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Sample records for supernatant medium epec-induced

  1. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Comprehensive supernatant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task involves testing of sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the saline solutions in DOE storage tank supernatant at Oak Ridge and other sites. Staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are recovering and treating the liquid (supernatant) portions of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste in a hot cell to separate and remove the radionuclides. Batch tests will be used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernatant treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Small column tests will be made on selected sorbents to verify the batch data and to obtain additional data for process design. Efforts will be made to obtain samples of tank supernatant from Hanford for comparison.

  3. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hiery

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  4. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiery, Eva; Poetsch, Ansgar; Moosbauer, Tanja; Amin, Bushra; Hofmann, Jörg; Burkovski, Andreas

    2015-11-12

    Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  5. Bioactivities of Culture Supernatants from Retroviral Packaging Cells Carrying the Mouse Fas Ligand Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lingbo; ZOU Ping; GUO Rong; XIAO Juan; XU Zhiliang

    2001-01-01

    The bioactivities of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mouse Fas ligand (mFasL) gene was investigated. FasLcDNA was cloned into PLXIN with an internal ribosome entry site to link two cistrons through gene recombination technology, PLXIN and the recombinant vector PLFIN were separately transfected into PA317 retrovirus packing cell line by lipofectamine 2000, and the resistant clones were selected with G418 selective medium. The integration of genome DNA was assayed by genomic DNA PCR. NIH3T3 cells were transduced by the culture supernatants from PA317 carrying the mFasLcDNA gene, and were selected with G418 selective medium, so as to select the PLFIN-PA317 clone capable of producing higher titer of supernatants. The levels of mFasL protein on NIH3T3 cells membrane were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). The biological activity of mFasL on NIH3T3 cells membrane was investigated by the inducing apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells co-cultured with NIH3T3 cells expressing Fas ligand. To explore the direct mFasL cytotoxicity of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mFasL gene, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 and PLXIN-PA317 were separately co-cultured with Yac-1cells in parallel. The recombinant PLFIN was successfully constructed. The highest titer of supernatants from twelve resistant clones was 8. 5 × 105 colony-forming-unit (CFU)/ml. The NIH3T3cells transfected by above supernatants had a higher level of mFasL (53.81±6.9 %), and significantly induced the apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells (56. 78±4.5 %), as both were cocultured for 5 h at1 : 1 ratio, whereas it is 7. 08±3.4 % in control group (P<0. 01). Supernatant from PLFINPA317 could also directly induce the apoptosis of Yac-1 within 5 h of incubation. Thus, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 possessed both infectivity and cytotoxicity of mFasL.

  6. Treatment of serum with supernatants from cultures of Candida albicans reduces its serum-dependent phagocytosis

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    Santos Aderbal Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a potent activator of the complement system, and heat labile opsonins produced by activation of C3 (C3b and iC3b enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans mediated by complement receptors. In this study we treated mouse serum with supernatants from cultures of a protease producer strain of C. albicans and evaluated the ability of this serum to enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans. Cell-free supernatants from cultures of C. albicans were concentrated 5 fold and added to mouse serum for 30 min at 37ºC, before using this serum for opsonization of glutaraldehyde-fixed yeast cells. We observed that normal mouse serum increased about 3 fold the phagocytosis of C. albicans by mice peritoneal macrophages, whereas supernatant-treated serum did not increase phagocytosis. This effect of supernatants on serum was prevented by addition of pepstatin (5 µg/ ml; an inhibitor of C. albicans acid proteases to the medium. Serum treated with supernatants from cultures of a protease-deficient mutant of C. albicans also increased about 3 fold phagocytosis of the yeast. These results suggest that a protease produced by C. albicans causes proteolysis of serum opsonins, thereby reducing the phagocytosis of the yeast.

  7. Detection of p-coumaric acid from cell supernatant using surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Zor, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    A standard protocol for analysis of microbial factories requires the screening of several populations in order to find the bestperforming ones. Standard analytical methods usually include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layerchromatography (TLC) or spectrophotometry, which...... on detection ofp-coumaric acid (pHCA) in cell supernatant.SERS active substrates, based on leaning gold-capped silicon nanopillars, were used for detection. They were successfullyused to detect culture medium spiked with pHCA, and the effect of medium dilution was studied. For analysis of biologicalproduction...

  8. Dormant cells of Staphylococcus aureus are resuscitated by spent culture supernatant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Pascoe

    Full Text Available We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 10(6-10(7 cfu/ml to 600-fold increase in bacterial growth. Resuscitation was a specific effect, greatly reduced by boiling or addition of trypsin to the spent supernatant. Supernatant also effected a reduction in lag phase of dormant cultures. SEM demonstrated the presence of small coccoid cells in dormant cultures. The results are similar to those seen with resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs in actinobacteria. This is the first time resuscitation has been demonstrated in Staphylococcus aureus, which is an important human pathogen. A better understanding of control and reactivation of dormant cells could lead to major improvements in managing staphylococcal infections; resuscitation could be an important step in restoring susceptibility to antibiotic treatment.

  9. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy detection of p-coumaric acid from cell supernatant using gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Burger, Robert;

    HCA spiked in culture medium, in the same concentration range (10-4 – 10-5 M) commonly found in cell supernatant. For supernatant analysis, triplicate cultures of FjTAL modified (P strains) and control (C strains) E.coli strains were carried out according to the methods described by[5] and shown in Fig.1....... Samples of cell supernatant were extracted from each culture at 0, 3, 24 and 48 h post seeding and their pHCA content was measured with HPLC[5]. For SERS analysis, aliquots of supernatant were diluted 10-fold with MilliQ water, and 1 μL droplets were dried on the SERS substrates. A MatLab analysis......A standard protocol for analysis of microbial factories requires the screening of several populations in order to find the best performing ones. This is done with standard analytical methods (e.g. HPLC) with an expensive and time-consuming process. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS...

  10. Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner.

  11. Improving the performance of a biofuel cell cathode with laccase-containing culture supernatant from Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Winandy, Lex; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases that can be used in biofuel cells to improve cathode performance by cathodic oxygen reduction. Here we present a laccase from the ligninolytic white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus that, in contrast to the Trametes versicolor laccase, can be produced in the absence of inducers in a standard culture medium. After 7days of cultivation the activity of this laccase in culture supernatant reached 2.5U/ml, which is high enough for direct application of the supernatant in biofuel cells. The highest current density of 115.0±3.5μA/cm(2) at 400mV vs. SCE was obtained at pH 5 with a buckypaper cathode with a laccase-containing culture supernatant. The enzyme also showed electrocatalytic activity at pH 6 and 7. These results not only present a new cost-efficient laccase for improving cathode performance, but also show that new laccases with different catalytic properties can be suitable for biofuel cells.

  12. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatants interfere with killing of Pasteurella multocida by swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, W. B.; Bäckström, L; McDonald, J.; Collins, M T

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant on swine pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) functions was studied. The A. pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant was toxic to PAMs when tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Biological activity of the supernatant was ascribed to cytotoxins. Both the LDH and MTT assays were used for measurement of crude A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin concentrati...

  13. Protein A is released into the Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatant with an unprocessed sorting signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Dara P; Wynne, Kieran; Geoghegan, Joan A

    2015-04-01

    The immunoglobulin binding protein A (SpA) of Staphylococcus aureus is synthesized as a precursor with a C-terminal sorting signal. The sortase A enzyme mediates covalent attachment to peptidoglycan so that SpA is displayed on the surface of the bacterium. Protein A is also found in the extracellular medium, but the processes involved in its release are not fully understood. Here, we show that a portion of SpA is released into the supernatant with an intact sorting signal, indicating that it has not been processed by sortase A. Release of SpA was reduced when the native sorting signal of SpA was replaced with the corresponding region of another sortase-anchored protein (SdrE). Similarly, a reporter protein fused to the sorting signal of SpA was released to a greater extent than the same polypeptide fused to the SdrE sorting signal. Released SpA protected bacteria from killing in human blood, indicating that it contributes to immune evasion.

  14. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  15. Culture medium for amylase production by toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira Edson Luiz Zangrando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycelial growth and amylase production by a mycotoxigenic strain of Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in a culture medium containing starch, glycerol, wheat bran or corn. With emphasis on corn, different fractions composed by germ, degermed seed, starch, milky stage corn and the respective starch or supernatant fraction were analyzed for F. moniliforme growth . The medium composed of milky stage corn supernatant promoted the best mycelial growth (p<0.05, and it was used to prepare amylase production medium in the next step. The medium composed with 2% ground corn in milky stage corn supernatant (350g of milky stage corn blended with 250mL water and centrifuged promoted the highest amylase production, which was at the 10th day of fermentation, both for F. moniliforme (42.32U/mL and A. flavus (4,745.54U/mL.

  16. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils.

  17. The effect of moderately halophilic bacteria supernatant on proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, S; Seyedjafari, E; Amoozgar, M A; Bakhshandeh, B

    2015-06-10

    Many drug discoveries and developing of their applications has originated from microbial metabolites. The most efforts in development of new drugs are concerned with anti—cancer agents that cause better treatment results, less side effects, and more economical production. Several anti—tumor drugs have been recently extracted from natural microbial products. Among these various microbial diversity, Marin bacteria and Archaea have been considered as important and efficient organisms to serve as manufacturers of diverse bioactive compounds. Moderately halophilic microorganisms isolated from saline ponds and lakes of Iran show high capability for production of bioactive compounds like enzymes, dyes and anti—cancer agents. In this research, nine moderately halophilic bacteria isolates were screened to evaluate their anti—cancer agent productivity. After five days of culture on suitable mediums, supernatant samples were tested for in vitro anti—proliferative activity against Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) while same concentrations of supernatants were examined for evaluating of proliferative activity against Adipose—derived Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Both assessments were carried out by MTT assay and double PI and DAPI staining. GASX17, GBWy6 and GBPX3 isolates just induced HUVEC cell deaths and exhibited anti—proliferative activity while R2S12 not only reduced HUVEC cell proliferation but also enhanced proliferation of MSCs. R2S12 , GASX17, GBWy6 and GBPX3 isolates were characterized biochemically and six hydrophilic components were detected. This research established new bioactive compounds that could be used as an effective treatment in chemotherapy.

  18. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  19. Cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid supernatant for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M; Nemati, M; Maralani, M; Estiar, M A; Andalib, S; Fardiazar, Z; Sakhinia, E

    2016-04-30

    In widespread conviction, amniotic fluid is utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Amniotic fluid supernatant is usually discarded, notwithstanding being a good source of fetal DNA. The aim of the present study was to assess cell-free fetal DNA extracted from amniotic fluid supernatant for application in prenatal diagnosis such as gender determination and early diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Samples of amniotic fluid of 70 pregnant women were collected and went through routine tests along with tests for cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant. The DNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant was extracted and analyzed for gender determination by PCR and Real-time PCR. ARMS-PCR was applied to test early diagnosis of IVS II-I mutation (common β-thalassemia mutation) and E7V mutation for sickle cell anemia using DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant. Using the cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant, the sensitivity of PCR and Real-time PCR for gender detection was compared with the routine cytogenetic method. The fetus tested for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia was observed to be healthy but heterozygous for IVS II-I mutation. The findings indicated that cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant can be a good source of fetal DNA and be used in early prenatal diagnosis since because of its fast and accurate application. Therefore, it would be suggested that the amniotic fluid supernatant's disposal is prevented because if the tests needs to be repeated, cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant can be used as an alternative source for prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  1. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  2. Residual urinary extracellular vesicles in ultracentrifugation supernatants after hydrostatic filtration dialysis enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch-Weinert, Dorota; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Holthofer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant. TEM showed the presence of a variety of small size vesicles in the supernatant while protein identification by MS matched accurately with the protein list available in Vesiclepedia. Screening and relative quantification for specific vesicle markers showed that the supernatant was preferentially positive for CD9 and TSG101. ELISA tests for quantification of exosome revealed that 14%, was left in the supernatant with a particle diameter of 110 nm and concentration of 1.54 × 1010/ml. Here we show a comprehensive characterisation of exosomes and other small size urinary vesicles which the conventional differential centrifugation protocol may lose.

  3. Comparison of excretory-secretory antigen and positive faecal supernatant antigen in the detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by CIEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Prathiush

    Full Text Available Coproantigen detection of Echinococcosis in dogs by counter immunoelectrophoresis was standardized. Adult Echinococcus granulosus worms were obtained from intestine of a necropsied positive dog. Excretory-secretory antigen was prepared by culturing adult worms in Medium 199 (pH 7.4. Faeces of positive dog were collected and fecal supernatant was prepared and used for coproantigen detection. CIEP was carried out using tris-borate buffer (pH 8.0 at a constant current of 8mA/slide for 60 minutes. CIEP detected infection with both the antigens. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 421-422

  4. Evaluation of Hanford Tank Supernatant Availability for Technetium Management Project Studies in FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report examines the need for actual Hanford tank waste solutions to support tasks in the Technetium Management Program in fiscal year (FY) 2016. One key need is to identify both samples where a majority of the soluble technetium is present as pertechnetate and samples where it is not. The total amount of tank supernatant needed from any given tank waste supernatant was determined by polling the tasks leaders for their technology testing needs in FY16 and then arbitrarily ascribing a 10% process loss associated with consolidation and the Cs-137 removal needed to reduce the dose to a level suitable for testing in radiological fumehoods. These polling results identified a need for approximately 2.1 to 3.6 kg of any particular targeted Hanford tank waste supernatant.

  5. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  6. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that visceral sensitivity is linked to the degree of neuronal activation. Normo- and hypersensitive IBS patients were distinguished by their discomfort/pain threshold to rectal balloon distension with a barostat. Using potentiometric and Ca(2+) dye imaging, we recorded the response of guinea-pig enteric submucous and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, respectively, to mucosal biopsy supernatants from normosensitive (n = 12 tested in enteric neurons, n = 9 tested in DRG) and hypersensitive IBS patients (n = 9, tested in both types of neurons). In addition, we analysed the association between neuronal activation and individual discomfort/pain pressure thresholds. The IBS supernatants evoked Ca(2+) transients in DRG neurons and spike discharge in submucous neurons. Submucous and DRG neurons showed significantly stronger responses to supernatants from hypersensitive IBS patients as reflected by higher spike frequency or stronger [Ca(2+)]i transients in a larger proportion of neurons. The neuroindex as a product of spike frequency or [Ca(2+)]i transients and proportion of responding neurons correlated significantly with the individual discomfort/pain thresholds of the IBS patients. Supernatants from hypersensitive IBS patients caused stronger activation of enteric and DRG neurons. The level of activation correlated with the individual discomfort/pain threshold pressure values. These findings support our hypothesis that visceral sensitivity is linked to activation of peripheral neurons by biopsy supernatants.

  7. [Effects of combined application of culture supernatant of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Tu, H L; Ba, T; Wang, L F; Wang, S J; Nie, S Y

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of combined application of culture supernatant of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in vitro. Methods: hUCMSCs were isolated from umbilical cord tissue of full-term healthy fetus after cesarean section and cultured. Cells in the third passage were used in the experiments after identification. SA strains isolated from wounds of burn patients in our burn wards were used in the experiments. Cells were divided into 0, 10, 100, and 1 000 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups according to the random number table (the same dividing method below). Cells were cultured with culture medium of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after being treated with medium containing the corresponding mass concentrations of LPS for 12 h. At post culture hour (PCH) 6, 12, and 24, 6 wells of culture supernatant of cells in each group were obtained to measure the content of LL-37 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ninety blood agar plates were divided into ciprofloxacin control group (CC), ciprofloxacin+ supernatant group (CS), and ciprofloxacin+ supernatant+ LL-37 antibody group (CSL), with 30 blood agar plates in each group. Blood agar plates in group CC were coated with 1.5×10(8) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline. Blood agar plates in group CS were coated with 1.5×10(8) CFU/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline and culture supernatant of hUCMSCs (cultured by culture medium of MSCs, the same below) in double volume of normal saline. Blood agar plates in group CSL were coated with 1.5×10(8) CFU/mL bacteria solution prepared with normal saline, culture supernatant of hUCMSCs in double volume of normal saline, and 2.6 μL LL-37 antibody in the concentration of 2 μg/mL. At PCH 12, 24, and 48, 10 blood agar plates of each group were harvested to observe the distribution of SA colony on blood agar plate and to measure the diameter of

  8. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boildown study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-106 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27 °C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C.

  9. Thalidomide and pentoxifylline block the renal effects of supernatants of macrophages activated with Crotalus durissus cascavella venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.C. Martins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Because thalidomide and pentoxifylline inhibit the synthesis and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, we determined the effect of these drugs on the renal damage induced by supernatants of macrophages activated with Crotalus durissus cascavella venom in order to identify the role of TNF-alpha in the process. Rat peritoneal macrophages were collected with RPMI medium and stimulated in vitro with C.d. cascavella venom (10 µg/ml in the absence and presence of thalidomide (15 µM or pentoxifylline (500 µM for 1 h and washed and kept in culture for 2 h. Supernatant (1 ml was tested on an isolated perfused rat kidney (N = 6 for each group. The first 30 min of each experiment were used as control. The supernatant was added to the perfusion system. All experiments lasted 120 min. The toxic effect of the preparation of venom-stimulated macrophages on renal parameters was determined. At 120 min, thalidomide (Thalid and pentoxifylline (Ptx inhibited (P < 0.05 the increase in perfusion pressure caused by the venom (control = 114.0 ± 1.3; venom = 137.1 ± 1.5; Thalid = 121.0 ± 2.5; Ptx = 121.4 ± 4.0 mmHg, renal vascular resistance (control = 4.5 ± 0.2; venom = 7.3 ± 0.6; Thalid = 4.5 ± 0.9; Ptx = 4.8 ± 0.6 mmHg/ml g-1 min-1, urinary flow (control = 0.23 ± 0.001; venom = 0.44 ± 0.01; Thalid = 0.22 ± 0.007; Ptx = 0.21 ± 0.009 ml g-1 min-1, glomerular filtration rate (control = 0.72 ± 0.06; venom = 1.91 ± 0.11; Thalid = 0.75 ± 0.04; Ptx = 0.77 ± 0.05 ml g-1 min-1 and the decrease in percent tubular sodium transport (control = 77.0 ± 0.9; venom = 73.9 ± 0.66; Thalid = 76.6 ± 1.1; Ptx = 81.8 ± 2.0%, percent tubular chloride transport (control = 77.1 ± 1.2; venom = 71.4 ± 1.1; Thalid = 77.6 ± 1.7; Ptx = 76.8 ± 1.2%, and percent tubular potassium transport (control = 72.7 ± 1.1; venom = 63.0 ± 1.1; Thalid = 72.6 ± 1.0; Ptx = 74.8 ± 1.0%, 30 min before and during the stimulation of macrophages with C.d. cascavella venom

  10. EFFECT OF GLYCOSYLATION AT ASN302 OF PRO-UROKINASE ON ITS STABILITY IN CULTURE SUPERNATANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glycosylation at Asn302 of pro-urokinase (pro-UK) on the stability in culture supernatant.Methods Nonglycosylated pro-UK was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of Asn302 to Ala302. The proUK mutant and native pro-UK were transfected into dhfr-CHO cells, and serum-free culture supernatant was harvested and incubated at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. The pro-UK activity in culture supernatant was measured by the optical density (OD) increase with time ( 12 hours) at 405 nm. Without thermolysin activation, the percentage of single chain pro-UK was measured.Results After 48 hours of incubation at 4℃, the activities of pro-UK mutant and native pro-UK decreased 3.7%and 2. 9% respectively, and at 37℃ decreased 37.9 % and 23.5 %, respectively. The total activity of native pro-UK was significantly higher than that of nonglycosylated mutant at 37℃. The single-chain percentage of native pro-UK was higher than that of nonglycosylated mutant at both 4℃ and 37℃.Conclusion Higher temperature increases the proteolysis of pro-UK. The glycosylation site on Asn302 is beneficial to pro-UK stability in culture supernatant.

  11. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carlos J.; Reeve, Petra J.; Sawade, Emma [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Voldoire, Camille F. [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Collingnon, Lea [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Dreyfus, Jennifer [Allwater, Adelaide Services Alliance, Wakefield St, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Hobson, Peter [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Gaget, Virginie [University of Adelaide, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Newcombe, Gayle, E-mail: gayle.newcombe@sawater.com.au [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10 days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. - Highlights: • Cyanobacteria in water treatment sludge significantly impact supernatant quality • Cyanobacteria can survive, and thrive, in sludge lagoon supernatant and in treatment sludge • Metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria in sludge can increase up to 500% • The risk associated with supernatant recycling was assessed relative to available treatment barriers.

  12. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii supernatant improves intestinal barrier function in mice DSS colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Yakymenko, Olena; Olivier, Isabelle; Håkansson, Fathima; Postma, Emily; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. The intestinal microbiota plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) is underrepresented in IBD patients and have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Increased intestinal permeability is common in IBD but the relationship between FP and intestinal barrier function has not been investigated. Our aim was to study treatment with FP supernatant on intestinal barrier function in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis mice model. MATERIAL AND METHODS. C57BL/6 mice received 3% DSS in tap water ad libitum during five days to induce colitis. From day 3 the mice received a daily gavage with FP supernatant or broth during seven days. Ileum and colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for permeability studies with (51)Cr-EDTA and Escherichia coli K-12. Colon was saved for Western blot analyses of tight junction proteins. RESULTS. DSS-treated mice showed significant weight loss and colon shortening. Gavage with FP supernatant resulted in a quicker recovery after DSS treatment and less extensive colonic shortening. Ileal mucosa of DSS mice showed a significant increase in (51)Cr-EDTA-passage compared to controls. (51)Cr-EDTA passage was significantly decreased in mice receiving FP supernatant. No significant differences were observed in passage of E. coli K12. Western blots showed a trend to increased claudin-1 and claudin-2 expressions in DSS mice. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatant of FP enhances the intestinal barrier function by affecting paracellular permeability, and may thereby attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. These findings suggest a potential role of FP in the treatment of IBD.

  13. Early stationary phase culture supernatant accelerates growth of sputum cultures collected after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwijck, E; Friedrich, S O; Karinja, M N; van Ingen, J; Warren, R M; Diacon, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant added to sputum cultures collected during the first 8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment. With ongoing treatment duration, time to culture positivity decreased significantly in supernatant-enriched cultures, possibly due to stimulation of dormant or slowly metabolizing M. tuberculosis cells.

