000cx, which differs from all previously observed SNe Ia. Another very strange SN Ia that we studied is SN 2002cx, many of whose properties are opposite those of SN 2000cx. Extensive data on SNe II-P 1999em and 1999gi were used to derive distances with the expanding photosphere method. Results from spectropolarimetry suggest that the deeper we peer into the ejecta of core-collapse SNe, the greater the asphericity. We are using Hubble Space Telescope data to identify, or set limits on, the progenitors of core-collapse SNe.

  3. Effect of argon gas flow rate on properties of film electrodes prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabli, Nordin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Zainal, Zulkarnain [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Hilal, Hikmat S. [SSERL, Department of Chemistry An-Najah N. University, PO Box 7, Nablus, West Bank (Country Unknown); Fujii, Masatoshi [Department of Molecular Science, School of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane, 693-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    This work describes a new technique to enhance photoresponse of metal chalcogenide-based semiconductor film electrodes deposited by thermal vacuum evaporation under argon gas flow from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} sources. SnSe formation with Cu-doped was obtained under higher argon gas flow rate (V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min). Higher value of photoresponse was observed for films deposited under V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min which was 9.1%. This finding indicates that Cu atoms inside the SnSe film were important to increase carrier concentrations that promote higher photoresponse.

  4. First supernova companion star found

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  5. Rapidly evolving faint transients from stripped-envelope electron-capture supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the expected rates and bolometric light-curve properties of stripped-envelope electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe) using stellar models from the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code. We find that 0.8 per cent (Z = 0.020) and 1.2 per cent (Z = 0.004) of core-collapse supernovae are stripped-envelope ECSNe. Their typical ejecta masses are estimated to be about 0.3 M⊙(Z = 0.020) and 0.6 M⊙ (Z = 0.004). Assuming ECSN explosion properties from numerical explosion simulations, an explosion energy of 1.5 × 1050 erg and a 56Ni mass of 2.5 × 10-3 M⊙, we find that stripped-envelope ECSNe have a typical rise time of around 7 d (Z = 0.020) or 13 d (Z = 0.004) and peak luminosity of around 1041 ergs-1 (-13.8 mag, Z = 0.020) or 7 × 1040 erg s-1 (-13.4 mag, Z = 0.004). Their typical ejecta velocities are around 7000 km s-1 (Z = 0.020) or 5000 km s-1 (Z = 0.004). Thus, stripped-envelope ECSNe are observed as rapidly evolving faint transients with relatively small velocities. SN 2008ha-like supernovae, which are the faintest kind of SN 2002cx-like (also known as Type Iax) supernovae, may be related to stripped-envelope ECSNe.

  6. Momentum Injection by Supernovae in the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Goo

    2014-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions deposit prodigious energy and momentum in their environments, with the former regulating multiphase thermal structure and the latter regulating turbulence and star formation rates in the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to the extensive efforts developing spherical models for SN remnant (SNR) evolution, systematic studies quantifying the impact of SNe in more realistic inhomogeneous ISM conditions have been lacking. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling, we investigate the dependence of radial momentum injection on both physical conditions (considering a range of mean density n=0.1-100) and numerical parameters. Our inhomogeneous simulations adopt two-phase background states that result from thermal instability in atomic gas. Although the SNR morphology becomes highly complex for inhomogeneous backgrounds, the radial momentum injection is remarkably insensitive to environmental details. For our two-phase simulations, the final mo...

  7. A model SN2 reaction ‘on water’ does not show rate enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine V.; Benjamin, Ilan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of the benchmark nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2) Cl- + CH3Cl are carried out at the water liquid/vapor interface. The reaction free energy profile and the activation free energy are determined as a function of the reactants' location normal to the surface. The activation free energy remains almost constant relative to that in bulk water, despite the fact that the barrier is expected to significantly decrease as the reaction is carried out near the vapor phase. We show that this is due to the combined effects of a clustering of water molecules around the nucleophile and a relatively weak hydration of the transition state.