  14. Cell vacuolation induced by Haemophilus influenzae supernatants in HEp-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario Espinoza-Mellado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae belongs to respiratory tract microbiota. We observed vacuoles formation in previous studies with H. influenzae culture supernatants, so in this work we characterised that cytotoxic effect. We observed an abundant production of acidic cytoplasmic vacuoles due to the presence of a “vacuolating factor” in H. influenzae supernatants which was characterised as thermolabile. Greatest vacuolating activity was observed when utilizing the fraction > 50 kDa. The presence of a large number of vacuoles in HEp-2 cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy and some vacuoles were identified with a double membrane and/or being surrounded by ribosomes. These results suggest similar behaviour to that of vacuolating effects described by autotransporter proteins an undescribed cytotoxic effect induced by H. influenzae .

  15. Use of spray-dried zirconia microspheres in the separation of immunoglobulins from cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A; Carr, P W; McNeff, C V

    2000-08-18

    A method suitable for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on novel zirconia microspheres (20-30 microm) is described. Zirconia microspheres were generated by spray drying colloidal zirconia. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were further classified and characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were modified with ethylenediamine-N,N'-tetra(methylenephosphonic) acid (EDTPA) to create a cation-exchange chromatographic support. The chromatographic behavior of a semi-preparative column packed with EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres was evaluated and implications for scale-up are provided. EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres were further used to purify MAbs from cell culture supernatant. Analysis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis demonstrate that MAbs can be recovered from a cell culture supernatant at high yield (92-98%) and high purity (>95%) in a single chromatographic step.

  16. Modelling antagonic effect of lactic acid eacteria supernatants on some pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a statistical model of survival analysis for three pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus), when treated with neutralized and non-neutralized filtered supernatants broth from cultures of Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake. Survival analysis is a method employed to determine the period of time from an initial stage up to the occurrence of a particular event of interest, as death...

  17. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation and modulation of gene expression by probiotic cells and supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K M; MacDonald, K W; Chanyi, R M; Cadieux, P A; Burton, J P

    2016-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a disease caused by opportunistic species of Candida that normally reside on human mucosal surfaces. The transition of Candida from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows for covalent attachment to oral epithelial cells, followed by biofilm formation, invasion and tissue damage. In this study, combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum SD5870, Lactobacillus helveticus CBS N116411 and Streptococcus salivarius DSM 14685 were assessed for their ability to inhibit the formation of and disrupt Candida albicans biofilms. Co-incubation with probiotic supernatants under hyphae-inducing conditions reduced C. albicans biofilm formation by >75 % in all treatment groups. Likewise, combinations of live probiotics reduced biofilm formation of C. albicans by >67 %. When live probiotics or their supernatants were overlaid on preformed C. albicans biofilms, biofilm size was reduced by >63 and >65 % respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that the combined supernatants of SD5870 and CBS N116411 significantly reduced the expression of several C. albicans genes involved in the yeast-hyphae transition: ALS3 (adhesin/invasin) by 70 % (P biofilm formation) by >99 % (P formation of and removing preformed C. albicans biofilms. Our novel results point to the downregulation of several Candida genes critical to the yeast-hyphae transition, biofilm formation, tissue invasion and cellular damage.

  18. The Effect of Anaerobic and Aerobic Fish Sludge Supernatant on Hydroponic Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobilization of nutrients from fish sludge (i.e., feces and uneaten feed plays a key role in optimizing the resource utilization and thus in improving the sustainability of aquaponic systems. While several studies have documented the aerobic and anaerobic digestion performance of aquaculture sludge, the impact of the digestate on plant growth has yet to be understood. The present study examines the impact of either an aerobic or an anaerobic digestion effluent on lettuce plant growth, by enriching a mixture of aquaculture and tap water with supernatants from both aerobic and anaerobic batch reactors. The lettuce plants grown in the hydroponic system supplied with supernatant from an anaerobic reactor had significantly better performance with respect to weight gain than both, those in the system where supernatant from the aerobic reactor was added, as well as the control system. It can be hypothesized that this effect was caused by the presence of NH4+ as well as dissolved organic matter, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi, and humic acid, which are predominantly present in anaerobic effluents. This study should therefore be of value to researchers and practitioners wishing to further develop sludge remineralization in aquaponic systems.

  19. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  20. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  1. [Effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi'er; Lyu, Lu; Xin, Haiming; Luo, Liang; Tong, Yalin; Mo, Yongliang; Yue, Yigang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs-CS) on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts. (1) hAMSCs were isolated from deprecated human fresh amnion tissue of placenta and then sub-cultured. The morphology of hAMSCs on culture day 3 and hAMSCs of the third passage were observed with inverted phase contrast microscope. (2) Two batches of hAMSCs of the third passage were obtained, then the expression of vimentin of cells was observed with immunofluorescence method, and the expression of cell surface marker CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD45 was detected by flow cytometer. (3) hAMSCs-CS of the third passage at culture hour 72 were collected, and the content of insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (4) Human fibroblasts were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision and then sub-cultured. Human fibroblasts of the third passage were used in the following experiments. Cells were divided into blank control group and 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% hAMSCs-CS groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 48 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while cells in the latter 4 groups were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS and 2% FBS. The proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader at culture hour 12, 24, 48, and 72, respectively, and corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS which causing the best proliferation activity of human fibroblasts was used in the following experiments. (5) Human fibroblasts were divided into blank control group and 50% hAMSCs-CS group and treated as in (4), with 4 wells in each group, at post

  2. Rheological properties in supernatant of peach gum from almond(Prunus dulcis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 谢碧霞; 钟秋平; 杜红岩

    2008-01-01

    The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum from Prunnus dulcis were discussed in order to provide more scientific technical parameters and references for developing peach gum as a kind of medicinal gum.The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum were comparatively studied in different material ratios,temperatures,shaking times,pH values and salinities.The results show that,1) the mathematical model of shear rate with material ratio and shear stress is Y=0.069X12+0.035X2 -1.174,R2=0.942;2) the mathematical model of shear rate with temperature and shear stress is Y=4.936X12+0.023 2X2-1.688,R2=0.937;3) the mathematical model of shear rate with shaking time and shear stress is Y=0.005 192 X13-0.140 73X12+1.249 045X1+ 0.036 546 X2-3.644 29,R2=0.954 3;4) the effects of pH value on the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum are comparatively complicated with a varying range of 3-11 and the shear rate shows a change trend of saddle model;5) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of NaCl and shear stress is Y=-0.037 44X1+0.012 93 X2,R2=0.998;6) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of CaCl2 and shear stress is Y=0.025 789X1+0.016 19X2,R2 =0.999;and 7) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of sorbic acid potassium and shear stress is Y=0.079 5X1+0.017 3X2,R2=0.998.The results show that the material ratio,temperature,shaking time,pH value significantly affect the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum,and the concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 also significantly affect the rheological properties expect the concentration of sorbic acid potassium.

  3. Study of gelatin-agar intermolecular aggregates in the supernatant of its coacervate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S Santinath; Bohidar, H B; Bandyopadhyay, S

    2007-05-15

    Intermolecular interaction leading to formation of aggregates between gelatin, a polyampholyte, and agar, a polysaccharide was studied in the supernatant of the complex coacervate formed by these biopolymers. Electrophoresis, laser light scattering and viscometry data were used to determine the interaction and the physical structure of these intermolecular soluble complexes by modeling these to be prolate ellipsoids of revolution (rod-like structures with well defined axial ratio and Perrin's factor). Solution ionic strength was found to reduce the axial ratio of these complexes implying the presence of screened polarization-induced electrostatic interaction between the two biopolymers.

  4. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Masakazu; Arai, Hidehiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Aizawa, Masaki; Shimooka, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Shimizu, Ken; Sugiyama, Masashi.

    1993-02-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author).

  5. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  6. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named “Cedratvirus.” The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry. PMID:28111619

  7. Bioleaching of metals from steel slag by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocheng, Hong; Su, Cheer; Jadhav, Umesh U

    2014-12-01

    The generation of 300–500 kg of slag per ton of the steel produced is a formidable amount of solid waste available for treatment. They usually contain considerable quantities of valuable metals. In this sense, they may become either important secondary resource if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals or potential pollutants, if not treated properly. It is possible to recover metals from steel slag by applying bioleaching process. Electric arc furnace (EAF) slag sample was used for bioleaching of metals. In the present study, before bioleaching experiment water washing of an EAF slag was carried out. This reduced slag pH from 11.2 to 8.3. Culture supernatants of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (At. thiooxidans), Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans), and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) were used for metal solubilization. At. thiooxidans culture supernatant containing 0.016 M sulfuric acid was found most effective for bioleaching of metals from an EAF slag. Maximum metal extraction was found for Mg (28%), while it was least for Mo (0.1%) in six days. Repeated bioleaching cycles increased metal recovery from 28% to 75%, from 14% to 60% and from 11% to 27%, for Mg, Zn and Cu respectively.

  8. Evolution of composition of dairy manure supernatant in a controlled dung pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, C; García, H; Rico, J L; Fernández, J; Renedo, J

    2009-12-01

    Anaerobic conversion of dairy manure into biogas is an attractive way of managing this waste. It is well known that the hydrolysis of large molecules into small, directly biodegradable ones is the rate limiting step of the overall anaerobic process. The present work studies the development of the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages of dairy manure with different solid concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g VS/L) at ambient temperature (20 degrees C). The purpose was to determine the operational conditions that provide a liquid fraction with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a high volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in manure before the methanogenic stage starts up. At 20 degrees C, the evolution of the studied parameters showed that, in a controlled plug-flow dung pit, the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages progressed moderately in a continuous way during the 25 days that the experimentation lasted, whereas no methanization was observed. Supernatant COD and VFA concentrations increased 30% and 107%, respectively, for the 60 g VS/L samples. Manure was also operated at 35 degrees C with a similar increase in supernatant COD but a higher increase in VFA, 154%. For both operational temperatures, the predominant VFAs were, in this order, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. During the operation at 35 degrees C, the methanogenic stage started between days 20 and 25 for the samples with lower solids content, i.e. 40 and 60 g VS/L.

  9. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  10. Compressibility of the fouling layer formed by membrane bioreactor sludge and supernatant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Poorasgari, Eskandar; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    the pressure range 0.08 - 0.13 bar. The fouling layer resistance increased while fouling layer compression was reversible. Conversely, the supernatant filtrations showed that the gel layer is compressible within the range 0.1 - 2 bar applied pressure. Calculated resistance of the gel layer indicated....... Compressibility of the gel layer was studied in a dead-end filtration system, whereas the compressibility of a fouling layer formed by MBR sludge was studied in a submerged system hollow sheet membrane by TMP stepping. It was shown that the fouling layer formed by the MBR sludge was highly compressible within...... that higher pressure causes higher change in resistance. The results of the gel compression study showed a lower compressibility of gel layers than the fouling layer formed by sludge flocs. At pressures between 0.1 to 0.5 bar there was no significant change in specific cake resistance with pressure compared...

  11. Comparison among three anion exchange chromatographic supports to capture erythropoietin from cell culture supernatant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lourdes HERNNDEZ; Diobel STEWART; Lourdes ZUMALACRREGUI; Daniel AMARO

    2015-01-01

    Affinity and ion exchange conventional chromatography have been used to capture erythropoietin ( EPO)from mammalian cell culture supernatant. Currently,chromatographic adsorbent perfusion is available, however a limited number of applications have been found in the literature. In this work,three anion exchange chromatographic supports( gel,membrane and monolithic)were evaluated in the capture step of the recombi-nant erythropoietin purification process. The influences of load and flow rate on each support performance were analyzed. Also the purity of the EPO molecules was determined. A productivity analysis,as a decision tool for larger scale implementation,was done. As a conclusion,the evaluated supports are technically suitable to cap-ture EPO with adequate recovery and good purity. However,the monolithic column admits high operating velocity,showing the highest adsorption capacity and productivity.

  12. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  13. Anion-exchange purification of recombinant factor IX from cell culture supernatant using different chromatography supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R

    2013-11-01

    Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose(®) FF and Fractogel(®) TMAE, the monolith CIM(®) QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind(®) Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca(2+) ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  15. Supernatant from a cloned helper T cell stimulates resting B cells to express transferrin and IL-2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Leclercq, L; Dautry-Varsat, A; Theze, J

    1987-07-01

    We describe the properties of the supernatant from a murine cloned helper T cell (clone 52.3) which is able to polyclonally activate most resting B cells in the absence of any additional stimulus. We hypothesize that an activity which we call BCAF (B-cell-activating factor(s] exists in our supernatant which can activate resting B cells alone or in conjunction with other lymphokines. In the present report, we investigate changes in the surface antigen pattern induced on resting B cells by BCAF-containing supernatant. Analysis of the cells by flow cytometry shows that transferrin receptor and IL-2 receptor expression increase on a large fraction of B cells after 2 days of activation by the T-helper-cell clone supernatant. Monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor antibody inhibits cell division but does not affect blastogenesis, while IL-2 has no effect in our experimental system. Our present results confirm that BCAF-containing supernatants can act on most resting B cells and replace helper T cells in inducing B-cell activation and proliferation.

  16. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boil down study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-I06 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27°C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C. The boiling temperature of the composite was measured at three different pressures (40, 60, and 80 Torr) throughout the volume reduction, and the results show steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction and no significant discontinuities. Moderate foaming was observed at the onset of the boildown. The foaming disappeared during the first reduction step, and minimal foaming was observed throughout the rest of the study. The bulk densities at 18.0 °C (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates. Estimated values of the bulk densities at the 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were first observed at boildown temperatures when the % VWR reached 39.3%. The quantity of solids in the composite quickly increased after this initial formation; the amount of centrifuged solids increased by 22% as the %WVR increased from 39.3 to 44.1 %. A small amount of solids did appear in the samples collected prior to the initial formation during the boildown. These solids precipitated while they sat at hot cell ambient temperature and in the 18. 0 °C water bath. Analysis of boil down test samples indicated that natrophosphate (Na7{sub 3}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{centerdot} 19 H{sub 2}O) and kogarkoite (Na3FS04) accounted for a majority of the initial solids (~80% of the

  17. Quantitative analysis of particles, genomes and infectious particles in supernatants of haemorrhagic fever virus cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedlund Kjell-Olof

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on the replication of viral haemorrhagic fever viruses is not readily available and has never been analysed in a comparative approach. Here, we compared the cell culture growth characteristics of haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV, of the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flavivridae virus families by performing quantitative analysis of cell culture supernatants by (i electron microscopy for the quantification of virus particles, (ii quantitative real time PCR for the quantification of genomes, and (iii determination of focus forming units by coating fluorescent antibodies to infected cell monolayers for the quantification of virus infectivity. The comparative analysis revealed that filovirus and RVFV replication results in a surplus of genomes but varying degrees of packaging efficiency and infectious particles. More efficient replication and packaging was observed for Lassa virus, and Dengue virus resulting in a better yield of infectious particles while, YFV turned out to be most efficient with only 4 particles inducing one FFU. For Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV a surplus of empty shells was observed with only one in 24 particles equipped with a genome. The complete particles turned out to be extraordinarily infectious.

  18. Experimental prestorage filtration removes antibodies and decreases lipids in RBC supernatants mitigating TRALI in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Christopher C; Kelher, Marguerite R; Khan, Samina Y; LaSarre, Monica; West, F Bernadette; Land, Kevin J; Mish, Barbara; Ceriano, Linda; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a significant cause of transfusion-related mortality with red cell transfusion. We hypothesize that prestorage filtration may reduce proinflammatory activity in the red blood cell (RBC) supernatant and prevent TRALI. Filters were manufactured for both small volumes and RBC units. Plasma containing antibodies to human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 or human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a was filtered, and immunoglobulins and specific HNA-3a and HLA-2a neutrophil (PMN) priming activity were measured. Antibodies to OX27 were added to plasma, and filtration was evaluated in a 2-event animal model of TRALI. RBC units from 31 donors known to have antibodies against HLA antigens and from 16 antibody-negative controls were filtered. Furthermore, 4 RBC units were drawn and underwent standard leukoreduction. Immunoglobulins, HLA antibodies, PMN priming activity, and the ability to induce TRALI in an animal model were measured. Small-volume filtration of plasma removed >96% of IgG, antibodies to HLA-A2 and HNA-3a, and their respective priming activity, as well as mitigating antibody-mediated in vivo TRALI. In RBC units, experimental filtration removed antibodies to HLA antigens and inhibited the accumulation of lipid priming activity and lipid-mediated TRALI. We conclude that filtration removes proinflammatory activity and the ability to induce TRALI from RBCs and may represent a TRALI mitigation step.

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from culture supernatant of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Qian, Peng-Zhi; Kopparapu, Narasimha-Kumar; Deng, Yong-Ping; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2014-02-28

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by an edible mushroom of Pleurotus ostreatus using submerged culture fermentation. The enzyme was purified from the culture supernatant by applying a combination of freeze-thaw treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was purified by a 147-fold, with a yield of 7.54%. The molecular masses of the enzyme an determined by gel filtration and SDSPAGE were 13.6 and 18.2 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.52. It hydrolyzed fibrinogen by cleaving the α and β chains of fibrinogen followed by the γ chains, and also activated plasminogen into plasmin. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 7.4. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by EDTA, whereas protease inhibitors of TPCK, SBTI, PMSF, aprotinin and pepstatin showed no inhibition on its activity. The partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme as determined by Q-TOF2 were ATFVGCSATR, GGTLIHESSHFTR, and YTTWFGTFVTSR. These sequences showed a high degree of homology with those of metallo-endopeptidases from P. ostreatus and Armillaria mellea. The purified enzyme can also be applied as a natural agent for oral fibrinolytic therapy or prevention of thrombosis.

  20. Multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of a monoclonal antibody from cell supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muendges, Jan; Zalesko, Alexej; Górak, Andrzej; Zeiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of continuous multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of an immunoglobulin G1 from cell supernatant in a mixer-settler unit. An aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol 2000, phosphate salt, and water was applied without and with sodium chloride (NaCl). Influences of different parameters such as throughput, phase ratio, and stage number on the extraction performance were analyzed. For systems without NaCl, the extraction was carried out as a washing step. An increase of stage number from one to five stages enabled to increase the immunoglobulin G1 purity from 11.8 to 32.6% at a yield of nearly 90%. Furthermore, a reduction of product phase volume due to a higher phase ratio led to an increase of purity from 20.8 to 29.6% in a three-stage countercurrent extraction. For experiments with NaCl moderate partitioning conditions were adjusted by adding 8 wt% NaCl. In that case, the extraction was carried out as a stripping step.

  1. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  2. Understanding ForteBio's Sensors for High-Throughput Kinetic and Epitope Screening for Purified Antibodies and Yeast Culture Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Mitchell, Scott; Lynaugh, Heather; Brown, Michael; Nobrega, R Paul; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Sun, Tingwan; Caffry, Isabelle; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Rong; Burnina, Irina; Xu, Yingda; Estep, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Real-time and label-free antibody screening systems are becoming more popular because of the increasing output of purified antibodies and antibody supernatant from many antibody discovery platforms. However, the properties of the biosensor can greatly affect the kinetic and epitope binning results generated by these label-free screening systems. ForteBio human-specific ProA, anti-human IgG quantitation (AHQ), anti-human Fc capture (AHC) sensors, and custom biotinylated-anti-human Fc capture (b-AHFc) sensors were evaluated in terms of loading ability, regeneration, kinetic characterization, and epitope binning with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. AHC sensors proved unreliable for kinetic or binning assays at times, whereas AHQ sensors showed poor loading and regeneration abilities. ProA sensors worked well with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. However, the interaction between ProA sensors and the Fab region of the IgG with VH3 germline limited the application of ProA sensors, especially in the epitope binning experiment. In an attempt to generate a biosensor type that would be compatible with a variety of germlines and sample types, we found that the custom b-AHFc sensors appeared to be robust working with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant, with little evidence of sensor-related artifacts.

  3. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  4. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment of supernatant of cow manure by thermal pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Y; Nishii, A; Nishimoto, M; Yamada, N; Suzuki, T

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) methane fermentation treatment of cow manure that was subjected to screw pressing, thermal treatment and subsequent solid-liquid separation was studied. Conducting batch scale tests at temperatures between 140 and 180 degrees C, the optimal temperature for sludge settling and the color suppression was found to be between 160-170 degrees C. UASB treatment was carried out with a supernatant obtained from the thermal treatment at the optimal conditions (170 degrees C for 30 minutes) and polymer-dosed solid-liquid separation. In the UASB treatment with a COD(Cr) loading of 11.7 kg/m3/d and water temperature of 32.2 degrees C, the COD(Cr) level dropped from 16,360 mg/L in raw water to 3,940 mg/L in treated water (COD(Cr), removal rate of 75.9%), and the methane production rate per COD(Cr) was 0.187 Nm3/kg. Using wastewater thermal-treated at the optimal conditions, also a methane fermentation treatment with a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was conducted (COD(Cr) in raw water: 38,000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT): 20 days, 35 degrees C). At the COD(Cr) loading of 1.9 kg/m3/d, the methane production rate per COD(Cr), was 0.153 Nm3/kg. This result shows that UASB treatment using thermal pre-treatment provides a COD(Cr), loading of four times or more and a methane production rate of 1.3 times higher than the CSTR treatment.

  5. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AP-107 in May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Page, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-12

    A boildown study was completed on a composite prepared from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-107 in May of 2010. The composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C). The density of the test composite was 1.216 g/mL at 26.8 °C. The boiling temperature curves generated at three reduced pressures—40-, 60-, and 80 Torr—displayed steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction with no significant discontinuities. Only minimal foaming was observed after the volume reduction proceeded beyond 50 %WVR (percent waste volume reduction). The bulk densities (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids present were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates that were kept at 18 °C for 7-8 days. Estimated values of the bulk densities of the concentrates at 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were observed in all boildown concentrates at process temperatures, at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C), and at 18 °C. The quantity of solids found in the cooled concentrates increased slowly through 50.2 %WVR. The quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54.0 %WVR was noticeably greater. Beyond 54.0 %WVR, the quantity of solids found in cooled concentrates increased dramatically. Analysis of boildown test samples indicated that sodium oxalate and sodium carbonate solids form in cooled concentrates after volume reduction of 8.4 %WVR or less. The major contributors to the large increase in the quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54 %WVR were sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate.

  6. Rapid Extracellular Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cunninghamella phaeospora Culture Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareib, Mohamed; Tahon, Medhat Abu; Saif, Mona Mostafa; El-Sayed Abdallah, Wafaa

    2016-01-01

    The development of green approaches for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of prime significance in the field of nanotechnology research. A fast and eco-friendly protocol for the biosynthesis of extracellular AgNPs using culture supernatant (CS) from the fungus Cunninghamella phaeospora was studied in this work. This CS was proved as a potential new source for the extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs were formed at 100 oC and pH 9 within four min of contact between CS and 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. Nitrate reductase (NR) was confirmed to play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The enzyme expressed its highest activity at 80 oC and pH 9. At 100 oC the enzyme retained 70% of its original activity for one hour. The half-life (T1/2) of the enzyme activity was calculated to be 1.55 h confirming its thermostability. The produced AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution-transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). These NPs showed an absorption peak at 415 nm in UV-Vis spectrum corresponding to the plasmon resonance of AgNPs. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the production of monodispersed spherical NPs with average particle size 14 nm. XRD spectrum of the NPs confirmed the formation of metallic crystalline silver. It was also suggested that the aromatic amino acids play a role in the biosynthesis process. The current research provided an insight on the green biosynthesis of AgNPs including some mechanistic aspects using a new mycogenic source.

  7. Modelling antagonic effect of lactic acid eacteria supernatants on some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustus Caeser Franke Portella

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a statistical model of survival analysis for three pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, when treated with neutralized and non-neutralized filtered supernatants broth from cultures of Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake. Survival analysis is a method employed to determine the period of time from an initial stage up to the occurrence of a particular event of interest, as death or a particular culture growth failure. In order to evaluate the potential efficacy of the ahead mentioned lactic acid bacteria when used as bioprotective starters in foods, experimental data were statistically treated and expressed by simple representative curves. Following the methodology of Cox and Kaplan-Meier, it was possible to make the selection of the best bioprotective lactic starter, as a predictive tool for evaluation of shelf life and prevention of eventual risks in fresh sausages and other similar food products.Este trabalho apresenta um modelo estatístico de análise de sobrevivência para três bactérias patogénicas (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus, quando tratados com sobrenadantes filtrados neutralizado e não neutralizado provenientes de culturas de Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus e Lactobacillus sake. A Análise de sobrevivência é um método utilizado para determinar o período de tempo a partir de uma fase inicial até a ocorrência de um determinado evento de interesse, como a morte ou a inibição de uma particular cultura, a fim de avaliar a eficácia potencial das referidas bactérias lácticas quando usadas como bioproteção em alimentos. Os dados experimentais foram tratados estatisticamente, seguindo a metodologia de Cox e Kaplan-Meier e foi possível fazer a seleção dos melhores fermentos láticos bioprotectivos, como uma ferramenta para avaliação preditiva, vida de

  8. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  9. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  10. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios.

  11. Facile purification of Escherichia coli expressed tag-free recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha from supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhao, Dawei; Li, Xiunan; Yu, Rong; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-03-01

    Fusing affinity tag at N-terminus was reported to decrease the biological activity of the recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although preparation of tag-free rhTNF-α has already been achieved, the processes were yet laborious, especially in large scale. In this paper, tag-free rhTNF-α was almost equally synthesized by Escherichia coli in both soluble and insoluble forms. A two-step ion exchange chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose combined with CM-Sepharose, was developed to purify the soluble specie from supernatant after cell lysis. Native PAGE and HP-SEC showed the rhTNF-α extracted from supernatant existed in a homogeneous form. HP-SAX and SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated the purity of the final fraction was over 98% with a very high recovery of 75%. Circular dichroism spectrum demonstrated that β-sheet structure was dominant and fluorescence analysis suggested no dramatic exposure of aromatic amino acid residues on the protein surface. Bioassay indicated that purified rhTNF-α was biologically active with a specific activity of approximately 2.0×10(7)U/mg. All these results suggested that this two-step ion exchange chromatography is efficient for preparation of biologically active tag-free rhTNF-α from supernatant.

  12. Diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis using the Sysmex XT-2000iV based on frozen supernatants from cavitary effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Angelica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2017-02-01

    The delta total nucleated cells (ΔTNC) measurement with the Sysmex XT-2000iV (Sysmex Europe, Norderstedt, Germany) has high diagnostic accuracy on effusions in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases, but the test can be performed only on fresh samples. We evaluated whether supernatants from effusions retain the ability to induce cell clumping and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of this modified ΔTNC method. Effusions were collected from FIP cats ( n = 19) and from cats with other diseases ( n = 15). ΔTNC was measured on fresh samples and on frozen-thawed supernatants after the addition of feline blood at 1:10 dilution. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed at the cutoffs of suggestive of FIP (ΔTNC = 1.7) and consistent with FIP (ΔTNC = 3.4). The influence of the protein content, number of added cells, and magnitude of dilution were also investigated. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for both the methods. Sensitivity and negative predictive value were higher for the modified ΔTNC (84.2% and 83.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 78.9% and 78.9%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4) than for the ΔTNC on fresh samples (78.6% and 81.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 57.1% and 68.4%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4). Protein content, total cell count of the added blood, and magnitude of dilutions did not influence the results. Supernatants of frozen effusions from FIP cats retain the ability to induce cell clumping, thus the modified ΔTNC measurement is a reliable tool to diagnose FIP on samples that cannot be analyzed immediately.

  13. THE EFFECT OF ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ON THE INTERLEUKIN-5 IN THE SUPERNATANTS OF SPLEEN CELL CULTURES OF ASTHMATIC MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美琴; 白春学; 钮善福; 方晓惠; 陈常庆; 陈波

    2001-01-01

    To explore the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on the production of IL-5 by mouse spleen T lymphocytes.Methods Based on the IL-5 cDNA sequence of mouse, a segment of antisense oligonucleotide was designed and synthesized. 5’-labeling of antisense oligonucleotide was signed by T4 PNK in order that the efficiency of stearylamine liposome in transfecting antisense oligonucleotide can be evaluated. Asthma model was duplicated with ovalbumin(OVA) absorbed to aluminum hydroxide. T lymphocytes of mice were separated by nylon fiber method, then T lymphocytes transfected with different concentration of antisense oligonucleotide with cation stearylamine liposme were incubated respectively in order to observe the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on Il-5 production by T lymphocytes. IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were determined by ELISA.Results Stearylamine liposome could markedly increase the efficiency of antisense oligonucleotide transfection. The transfection efficiency of antisense oligouncleotide increased approximately 12 times at a ratio of 1: 15m/m (antisense oligonucleotide to SA liposome). In healthy and asthma Balb/c mice, IL-5 was not detectable in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures without stimulated with OVA; however, IL-5 was increased markedly in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures stimulated with OVA. After transfection with different concentrations of antisense oligonucleotide, IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were significantly lower than those in control cultured without antisense oligonucleotide transfection. IL-5 levels decreased from 44.60±6.23 pg/ml to 30.70±7.362 pg/ml, 17.20±6.181 pg/ml and 8.16±2.34 pg/ml respectively. And IL-5 synthesis was inhibited by 31.17%, 61.43% and 81.7% respectively.Conclusion IL-5 synthesis could be obviously inhibited by antisense oligonucleotide and showed a markedly correlation between dose and effectiveness. It suggests the production

  14. Vip3A is responsible for the potency of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C culture supernatant against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xiao, Liang; Yan, Bing; Bin, Guan; Chen, Yuehua; Ren, Gaixin

    2006-04-01

    Culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C had high toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. However, it lost insecticidal activities after being bathed in boiling water for 5 min. Acrystalliferous mutants of Bt9816C (Bt9816C-NP1 and Bt9816C-NP2) cured of its endogenous plasmids no longer possessed vip3A gene and toxicity. The 89 kD protein which existed in Bt9816C supernatant disappeared in the two mutants' supernatant; nevertheless, the two mutants still exhibited hemolytic and phospholipase C activity as Bt9816C did. The vip3A gene of Bt9816C, vip3Aa18, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Bioassay demonstrated that the recombinant E. coli had high toxicity against S. exigua. Taken together, it suggested that Vip3A protein was responsible for the toxicity of Bt9816C culture supernatants.

  15. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  16. Platelet-Rich Gel Supernatants Stimulate the Release of Anti-Inflammatory Proteins on Culture Media of Normal Equine Synovial Membrane Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Diana L; López, Catalina; Carmona, Jorge U

    2015-01-01

    The aims were as follows: (1) to evaluate the effects at 48 and 96 h of two concentrations (25 and 50%) of leukocyte and platelet-rich gel (L-PRG) and pure PRG (P-PRG) supernatants on the production/degradation in normal equine synovial membrane explants (SME) of platelet derived growth factor isoform BB, transforming growth factor beta-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-) 4 (IL-4), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and (2) to correlate these molecules with their respective PRG supernatant treatments. SME from 6 horses were cultured for 96 h with L-PRG and P-PRG supernatants at 25 and 50% concentrations, respectively. SME culture media were changed each 48 h and used for determination by ELISA of the molecules, which were also determined in synovial fluid. 25% L-PRG supernatant produced a sustained release over time of IL-1ra and a gradual release of HA, whereas 50% L-PRG supernatant produced a sustained increase over time of IL-4 and HA. 50% P-PRG supernatant produced an increased and sustained production of IL-1ra and IL-4. The cellular composition and the articular concentration (volume) of a platelet-rich plasma preparation could affect the anti-inflammatory and anabolic joint responses in horses with osteoarthritis.

  17. Global Profiling of Metabolite and Lipid Soluble Microbial Products in Anaerobic Wastewater Reactor Supernatant Using UPLC-MS(E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Soh, Yan Ni Annie; Wong, Stephen C C; Pin, Ng Sean; Stuckey, David C; Boehm, Bernhard O

    2017-02-03

    Identification of soluble microbial products (SMPs) released during bacterial metabolism in mixed cultures in bioreactors is essential to understanding fundamental mechanisms of their biological production. SMPs constitute one of the main foulants (together with colloids and bacterial flocs) in membrane bioreactors widely used to treat and ultimately recycle wastewater. More importantly, the composition and origin of potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic SMPs in renewable/reused water supplies must be determined and controlled. Certain classes of SMPs have previously been studied by GC-MS, LC-MS, and MALDI-ToF MS; however, a more comprehensive LC-MS-based method for SMP identification is currently lacking. Here we develop a UPLC-MS approach to profile and identify metabolite SMPs in the supernatant of an anaerobic batch bioreactor. The small biomolecules were extracted into two fractions based on their polarity, and separate methods were then used for the polar and nonpolar metabolites in the aqueous and lipid fractions, respectively. SMPs that increased in the supernatant after feed addition were identified primarily as phospholipids, ceramides, with cardiolipins in the highest relative abundance, and these lipids have not been previously reported in wastewater effluent.

  18. Effect of Physical and Chemical Changes on the Antimicrobial Activity of Culture Supernatant Fluid of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Goudarzi (MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, nonsporulating, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that have beneficial effects on their hosts by producing antimicrobial substances such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins and biosurfactants. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria and can inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, bacteriocin production by Lactobacilli as known probiotic strains was evaluated in different physicochemical conditions. Antagonistic activity was evaluated using quantitative method of Microscale Optical Density Assay (MODA. After neutralization of acid and treatment with various enzymes, temperature, pH and NaCl conditions, the antimicrobial activity of culture supernatant fluid of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum was investigated against pathogenic Proteus. Results: The culture supernatant fluid of Lactobacilli was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes with relatively good stability to temperature. The antimicrobial activity was also present due to production of bacteriocin under different NaCl conditions (1 to 4% NaCl and pH range of 5 to 8. Conclusion: It seems that the antimicrobial liquid of Lactobacillus strains contains bacteriocin, which shows antimicrobial effects against pathogenic strains of Proteus. To investigate further this effect, some complementary studies should be performed.

  19. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  20. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for controlling and comparing culture supernatants of mammalian cell culture productions systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, K; Harant, H; Reiter, M; Blüml, G; Gaida, T; Katinger, H

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, producing human erythropoietin, was cultivated in a continuous mode in a stirred tank reactor applying different dilution rates. In order to monitor the stability of this expression system, product and non-product proteins of the cell culture supernatant were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The consistency of the isoforms of the recombinant product was determined by western blot combined with specific staining. The same cell line was propagated in a high cell density cultivation system based on macro-cell-aggregates. The patterns of secreted proteins of the cell line cultivated in the different systems were compared in order to detect modifications in protein expression of the product and of non product proteins relevant for cell culture supernatant. Hardly any alterations in two-dimensional pattern were detectable. The isoforms of erythropoietin, as well as the overall pattern of secreted proteins, detectable with the two-dimensional electrophoresis method were remarkably stable under different cultivation conditions.

  1. A combination turbidity and supernatant microplate assay to rank-order the supersaturation limits of early drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John S; Nophsker, Michelle J; Haskell, Roy J

    2014-10-01

    A unique opportunity exists at the drug discovery stage to overcome inherently poor solubility by selecting drug candidates with superior supersaturation propensity. Existing supersaturation assays compare either precipitation-resistant or precipitation-inhibiting excipients, or higher-energy polymorphic forms, but not multiple compounds or multiple concentrations. Furthermore, these assays lack sufficient throughput and compound conservation necessary for implementation in the discovery environment. A microplate-based combination turbidity and supernatant concentration assay was therefore developed to determine the extent to which different compounds remain in solution as a function of applied concentration in biorelevant media over a specific period of time. Dimethyl sulfoxide stock solutions at multiple concentrations of four poorly soluble, weak base compounds (Dipyridamole, Ketoconazole, Albendazole, and Cinnarizine) were diluted with pH 6.5 buffer as well as FaSSIF. All samples were monitored for precipitation by turbidity at 600 nm over 1 h and the final supernatant concentrations were measured. The maximum supersaturation ratio was calculated from the supersaturation limit and the equilibrium solubility in each media. Compounds were rank-ordered by supersaturation ratio: Ketoconazole > Dipyridamole > Cinnarizine ∼ Albendazole. These in vitro results correlated well with oral AUC ratios from published in vivo pH effect studies, thereby confirming the validity of this approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Continuous precipitation of process related impurities from clarified cell culture supernatant using a novel coiled flow inversion reactor (CFIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateja, Nikhil; Agarwal, Harshit; Saraswat, Aditya; Bhat, Manish; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    Coiled Flow Inverter Reactor (CFIR) has recently been explored for facilitating continuous operation of several unit operations involved in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals such as viral inactivation and protein refolding. The application of CFIR for continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant has been explored. The pH based precipitation is optimized in the batch mode and then in the continuous mode in CFIR using a design of experiments (DOE) study. Improved clearance of host cell DNA (52× vs. 39× in batch), improved clearance of host cell proteins (HCP) (7× vs. 6× in batch) and comparable recovery (90 vs. 91.5 % in batch) are observed along with six times higher productivity. To further demonstrate wider applicability of CFIR in performing continuous precipitation, two more case studies involving use of two different precipitation protocols (CaCl2 based and caprylic acid based) are also performed. In both cases, clearance of host cell DNA, HCP, and product recovery are found to be comparable or better in CFIR than in batch operations. Moreover, increase in productivity of 16 times (CaCl2 based) and eight times (caprylic acid based) is obtained for the two precipitation protocols, respectively. The data clearly demonstrate that CFIR can be seamlessly integrated into a continuous bioprocess train for performing continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant. To our knowledge this is the first report of such use. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Mosel

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I first give the motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the - and -mesons in medium.

  4. Analysis of tank 7 surface supernatant sample (FTF-7-15-26) in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 7 surface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Corrosion Control Program (CCP). The measured nitrate, nitrite and free-hydroxide concentrations for the Tank 7 surface sample averaged, 3.74E-01 ± 1.88E-03, 4.17E-01 ± 9.01E-03 and 0.602 ± 0.005 M, respectively. The Tank 7 surface cesium-137, sodium and silicon concentrations were, respectively, 3.99E+08, ± 3.25E+06 dpm/mL, 2.78 M and <3.10 mg/L. The measured aluminum concentration in the Tank 7 surface sample averaged 0.11 M.

  5. Mescaline-induced changes of brain-cortex ribosomes. Mescaline demethylase activity of brain-cortex soluble supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R K; Ghosh, J J

    1977-02-01

    Brain-cortex slices demethylate mescaline and p-methoxyacetanilide, a reference O-demethylating substrate, though the rate of demethylation of mescaline is about one third that of the reference substrate. The demethylase activity is localized mostly in the soluble supernatant (105 000 x g). It is purified 47-fold with respect to the demethylation of mescaline by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography. The partially purified demethylase, which is stable for 3-5 days at -5 degrees C in the presence of dithiothreitol and glutathione and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, has maximal activity at pH between 7.2 and 8.0. It demethylates mescaline into 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenethylamine and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine and some unidentified derivatives.

  6. Welsh-Medium Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Gareth

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect in the primary and secondary school levels of teaching through the medium of Welsh and the response of the University of Wales. The media and the educational system are two formal social organizations which help the threatened Welsh language to survive. Another would be the establishment of a Welsh-medium university. (SED)

  7. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium -

  8. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium - understo

  9. Synthetic laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  10. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Narges [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza [Hydrometallurgy Research Unit, Research and Development Center, National Iranian Copper Industries Company, Sarcheshmeh, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Khosro [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minaian, Sara [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Hamid Reza [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  11. Modulation of the Culture Supernatant of Decidual Cells with Exogenous Cytokines on Killing Activity of Natural Killer Cells in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the important function of cytokines in early pregnancy and to provide basic and experimental evidence for understanding the mechanism of their action. Methods Add interferon-γ (IFN-γ) , interleukin- 2(IL- 2) , interleukin- 6(IL-6) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the confluent culturing decidual cells with three different concentrations and harvest the culture supernatant after 12, 24 and 48 h separately. Observe the effect of the supernatant on killing activity of NK cells with radioimmunological assay of 51Cr immersion. Results The culture supernatant of decidual cells can promote the killing activity of NK cells in various degrees, and the effect is independent of the type, concentration and acting time of cytokines. Conclusion In normal pregnancy, decidual cytokine network is in a dynamic equilibri um. Exogenous cytokines would be harm to normal pregnancy by interfering the equi librium state, but the exact mechanism needs further study.

  12. Modulation of the Culture Supernatant of Decidual Cells with Exogenous Cytokines on Killing Activity of Natural Killer Cells in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冬梅; 王丽莉; 何援利

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the important function of cytohines in early pregnancy and to provide basic and experimental evidence for understanding the mechanism of their action.Methods Add interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ,interleuhin-2(IL-2) , interleuhin-6(IL-6) andepidermal growth factor(EGF) to the confluent culturing decidual cells with three different concentrations and harvest the culture supernatant after 12, 24 and 48 h separately. Observe the effect of the supernatant on killing activity of NK cells with radioimmunological assay of 51Cr immersion.Results The culture supernatant of decidual cells can promote the killing activity of NK cells in various degrees, and the effect is independent of the type, concentration and acting time of cytokines.Conclusion In normal pregnancy, decidual cytokine network is in a dynamic equilibri-um. Exogenous cytokines would be harm to normal pregnancy by interfering the equi-librium state, but the exact mechanism needs further study.

  13. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  14. Putative new heat-stable cytotoxic and enterotoxic factors in culture supernatant of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, especially by Escherichia coli, are important to define the virulence properties of these bacteria. Due to frequent infantile diarrhea in the city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, the phenotypic and genotypic diarrheagenic properties of E. coli isolated from drinking water were studied. The culture supernatants of 39 (40% among a total of 97 E. coli isolates from drinking water were positive by suckling mouse assay and induced cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities were present in the fraction with less than 10 kDa and were not lost when heated up to 60°C and 100°C for 30 minutes. PCR assays showed that among these 39 Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli, four (10.2% were positive for ST II (estB and two (5% positive for αHly (hlyA. Gene amplification of SLT (stx 1, stx 2, ST I (estA, LT (eltI, eltII, EAST1 (astA, EHly (enhly and plasmid-encoded enterotoxin (pet were not observed. This heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin of E. coli is probably a new putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, as a toxin presenting these characteristics has not yet been described.

  15. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xing

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS, reducing power (RP, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP. Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs.

  16. Platelet-released supernatant induces osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich preparations have recently gained popularity in maxillofacial and dental surgery, but their beneficial effect is still under debate. Furthermore, very little is known about the effect of platelet preparations at the cellular level, and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we tested the effect of platelet-released supernatant (PRS on human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation towards an osteoblastic phenotype in vitro. Cultures of MSC were supplemented with PRS and typical osteoblastic markers were assessed at up to 28 days post-confluence. PRS showed an osteoinductive effect on MSC, as shown by an increased expression of typical osteoblastic marker genes such as collagen Ialpha1, bone sialoprotein II, BMP-2 and MMP-13, as well as by increased 45Ca2+ incorporation. Our results suggest that the effect of PRS on human MSC could be at least partially mediated by BMP-2.Activated autologous PRS could therefore provide an alternative to agents like recombinant bone growth factors by increasing osteoblastic differentiation of bone precursor cells at bone repair sites, although further studies are needed to fully support our observations.

  17. Quantitative Determination of Lethal Toxin Proteins in Culture Supernatant of Human Live Anthrax Vaccine Bacillus anthracis A16R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ju; Liu, Jie; Li, Liangliang; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-25

    Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) is the etiological agent of anthrax affecting both humans and animals. Anthrax toxin (AT) plays a major role in pathogenesis. It includes lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are formed by the combination of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), respectively. The currently used human anthrax vaccine in China utilizes live-attenuated B. anthracis spores (A16R; pXO1+, pXO2-) that produce anthrax toxin but cannot produce the capsule. Anthrax toxins, especially LT, have key effects on both the immunogenicity and toxicity of human anthrax vaccines. Thus, determining quantities and biological activities of LT proteins expressed by the A16R strain is meaningful. Here, we explored LT expression patterns of the A16R strain in culture conditions using another vaccine strain Sterne as a control. We developed a sandwich ELISA and cytotoxicity-based method for quantitative detection of PA and LF. Expression and degradation of LT proteins were observed in culture supernatants over time. Additionally, LT proteins expressed by the A16R and Sterne strains were found to be monomeric and showed cytotoxic activity, which may be the main reason for side effects of live anthrax vaccines. Our work facilitates the characterization of anthrax vaccines components and establishment of a quality control standard for vaccine production which may ultimately help to ensure the efficacy and safety of the human anthrax vaccine A16R.