  8. An Unusually Fast-Evolving Supernova

    OpenAIRE

    Poznanski, Dovi; Chornock, Ryan; Nugent, Peter E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Thomas, Rollin C.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of supernovae (SNe) have revealed two main types of progenitors: exploding white dwarfs and collapsing massive stars. We present SN2002bj, which stands out as different from any SN reported to date. Its light curve rises and declines very rapidly, yet reaches a peak intrinsic brightness greater than -18 mag. A spectrum obtained 7 days after discovery shows the presence of helium and intermediate-mass elements, yet no clear hydrogen or iron-peak elements. The spectrum only barely rese...

  9. Superluminous supernova 2015bn in the nebular phase: evidence for the engine-powered explosion of a stripped massive star

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Margutti, R; Chornock, R; Blanchard, P K; Jerkstrand, A; Smartt, S J; Arcavi, I; Challis, P; Chambers, K C; Chen, T -W; Cowperthwaite, P S; Gal-Yam, A; Hosseinzadeh, G; Howell, D A; Inserra, C; Kankare, E; Magnier, E A; Maguire, K; Mazzali, P A; McCully, C; Milisavljevic, D; Smith, K W; Taubenberger, S; Valenti, S; Wainscoat, R J; Yaron, O; Young, D R

    2016-01-01

    We present nebular-phase imaging and spectroscopy for the hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova SN 2015bn, at redshift z=0.1136, spanning +250-400 d after maximum light. The light curve exhibits a steepening in the decline rate from 1.4 mag/(100 d) to 1.7 mag/(100 d), suggestive of a significant decrease in the opacity. This change is accompanied by a transition from a blue continuum superposed with photospheric absorption lines to a nebular spectrum dominated by emission lines of oxygen, calcium and magnesium. There are no obvious signatures of circumstellar interaction or large nickel mass. We show that the spectrum at +400 d is virtually identical to a number of energetic Type Ic supernovae such as SN 1997dq, SN 2012au, and SN 1998bw, indicating similar core conditions and strengthening the link between `hypernovae'/long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae. A single explosion mechanism may unify these events that span absolute magnitudes of -22 < M_B < -17. Both the light curve and spectrum...

  10. Highly ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, W.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Di Teodoro, E.; Fraternali, F.; Gavazzi, R.; Mercurio, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rodney, S.; Treu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply imaged, highly magnified, and spatially resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly magnified spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We

  11. Echoes from Ancient supernovae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Smith, R C; Welch, D L; Becker, A; Bergmann, M; Clocchiatti, A; Cook, K; Garg, A; Huber, M; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Nikolaev, S; Stubbs, C

    2005-06-15

    In principle, historical supernovae could still be visible as scattered-light echoes even centuries later [1, 2]. Searches for surface brightness variations using photographic plates have not recovered any echoes in the regions of historical Galactic supernovae [3]. Using differenced images, our SuperMACHO collaboration has discovered three faint new variable surface brightness complexes with high apparent proper motion pointing back to well-defined positions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These correspond to three of the six smallest (and likely youngest) supernova remnants believed to be due to thermonuclear (Type Ia) supernovae [4]. A lower limit to the age of these remnants and echoes is 200 years given the lack of any reported LMC supernovae until 1987. The discovery of historical supernova echoes in the LMC suggests that similar echoes for Galactic supernovae such as Tycho, Kepler, Cas A, or SN1006 could be visible using standard image differencing techniques.

  12. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  13. Rapidly Rising Transients in the Supernova - Superluminous Supernova Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D Andrew; Bildsten, Lars; Leloudas, Giorgos; Hardin, Delphine; Prajs, Szymon; Perley, Daniel A; Svirski, Gilad; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz; McCully, Curtis; Cenko, S Bradley; Lidman, Chris; Sullivan, Mark; Valenti, Stefano; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe; Carlberg, Ray G; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Pain, Reynald; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas; Rich, James; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina

    2015-01-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t_{rise}~10d) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M_{peak}~-20) - one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as a Type II SN due to broad Halpha emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Halpha (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si II (as seen in Type Ia SNe), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM) and magnetar spindown can not r...

  14. The High-Metallicity Explosion Environment of the Relativistic Supernova 2009bb

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, E M; Foley, R J; Berger, E; Kewley, L J; Chakraborty, S; Ray, A; Torres, M A P; Challis, P; Kirshner, R P; Barthelmy, S D; Bietenholz, M F; Chandra, P; Chaplin, V; Chevalier, R A; Chugai, N; Connaughton, V; Copete, A; Fox, O; Fransson, C; Grindlay, J E; Hamuy, M A; Milne, P A; Pignata, G; Stritzinger, M D; Wieringa, M H

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearby (d ~ 40Mpc) broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2009bb. This event was observed to produce a relativistic outflow likely powered by a central accreting compact object. While such a phenomenon was previously observed only in long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), no LGRB was detected in association with SN 2009bb. Using an optical spectrum of the SN 2009bb explosion site, we determine a variety of ISM properties for the host environment, including metallicity, young stellar population age, and star formation rate. We compare the SN explosion site properties to observations of LGRB and broad-lined SN Ic host environments on optical emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. Based on these analyses, we find that the SN 2009bb explosion site has a very high metallicity of ~2x solar, in agreement with other broad-lined SN Ic host environments and at odds with the low-redshift LGRB host environments and recently proposed maximum metallicity limits for relativistic explosions...

  15. The nature of supernovae 2010O and 2010P in Arp 299 - II. Radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Cañizales, C; Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Kankare, E; Bauer, F E; Ryder, S D; Mattila, S; Conway, J E; Beswick, R J; Muxlow, T W B

    2014-01-01

    We report radio observations of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe), 2010O and 2010P, which exploded within a few days of each other in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299. Whilst SN 2010O remains undetected at radio frequencies, SN 2010P was detected (with an astrometric accuracy better than 1 milli arcsec in position) in its optically thin phase in epochs ranging from ~1 to ~3yr after its explosion date, indicating a very slow radio evolution and a strong interaction of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium. Our late-time radio observations toward SN 2010P probe the dense circumstellar envelope of this SN, and imply a mass-loss rate (Msun/yr) to wind velocity (in units of 10 km/s) ratio of (3.0-5.1)E-05, with a 5 GHz peak luminosity of ~1.2E+27 erg/s/Hz on day ~464 after explosion. This is consistent with a Type IIb classification for SN 2010P, making it the most distant and most slowly evolving Type IIb radio SN detected to date.

  16. The Most Slowly Declining Type Ia Supernova 2001ay

    CERN Document Server

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Matheson, Thomas; Howell, C Andrew; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Aldering, Greg; Berlind, Perry L; Calkins, M; Challis, Peter; Chornock, Ryan; Conley, Alexander; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Germany, Lisa; Gonzalez, Sergio; Gooding, Samuel D; Hsiao, Eric; Kasen, Daniel; Kirshner, Robert P; Marion, G H "Howie"; Muena, Cesar; Nugent, Peter E; Phelps, M; Phillips, Mark M; Qiu, Yulei; Quimby, Robert; Rines, K; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Thomas, Rollin C; Wang, Lifan

    2011-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry, as well as ground-based optical spectra and Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra, of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2001ay. At maximum light the Si II and Mg II lines indicated expansion velocities of 14,000 km/sec, while Si III and S II showed velocities of 9,000 km/sec There is also evidence for some unburned carbon at 12,000 km/sec. SN 2001ay exhibited a decline-rate parameter Delta m_15(B) = 0.68 \\pm 0.05 mag; this and the B-band photometry at t > +25 d past maximum make it the most slowly declining Type Ia SN yet discovered. Three of four super-Chandrasekhar-mass candidates have decline rates almost as slow as this. After correction for Galactic and host-galaxy extinction, SN 2001ay had M_B = -19.19 and M_V = -19.17 mag at maximum light; thus, it was not overluminous in optical bands. In near-infrared bands it was overluminous only at the 2-sigma level at most. For a rise time of 18 d (explosion to bolometric maximum) the implied Ni-56 yield was (0.58 \\p...