  18. Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

    2012-08-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  20. MicroRNA Expression in Salivary Supernatant of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer and Its Relationship with ZHENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, diagnosis and prescriptions are based on the signs and symptoms which are recognized as ZHENG. The cornerstone of TCM is to differentially treat one ZHENG from others, which is also known as syndrome differentiation, and this relies on the gathering of clinical information through inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. However, the biomolecular basis of the ZHENG remains unclear. In this study, the expressions of 384 cancer-related miRNAs in salivary supernatant of patients with pancreatic cancer were assessed by miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR array, and the different expression patterns of miRNA in three different groups of ZHENG were studied with use of real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR. Some miRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in some ZHENGs, for instance, miR-17, miR-21, and miR-181b in Shi-Re ZHENG and miR-196a in Pi-Xu ZHENG. This indicates that these miRNAs may play important roles in different ZHENG condition. Therefore, this study to some extent revealed the molecular basis of TCM ZHENG in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Ensinger, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ebel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Detection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. For diagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic structure of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we provide evidence that Fusarium produces at least two distinct galactofuranose antigens: Smaller amounts of galactomannan and larger quantities of a novel antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody AB135-8. In A. fumigatus, only minor amounts of the AB135-8 antigen are found in supernatants and in the apical regions of hyphae. A galactofuranose-deficient A. fumigatus mutant lacks the AB135-8 antigen, which strongly suggests that galactofuranose is an essential constituent of this antigen. Using a combination of AB135-8 and a galactomannan-specific antibody, we were able to unambiguously differentiate A. fumigatus and Fusarium hyphae in immunohistology. Moreover, since Fusarium releases the AB135-8 antigen, it appears to be a promising target antigen for a serological detection of Fusarium infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  3. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  4. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  5. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-19

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239.

  6. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiu Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%, O2•- (85%, OH• (76%, and Fe2+ chelation (82% and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L, and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.01. Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases.

  7. Acaricidal activities of whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant,and crude cell extract of Xenorhabdus stokiae against mushroom mite (Luciaphorus sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prapassom BUSSAMAN; Chirayu SA-UTH; Paweena RATTANAS ENA; Angsumarn CHANDRAPATYA

    2012-01-01

    Xenorhabdus bacterium has been used as a biological control agent against Luciaphorus sp.,a mushroom mite endemic in Thailand.To develop an effective formulation of Xenorhabdus stokiae,treatments using different parts of X.stokiae isolate PB09 culture,including whole cell suspension,cell-free supernatant,and crude cell extract,were performed.The results show that different parts ofX.stokiae isolate PB09 culture could induce variable effects on mite mortality and fecundity.Application with cell-free supernatant of X.stokiae culture resulted in both the highest mite mortality rate [(89.00+3.60)%] and the lowest mite fecundity [(41.33+23.69) eggs/gravid female].Whole cell suspension of X.stokiae isolate PB09 culture was found to be slightly less effective than its cell-free supernatant,suggesting that X.stokiae was more likely to release its metabolites with acaricidal activities to the surrounding culture media.Crude cell extract of X.stokiae was not effective against mites.Cell-free supernatant of X.stokiae isolate PB09 was the most effective biological control agent and it could be conveniently used in future formulations instead of live bacteria.

  8. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2•− (85%), •OH (76%), and Fe2+ chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  9. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  10. [The comparative characteristics of antibacterial properties of the peptides of the active site of GM-CSF, and substances delivered from supernatants of hematopoietic progenitor CD34+45- cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurochka, A V; Zurochka, V A; Kostolomova, E G; Dobrynina, M A; Sykhoveĭ, Iu G; Gritsenko, V A

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides of the active site of GM-CSF and supernatants of CD34+45- hematopoietic progenitor cells has been investigated GM-CSF peptides and cell supernatants were found to possess pronounced antibacterial activity, at that a combination of these substances has a more pronounced activity in comparison with the single substances. Possible mechanisms of the identified effects of synthetic peptides and substances from the supernatants of CD34+5- cells are discussed.

  11. A novel toxin homologous to large clostridial cytotoxins found in culture supernatant of Clostridium perfringens type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amimoto, Katsuhiko; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsugu

    2007-04-01

    An unknown cytotoxin was identified in the culture supernatant of Clostridium perfringens type C. The cytotoxin, named TpeL, which was purified using mAb-based affinity chromatography, had a lethal activity of 62 minimum lethal dose (MLD) mg(-1) in mice and a cytotoxic activity of 6.2x10(5) cytotoxic units (CU) mg(-1) in Vero cells. The nucleotide sequence of TpeL was determined. The entire ORF had a length of 4953 bases, and the same nucleotide sequence was not recorded in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases. The molecular mass calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence was 191 kDa, and a signal peptide region was not found within the ORF. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 30-39 % homology to Clostridium difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA). The amino acid sequence of TpeL is shorter than these toxins, and the homologous region was located at the N-terminal site. Eighteen strains of C. perfringens types A, B and C were surveyed for the presence of the tpeL gene by PCR. The tpeL gene was detected in all type B (one strain) and C strains (five strains), but not in any type A strains (12 strains). TpeL was detected in culture filtrates of the five type C strains by dot-blot analysis, but not in the type B strain. It was concluded that TpeL is a novel toxin similar to the known large clostridial cytotoxins. Furthermore, the data indicated that TpeL is produced by many C. perfringens type C strains.

  12. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...

  13. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  14. Performance of multiplex commercial kits to quantify cytokine and chemokine responses in culture supernatants from Plasmodium falciparum stimulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Moncunill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines are relevant biomarkers of pathology and immunity to infectious diseases such as malaria. Several commercially available kits based on quantitative suspension array technologies allow the profiling of multiple cytokines and chemokines in small volumes of sample. However, kits are being continuously improved and information on their performance is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Different cytokine/chemokine kits, two flow cytometry-based (eBioscience® FlowCytomix™ and BD™ Cytometric Bead Array Human Enhanced Sensitivity and four Luminex®-based (Invitrogen™ Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel, Invitrogen™ Human Cytokine Magnetic 30-Plex Panel, Bio-Rad® Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Cytokine Plex Assay and Millipore™ MILLIPLEX® MAP Plex Kit were compared. Samples tested were supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of malaria-exposed children stimulated with Plasmodium falciparum parasite lysates. Number of responses in range that could be detected was determined and reproducibility of duplicates was evaluated by the Bland-Altman test. Luminex® kits performed better than flow cytometry kits in number of responses in range and reproducibility. Luminex® kits were more reproducible when magnetic beads were used. However, within each methodology overall performance depended on the analyte tested in each kit. Within the Luminex® kits, the Invitrogen™ with polystyrene beads had the poorer performance, whereas Invitrogen™ with magnetic beads had the higher percentage of cytokines/chemokines with both readings in range (40%, followed by Bio-Rad® with magnetic beads (35%. Regarding reproducibility, the Millipore™ kit had the highest percentage (60% of cytokines/chemokines with acceptable limits of agreement (<30%, followed by the Invitrogen™ with magnetic beads (40% that had tighter limits of agreement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Currently available kits for cytokine and chemokine

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolates supernatant on Escherichia coli O157:H7 enhances the role of organic acids production as a factor for pathogen control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Poppi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to establish the control of foodborne pathogens through Lactobacillus isolates and their metabolism products with success being obtained in several situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic effect of eight Lactobacillus isolates, including L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, on the pathogenic Escherichia colistrain O157:H7. The inhibitory effect of pure cultures and two pooled cultures supernatants of Lactobacillus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by the spot agar method and by monitoring turbidity. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and for a pool of lactic acid bacteria. The neutralized supernatant of the pool exerted a higher antimicrobial activity than that of the individual strains. Furthermore, D-lactic acid and acetic acid were produced during growth of the Lactobacillus isolates studied.

  16. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies by a fast and easy liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time-of-flight analysis on culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninot, Antoine; Terrier, Aurelie; Charton, Julie; Urbain, Rémi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Deprez, Benoit; Beghyn, Terence

    2015-12-15

    Rapid and efficient structural analysis is key to the development of new monoclonal antibodies. We have developed a fast and easy process to obtain mass spectrometry profiles of antibodies from culture supernatant. Treatment of the supernatant with IdeS generates three fragments of 25 kDa that can be analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time-of-flight (LC-MS TOF) in one run: LC, Fd, and Fc/2. This process gives rapid access to isoform and glycoform profiles. To specifically measure the fucosylation yield, we included a one-pot treatment with EndoS that removes the distal glycan heterogeneity. Our process was successfully compared with high-performance capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPCE-LIF), currently considered as the "gold standard" method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Local Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Redfield, S

    2006-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and cl...

  18. Analysis of tank 51H (HTF-51-15-77) subsurface supernatant sample in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-18

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tank 51H subsurface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP). The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 51H in early June was to determine if the later decants would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  19. Analysis of tank 51H (HTF-51-15-77) subsurface supernatant sample in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-18

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tank 51H subsurface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP).The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 51H in early June was to determine if the later decants would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  20. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro

  1. Beneficial effects of BV2 cell on proliferation and neuron-differentiating of mesenchymal stem cells in the circumstance of injured PC12 cell supernatant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Guang LUO; Hong WANG; Jin ZHOU; Rong YAN; Zhe WU; Chao-Dong ZHANG; Qiu-Shuang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective The microglias is the representative of immune cells in the brain. It plays dual roles of both repairing and damaging in injured nervous system, and works as an inevitable component of the circumstance of injured neurons. This study was aiming at the effects of the microglias on the biological activities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) inthe circumstance of injured neurons. Methods MSCs were obtained by primary culture. We adopted PC12 cells (PC12) and BV2 cells (BV2) to substitute for neurons and microglias, respectively. PC12 were injured by aged Aβ1-40 and the supernatant of the injured PC12 was used to set up the circumstance of injured neurons. Transwells were used for co-culture of BV2 and MSCs, which allowed the independent detection of cells after co-culture. Immunofluorescence was used to identify MSCs and neuron-differentiating cells with CD44 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) staining, respectively. MTT assay was adopted to measure the proliferation. Results In the circumstance of both BV2 presence and injured PC12 supernatant incubation, either the proliferation or the differentiation of MSCs reached the highest, which seemed to be contradictory, but we gave our explanations. With the BV2 co-culture, the proliferation of MSCs tend to be higher, but the neuron-differentiating MSCs were similar to those incubated without BV2 co-culture either in normal or injured in PC12 supernatant. With the incubation of injured PC12 supernatant, the neuron-differentiating cells were significantly higher than that of control (P < 0.05). Conclusion In the circumstance of injured neurons, microlgias tend to promote the MSCs proliferation. Although not helpful in neuron-differentiating, microglias did not exert any negative effect either.

  2. Charmonium in Hot Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently implemented into kinetic approaches. A Boltzmann transport equation is employed to describe the time evolution of the charmonium phase space distribution with the loss and gain term accounting for charmonium dissociation and regeneration (from charm quarks), respectively. The momentum dependence of the charmonium dissociation rate is worked out. The dominant process for in-medium charmonium regeneration is found to be a 3-to-2 process. Its corresponding regeneration rates from different input charm-quark momentum spectra are evaluated. Experimental data on $J/\\psi$ production at CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC are compared with our numerical results in terms of both rapidity-dependent inclusive yields and transverse momentum ($p_t$) spectra. Within current uncertainties from (interpreting) lQCD data and fr...

  3. Activation of resting human B cells by helper T-cell clone supernatant: characterization of a human B-cell-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Gougeon, M L; Moreau, J L; Reinherz, E L; Thèze, J

    1987-12-01

    The effects of helper T-cell clone supernatants on resting human B cells were investigated. Four different helper T-cell clones (two T4+ and two T8+) were stimulated by anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies on Sepharose beads or anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies. The supernatants from these activated clones induced the proliferation of highly purified resting B lymphocytes from the peripheral blood. The B cells exhibited a cell size and a surface-antigen pattern (4F2 antigen and transferrin receptor) of phase G0 B cells, and they were functionally resting. In response to T-cell supernatants a large fraction of the B cells enlarged and expressed 4F2 antigens and transferrin receptors. In gel filtration, the corresponding activity migrated with an apparent Mr of 12,000-15,000. Our findings strongly support the existence of a human B-cell-activating factor acting on resting B cells and causing them to enter phase G1 of the cell cycle.

  4. [Induced sputum supernatant prostaglandin E2 during oral aspirin challenge of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin hypersensitivity and healthy controls--pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacak, Maria; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Sałapa, Kinga; Konduracka, Ewa; Sanak, Marek; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Sładek, Krzysztof; Musiał, Jacek; Mastalerz, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate changes in the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in induced sputum supernatant in 3 groups: sub- jects with NSAID-exacerbated respira- tory disease (NERD), aspirin tolerant asthma (ATA) and healthy controls (HC), before and after oral aspirin chal- lenge test. The study was conducted in the years 2014-2015 at the Clinical Department of the Pulmonology Clinic at the University Hospital in Cracow. 43 patients were enrolled in the study (NERD - n = 15, ATA - n = 15 and HC - n = 13). All of them underwent a placebo-controlled oral aspirin challenge. Sputum was induced 24 hours before the challenge and immediately after the test. Induced sputum was processed in order to obtain cystospin slides to depict inflammatory cell patterns and supernatants, in which PGE2 was measured. The concentration of PGE2 was determined using mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - GC/MS). After aspirin challenge, the concentration of PGE2 in induced sputum supernatant decreased in both asthmatics hypersensitive to aspirin (p = 0.01) and those who tolerated aspirin well (p = 0.17). The change in the healthy control group was not statistically significant. These results support the cyclooxygenase theory of PGE2 inhibition by aspirin. However, the mechanism of bronchoconstriction after aspirin administration alone in patients with NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease remains unclear.

  5. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia and Other Microbes Selected Using Coumarin Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiangui Niu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial populations using a newly developed medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source. Twenty five single-colony bacterial isolates showing AFB1 reduction activity in a liquid culture medium were selected from the screen. Isolate 35-3, obtained from tapir feces and identified to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, reduced AFB1 by 82.5% after incubation in the liquid medium at 37 °C for 72 h. The culture supernatant of isolate 35-3 was able to degrade AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Activity was reduced to 60.8% and 63.5% at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively, from 78.7% at 37 °C. The highest degradation rate was 84.8% at pH 8 and the lowest was only 14.3% at pH 4.0. Ions Mg2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, howeverï��Œion Zn2+ was a strong inhibitor. Treatments with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating significantly reduced or eradicated the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by S. maltophilia 35-3 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications.

  6. Proteinase activities in total extracts and in medium conditioned by Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, S C; Correia, C E; Motegi, S A; Pral, E M

    2000-04-01

    Acanthamoeba species can cause granulomatous encephalitis and keratitis in man. The mechanisms that underlie tissue damage and invasion by the amoebae are poorly understood, but involvement of as yet uncharacterized proteinases has been suggested. Here, we employed gelatin-containing gels and azocasein assays to examine proteinase activities in cell lysates and in medium conditioned by Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. Azocasein hydrolysis by cell lysates was optimally detected at pH 4.0-5.0 and was predominantly associated with the activity of cysteine proteinases. Compatible with enzyme activation during secretion, culture supernatants additionally contained a prominent azocasein hydrolyzing activity attributable to serine proteinases; these enzymes were better detected at pH 6.0 and above, and resolved at 47, 60, 75, 100, and >110 kDa in overlay gelatin gels. Although a similar banding profile was observed in gels of trophozoite lysates, intracellular serine proteinases were shown to be activated during electrophoresis and to split the substrate during migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Blockage of serine proteinases with phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride prior to electrophoresis permitted the detection of 43-, 59-, 70-, and 100-130-kDa acidic cysteine proteinases in cell lysates, and of 3 (43, 70, and 130 kDa) apparently equivalent enzymes in culture supernatants. Under the conditions employed, no band associated with a metalloproteinase activity could be depicted in substrate gels, although the discrete inhibition of supernatants' azocaseinolytic activity by 1,10-phenanthroline suggested secretion of some metalloproteinase.

  7. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  8. Calcium carbonate mediates higher lignin peroxidase activity in the culture supernatant of Streptomyces Viridosporus T7A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. B. MACEDO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin peroxidase (LiP production has been extensively studied due to the potential use of this enzyme in environmental pollution control. Important aspects of the production of the enzyme by S. viridosporus T7A which have been studied include the improvement of yield and enzyme stabilization. In experiments performed in agitated flasks containing culture media composed of yeast extract as the source of nitrogen, mineral salts and different carbon sources, the use of glucose resulted in the highest values for LiP activity (350 U/L, specific LiP activity (450 U/g and productivity (7 U/L/h. As the profile obtained with glucose-containing medium suggested enzyme instability, the effect of calcium carbonate was evaluated. The addition of CaCO3 in two different concentrations, 0.5% and 5.0%, resulted in higher values of maximum LiP activity, 600 and 900 U/L, respectively. The presence of this salt also anticipated enzyme activity peaks and allowed the detection of higher enzyme activities in the extracellular medium for longer periods of time. These results indicate a positive effect of calcium carbonate on LiP production, which is extremely relevant for industrial processes.

  9. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  10. Cherenkov radiation in moving medium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation in uniformly moving homogenous isotropic medium without dispersion is studied. Formula for the spectrum of Cherenkov radiation of fermion was derived for the case when the speed of the medium is less than the speed of light in this medium at rest. The properties of Cherenkov spectrum are investigated.

  11. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  12. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion is at the heart of all ultrafast real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum ranging from radio-frequencies to optics. However, following Kramer-Kronig relations, these signal processing systems have been plagued with the parasitic amplitude distortions due to frequency dependent, and non-flat amplitude transmission of naturally dispersive media. This issue puts a serious limitation on the applicability and performance of these signal processing systems. To solve the above mentioned issue, a perfect dispersive medium is proposed in this work, which artificially violates the Kramer-Kronig relations, while satisfying all causality requirements. The proposed dispersive metamaterial is based on loss-gain metasurface pairs and exhibit a perfectly flat transmission response along with arbitrary dispersion in a broad bandwidth, thereby solving a seemingly unavoidable issue in all ultrafast signal processing systems. Such a metamaterial is further shown using sub-waveleng...

  13. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ have been studied for deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in iron nucleus by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions, target mass correction, shadowing and anti-shadowing corrections. The calculations have been performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Using these structure functions we have obtained the ratio $R_{F2,F3}^A(x,Q^2)= \\frac{2F_{2,3}^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2,3}^D(x,Q^2)}$, the differential scattering cross section $\\frac{1}{E}\\frac{d^2\\sigma}{dxdy}$ and the total scattering cross section $\\sigma$. The results of our numerical calculations in $^{56}Fe$ are compared with the experimental results of NuTeV and CDHSW collaborations.

  14. Determination of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137} and absolute beta activities in First Cycle Supernatent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmholz, H.R.

    1954-03-15

    This report discusses procedures have been established for determining the absolute activities of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137}, and gross beta in First Cycle Supernatant. These procedures are also valid for other samples such as scavenged Radioactive Waste (RAW), the primary restriction being that the age of the material be at least 250 days so that any Sr{sup 89} activity (53 day half-life) is negligible. With the exception of the gross beta analysis the results are believed to be accurate to within 10%.

  15. Trypsin promotes C6 glioma cell proliferation in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H; Kurosaka, R; Ema, M; Ogawa, Y

    1996-07-01

    C6 glioma cells could be successively subcultured and maintained in serum- and growth factor-free medium (SF/GFF medium). C6 cell proliferation in SF/GFF medium was positively correlated with the initial cell density at plating. This correlation disappeared when the medium had been renewed early after cell adhesion (3 h after plating), suggesting that C6 cell growth depends on some diffusible factor in the medium before renewal, and that this factor is not secreted from C6 cells in the assay culture but is transferred from the cell suspension. The supernatant of trypsinized C6 cell suspension (SCS), trypsin-EDTA solution for routine cell harvesting use, and modified trypsin of protein sequencing grade all promoted C6 cell proliferation at, appropriate dilutions or concentrations under SF/GFF conditions. The growth promoting effects of SCS and trypsin-EDTA solution were completely inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor. These results demonstrate that the serine protease trypsin has a proliferative effect on C6 cells continuously subcultured in SF/GFF medium. In addition, it is suggested that trypsin used for cell dispersion is transferred from cell suspension into the culture, where it promotes C6 cell growth after passage in our SF/GFF subculture system.

  16. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-47, 49) and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-51, 53) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-30

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP).

  17. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-150, 151) and Tank 43H (HTF- 43-14-152, 53) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-14

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator.

  18. Discovery of Novel Secreted Virulence Factors from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Proteomic Analysis of Culture Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Gustin, Jean K.; Stufkens, Afke; Shaikh-Kidwai, Afshan S.; Li, Jie; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the world. This pathogen has two type-III secretion systems (TTSS) necessary for virulence that are encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and are expressed during extracellular or intracellular infectious states, respectively, to deliver virulence factors (effectors) to the host cell cytoplasm. While many have been identified and at least partially characterized, the full repertoire of effectors has not been catalogued. In this mass spectrometry-based proteomics study, we identified effector proteins secreted under minimal acidic medium growth conditions that induced the SPI-2 TTSS and its effectors, and compared the secretome from the parent strain to the secretome from strains missing either essential (SsaK) or regulatory components (SsaL) of the SPI-2 secretion apparatus. We identified 75% of the known TTSS effector repertoire. Excluding translocon components, 95% of the known effectors were biased for identification in the ssaL mutant background, which demonstrated that SsaL regulates SPI-2 type III secretion. To confirm secretion to animal cells, we made translational fusions of several of the best candidates to the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis and assayed cAMP levels of infected J774 macrophage-like cells. From these infected cells we identified six new TTSS effectors and two others that are secreted independent of TTSS. Our results substantiate reports of additional secretion systems encoded by Salmonella other than TTSS.

  19. The Intergalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P

    2000-01-01

    About half a million years after the Big Bang, the ever-fading cosmic blackbody radiation cooled below 3000 K and shifted first into the infrared and then into the radio, and the smooth baryonic plasma that filled the Universe became neutral. The Universe then entered a ``dark age'' which persisted until the first cosmic structures collapsed into gravitationally-bound systems, and evolved into stars, galaxies, and black holes that lit up the Universe again. Some time between redshift of 7 and 15, stars within protogalaxies created the first heavy elements; these systems, together perhaps with an early population of quasars, generated the ultraviolet radiation that reheated and reionized the cosmos. The history of the Universe during and soon after these crucial formative stages is recorded in the all-pervading intergalactic medium (IGM), which is believed to contain most of the ordinary baryonic material left over from the Big Bang. Throughout the epoch of structure formation, the IGM becomes clumpy and acqui...

  20. High-efficient n-butanol production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Zeng, Qingwei; Han, Shuo; Wang, Zhaoyu; Dong, Qing; Bi, Yanhong; Zhao, Yuping

    2017-04-01

    Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated. Subsequently, we found that adding certain amino acids could effectively enhance butyrate re-assimilation, butanol tolerance and titer (from 11.1 to 14.8 g/L). Additionally, in order to decrease the raw material cost, butyrate fermentative supernatant produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was applied to butanol production in the Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culture system, instead of adding synthetic butyrate. Final butanol and total ABE concentrations reached higher levels of 16.3 and 24.8 g/L with increments of 46.8 and 37.8%, respectively. These results show that the proposed fermentation strategy has great potential for efficiently butanol production with an economic approach.