  17. Modelling the supernova-driven ISM in different environments

    CERN Document Server

    Gatto, A; Mac Low, M -M; Naab, T; Girichidis, P; Glover, S C O; Wünsch, R; Klessen, R S; Clark, P C; Baczynski, C; Peters, T; Ostriker, J P; Ibáñez-Mejía, J C; Haid, S

    2014-01-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations in a $(256\\;{\\rm pc})^3$ periodic box to model the impact of supernova (SN) explosions on the multi-phase interstellar medium (ISM) for initial densities $n =$ 0.5-30 cm$^{-3}$ and SN rates 1-720 Myr$^{-1}$. We include radiative cooling, diffuse heating, and the formation of molecular gas using a chemical network. The SNe explode either at random positions, at density peaks, or both. We further present a model combining thermal energy for resolved and momentum input for unresolved SN remnants. Random driving at high SN rates results in hot gas ($T\\gtrsim 10^6$ K) filling $> 90$% of the volume. This gas reaches high pressures ($10^4 50$%), residing in small, dense clumps. Such a model might resemble the dense ISM in high-redshift galaxies. Peak driving results in huge radiative losses, but disrupts the densest regions by construction, producing a filamentary ISM with virtually no hot gas, and a small molecular hydrogen mass fraction ($\\ll 1$%). Varying the ratio of peak to ran...

  18. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, A; Leloup, C; Neveu, J; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Rich, J; Carlberg, R; Lidman, C; Pritchet, C

    2016-01-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts ($0.2SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia sa...

  19. The role of supernova neutrinos on molecular homochirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    Electroweak parity violating interaction between supernova (SN) neutrinos and electrons of a simple chiral molecule is studied related to the origin of molecular homochirality. Appearance of supernova remnants inside molecular clouds favours the interaction of SN-neutrinos with interstellar molecules, leading to a energetic difference between the two enantiomers of the order of 10(-5) eV. This energetic difference is closer to the thermic energy of the interstellar medium, so molecular homochirality could be enhanced in molecular clouds containing supernova remnants inside it due to neutrino interaction.

  20. The Effect of Peculiar Velocities on Supernova Cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Tamara Maree; Hui, Lam; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effect that peculiar velocities have on the cosmological inferences we make using luminosity distance indicators, such as Type Ia supernovae. In particular we study the corrections required to account for (1) our own motion, (2) correlations in galaxy motions, and (3) a possible...... local under- or overdensity. For all of these effects we present a case study showing the impact on the cosmology derived by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). Correcting supernova (SN) redshifts for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole slightly overcorrects...

  1. Smoking Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, H L; Dunne, L

    2007-01-01

    The question "Are supernovae important sources of dust?" is a contentious one. Observations with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) only detected very small amounts of hot dust in supernova remnants. Here, we review observations of two young Galactic remnants with the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA), which imply that large quantities of dust are produced by supernovae. The association of dust with the Cassiopeia A remnant is in question due to the contamination of foreground material. In this article, we compare the emission from cold dust with CO emission towards Kepler's supernova remnant. We detect very little CO at the location of the submillimetre peaks. A comparison of masses from the CO and the dust clouds are made, and we estimate the 3 sigma upper limit on the gas-to-dust ratios to range from 25 - 65 suggesting that we cannot yet rule out freshly-formed or swept up circumstellar dust in Kepler's supernova remnant.

  2. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  3. Runaway Stars in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannicke, Anna; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Dinçel, Baha

    2016-07-01

    Half of all stars and in particular 70 % of the massive stars are a part of a multiple system. A possible development for the system after the core collapse supernova (SN) of the more massive component is as follows: The binary is disrupted by the SN. The formed neutron star is ejected by the SN kick whereas the companion star either remains within the system and is gravitationally bounded to the neutron star, or is ejected with a spatial velocity comparable to its former orbital velocity (up to 500 km/s). Such stars with a large peculiar space velocity are called runaway stars. We present our observational results of the supernova remnants (SNRs) G184.6-5.8, G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2. The focus of this project lies on the detection of low mass runaway stars. We analyze the spectra of a number of candidates and discuss their possibility of being the former companions of the SN progenitor stars. The spectra were obtained with INT in Tenerife, Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory and the University Observatory Jena. Also we investigate the field stars in the neighborhood of the SNRs G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2 and calculate more precise distances for these SNRs.