  1. Impact of Cell-free Supernatant of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Putrescine and Other Polyamine Formation by Foodborne Pathogens in Ornithine Decarboxylase Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Fatih; Tabanelli, Giulia; Toy, Nurten; Gardini, Fausto

    2015-06-24

    Conversion of ornithine to putrescine by Salmonella Paratyphi A, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was investigated in ornithine decarboxylase broth (ODB) using cell-free supernatants (CFSs) obtained from Leuconostoc mesenterodies subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus. Two groups of cell-free supernatants (25 or 50%) and control (only ODB) were prepared to investigate putrescine (PUT) and other polyamine formation by foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the species for each amine. All of the CFSs reduced the formation of PUT by ≥65%. The production of cadaverine (CAD) was scarcely affected by the presence of CFSs, with the exception of the samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The variation in polyamine was found with respect to the control samples. Spermidine (SPD) was produced in lower amount in many samples, especially in Gram-negative FBPs, whereas spermine (SPN) increased drastically in the major part of the samples concerning the control. Histamine (HIS) was characterized by a marked concentration decrease in all of the samples, and tyramine (TYR) was accumulated in very low concentrations in the controls. Therefore, the ability of bacteria to produce certain biogenic amines such as HIS, TYR, PUT, and CAD has been studied to assess their risk and prevent their formation in food products. The results obtained from this study concluded that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with non-decarboxylase activity are capable of avoiding or limiting biogenic amine formation by FBP.

  2. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.

    1981-03-01

    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  3. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents apoptotic cell death in a human astrocytoma cell line incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno Carlo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has shown to contribute in the mechanisms underlying apoptotic cell death occuring in AIDS-dementia complex. Here we investigated the role of peroxynitrite in apoptosis occurring in astroglial cells incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected human primary macrophages (M/M. Results Flow cytometric analysis (FACS of human cultured astrocytes shortly incubated with HIV-1-infected M/M supernatants showed apoptotic cell death, an effect accompanied by pronounced staining for nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite and by abnormal formation of malondialdehyde (MDA. Pretreatment of astrocytes with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTMPS antagonized HIV-related astrocytic apoptosis, MDA formation and nitrotyrosine staining. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that inibition of peroxynitrite leads to protection against peroxidative stress accompanying HIV-related apoptosis of astrocytes. Overall results support the role of peroxynitrite in HIV-related programmed death of astrocytes and suggest the use of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst to counteract HIV-1-related neurological disorders.

  4. Discovery of novel secreted virulence factors from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by proteomic analysis of culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, George S; Brown, Roslyn N; Gustin, Jean K; Stufkens, Afke; Shaikh-Kidwai, Afshan S; Li, Jie; McDermott, Jason E; Brewer, Heather M; Schepmoes, Athena; Smith, Richard D; Adkins, Joshua N; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis throughout the world. This pathogen has two type III secretion systems (TTSS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that deliver virulence factors (effectors) to the host cell cytoplasm and are required for virulence. While many effectors have been identified and at least partially characterized, the full repertoire of effectors has not been catalogued. In this proteomic study, we identified effector proteins secreted into defined minimal medium designed to induce expression of the SPI-2 TTSS and its effectors. We compared the secretomes of the parent strain to those of strains missing essential (ssaK::cat) or regulatory (ΔssaL) components of the SPI-2 TTSS. We identified 20 known SPI-2 effectors. Excluding the translocon components SseBCD, all SPI-2 effectors were biased for identification in the ΔssaL mutant, substantiating the regulatory role of SsaL in TTS. To identify novel effector proteins, we coupled our secretome data with a machine learning algorithm (SIEVE, SVM-based identification and evaluation of virulence effectors) and selected 12 candidate proteins for further characterization. Using CyaA' reporter fusions, we identified six novel type III effectors and two additional proteins that were secreted into J774 macrophages independently of a TTSS. To assess their roles in virulence, we constructed nonpolar deletions and performed a competitive index analysis from intraperitoneally infected 129/SvJ mice. Six mutants were significantly attenuated for spleen colonization. Our results also suggest that non-type III secretion mechanisms are required for full Salmonella virulence.

  5. 热损伤角质形成细胞培养上清液对成纤维细胞生物学行为的影响%Effect of heat injured keratinocytes supernatant on biological behavior of fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓智; 胡大海; 张万福; 张战凤; 石继红; 蔡维霞; 朱华宇; 朱雄翔; 汤朝武

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the supernatant of heat injured keratinocytes (KC) on biological behavior of the dermal fibroblasts ( Fb). Methods Human dermal Fb were isolated and cultured. A model of heat injured KC ( HaCaT) was reproduced in vitro. Supernatant of normal KC and the supernatant of KC culture 12 hours after heat injury were collected and diluted with non-serum DMEM in 1:1 volume ratio to make normal KC conditioned medium ( NKCM ) and heat injury KC conditioned medium ( HKCM) respectively. Fb was respectively treated with non-serum DMEM and 2 kinds of conditioned medium. (1) The proliferation of Fb was detected with MTT method at post culture hour (PCH) 12, 24, 36, 48. (2) The apoptosis of Fb was determined by flow cytometry at PCH 12 ( Fb were heat injured in advance; Fb without heat treatment was used as control). (3) At PCH 24, expression of a-SMA in Fb cytoplasm was determined with immunofluorescence method; expression of a-SMA mRNA in Fb was determined with real-time quantified PCR. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, and pairwise comparison among groups with LSD-t test. Results (1) The proliferation of Fb: the absorbance value of Fb cultured with HKCM at PCH 12, 24, 36, 48 wa9 respectively higher than that of Fb cultured with non-serum DMEM ( with t value respectively 1. 89, 2. 35 , 2.02, 1.94, and P values all below 0. 01). There were significant statistical differences between the absorbance values of Fb cultured with HKCM and those of Fb cultured with 1MKCM at PCH 12, 24, and 48 (at PCH 12, t = 1. 83, P <0. 01; at PCH 24,t =2.91, P < 0. 05 ; at PCH 48 , t = 1. 83 , P < 0.05). (2 ) Apoptosis of Fb cultured with HKCM was diminished as compared with that of Fb cultured with NKCM and of Fb without treatment ( t =3.31 , P <0.05; t = 1.47, P < 0.01). (3) The expression of α-SMA (red fluorescence) in Fb cultured with non-serum DMEM or NKCM was less as seen under fluorescence scope, and it was obviously increased in Fb

  6. Medium from γ-irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria stimulates a unique immune response in Drosophila cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Bo G; Oldenvi, Sandra; Steiner, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that γ-irradiated, non-dividing bacteria can elicit potent immune responses in mammals. Compared to traditional heat or chemical inactivation of microbes, γ-irradiation likely preserves metabolic activity and antigenic features to a larger extent. We have previously shown that antimicrobial peptides are induced in Drosophila by peptidoglycan fragments secreted into the medium of exponentially growing bacterial cultures. In this study, we γ-irradiated Escherichiacoli cells at a dose that halted cell division. The temporal synthesis and release of peptidoglycan fragments were followed as well as the potential of bacterial supernatants to induce immune responses in Drosophila S2 cells. We demonstrate that peptidoglycan synthesis continues for several days post irradiation and that monomeric peptidoglycan is shed into the medium. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed a strong immune response against the bacterial medium. The response to medium taken directly post irradiation shows a large overlap to that of peptidoglycan. Medium from prolonged bacterial incubation does, however, stimulate a selective set of immune genes. A shift towards a stress response was instead observed with a striking induction of several heat shock proteins. Our findings suggest that γ-irradiated bacteria release elicitors that stimulate a novel response in Drosophila.

  7. Upper medium segment cooling down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The sluggish growth of the passenger car market in top provinces was also reflected in a depression of the upper medium segment. In Jan-Apr, 2008, the top 3 upper medium models accounting for nearly 40% of this segment performed poorly, with the Passat-Lingyu and the Accord decreasing. The Camry also saw a decrease in three top provinces: Guangdong,

  8. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other...... preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious...... advantages using this assay, are that it can be performed directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production, and also works for antigens with repetitive epitopes. Moreover, the bonus effect, i.e., a signal in excess of the reference signal when sets of monoclonal...

  9. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp(2)), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  10. Culture supernatants of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 treated with parthenolide inhibit the proliferation, migration, and lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cai-juan; GUO Su-fen; SHI Tie-mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Parthenolide has been tested for anti-tumor activities,such as anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in recent studies.However,little is known about its role in the process of tumor angiogenesis.This study aims to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of parthenolide on the proliferation,migration and lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.Methods Different concentrations of parthenolide were applied to the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cells.After 24-hour incubation,the culture supematants were harvested and used to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells for 24 hours.Then an inverted fluorescence phase contrast microscope was used to evaluate the human umbilical vein endothelial cells.The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),interleukin (IL)-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in the culture supernatant of the MDA-MB-231 cells was then measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays.Results Suppression of proliferation,migration,and the lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was observed in the presence of the culture supernatants from the breast cancer cell line treated with different concentrations of parthenolide.Parthenolide decreased the levels of the angiogenic factors MMP-9,VEGF,and IL-8secreted by the MDA-MB-231 cells.Conclusions Parthenolide may suppress angiogenesis through decreasing angiogenic factors secreted by breast cancer cells to interfere with the proliferation,migration and lumen-like structure formation of endothelial cells,thereby inhibiting tumor growth.It is a promising potential anti-angiogenic drug.

  11. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  12. Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli-challenged human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2014-05-28

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria.

  13. Purification of monoclonal antibodies, IgG1, from cell culture supernatant by use of metal chelate convective interaction media monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Poonam; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Jayaprakash, N S

    2012-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have diverse applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. The recent advancement in hybridoma technology for large-scale production of MAbs in bioreactors demands rapid and efficient purification methods. Conventional affinity purification systems have drawbacks of low flow rates and denaturation of antibodies owing to harsh elution conditions. Here, we attempted purification of MAbs by use of a high-throughput metal-chelate methacrylate monolithic system. Monolithic macroporous convective interaction media-iminodiacetate (CIM-IDA) disks immobilized with four different metal ions (Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺) were used and evaluated for purification of anti-human serum albumin IgG1 mouse MAbs from cell culture supernatant after precipitation with 50% ammonium sulfate. Elution with 10 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer (25 mM MMA = MOPS (Morpholino propane sulfonic acid) + MES (Morpholino ethane sulfonic acid) + Acetate + 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.4) resulted in a purification of 25.7 ± 2.9-fold and 32.5 ± 2.6-fold in experiments done using Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺ metal ions, respectively. The highest recovery of 85.4 ± 1.0% was obtained with a CIM-IDA-Zn(II) column. SDS-PAGE, ELISA and immuno-blot showed that the antibodies recovered were pure, with high antigen-binding efficiency. Thus, metal chelate CIM monoliths could be a potential alternative to conventional systems for fast and efficient purification of MAbs from the complex cell culture supernatant.

  14. The effect of NaCl substitution with KCl on proteinase activities of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant at different pH levels and salt concentrations: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash, M M; Sherkat, F; Shah, N P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl at different pH levels and salt concentrations on proteinase activity of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant of the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei. de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth aliquots were mixed with 2 pure salts (NaCl and KCl) and 2 salt concentrations at 2 concentration levels (5 and 10%), inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei, and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 22 h. The cultures were then centrifuged at 4,000×g for 30 min, and the collected cell pellets were used to prepare cell-wall proteinases and the supernatants used as a source of supernatant (extracellular) proteinases. The proteolytic activity and protein content of both portions were determined. After incubation of both portions with 3 milk caseins (α-, β-, κ-casein), the supernatants were individually subjected to analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and proteolytic activity using the o-phthalaldehyde method. Significant differences were observed in ACE-inhibitory and proteolytic activities between salt substitution treatments of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant from both probiotic strains at the same salt concentration and pH level.

  15. An improved holographic recording medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Solid, linear chain hydrocarbons with molecular weight ranging from about 300 to 2000 can serve as long-lived recording medium in optical memory system. Suitable recording hydrocarbons include microcrystalline waxes and low molecular weight polymers or ethylene.

  16. Medium for presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Weagant, S D

    1983-01-01

    A medium, lysine-arginine-iron agar, was developed for the presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates. This medium was a modification of lysine-iron agar and allowed for the testing of five biochemical characteristics in a single tube medium. The reactions of Y. enterocolitica on this medium were reliable and distinctive. The medium significantly simplified the identification of Y. enterocolitica isolates.

  17. Medium for presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Weagant, S D

    1983-01-01

    A medium, lysine-arginine-iron agar, was developed for the presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates. This medium was a modification of lysine-iron agar and allowed for the testing of five biochemical characteristics in a single tube medium. The reactions of Y. enterocolitica on this medium were reliable and distinctive. The medium significantly simplified the identification of Y. enterocolitica isolates.

  18. Medium for presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, S D

    1983-02-01

    A medium, lysine-arginine-iron agar, was developed for the presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates. This medium was a modification of lysine-iron agar and allowed for the testing of five biochemical characteristics in a single tube medium. The reactions of Y. enterocolitica on this medium were reliable and distinctive. The medium significantly simplified the identification of Y. enterocolitica isolates.

  19. Detoxification of azo dyes mediated by cell-free supernatant culture with manganese-dependent peroxidase activity: effect of Mn2+ concentration and H2O2 dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Elsa; Urra, Johana; Vásquez, Carlos; Palma, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    White-rot fungi (WRF) are capable of degrading complex organic compounds such as lignin, and the enzymes that enable these processes can be used for the detoxification of recalcitrant organopollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate a system based on the use of an in vitro ligninolytic enzyme for the detoxification of recalcitrant dye pollutants. The dyes selected for investigation were the anionic and cationic commercial azo dyes, basic blue 41 (BB41), acid black 1 (AB1), and reactive black 5 (RB5). A supernatant, cell-free culture of WRF with manganese peroxidase activity was used to investigate its degradative capacity under various conditions, and concentrations of cofactors, H(2)O(2) and Mn(2+). The assays were carried out using a 2(2) experimental designs whose variables were concentration of Mn(2+) (33 and 1,000 μM) and semicontinuous dosage of the H(2)O(2) (0.02 and 0.10 μmol) added at a frequency of 0.2 min(-1). The response variables analyzed were the efficiency and the initial rate of the decolorization process. The dye concentrations considered ranged from 10 to 200 mg L(-1). AB1 and RB5 were decolorized over the entire interval of concentrations studied; reaching efficiencies between 15 and 95%. Decolorization of up to 100 mg L(-1), BB41 had less than 30% efficiency. The decay of the concentration of AB1 was interpreted by two-stage kinetics model, with the exception of the condition of 33 μM Mn(2+)-0.02 μmol of H(2)O(2) in which only one stage was observed. For all assays performed with 33 μM Mn(2+), the initial rate of the decolorization process was found to be dependent on the dosage of H(2)O(2). The results of this study can be applied to the development bioreactors for the degradation of recalcitrant pollutants from the textile industry and may be used as a model for expanding the use of extracellular enzyme supernatants in bioremediation. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Pions in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, E; Frederico, T

    2014-01-01

    Using the light-front pion wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model, we study the properties of the pion in symmetric nuclear matter. The pion model we adopt is well constrained by previous studies to explain the pion properties in vacuum. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and down quarks of the pion immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the quark-meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modifications of the pion lectromagnetic form factor, charge radius and weak decay constant in symmetric nuclear matter.

  1. The Medium is the Message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Danish avant-garde artists did not have the access to professional sound studios and public radio open to their colleagues in Swede, but they were equally interested in working with sound as a medium and in gaining acces to the electronic mass media. This essay examines one of the few experimenta...... series of sound art broadcast by Radio Denmark.......Danish avant-garde artists did not have the access to professional sound studios and public radio open to their colleagues in Swede, but they were equally interested in working with sound as a medium and in gaining acces to the electronic mass media. This essay examines one of the few experimental...

  2. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239. The measured sodium concentration averaged, respectively, 4.28E+00 ± 9.30E-02 M and 4.32E+00 ± 1.076E-01 M in the Tank 39H surface sample and Tank 39H subsurface sample. In general, the nitrate, nitrite, free-OH and specific gravity of the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were all about the same in magnitude, respectively, averaging 1.98 M, 0.314 M, 1.26 M and 1.24. The measured silicon concentration for the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were, respectively, 3.84E+01± 5.51E+00 and 4.14E+01± 1.17E+00 mg/L. Based on the uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239 concentrations, the calculated U-235 equivalent is 21.41 wt% for the surface sample and 21.32 wt% for the subsurface sample.

  3. Anti-adherence potential of Enterococcus durans cells and its cell-free supernatant on plastic and stainless steel against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Ait Meddour; Farida, Bendali; Djamila, Sadoun

    2015-07-01

    It is demonstrated that numerous bacteria are able to attach to surfaces of equipment used for food handling or processing. In this study, a strain of Enterococcus durans, originally isolated from a milking machine surface, was firstly studied for its biofilm formation potential on plastic and stainless steel supports. The strain was found to be a biofilm producer either at 25, 30 or 37 °C on polystyrene microtitre plates, with a best adherence level observed at 25 °C. En. durans showed a strong adhesion to stainless steel AISI-304. Antibacterial and anti-adherence activities of En. durans were tested against four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915) which were shown as biofilm producers on both plastic and stainless steel. En. durans cells and cell-free culture supernatant showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition potential of the pathogens either on solid media or in broth co-cultures. Characterization of the antibacterial substances indicated their proteinaceous nature which assigned them most probably to bacteriocins group.

  4. Analysis of metal Bioleaching from thermal power plant fly ash by Aspergillus niger 34770 culture supernatant and reduction of phytotoxicity during the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger culture supernatant is used for bioleaching process. Before starting bioleaching process, fly ash was washed with distilled water. This removed 100 % sodium, 47 % (±0.45) boron, 38.07 % (±0.12) calcium, 29.89 % (±0.78) magnesium, and 11.8 % (±0.05) potassium. The pH was reduced from 10.5 to 8.5 after water washing. During bioleaching process, around 100 % metal removal was achieved in 4 h for all metals except chromium 93 % (±1.18), nickel 83 % (±0.32), arsenic 78 % (±0.52), and lead 70 % (±0.20). The process parameters including temperature, shaking speed, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized for bioleaching process. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of fly ash on growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). At 20 g/100 ml fly ash concentration no germination of V. radiata seeds was observed. With an increasing concentration of untreated fly ash, a gradual decrease in root/shoot length was observed. After bioleaching process 78 % (±0.19) germination of V. radiata was observed with 20 g/100 ml fly ash. This study will help to develop an efficient process to remove the toxic metals from fly ash.

  5. Bio-chemical process for nitrogen and phosphorus removal by draining out anaerobic rich phosphate supernatant in ERP-SBR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIFangying; XUXiaoyi; LUOGuyuan

    2003-01-01

    The method of fixed phosphate coming from anaerobic reactor by the auxiliary chemical process is applied in External Recycle Process-SBR (ERP-SBR). This process changes the model of draining out activated sludge in the traditional biological phosphorus removal system to discharge anaerobic poly-phosphate supernatant. This process eliminates the contradiction of control for Solid Removal Time (SRT) in process of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. It can obtain high removal efficiency of nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) in longer SRT. Experiment results show that: when SRT=50 ~ 80 d, TN=28.6~ 58.3 mg/L, TP=5.5~ 13.5 mg/L in influent, COD≤ 34mg/L, TN≤ 6.02 mg/L, PO43-≤0.23 mg/L in effluent. The amount of lime is only 5% of traditional methods. The phosphorus content in the chemical sludge is 12 %~15 % and the recycle of phosphorus can be realized easily.

  6. Isolation of monoclonal antibody from a Chinese hamster ovary supernatant. II: dynamics of the integrated separation on ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Wojciech; Muca, Renata; Woś, Sylwia; Piątkowski, Wojciech; Antos, Dorota

    2013-08-30

    Dynamics of the purification process of a CHO derived monoclonal antibody by ion exchange chromatography (IEC), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and their integration has been investigated. To quantify the adsorption behavior of the target protein (IgG1) and impurities contained in the supernatant, their elution course on IEC and HIC columns has been analyzed versus pH and/or the salt concentration in the mobile phase. A short-cut method has been proposed for mathematical modeling and determining underlying kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The accuracy of the model predictions has been verified by comparing the simulated and experimental band profiles recorded in both chromatographic processes. After verification, the model was used to optimize operating conditions for the column loading and chromatographic elution in the integrated process IEC/HIC. Two alternative loading techniques based on the upstream and downstream feed dilution were taken into account in the optimization routine. In the first one the feed stream was diluted with the loading buffer prior to the column loading, while in the latter one the feed dilution was realized inside the column using the multiple-injection technique. It was shown that the downstream dilution allowed significant reduction of the contact time between the protein and the loading buffer.

  7. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-05

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol.

  8. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium

  9. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium ingredi

  10. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium ingredi

  11. An In-Vitro Investigation of the Antibacterial Effects of the Methanol and Aqueous Extracts and the Supernatant of the Algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM 210-1 on Multiantibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senobar Asadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae contain compounds, some of which have antibacterial properties. For example, the antibiotic Chlorellin can be mentioned, which is extracted from Chlorella species. The methanol and aqueous extracts, and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 were used in this study. After culturing the Algae and preparing the supernatant and extracts, the antibacterial effects of the extracts and supernatant of this algae against multidrugresistant (MDR Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing urinary tract infections were determined using the microdilution and checkerboard titration methods. In the microdilution method, first, the aqueous extract of this algae at a concentration of 0.72 ± 0.22 mg/ml could inhibit the growth of the bacteria being tested. Then, the methanol extract and the supernatant of this algae at concentrations of 0.98 ± 0.68 and 1 ± 0.26 mg/ml, respectively, inhibited the growth of the bacteria being studied. The sum of the FIC of the methanol and aqueous extracts of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM 210-1 in this study, showed the indifference of these two extracts towards each other.

  12. An In-Vitro Investigation of the Antibacterial Effects of the Acetone and Ethanol Extracts and the Supernatant of the Algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 on Some of the Gram-Negative Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Asadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Algae are rich sources of amino acids, terpenoids, florentines, alkanes, halogenated ketones, steroidal compounds, fatty acids, and phenols that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry. The acetone and ethanol extracts, and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1, were used in this study. After culturing the Algae, and preparing the supernatant and extracts, the antibacterial effects of the extracts and supernatant of this algae against some of the gram-negative bacterial foodborne pathogens were determined using the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. According to the study conducted, the acetone and ethanol extracts and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 showed acceptable antibacterial properties against some of the bacteria being studied, at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/ml in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. The maximum inhibition zone diameters in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods, were 36.8 and 35.4 mm, respectively, which were related to the bacterium Proteus mirabilis PTCC 1776 and were observed at a 10 mg/ml concentration of the acetone extract. By comparing the mean inhibition zone diameters among the acetone and ethanol extracts and a mixture of the two extracts using the well plate method, it can be concluded that the acetone and ethanol extracts of Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 are indifferent to each other. This analysis was also true of the agar disk diffusion method.

  13. The Effect of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosusCulture Supernatants on Expression of Autophagy Genes and HPV E6 and E7 Oncogenes in The HeLa Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevaseli, Elahe; Azam, Rosa; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Mazlomy, Mohammadali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshvar, Maryam; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which lactobacilli exert their cytotoxic effects on cervical cancer cells. In addition, we aimed to evalu- ate the effect of lactobacilli on the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) onco- genes. In this experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymer- ase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of CASP3 and three autophagy genes [ATG14, BECN1 and alpha 2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (PRKAA2)] along with HPV18 E6 and E7 genes in HeLa cells before and after treatment with Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture supernatants. The expression of CASP3 and autophagy genes in HeLa cells was de- creased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. However, this de- crease was not significant for PRKAA2 when compared with controls. In addition, expression of HPV E6 was significantly decreased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. Lactobacilli culture supernatants can decrease expression of ATG14 and BECN1 as well as the HPV E6 oncogene. It has been demonstrated that the main changes occurring during cervical carcinogenesis in cell machinery can be reversed by suppression of HPV oncogenes. Therefore, downregulation of HPV E6 by lacto- bacilli may have therapeutic potential for cervical cancer. As the role of autophagy in cancer is complicated, further work is required to clarify the link between downregula- tion of autophagy genes and antiproliferative effects exerted by lactobacilli.

  14. Medium Theory and Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    The  paper  first  gives  a  tentative  theoretical  explanation  of  the  concept  of media,  based  on  the  dichotomies  of  actual/potential  (meaning),  form/medium  (appearance),  and  substratum/material  content  (extension  in  time  and  space).  This  theoretical  explanation  presents......  the  possibility  for  observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next  section  the paper  frames  the macro  level by  a  tentative  synthesis of  the medium  theory  and  the  sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......  seen as medium  for  formation. Finally  the  paper  takes  the micro  level  perspective  by  applying  the  theory  to  newsgroups,  interpreting  them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social  inclusion.  ...

  15. Review of hadrons in medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, Gastão [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-22

    I review the present status in the theoretical and phenomenological understanding of hadron properties in strongly interacting matter. The topics covered are the EMC effect, nucleon structure functions in cold nuclear matter, spectral properties of light vector mesons in hot and cold nuclear matter, and in-medium properties of heavy flavored hadrons.

  16. Production of rhEPO with a serum-free medium in the packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J; Yang, Q; Cheng, X; Li, L; Zhou, J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant CHO (C2) cells producing human erythropoietin (rhEPO) were cultured with DMEM:F12 media containing 5% FBS for 8-10 days in a packed bed bioreactor, then rhEPO was produced with a serum-free medium (SFM-p) which was prepared in our laboratory. The SFM-p medium can support the growth of C2 cells and the production of rhEPO, and furthermore, it easily separates rhEPO from the culture supernatant. The cell culture in a packed bed bioreactor system using SFM-p was maintained in a stable condition for 20-25 days. The expression level of rhEPO was 12-28.4 mg/L. The bioreactor productivity was 71.0 mg/L.d and increased by 12-14 fold over that of the roller bottle. The glucose consumption rate was 21 g/L.d. At the end of 30 days of perfusion circulation, a final cell density of over 3.0 x 10(7)/ml of culture volume was achieved. Since the cells were entrapped in the polyester disk, the culture supernatant contained only a few detachment cells. Variations in lactate and ammonia production in the reactor were observed, and results showed that the productions of lactate and ammonia by the bioreactor were 3.5 g/L and 5 mmol/L, respectively, and did not affect the expression of interest protein. This experiment demonstrates that SFM-p is suitable for the growth and rhEPO production of recombinant C2 in the packed bed bioreactor.

  17. The Immunostimulation of F4ac ETEC-Culture Supernatant to Porcine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells%F4ac型产肠毒素大肠杆菌菌液上清对仔猪小肠上皮细胞的免疫刺激作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传丽; 刘铮铸; 俞英; 张勤

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a worldwide cause of bacteria induced diarrhoea in piglets. In the veterinary practices of pig production, serological identification of ETEC shows that F4ac is the most common serological type expressed in ETEC strains isolated from diarrheic piglets. So far, the mechanism by which ETEC produces diarrhoea in piglets has been clearly elucidated. However, the immunostimulation of ETEC-culture to host target cells has not been studied or described. In the present study, the immunostimulation of the supernatant of F4ac ETEC-culture to IPEC-J2 cells was studied.[Method]The culture of F4ac ETEC strain 200 was collected and centrifuged (4℃, 4 000 r/min for 15 min) after 12 hours in culture, and the supernatant was sterilized by passing it through a 0.22μm filter. The solution combined the sterilized supernatant with equivalent DMEM/F12 medium was used to challenge IPEC-J2 cells for 3 hours. The IPEC-J2 cells co-cultured with fresh LB medium and equivalent DMEM/F12 medium were as the control group. For both treatments, each experiment was repeated three times. Total RNAs of the stimulated and control IPEC-J2 cells were extracted using TRIZOL Reagent following the manufacturer’s instructions. According to the manufacturer’s instructions, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from RNA using the Prime Script® RT reagent Kit with gDNA Eraser (Perfect Real Time). The cDNA samples were then analyzed with real time RT-PCR using a LightCycler® 480 Real-Time PCR System. The real time RT-PCR reactions were performed in a final volume of 20μL with the Roche SYBR Green PCR Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The pig house-keeping gene β-actin was used as the internal standards to correct the input of cDNA. Triplicate qRT-PCRs were performed on each cDNA and the average Ct was used for further analysis. The relative quantification values were calculated using the 2-ΔΔCt. Differential m

  18. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL) on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis.

  19. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Reisinger

    Full Text Available Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis.

  20. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Costa Argôlo-Filho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in culture supernatants (SN have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1, whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins, as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01 was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  1. Requirement of simultaneous assessment of crystal- and supernatant-related entomotoxic activities of Bacillus thuringiensis strains for biocontrol-product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-05-20

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 10(7) endospores mL(-1) caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application.

  3. Inhibition of biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica by quorum sensing signal in cell-free supernatant from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Aifei; Zhu, Junli; Ye, Xiaofeng; Ge, Yangyang; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-02

    The objective of this study was to in vitro evaluate the effect of a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing quorum sensing (QS) signal of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth, biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica, and preliminarily assess the interactive influences of various chemically synthesized autoinducers on spoilage phenotypes of S. baltica. PF01 strain isolated from spoiled Pseudosciaen crocea was identified P. fluorescens. The addition of 25% and 50% CFS to S. baltica culture had no effect on the growth rate during the lag and exponential phase, however, caused cell decline during the stationary phase. The presence of CFS from P. fluorescens significantly inhibited biofilm development, and greatly decreased the production of trimethylamine (TMA) and biogenic amino in S. baltica. Various signal molecules of QS in the CFS of P. fluorescens culture were detected, including seven N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and two diketopiperazines (DKPs). Exogenous supplement of synthesized seven AHLs containing in the CFS decreased biofilm formation and TMA production in S. baltica, while exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was showed to promote spoilage potential, which revealed that S. baltica also sense the two QS molecules. Furthermore, the stimulating effect of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was affected when AHL was simultaneously added, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of spoilage phenotypes in S. baltica might be attributed to a competitive effect of these QS compounds in the CFS of P. fluorescens. The present studies provide a good basis for future research on the role of QS in the regulation of spoilage microbial flora.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Bocking, Alan D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection.

  5. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems. PMID:24854738

  6. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  7. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  8. Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2014-01-01

    describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space.

  9. Medium modifications with recoil polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J.F.J. van den [Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge Energiefysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ent, R. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He({rvec e},e{prime},{rvec p}){sup 3}H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium.

  10. Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Falceta-Goncalves, D; Falgarone, E; Chian, A C -L

    2014-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in the insterstellar medium and plays a major role in several processes such as the formation of dense structures and stars, the stability of molecular clouds, the amplification of magnetic fields, and the re-acceleration and diffusion of cosmic rays. Despite its importance, interstellar turbulence, alike turbulence in general, is far from being fully understood. In this review we present the basics of turbulence physics, focusing on the statistics of its structure and energy cascade. We explore the physics of compressible and incompressible turbulent flows, as well as magnetized cases. The most relevant observational techniques that provide quantitative insights of interstellar turbulence are also presented. We also discuss the main difficulties in developing a three-dimensional view of interstellar turbulence from these observations. Finally, we briefly present what could be the the main sources of turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  11. Medium-size-vessel vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael J.; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Medium-size-artery vasculitides do occur in childhood and manifest, in the main, as polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), cutaneous PAN and Kawasaki disease. Of these, PAN is the most serious, with high morbidity and not inconsequential mortality rates. New classification criteria for PAN have been validated that will have value in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Renal involvement is common and recent therapeutic advances may result in improved treatment options. Cutaneous PAN is a milder ...

  12. $\\Delta$ decay in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, B K; Kundu, Bijoy

    1996-01-01

    Proton-nucleus collisions, where the beam proton gets excited to the delta resonance and then decays to p\\pi ^+, either inside or outside the nuclear medium, are studied. Cross-sections for various kinematics for the (p,p' \\pi ^+) reaction between 500 MeV and 1 GeV beam energy are calculated to see the effects of the nuclear medium on the propagation and decay of the resonance. The cross-sections studied include proton energy spectra in coincidence with the pion, four momentum transfer distributions, and the invariant p\\pi^+ mass distributions. We find that the effect of the nuclear medium on these cross-sections mainly reduces their magnitudes. Comparing these cross-sections with those considering the decay of the delta outside the nucleus only, we further find that at 500 MeV the two sets of cross-sections have large differences, while by 1 GeV the differences between them become much smaller.

  13. Human cerebrospinal fluid fatty acid levels differ between supernatant fluid and brain-derived nanoparticle fractions, and are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Although saturated (SAFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are important structural components of neuronal membranes and precursors of signaling molecules, knowledge of their metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD is limited. Based on recent discovery that lipids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are distributed in both brain-derived nanoparticles (NP and supernatant fluid (SF, we hypothesized that fatty acid (FA abundance and distribution into these compartments is altered in early AD pathology.We assayed the FA composition and abundance in CSF fractions from cognitively healthy (CH, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and AD study participants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the SF fraction, concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, (C22:6n-3] was less in AD compared with CH, while alpha linolenic acid [α-LNA, (C18:3n-3] was lower in MCI compared with CH. In the NP fraction, levels of SAFAs (C15:0, C16:0 and a MUFA (C15:1 differentiated CH from MCI, while two MUFAs (C15:1, C19:1 and four PUFAs (C20:2n-6, C20:3n-3, C22:4n-6, C22:5n-3 were higher in AD compared with CH. Levels of even-chain free SAFA and total free FA levels were higher in AD, levels of odd-chain free SAFAs, MUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and total PUFA, were lower in AD compared with CH. Free n-6 PUFA levels were similar in all three groups.FA metabolism is compartmentalized differently in NP versus SF fractions of CSF, and altered FA levels reflect the importance of abnormal metabolism and oxidative pathways in AD. Depleted DHA in CSF fractions in AD is consistent with the importance of n-3 PUFAs in cognitive function, and suggests that disturbed PUFA metabolism contributes to AD pathology. This study of FA levels in CSF fractions from different cognitive stages shows potential AD biomarkers, and provides further insight into cell membrane dysfunctions, including mechanisms leading to amyloid production.

  14. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Suzukawa

    Full Text Available The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT, an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg and negative-control samples (Nil. We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs. In TBAg-Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk's lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001. Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg-Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI.

  15. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  16. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  17. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  18. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  19. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914 Section 19.914 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain in...

  20. 49 CFR 195.306 - Test medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test medium. 195.306 Section 195.306... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.306 Test medium. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, water must be used as the test medium. (b) Except for offshore pipelines, liquid...

  1. Mapping of moveout in a TTI medium

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-01-01

    To compute moveout in a transversely isotropic medium with tilted symmetry axis is a very complicated problem. We propose to split this problem into two parts. First, to compute the moveout in a corresponding VTI medium. Second, to map the computed moveout to a TTI medium.

  2. Theory of interstellar medium diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical interpretation of observed interplanetary resonance luminescence patterns is used as one of the must promising methods to determine the state of the local interstellar medium (LISM). However, these methods lead to discrepant results that would be hard to understand in the framework of any physical LISM scenario. Assuming that the observational data are reliable, two possibilities which could help to resolve these discrepancies are discussed: (1) the current modeling of resonance luminescence patterns is unsatisfactory and has to be improved, and (2) the extrapolated interstellar parameters are not indicative of the unperturbed LISM state, but rather designate an intermediate state attained in the outer regions of the solar system. It is shown that a quantitative treatment of the neutral gas-plasma interaction effects in the interface between the heliospheric and the interstellar plasmas is of major importance for the correct understanding of the whole complex.

  3. Conductivities in an anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimphun, Sunly; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong

    2016-10-01

    In order to imitate the anisotropic medium of a condensed matter system, we take into account an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion model as a dual gravity theory where the anisotropy is caused by different momentum relaxations. This gravity model allows an anisotropic charged black hole solution. On this background, we investigate how the linear responses of vector modes like electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities rely on the anisotropy. We find that the electric conductivity in the low frequency limit shows a Drude peak and that, in the intermediate frequency regime, it reveals the power law behavior. Specifically, when the anisotropy increases, the exponent of the power law becomes smaller. In addition, we find that a critical value for the anisotropy exists at which the dc conductivity reaches to its maximum value.

  4. Conductivities in an anisotropic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Khimphun, Sunly; Park, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    In order to imitate anisotropic medium of a condensed matter system, we take into account an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion model as a dual gravity theory where the anisotropy is caused by different momentum relaxations. This gravity model allows an anisotropic charged black hole solution. On this background, we investigate how the linear responses of vector modes like electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities rely on the anisotropy. We find that the electric conductivity in low frequency limit shows a Drude peak and that in the intermediate frequency regime it reveals the power law behavior. Especially, when the anisotropy increases the exponent of the power law becomes smaller. In addition, we find that there exist a critical value for the anisotropy at which the DC conductivity reaches to its maximum value.

  5. Tattoo: a multifaceted medium of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wymann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests the systems theoretical distinction of form/medium as a useful tool for distinguishing social phenomena that might look as if they stem from the same process. This is shown to be the case for the tattoo and tattooing. The tattoo is conceived as a medium of communication through which different forms of communication emerge. Tattooing is one of these forms of communication that shapes the medium in a particular way. The current article sheds a special light on its intricate, communicational constellation, for which the concept of parallax is suggested. Law, medicine and cosmetics as other forms of communication use the medium of tattoo in their own way as well. The form/medium distinction allows us to grasp these different forms of communication, while it shows that they share the tattoo as medium. The article’s ultimate goal is to illustrate that the tattoo figures as a multifaceted medium of communication.

  6. Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…

  7. Dreams of a New Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aden Evens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problematic at best, the desire for a transparent interface nevertheless drives much of digital culture and technology. But not the Web; or at least, not Web 1.0. Thoroughly commercialized, comfortably parsed into genres, serving billions of pages of predigested content to passive consumers, the World Wide Web as developed in the '90s unabashedly embraces its role as medium. While so many digital technologies work to hide their mediacy--drawing in the user with a total simulated sensorium, dematerializing the resistances of size and weight, untangling the knots of cables tying user to machine and machine to cubicle, minimizing the interface--Web 1.0 proudly clings to the browser as a glaring reminder of its medial character. While Web 2.0 has not forsaken the browser altogether, it nevertheless seems to offer a different sort of mediation. Arising alongside the atomization of browser functions, the ubiquitization of connectivity, and the coincidence of producer and user, Web 2.0 retains the form of a medium while reaching for the experiential logic of immediacy. This is not the immediacy of the transparent interface; rather, Web 2.0 effects an immediate relationship between the individual and culture. The interface does not disappear, but its mediacy is subsumed under the general form of cultural participation. Focusing on the "version upgrade" from Web 1.0 to 2.0, this essay will explore the implications for mediacy of this transition, noting that the fantasy of immediacy which drives Web 2.0 is layered and complex. The typical account of immediacy proposes to eliminate the interface and so construct a virtual reality (VR. But Web 2.0 mostly sidesteps the virtual, propelled instead by a fantasy of intuition in which the Web already knows what you want because it is you. Crucially, fantasies about the digital are effective: the computer's futurity inhabits our world, finding its expression in politics, advertising, budgeting, strategic planning

  8. Dust in the Interplanetary Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Ingrid; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Lamy, Herve

    2010-01-01

    The mass density of dust particles that form from asteroids and comets in the interplanetary medium of the solar system is, near 1 AU, comparable to the mass density of the solar wind. It is mainly contained in particles of micrometer size and larger. Dust and larger objects are destroyed by collisions and sublimation and hence feed heavy ions into the solar wind and the solar corona. Small dust particles are present in large number and as a result of their large charge to mass ratio deflected by electromagnetic forces in the solar wind. For nano dust particles of sizes 1 - 10 nm, recent calculations show trapping near the Sun and outside from about 0.15 AU ejection with velocities close to solar wind velocity. The fluxes of ejected nano dust are detected near 1AU with the plasma wave instrument onboard the STEREO spacecraft. Though such electric signals have been observed during dust impacts before, the interpretation depends on several different parameters and data analysis is still in progress.

  9. The Circumgalactic Medium of Andromeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Nicolas; Project AMIGA team

    2017-03-01

    Our view of galaxies has been transformed in recent years with diffuse halo gas surrounding galaxies that contains at least as many metals and baryons as their disks. While single sight lines through galaxy halos seen in absorption have provided key new constraints, they provide only average properties. Our massive neighbor, the Andromeda (M31) galaxy, provides an unique way to study its circumgalactic medium whereby we can study it using not one or two, but ~36 sightlines thanks to its proximity. With our Large HST program - Project AMIGA (Absorption Maps In the Gas of Andromeda), our goals are to determine the spatial distribution of the halo properties of a L* galaxy using 36 background targets at different radii and azimuths. In this brief paper, I discuss briefly the scientific rationale of Project AMIGA and some early science results. In particular, for the first time we have demonstrated that M31 has a gaseous halo that extends to R vir with as much as metal and baryonic masses than in its disk and has substantial change in its ionization properties with more highly ionized gas found at R ~ R vir than cooler gas found near the disk.

  10. The interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    It has been more than five decades ago that Henk van de Hulst predicted the observability of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI ). Since then use of the 21-cm line has greatly improved our knowledge in many fields and has been used for galactic structure studies, studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of the mass distribution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of spiral struc­ ture, studies of high velocity gas in the Milky Way and other galaxies, for measuring distances using the Tully-Fisher relation etc. Regarding studies of the ISM, there have been a number of instrumen­ tal developments over the past decade: large CCD's became available on optical telescopes, radio synthesis offered sensitive imaging capabilities, not only in the classical 21-cm HI line but also in the mm-transitions of CO and other molecules, and X-ray imaging capabilities became available to measure the hot component of the ISM. These developments meant that Milky Way was n...

  11. Dust in the interplanetary medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Ingrid; Lamy, Herve [Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Czechowski, Andrzej [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Zaslavsky, Arnaud, E-mail: ingrid.mann@aeronomie.b [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France)

    2010-12-15

    The mass density of dust particles that form from asteroids and comets in the interplanetary medium of the solar system is, near 1 AU, comparable to the mass density of the solar wind. It is mainly contained in particles of micrometer size and larger. Dust and larger objects are destroyed by collisions and sublimation and hence feed heavy ions into the solar wind and the solar corona. Small dust particles are present in large number and as a result of their large charge to mass ratio deflected by electromagnetic forces in the solar wind. For nanodust particles of sizes {approx_equal}1-10 nm, recent calculations show trapping near the Sun and outside from about 0.15 AU ejection with velocities close to solar wind velocity. The fluxes of ejected nanodust are detected near 1 AU with the plasma wave instrument onboard the STEREO spacecraft. Although such electric signals have been observed during dust impacts before, the interpretation depends on several different parameters and data analysis is still in progress.

  12. In vitro differentiation of MSCs into retina-like cells by the supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina%光损伤鼠视网膜片培养上清液诱导 MSCs 分化为视网膜样细胞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白月; 徐国兴

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of inducing rat mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) into retina-like cells by the supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina in vitro. METHODS: MSCs were isolated and attached to the wall of culture dishes by their specific adherent ability. Then the cells were characterized by flow cytometry.The neurosensory retina was isolated from retina of SD rat and it was tested by hematoxylin-eosin ( HE ) staining.The pathological changes of light-injured neurosensory retina was observed under transmission electron microscope. Three kinds of supernatant fluid of light -injured neurosensory retina of SD rats were prepared.The third passage of MSCs were cultured with these mixed medium for 7-8d, we used RT-PCR to see whether they could express rhodopsin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) , and positive cells were counted and analyzed. RESULTS: HE staining showed the retinal sheets included full-thickness neural retina.Neurosensory retina developed ultrastructural destructions by light injury.RT-PCR showed that the medium of mixed I expressed higher positive rate of rhodopsin (0.3915±0.00644), NSE (0.2019± 0.00682), GFAP (0.1972 ±0.00211) than the medium of mixed Ⅱ rhodopsin (0.0983 ±0.00319), NSE (0.1048 ± 0.00323), GFAP (0.1040±0.00254) and medium of mixedⅢrhodopsin(0.0044±0.00126), NSE (0.0498±0.00149), GFAP (0.0467±0.00333).The difference of intergroup has statistical significance. CONCLUTION:The supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina of SD rats can induce MSCs to differentiate into retina-like cells and provide new insights of stem cell therapy for retinopathy.%目的:应用大鼠视网膜片光损伤后的培养上清液,在体外诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞( mesenchymal stem cells , MSCs)成为视网膜样细胞的可能性。  方法:贴壁筛选法分离、培养大鼠MSCs ,流式细胞仪对其细胞纯度鉴定。取材大鼠视网

  13. Medium of Instruction in Thai Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjavanakul, Natpat

    The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.

  14. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George’s and Zarrouk’s media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthros...