  4. Testing the Standardizability of Type Ia Supernovae with the Cepheid Distance of a Twin Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Having nearly identical optical light-curve shapes, colors, and spectra, SN 2011by and 2011fe are "twin" Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia). As such, these "standardizable candles" should have identical luminosities. But using independent distance measurements to these SN, their peak luminosity differs by 0.6 mag --- significantly larger than the typical scatter amongst all SN Ia. Differences in their UV spectra indicate that the SN have different metallicities, which could account for the luminosity difference. On the other hand, the distance to SN 2011by, from a Tully-Fisher measurement, may be wrong. We propose to measure a Cepheid distance to SN 2011by to determine if metallicity or an imprecise measurement is causing this large difference.The implications are far reaching for SN cosmology. If the current distance is correct, changing progenitor metallicity could cause large distance biases with redshift. If the distance is revised to bring SN 2011by in line with SN 2011fe, we will infer that metallicity differences are not a large bias for SN cosmology.In the latter case, these data will also provide an additional SN with which we can measure the Hubble constant. Since the number of SN calibrators (only 8 published) limits the precision of our measurement of the Hubble constant, these observations can have a large impact on this measurement.

  5. Supernova 1987A: a Template to Link Supernovae to their Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, S; Pumo, M L; Bocchino, F

    2015-01-01

    The emission of supernova remnants reflects the properties of both the progenitor supernovae and the surrounding environment. The complex morphology of the remnants, however, hampers the disentanglement of the two contributions. Here we aim at identifying the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and at constraining the structure of the environment surrounding the supernova. We performed high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations describing SN 1987A soon after the core-collapse and the following three-dimensional expansion of its remnant between days 1 and 15000 after the supernova. We demonstrated that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A during the first 250 days of evolution reproduces also the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between supernovae and supernova remnants. By comparing model results with observations, we constrained the explosion energy in the range $1.2-1.4\\times 10^{51}$~erg and the envelope mass in the rang...

  6. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Carlberg, R.; Lidman, C.; Pritchet, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high-z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  7. Multiwavelength observations of the Type IIb supernova 2009mg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oates, S. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    We present Swift Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations, and visual wavelength spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2009mg, discovered in the Sb galaxy ESO 121-G26. The observational properties of SN 2009mg are compared to the prototype Type IIb SNe 1993J...

  8. Multiwavelength observations of the Type IIb supernova 2009mg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oates, S. R.; Bayless, A. J.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    We present Swift Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations, and visual wavelength spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2009mg, discovered in the Sb galaxy ESO 121-G26. The observational properties of SN 2009mg are compared to the prototype Type IIb SNe 1993J...

  9. Quantifying Supernovae-driven Multiphase Galactic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Bryan, Greg L.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-06-01

    Galactic outflows are observed everywhere in star-forming disk galaxies and are critical for galaxy formation. Supernovae (SNe) play the key role in driving the outflows, but there is no consensus as to how much energy, mass, and metal they can launch out of the disk. We perform 3D, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study SNe-driven outflows from stratified media. Assuming the SN rate scales with gas surface density Σgas as in the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, we find that the mass loading factor, η m, defined as the mass outflow flux divided by the star formation surface density, decreases with increasing Σgas as {η }{{m}}\\propto {{{Σ }}}{gas}-0.61. Approximately Σgas ≲ 50 M ⊙ pc-2 marks when η m ≳ 1. About 10%-50% of the energy and 40%-80% of the metals produced by SNe end up in the outflows. The tenuous hot phase (T > 3 × 105 K), which fills 60%-80% of the volume at the midplane, carries the majority of the energy and metals in the outflows. We discuss how various physical processes, including the vertical distribution of SNe, photoelectric heating, external gravitational field, and SN rate, affect the loading efficiencies. The relative scale height of gas and SNe is a very important factor in determining the loading efficiencies.

  10. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Chakraborti, S; Pignata, G; Chevalier, R A; Chandra, P; Ray, A; Wieringa, M H; Copete, A; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Barthelmy, S D; Bietenholz, M F; Chugai, N; Stritzinger, M D; Hamuy, M; Fransson, C; Fox, O; Levesque, E M; Grindlay, J E; Challis, P; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Milne, P A; Torres, M A P

    2010-01-28

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their gamma-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae revea