  15. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hao; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  16. Strong Completeness of Medium Logic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhenghua; Zhu Wujia

    2005-01-01

    The strong completeness of medium logic system is discussed. The following results are proved: medium propositional logic system MP and its extension MP * are strong complete; medium predicate logic system MF and its extensions ( MF * and ME * ) are not strong complete; and generally, if a consistent formal system is not strong complete, then any consistent extensions of this formai system are not strong complete either.

  17. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  18. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, K.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.

    2017-03-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  19. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  20. Interaction of gravitational waves with an elastic solid medium

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, B.

    2001-01-01

    Contents. 1. Introduction. 2. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Material Representation. 3. Kinematics of a Material Medium: Convected Differentials. 4. Kinematics of a Perfect Elastic Medium. 5. Small Gravitational Perturbations of an Elastic Medium.

  1. Variations of secretome profiles according to conditioned medium preparation: The example of human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaut, Aline; Grare, Céline; Léger, Thibaut; Hardouin, Pierre; Broux, Odile

    2015-10-01

    One challenging point in analyzing cellular secretome collected as conditioned medium is cross-contamination by cell culture media components, especially bovine serum proteins. A common approach for serum removal is to wash the cells, an alternative is to grow cells using serum-free conditions. Given that the sample processing may influence the phenotype of cells and thus the secretome, it is important to establish the optimal protocol for each cell type. In this study, we compared two methods for preparing conditioned medium from human adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were either washed twice with PBS or cultured the last four days of differentiation in serum-free adipogenic medium. Gene expression of the cells was evaluated by using real-time PCR and 1D LC-MS/MS was used to compare secreted proteins present in the culture supernatants. Surprisingly, results showed significant differences in gene expression patterns of the cells and in protein content of the conditioned media and suggested that PBS washes induced severe modifications of the phenotype of cells and thus changes in protein secretion profiles. These data emphasize the significant variations in protein species related to cell manipulations and underline the importance of procedure optimization prior to any proteomic investigation.

  2. Tetracycline and Glutathione Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity: An In Vitro Study Using Culture Supernatants of L929 and Dalton Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Kendre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracycline and glutathione inhibited the protease activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and Dalton lymphoma cells, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the tetracycline may be due to its ability to chelate metal ions such as calcium and zinc. Gelatin-zymography technique was used to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of both tetracycline and glutathione. The intensity of the bands corresponding to metalloproteinase activity in zymography gel was reduced in the presence of 50–100 μg/mL of tetracycline. The presence of 10–100 μg/mL of tetracycline in the medium increased the adherence of L929 cancer cells. These results clearly indicate the antimetastatic property of tetracycline. Reduced glutathione, a compound which is produced endogenously by the cells to maintain the redox status, was shown to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinase activity (in vitro. Therefore, it is assumed that decreased glutathione levels in synovial fluids or plasma might increase the activity of MMP. Reduced glutathione at 100 μg/mL inhibited the metalloproteinase activity in gelatin-zymographic gel. As both tetracycline and glutathione exhibited an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase activity, it was of great interest to check their clinical effects on various MMP associated pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and arthritis. Here we report that tetracycline and reduced glutathione inhibited the activity of MMP2 completely and activity of MMP9 partly.

  3. 49 CFR 236.811 - Speed, medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, medium. 236.811 Section 236.811 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, medium. A speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour. ...

  4. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  5. Rethinking English in Maori-Medium Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard

    2011-01-01

    English language instruction in New Zealand's Maori-medium schools is controversial, with many schools either excluding it from their curriculum or adopting a tokenistic approach. Yet, how Maori-medium educators can best support their students' academic English language growth is still an under-researched and unresolved question. This paper…

  6. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2015-01-20

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  7. Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Biot ’s theory for wave propagation in saturated porous solid is modified to study the propagation of thermoelastic waves in poroelastic medium. Propagation of plane harmonic waves is considered in isotropic poroelastic medium. Relations are derived among the wave-induced temperature in the medium and the displacements of fluid and solid particles. Christoffel equations obtained are modified with the thermal as well as thermoelastic coupling parameters. These equations explain the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are attenuating longitudinal waves and one is a non-attenuating transverse wave. Thermal properties of the medium have no effect on the transverse wave. The velocities and attenuation of the longitudinal waves are computed for a numerical model of liquid-saturated sandstone. Their variations with thermal as well as poroelastic parameters are exhibited through numerical examples.

  8. Micropropagation of Alstroemeria in liquid medium using slow release of medium components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2010-01-01

    Alstroemeria rhizomes were micropropagated on semi-solid medium (AM) and in liquid medium (LM). In LM, growth was much enhanced (ca. 70%). Adequate gas exchange was crucial. This was obtained by agitation and in static medium by a sufficient large contact area of the explant and the gaseous

  9. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  10. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...... the spatial impulse response, whereas the field cannot readily be found for an attenuating medium. In this paper we present a simulation program capable of calculating the field in a homogeneous attenuating medium. The program splits the aperture into rectangles and uses a far-field approximation for each...

  11. Physical processes in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Spitzer, Lyman

    2008-01-01

    Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium discusses the nature of interstellar matter, with a strong emphasis on basic physical principles, and summarizes the present state of knowledge about the interstellar medium by providing the latest observational data. Physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium are treated, with frequent references to observational results. The overall equilibrium and dynamical state of the interstellar gas are described, with discussions of explosions produced by star birth and star death and the initial phases of cloud collapse leading to star formation.

  12. Meson's Correlation Functions in a Nuclear Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor in a nuclear medium through holographic two- and three-point correlation functions. To describe a nuclear medium composed of protons and neutrons, we consider a hard wall model on the thermal charged AdS geometry and show that due to the isospin interaction with a nuclear medium, there exist splittings of the meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor relying on the isospin charge. In addition, we show that the rho-meson's form factor describing an interaction with pseudoscalar fluctuation decreases when the nuclear density increases, while the interaction with a longitudinal part of an axial vector meson increases.

  13. Meson's correlation functions in a nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-09-01

    We investigate meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor in a nuclear medium through holographic two- and three-point correlation functions. To describe a nuclear medium composed of protons and neutrons, we consider a hard wall model on the thermal charged AdS geometry and show that due to the isospin interaction with a nuclear medium, there exist splittings of the meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor relying on the isospin charge. In addition, we show that the ρ-meson's form factor describing an interaction with pseudoscalar fluctuation decreases when the nuclear density increases, while the interaction with a longitudinal part of an axial vector meson increases.

  14. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  15. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  16. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Medium Mixed Element Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel Wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 18432 Tria Surface...

  17. Effective medium theory principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Tuck C

    2015-01-01

    Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...

  18. In-medium Properties of Hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metag Volker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given over recent results on in-medium properties of hadrons, obtained in experiments with photon, proton and deuteron beams at ANKE, CBELSA/TAPS, Crystal Ball, HADES, and BigRIPS. These experiments focus on identifying spectral inmedium modifications of hadrons, frequently discussed in the context of a partial restoration of chiral symmetry at finite nuclear densities. Three experimental approaches are presented: the measurement of the transparency ratio, the meson line shape analysis, and the search for meson-nucleus bound states. Results for ω, ϕ, and η' mesons indicate a broadening in the nuclear medium. Corresponding inelastic in-medium meson-nucleon cross sections have been extracted. Evidence for an in-medium mass shift has not been reported. Further information on the meson-nucleus interaction is derived from a spectroscopy of meson-nucleus bound states. A critical comparison of the results with theoretical predictions is presented.

  19. Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.

  20. Fractional diffusion equation for heterogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo L, M. A.; Espinosa M, E. G.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: plabarrios@hotmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The asymptotic diffusion approximation for the Boltzmann (transport) equation was developed in 1950 decade in order to describe the diffusion of a particle in an isotropic medium, considers that the particles have a diffusion infinite velocity. In this work is developed a new approximation where is considered that the particles have a finite velocity, with this model is possible to describe the behavior in an anomalous medium. According with these ideas the model was obtained from the Fick law, where is considered that the temporal term of the current vector is not negligible. As a result the diffusion equation of fractional order which describes the dispersion of particles in a highly heterogeneous or disturbed medium is obtained, i.e., in a general medium. (Author)

  1. New culture medium concepts for cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Kim, B Y; Yeo, J E; Nemeno, J G; Jo, Y H; Yang, W; Nam, B M; Namoto, S; Tanaka, S; Sato, M; Lee, K M; Hwang, H S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Before cell or tissue transplantation, cells or tissues have to be maintained for a certain period in vitro using culture medium and methods. Most culture media contain substances such as pH indicators and buffers. It is not known whether some of these substances are safe for subsequent application in the transplantation of cells or tissues into the human body. We investigated culture media and methods with respect to the safety of the components in future transplantation applications. A modified culture medium--medical fluid-based culture medium (FCM)--was designed by using various fluids and injectable drugs that are already currently permitted for use in clinical medicine. Medium components necessary for optimal cell growth were obtained from approved drugs. FCM was manufactured with adjusted final concentrations of the medium components similar to those in commercial Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). In particular, 1029.40 mg/L amino acids, approximately 88.85 mg/L vitamins, 13,525.77 mg/L inorganic salts, and 4500 mg/L D-glucose comprise the high-glucose FCM. Next, human fat synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and rat H9c2 (2-1) cells were cultured under 2 conditions: (1) DMEM-high glucose (HG), an original commercial medium, and (2) optimized FCM-HG. We assessed the morphologies and proliferation rates of these cells. We observed that FCM-HG was able to induce the growth of FS-MSC and commercially available H9c2 cell. The morphologies and proliferation patterns of these cells cultured under FCM-HG showed no differences compared with cells grown in DMEM-HG. Our data suggest that FCM, which we developed for the first time according to the concept of drug repositioning, was a useful culture medium, especially in cultured cells intended for human cell transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  3. Physics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, Bruce T

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive and richly illustrated textbook on the astrophysics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium--the gas and dust, as well as the electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, and magnetic and gravitational fields, present between the stars in a galaxy and also between galaxies themselves. Topics include radiative processes across the electromagnetic spectrum; radiative transfer; ionization; heating and cooling; astrochemistry; interstellar dust; fluid dynamics, including ionization fronts and shock waves; cosmic rays; distribution and evolution of the interstellar medium

  4. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  5. DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Polenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.

  6. New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro A. Amara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce a pharmaceutical grade single cell product of Arthrospira from a mixed culture. We have designed a medium derived from a combination between George’s and Zarrouk’s media. Our new medium has the ability to inhibit different forms of cyanobacterium and microalgae except the Chlorella. The medium and the cultivation conditions have been investigated to map the points where only Arthrospira could survive. For that, a mixed culture of pure Chlorella and Arthrospira (~90 : 10 has been used to develop the best medium composition that can lead to the enrichment of the Arthrospira growth and the inhibition of the Chlorella growth. To enable better control and to study its growth, an 80 l photobioreactor has been used. We have used high saline (2xA-St medium which has been followed by in fermentor reducing its concentration to 1.5x. The investigation proves that Chlorella has completely disappeared. A method and a new saline medium have been established using a photobioreactor for in fermentor production of single cell Arthrospira. Such method enables the production of pure pharmaceutical grade Arthrospira for medicinal and pharmaceutical applications or as a single cell protein.

  7. Interference Phenomena in Medium Induced Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interference pattern for the medium-induced gluon radiation produced by a color singlet quark-antiquark antenna embedded in a QCD medium with size $L$ and `jet quenching' parameter $\\hat q$. Within the BDMPS-Z regime, we demonstrate that, for a dipole opening angle $\\theta_{q\\bar q} \\gg\\theta_c\\equiv {2}/{\\sqrt{\\hat q L^3}}$, the interference between the medium--induced gluon emissions by the quark and the antiquark is suppressed with respect to the direct emissions. This is so since direct emissions are delocalized throughout the medium and thus yield contributions proportional to $L$ while interference occurs only between emissions at early times, when both sources remain coherent. Thus, for $\\tqq \\gg\\theta_c$, the medium-induced radiation is the sum of the two spectra individually produced by the quark and the antiquark, without coherence effects like angular ordering. For $\\tqq \\ll\\theta_c$, the medium--induced radiation vanishes.

  8. Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Type b Haemophilus influenzae%b型流感嗜血杆菌发酵培养基的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉兰; 郭京蓉; 高华; 周继唯; 王立新; 林云

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析b型流感嗜血杆菌(Type b Haernophilus influenzae,Hib)不同培养基发酵液中蛋白质、核酸含量及不同培养基添加物对发酵产物的影响,优化Hib发酵培养基.方法 设计不同配方的Hib摇瓶培养基,经摇瓶培养,检测发酵液上清中的蛋白质及核酸含量,选择合适的基础培养基,并在此基础上进行发酵罐培养,检测不同添加物(磷酸盐、钠盐、金属离子等)对Hib多糖复合物收获量、菌体形态及发酵液颜色的影响,并发酵3批,进一步检测多糖复合物中蛋白质和核酸的含量.结果 培养基介质不同,其发酵上清液中的蛋白质和核酸含量也不同,2号培养基(主要成分为酸水解酪素粉和酵母浸粉)发酵液蛋白质和核酸含量较低且稳定;培养基中不同添加物对Hib菌体形态、发酵液颜色及多糖复合物的收获量、质量和性状均产生不同的影响,其中b培养基发酵液菌体形态、多糖复合物收获量及质量均较好;3批发酵培养液中分别约有7%~10%的蛋白质和34%~42%的核酸被沉淀至多糖复合物中.结论 选择2号培养基为Hib基础培养基,b培养基为发酵培养基,本实验为Hib疫苗培养基的优化和多糖抗原的纯化提供了实验依据.%Objective To analyze the protein and nucleic acid contents in fermentation supernatant of type b Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) using various media as well as the effect of additives in medium on fermentation product, and optimize the fermentation medium. Methods The media with various formula for shake-flask culture of Hib were designed, and the protein and nucleic acid contents in culture supernatant were determined, based on which an appropriate basal medium was selected for culture of Hib in fermenter, and the effects of various additives (such as phosphate, sodium salt, and metal ions) on the recovery of polysaccharide complex, morphology and color of fermentation supernatant of Hib were analyzed. Three

  9. Usefulness of whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant glucose concentrations obtained by a veterinary point-of-care glucometer to identify septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie; Verlander, Lindsey Lane

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a veterinary point-of-care glucometer for identification of septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion (PE). Prospective clinical evaluation. 39 dogs with PE. Blood and peritoneal fluid convenience samples were collected concurrently in all dogs at the time of initial evaluation. A veterinary point-of-care glucometer was used to measure glucose concentration in heparinized whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant samples. Seventeen dogs had confirmed septic peritonitis, and 22 dogs had nonseptic PE. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of identification of dogs with septic peritonitis were calculated for glucose concentration differences for whole blood versus peritoneal fluid (WB-PF), plasma versus peritoneal fluid (P-PF), and plasma versus peritoneal fluid supernatant (P-PFS). With a cutoff of > 20 mg/dL, the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF was an insensitive indicator of septic peritonitis (sensitivity, 41.2%; specificity, 100%). In comparison, the glucose concentration differences for P-PF and P-PFS had a higher sensitivity for septic peritonitis (88.2% and 82.4%, respectively) but a lower specificity (80% and 77.8%, respectively). With a glucose concentration difference cutoff of ≥ 38 mg/dL, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of P-PF and P-PFS improved. Determination of the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF with the veterinary point-of-care glucometer was not useful in identifying all dogs with septic peritonitis. A glucose concentration difference of ≥ 38 mg/dL for P-PF or P-PFS, however, supported an accurate diagnosis of septic peritonitis in dogs with PE.

  10. Disinfection effects of ultraviolet on supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farm%猪场沼液絮凝上清液的紫外线杀菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同; 董红敏; 陶秀萍

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of microorganisms in the liquid digestate from a swine farm. The liquid digestate should be disinfected prior to discharge or utilization for sanitary and environmental safety, but there is a lack of literature on the disinfection of liquid digestate from animal feeding operations. In view of the high turbidity and chromaticity, the transmittance (T254) of liquid digestate from swine farm is nearly zero, and liquid digestate must be treated prior to ultraviolet disinfection. Flocculation was applied to pre-treat liquid digestate in this study in order to obtain supernatants with different transmittances (T254) for the following disinfecting trials. In terms of total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, experiments were conducted to investigate the disinfecting feasibility and the effectiveness of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate under 60 experimental conditions, which were formed by 4×3×5 factorial combinations of transmittances (T254) (0.01%, 0.69%, 3.78%and 8.54%), water depth (WD) (1, 2 and 3 cm), and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). Results showed that T254, WD, and HRT all significantly affected (P<0.01) the disinfection effects of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate, and significant interactions (P<0.01) were also detected among the experimental factors. The disinfection rates of ultraviolet on total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were (99.99±1.20)%, (99.99±1.43)%, and (100.00±0.01)%respectively, under the condition of 0.69%T254, 2 cm WD, and 15 min HRT. In such cases, the fecal coliforms in the supernatant of flocculated digestate decreased from 3.9×106 count/L to less than 3 count/L. Therefore, ultraviolet could be applied for the disinfection of the supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farms, and the disinfected effluent could meet the sanitary requirements of the current national standards. It is

  11. Praline metabolism by germinating Lilium longiflorum pollen. I. Labelling of cytoplasmic, wall and culture medium molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. V. Dashek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity occurs in trithloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble and precipitable, cytoplasm and salt-washed walls following germination of Lilium longiflorum, cv. 'Ace' pollen in medium containing [14C]-proline (Pro. Sephadex gel filtration on G-25 through G-100 was employed to determine whether radioactivity in cytoplasm, wall and growth medium from pollen fed [14C]-Pro or [3H]=Pro plus [14C]-arafbinose (Ara was contained within molecules possessing molecular weights of 5,000 to 100,000 daltones or greater. G-25 elution profiles of a crude cytoplasmic fraction (15,000 X g supernatant from [14C]-Pro labelled pollen yielded a radioctive void volume peak and a retarded peak. The void volume peak contained hydroxyproline (Hyp, and exhibited a coincidence of [3H]-Pro and [14C] -Ara labelling when pollen was double labelled with the two isotopes. This peak also contained radioactivity when pollen was germinated in 2-[3H]-myo-inositol. Germination in medium supplemented with 100 µM 2,2'-dipyridyl eliminated radioactivity from 2-[3H]-myo-inositol or [14C]-,Pro in the peak. Filtratian on G-25 of aTCA-soluble fraction of a salt-extract of walls from [14C]-Pro labelled pollen resulted in void volume and two retarded peaks. Void volume and two retarded peaks were also obtained upon G-25 filtration of a cellulase-digest of walls from [M]-Pro labeled pollen. The void volume peak contained Hyp, Lys, Gly, Ala, Ser, Glu and Asp acids, Val, Tyr, Leu or lieu and Pro. Sephadex G-90, 75, and 100 elution profiles of cellulasedigests of walls from [3H]-,Pro and [14C]-Ara labelled pollen yielded radioactive retarded and Hyp-containing void volume peaks with a coincidence of [3H] and [14C] labelling. Label in the void volume was obtained when either rhozyme P11- or pepsin-digests of walls from [14C]-Pro labelled pollen were gel filtered on G-50. Paper electrophoresis coupled with paper chromatography of acid hydrolyzates of salt-washed wall fractions demonstrated 15 of the

  12. Meson's correlation functions in a nuclear medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor in a nuclear medium through holographic two- and three-point correlation functions. To describe a nuclear medium composed of protons and neutrons, we consider a hard wall model on the thermal charged AdS geometry and show that due to the isospin interaction with a nuclear medium, there exist splittings of the meson's spectrum, decay constant and form factor relying on the isospin charge. In addition, we show that the ρ-meson's form factor describing an interaction with pseudoscalar fluctuation decreases when the nuclear density increases, while the interaction with a longitudinal part of an axial vector meson increases.

  13. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  14. Characterizations of PSD Fractal of Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国强; 徐世民; 李鑫钢

    2003-01-01

    A volume-based method for measuring particle-size distribution (PSD) fractal dimensions of porous mediums was developed by employing laser size-analyzing technology. Compared with conventional approaches of using hydrometer or screen to determine PSD, this method can avoid calculation errors and measure smaller size-scale porous medium. In this paper the experimental porous mediums were brown soil, kaolin and sand soil. A micro-order of magnitude (10-5 m) in particle-size interval could be shown in PSD results of brown soil and kaolin. The experiments indicated that brown soil had a nearly mono-fractal PSD character, while kaolin and sand soil showed multi-fractal PSD characters. By the adsorption isotherm experiments, the PSD fractal dimensions of the sand soil were also found to keep a linearly increasing relation with the linear adsorptive parameters of the soils in different intervals to adsorb benzene from aqueous solution.

  15. Cognitive Medium Access: Exploration, Exploitation and Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Jiang, Hai; Poor, H Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This paper establishes the equivalence between cognitive medium access and the competitive multi-armed bandit problem. First, the scenario in which a single cognitive user wishes to opportunistically exploit the availability of empty frequency bands in the spectrum with multiple bands is considered. In this scenario, the availability probability of each channel is unknown to the cognitive user a priori. Hence efficient medium access strategies must strike a balance between exploring the availability of other free channels and exploiting the opportunities identified thus far. By adopting a Bayesian approach for this classical bandit problem, the optimal medium access strategy is derived and its underlying recursive structure is illustrated via examples. To avoid the prohibitive computational complexity of the optimal strategy, a low complexity asymptotically optimal strategy is developed. The proposed strategy does not require any prior statistical knowledge about the traffic pattern on the different channels....

  16. Charmonium in a hot, dense medium

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, David

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture we apply a thermodynamic Green function formalism developed in the context of nonrelativistic plasma physics for the case of heavy quarkonia states in strongly correlated quark matter. Besides the traditional explanation of charmonium suppresion by Debye screening of the strong interaction, we discuss further effects of relevance when heavy quarkonia states propagate in a medium where strong correlations persist in the form of hadronic resonances. These effects may be absorbed in the definition of a plasma Hamiltonian, which was the main result of this work. This plasma Hamiltonian governs the in-medium modification of the bound state energy levels as well as the lowering of the continuum edge which leads not only to the traditional Mott effect for the dissociation of bound states in a plasma, but can also be applied for a consistent calculation of the in-medium modification of quarkonium dissociation rates.

  17. Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar space is filled with a dilute mixture of charged particles, atoms, molecules and dust grains, called the interstellar medium (ISM). Understanding its physical properties and dynamical behavior is of pivotal importance to many areas of astronomy and astrophysics. Galaxy formation and evolution, the formation of stars, cosmic nucleosynthesis, the origin of large complex, prebiotic molecules and the abundance, structure and growth of dust grains which constitute the fundamental building blocks of planets, all these processes are intimately coupled to the physics of the interstellar medium. However, despite its importance, its structure and evolution is still not fully understood. Observations reveal that the interstellar medium is highly turbulent, consists of different chemical phases, and is characterized by complex structure on all resolvable spatial and temporal scales. Our current numerical and theoretical models describe it as a strongly coupled system that is far from equilibrium and where th...

  18. Medium for Children’s Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Kristensen, Kasper; Petersson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates 16 elementary school children’s interaction with two different mediums for creativity, LEGO® bricks and paper collages, drawing on the previous creativity assessment test carried out by Amabile [1]. The study is based in a playful...... learning theoretical framework that is reflected in the means for analyzing the video material inspired by Price, Rogers, Scaife, Stanton and Neale [2]. The findings showed that the children explored the two mediums to the same degree, but that they were more structured in their planning and division...... on labor when working with LEGO bricks. It was also evident that the children assigned preconceived affordances to the two mediums. The results from this study should feed into to a technology enhanced playful learning environment and these are the initial steps in the design process....

  19. Structure and Dynamics of the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Moles, Mariano; Melnick, Jorge

    Here for the first time is a book that treats practically all aspects of modern research in interstellar matter astrophysics. 20 review articles and 40 carefully selected and refereed papers give a thorough overview of the field and convey the flavor of enthusiastic colloquium discussions to the reader. The book includes sections on: - Molecular clouds, star formation and HII regions - Mechanical energy sources - Discs, outflows, jets and HH objects - The Orion Nebula - The extragalactic interstellar medium - Interstellar matter at high galactic latitudes - The structure of the interstellar medium

  20. Power converters for medium voltage networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration te

  1. Starting to move through a granular medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, D. J. [Pennsylvania State University; Scheidemantel, T. [Pennsylvania State University; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Conger, C. [Pennsylvania State University; Klein, K. [Pennsylvania State University; Lohr, M. [Pennsylvania State University; Modig, Z. [Pennsylvania State University; Schiffer, P. [Pennsylvania State University

    2008-01-01

    We explore the process of initiating motion through a granular medium by measuring the force required to push a flat circular plate upward from underneath the medium. In contrast to previous measurements of the drag and penetration forces, which were conducted during steady state motion, the initiation force has a robust dependence on the diameter of the grains forming the pile. We attribute this dependence to the requirement for local dilation of the grains around the circumference of the plate, as evidenced by an observed linear dependence of the initiation force on the plate diameter.

  2. Alternative medium for Clostridium perfringens sporulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Tórtora, J C

    1984-01-01

    A medium containing 0.50 g of thiotone peptone, 0.30 g of soluble starch, 0.02 g of MgSO4 X 7H2O, 0.90 g of Na2HPO4 X 2H2O, 100.00 ml of distilled water, and optionally , 166 micrograms of dichloridric thiamine supported sporulation of 138 out of 141 Clostridium perfringens strains. Comparatively this medium gave a greater percentage of sporulation than five other media described previously.

  3. Medium Effects of Low Energy Pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    2004-03-01

    Fits of pion--nucleus potentials to large sets of pionic atom data reveal departures of parameter values from the corresponding free π N parameters. These medium effects can be quantitatively reproduced by a chiral-motivated model where the pion decay constant is modified in the medium or by including the empirical on-shell energy dependence of the amplitudes. No consistency is obtained between pionic atoms and the free π N interaction when an extreme off-shell chiral model is used. The role of the size of data sets is briefly discussed.

  4. Bubbles and holes in the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHulst, JM; Skillman, ED

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the HI in nearby galaxies now clearly begin to show the effects of star formation on the interstellar medium. Holes, filaments, expanding motions and other anomalous velocity signatures are clearly apparent in sensitive observations of the HI in nearby galaxies. A global relation with the

  5. In-Medium Modifications of Hadron Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    The in-medium modifications of hadron properties are briefly discussed. We restrict the discussion to the lattice QCD calculations for the hadron masses, screening masses, decay constants and wave functions. We review the progress made so far and describe how to broaden its horizon.

  6. Oyster mycelium on the liquid medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Gapiński; Wanda Woźniak; Mirosława Ziombra; Joanna Murawska

    2013-01-01

    The research presents the results of oyster mycelium growth on the liquid medium. The growth of 4-mycelium genius: Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer, Pleurotus djamor Fries, Boedjin, Pleurotus erynii Fr. Kumm. and Pleurotus precoce Fr. Quel was tested. The quality and quantity of mycelium was assumed.

  7. Bildung in the Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    of this paper is what Bildung should be or could be within this new medium environment. It draws on Luhmann (2006), Biesta (2006), Klafki (2014) and Kant (1784) describing what Bildung is seen from the view of the enlightenment tradition and try to discuss and analyze how ideas of Bildung could be used...

  8. Medium-range fire weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka

    1991-01-01

    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  9. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  10. Theatrical Complicity as a Medium of Emancipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    of theatricality are re-described in a systems theoretical perspective in order to show how the theatrical attribution of guilt to the spectator can work as a medium of emancipation. The explication of the different dramaturgies makes it possible to distinguish between how self-righteous, self...

  11. Sound Art. Klang als Medium der Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forskningsformidling på udstilling om lydkunst på ZKM i Karlsruhe. Lavet i samarbejde med Mats Lindström, leder af elektronmusikstudiet EMS (Stockholm). Udstillingen er en del af Morten Søndergaards (AAU) præsentation af skandinavisk lydkunst under titlen 'Unheard Avantgarde', der igen er en del ...... den store udstilling 'Sound as a Medium of Art'....

  12. Neutrino oscillations in low density medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannisian, A N; Smirnov, A Y

    2004-12-10

    We have solved the evolution equation for neutrinos in a low density medium, Vnu(e), we have found the attenuation effect: a decrease of the sensitivity to remote structures, d>l(nu)E/DeltaE, where l(nu) is the oscillation length and DeltaE/E is the energy resolution of a detector.

  13. Innovation in Small and Medium Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel.

    A study analyzed the policies of 20 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries pertaining to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Aims of the study were to assess the current role of SMEs as generators and users of innovations, to analyze the components of a favorable climate for innovation in SMEs, and to…

  14. Mathematical Model of Porous Medium Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschuk, Peotr; Sapozhnikov, Anatoly

    1999-06-01

    Semiempirical model describing porous material strains under pulse mechanical and thermal loadings is proposed. Porous medium is considered as continuous one but with special form of pressure dependence upon strain. This model takes into account principal features of porous materials behavior which can be observed when the material is strained in dynamic and static experiments ( non-reversibility of large strains, nonconvexity of loading curve). Elastoplastic properties of porous medium, its damages when it is strained and dynamic fracture are also taken into account. Dispersion of unidirectional motion caused by medium heterogeneity (porousness) is taken into acount by introducing the physical viscosity depending upon pores size. It is supposed that at every moment of time pores are in equilibrium with pressure i.e. kinetic of pores collapse is not taken into account. The model is presented by the system of differential equations connecting pressure and energy of porous medium with its strain. These equations close system of equations of motion and continuity which then is integrated numerically. The proposed model has been tested on carbon materials and porous copper . Results of calculation of these materials shock compressing are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Results of calculation of thin plate with porous copper layer collision are given as an illustration.

  15. Nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.

    1984-03-01

    A model of the N-N potential, at medium energies, in the frame work of the BB-πBB equations, is presented. The derivation is based on the Cloudy Bag Model Hamiltonian. Recent N-N calculations are reviewed in the frame work of the model. Theoretical methods for the analysis of dibaryon resonances are compared.

  16. Nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R. (Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences)

    1984-03-26

    A model of the N-N potential, at medium energies, in the framework of the BB-..pi..BB equations, is presented. The derivation is based on the Cloudy Bag Model Hamiltonian. Recent N-N calculations are reviewed in the framework of the model. Theoretical methods for the analysis of dibaryon resonances are compared. 30 refs.

  17. Investigation of in-medium photoproduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    David Trnka

    2006-05-01

    Recent experimental results on the in-medium modification of the meson are discussed. The experiment described was performed at the ELSA accelerator facility in Bonn using the combined detector system of Crystal Barrel and TAPS. The -meson was identified via the reaction + → + → 0 + .

  18. Reflection of light from an anisotropic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatovich, Filipp V

    2010-01-01

    We present here a general approach to treat reflection and refraction of light of arbitrary polarization from single axis anisotropic plates. We show that reflection from interface inside the anisotropic medium is accompanied by beam splitting and can create surface waves.

  19. Sound Art. Klang als Medium der Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forskningsformidling på udstilling om lydkunst på ZKM i Karlsruhe. Lavet i samarbejde med Mats Lindström, leder af elektronmusikstudiet EMS (Stockholm). Udstillingen er en del af Morten Søndergaards (AAU) præsentation af skandinavisk lydkunst under titlen 'Unheard Avantgarde', der igen er en del ...... den store udstilling 'Sound as a Medium of Art'....

  20. Quasar absorption lines and the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jannuzi, B T

    1996-01-01

    The importance of HST for the study of quasar absorption lines and of the nature of the intergalactic medium is illustrated by reviewing selected results from past HST observations. Topics reviewed include the study of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift and the search for a diffuse IGM at high redshifts.

  1. Borromean structures in medium-heavy nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Fedorov, Dmitri Vladimir; Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall

    2014-01-01

    Borromean nuclear cluster structures are expected at the corresponding driplines. We locate the regions in the nuclear chart with the most promising constituents, it being protons and alpha-particles and investigate in details the properties of the possible borromean two-alpha systems in medium h...

  2. Innovation in Small and Medium Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Committee for Scientific and Technical Personnel.

    A study analyzed the policies of 20 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries pertaining to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Aims of the study were to assess the current role of SMEs as generators and users of innovations, to analyze the components of a favorable climate for innovation in SMEs, and to…

  3. Towards the exact calculation of medium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandolfi, Stefano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlson, Joseph Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lonardoni, Diego [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Xiaobao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    The prediction of the structure of light and medium nuclei is crucial to test our knowledge of nuclear interactions. The calculation of the nuclei from two- and three-nucleon interactions obtained from rst principle is, however, one of the most challenging problems for many-body nuclear physics.

  4. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  5. Environmental Acceptable Medium Caliber Ammunition Percussion Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    percussion primers typically consist of lead styphnate and antimony sulfide. Although highly effective, these heavy material compounds were identified under...Percussion primers, including those used in medium caliber ammunition, typically contain lead styphnate and antimony sulfide along with other constituents...Furthermore, current percussion primer compositions also contain barium nitrate. Although not negatively categorized by the Environmental Protection

  6. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  7. The Feature Film as an Instructional Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Debra H.; Ledford, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    Current cognitive learning theory stresses the importance of observational learning and interactions with other people. Motion pictures have value for instruction for two reasons: film is a popular medium due to its visual format and its resulting sensory impact; and film is a form of vicarious interaction with other people. (Author/AEF)

  8. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.

    2007-01-01

    We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f(abs) similar to 0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM;

  9. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f_abs~0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM; a

  10. Photonuclear activation of pure isotopic mediums.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohman, Mark A.; Lukosi, Eric Daniel

    2010-06-01

    This work simulated the response of idealized isotopic U-235, U-238, Th-232, and Pu-239 mediums to photonuclear activation with various photon energies. These simulations were conducted using MCNPX version 2.6.0. It was found that photon energies between 14-16 MeV produce the highest response with respect to neutron production rates from all photonuclear reactions. In all cases, Pu-239 responds the highest, followed by U-238. Th-232 produces more overall neutrons at lower photon energies then U-235 when material thickness is above 3.943 centimeters. The time it takes each isotopic material to reach stable neutron production rates in time is directly proportional to the material thickness and stopping power of the medium, where thicker mediums take longer to reach stable neutron production rates and thinner media display a neutron production plateau effect, due to the lack of significant attenuation of the activating photons in the isotopic mediums. At this time, no neutron sensor system has time resolutions capable of verifying these simulations, but various indirect methods are possible and should be explored for verification of these results.

  11. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  12. In-medium properties of mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metag, Volker; Nanova, Mariana; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the project B.4, the modification of meson properties (mass, width) in a nuclear medium has been studied in photoproduction of mesons off nuclear targets. This work has been motivated by theoretical expectations of in-medium modifications of hadrons based on the conjecture of a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in a strongly interacting medium. It has been shown that these in-medium changes can be discussed in a compact form in terms of an optical potential describing the meson-nucleus interaction. Experimental approaches to determine the real and imaginary part of the meson-nucleus potential have been developed. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) and the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector at MAMI (Mainz). Measuring the excitation function and momentum distribution for photo production of ω and η' mesons, the real parts of the ω and η'-nucleus potential, given by the in-medium mass shift, have been determined. For the η' meson a lowering of the mass at normal nuclear matter density by -(39±7(stat)±15(syst)) MeV is observed, while for the ω meson a slightly smaller mass shift is found, however, with much larger uncertainties, not excluding a zero mass shift. The imaginary part of the potentials has been extracted from the measurement of the transparency ratio which compares the meson production cross section per nucleon within a nucleus to the production cross section off the free proton. For the η' meson the imaginary part of the potential is found to be smaller than the real part. In case of the ω meson the opposite is observed. This makes the η' meson a good candidate for the search for meson-nucleus bound states while no resolved ω mesic states can be expected. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. An outlook on future experiments is given.

  13. 21 CFR 866.2390 - Transport culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transport culture medium. 866.2390 Section 866... medium. (a) Identification. A transport culture medium is a device that consists of a semisolid, usually non-nutrient, medium that maintains the viability of suspected pathogens contained in patient...

  14. 21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330... medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid or... medium enriched by the addition of such nutritional components as blood, blood serum, vitamins, and...

  15. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological assay culture medium. 866.2350... Microbiological assay culture medium. (a) Identification. A microbiological assay culture medium is a device that... organism in the innoculated medium. Test results aid in the diagnosis of disease resulting from either...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2320 - Differential culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Differential culture medium. 866.2320 Section 866... medium. (a) Identification. A differential culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid... biochemical component(s) to the medium. Microorganisms are identified by a visible change (e.g., a color...

  17. Diamagnetism in wire medium metamaterials: theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yagupov, Ilya; Kosulnikov, Sergei; Hasan, Mehedi; Iorsh, Ivan; Belov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Strong diamagnetic response of wire medium with finite wire radius is reported. Contrary to the previous works where it was assumed that the wire medium exhibits only the electric response, we show that the non-zero magnetic susceptibility has to be taken into account for proper effective medium description of the wire medium. Analytical and numerical results are supported by the experimental measurements.

  18. Selective crystallization of tank supernatant liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford Site tank waste by a large-scale fractional crystallization process. Two thirds of all the nuclear waste stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks is sodium nitrate (mass basis, excluding water). Fractional crystallization can remove essentially nonradioactive NaNO{sub 3} and other sodium salts from the waste, thereby reducing the volume of low-level waste glass by as much as 90%.

  19. Cell culture supernatants for detection perforin ELISA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Najwa

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... suggested by Whitaker (1972), the resin was packaged gently in glass column, the .... crystals and incubated in shaker at room temperature for 30 min. ... a well used test for the medical statistics; P value <0.01 is considered.

  20. Comparison of procedures for the extraction of supernatants and cytotoxicity tests in Vero cells, applied to assess the toxigenic potential of Bacillus spp. and Lactobacillus spp., intended for use as probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Anicet R; Méndez, Javier; Castel, Susana; Reina, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Interest in using Bacillus strains as probiotic components of animal feeds has grown in recent years. However, some of these strains, especially those taxonomically related to the Bacillus cereus group, may have enterotoxigenic activity. Assessment of their toxigenic potential by well-established and robust protocols is required before authorizing their use in animal nutrition. Three methods of extraction and concentration of supernatants of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains (methanol extraction, ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration concentration) and three cytotoxic tests in Vero cells (WST-1, LDH and protein synthesis inhibition assays) for the assessment of the cytotoxicity activity of Lactobacillus strains (as probiotic strains in human and animal nutrition) and Bacillus toyonensis BCT-7112(T) (as animal probiotic strain in animal nutrition-Toyocerin®-) were evaluated in this study. Methanol extraction was not useful under any circumstances. The other two concentration methods (ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration) were feasible, with slightly greater sensitivity achieved by ultrafiltration. The probiotic strain B. toyonensis BCT-7112(T) proved to be a non-cytotoxic strain in all the protocols tested. However, some Lactobacillus strains showed cytotoxicity activity, regardless of the protocols applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Medium corrections within a multiple scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R.M.

    1993-04-01

    A systematic formalism to include the effects of the nuclear medium into a multiple scattering expansion is developed. Although the use of a free nucleon-nucleon (NN) t-matrix accounts in an impulse approximation for the short-range interaction between the projectile and a target nucleon, the influence of the interactions between this target nucleon on the rest of the nucleus is often ignored. In the first order Watson expansion such higher order effects arise from the difference between the free NN propagator and the propagator in the nuclear medium. A formal framework consistent with a multiple scattering expansion has been constructed to include these contributions by using a nuclear mean field potential. The application of this formalism to nucleon scattering from various nuclei employing different local and nonlocal Hartree-Fock mean field potentials will be discussed.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an entangled medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weibin; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate light propagation and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a quasi one-dimensional gas in which atoms interact strongly via exchange interactions. We focus on the case in which the gas is initially prepared in a many-body state that contains a single excitation and conduct a detailed study of the absorptive and dispersive properties of such a medium. This scenario is achieved in interacting gases of Rydberg atoms with two relevant $S$-states that are coupled through exchange. Of particular interest is the case in which the medium is prepared in an entangled spinwave state. This, in conjunction with the exchange interaction, gives rise to a non-local susceptibilty which --- in comparison to conventional Rydberg EIT --- qualitatively alters the absorption and propagation of weak probe light, leading to non-local propagation and enhanced absorption.

  3. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-19

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  4. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  5. Holographic entanglement entropy in the nonconformal medium

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chanyong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate holographically the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium whose dual geometry is described by an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. Due to an additional conserved charge corresponding to the number operator in the dual field theory, its thermodynamics is governed by either a grand canonical or canonical ensemble. We calculate thermodynamic quantities of them by using the holographic renormalization. In addition, we study the entanglement entropy of a nonconformal medium. After defining the entanglement chemical potential analogous to the entanglement temperature, we find that the entanglement entropy of a small subsystem satisfies the relation resembling the first law of thermodynamics for the canonical ensemble. We further show that the entanglement chemical potential, unlike the entanglement temperature, is not universal.

  6. Supernova Feedback in an Inhomogeneous Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide; Quataert, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    Supernova (SN) feedback is one of the key processes shaping the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. SNe contribute to (and in some cases may dominate) driving turbulence in the ISM and accelerating galactic winds. Modern cosmological simulations have sufficient resolution to capture the main structures in the ISM of galaxies, but are typically still not capable of explicitly resolving all of the small-scale stellar feedback processes, including the expansion of supernova remnants (SNRs). We perform a series of controlled three-dimensional hydrodynamic (adaptive mesh refinement, AMR) simulations of single SNRs expanding in an inhomogeneous density field with statistics motivated by those of the turbulent ISM. We use these to quantify the momentum and thermal energy injection from SNe as a function of spatial scale and the density, metallicity, and structure of the ambient medium. Using these results, we develop an analytic sub-resolution model for SN feedback for use in galaxy formation simulations. We then...

  7. Drainage in a model stratified porous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Sujit S; 10.1209/0295-5075/101/14002

    2013-01-01

    We show that when a non-wetting fluid drains a stratified porous medium at sufficiently small capillary numbers Ca, it flows only through the coarsest stratum of the medium; by contrast, above a threshold Ca, the non-wetting fluid is also forced laterally, into part of the adjacent, finer strata. The spatial extent of this partial invasion increases with Ca. We quantitatively understand this behavior by balancing the stratum-scale viscous pressure driving the flow with the capillary pressure required to invade individual pores. Because geological formations are frequently stratified, we anticipate that our results will be relevant to a number of important applications, including understanding oil migration, preventing groundwater contamination, and sub-surface CO$_{2}$ storage.

  8. Helical Locomotion in a Granular Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    The physical mechanisms that bring about the propulsion of a rotating helix in a granular medium are considered. A propulsive motion along the axis of the rotating helix is induced by both symmetry breaking due to the helical shape, and the anisotropic frictional forces undergone by all segments of the helix in the medium. Helix dynamics is studied as a function of helix rotation speed and its geometrical parameters. The effect of the granular pressure and the applied external load were also investigated. A theoretical model is developed based on the anisotropic frictional force experienced by a slender body moving in a granular material, to account for the translation speed of the helix. A good agreement with experimental data is obtained, which allows for predicting the helix design to propel optimally within granular media. These results pave the way for the development of an efficient sand robot operating according to this mode of locomotion.

  9. Sliding through a superlight granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2009-12-01

    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  10. The warm ionized medium in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Haffner, L M; Beckman, J E; Wood, K; Slavin, J D; Giammanco, C; Madsen, G J; Zurita, A; Reynolds, R J

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews observations and models of the diffuse ionized gas that permeates the disk and halo of our Galaxy and others. It was inspired by a series of invited talks presented during an afternoon scientific session of the 65th birthday celebration for Professor Carl Heiles held at Arecibo Observatory in August 2004. This review is in recognition of Carl's long standing interest in and advocacy for studies of the ionized as well as the neutral components of the interstellar medium.

  11. Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar space is filled with a dilute mixture of charged particles, atoms, molecules and dust grains, called the interstellar medium (ISM). Understanding its physical properties and dynamical behavior is of pivotal importance to many areas of astronomy and astrophysics. Galaxy formation and evolution, the formation of stars, cosmic nucleosynthesis, the origin of large complex, prebiotic molecules and the abundance, structure and growth of dust grains which constitute the fundamental buil...

  12. Charmonium in a hot, dense medium

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, David

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture we apply a thermodynamic Green function formalism developed in the context of nonrelativistic plasma physics for the case of heavy quarkonia states in strongly correlated quark matter. Besides the traditional explanation of charmonium suppresion by Debye screening of the strong interaction, we discuss further effects of relevance when heavy quarkonia states propagate in a medium where strong correlations persist in the form of hadronic resonances. These effects may be absorbed...

  13. Maintaining Wolbachia in Cell-free Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamston, Courtney; Rasgon, Jason

    2007-01-01

    In this video protocol, procedures are demonstrated to (1) purify Wolbachia symbionts out of cultured mosquito cells, (2) use a fluorescent assay to ascertain the viability of the purified Wolbachia and (3) maintain the now extracellular Wolbachia in cell-free medium. Purified Wolbachia remain alive in the extracellular phase but do not replicate until re-inoculated into eukaryotic cells. Extracellular Wolbachia purified in this manner will remain viable for at least a week at ...

  14. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  15. Do heavy and medium oil waterfloods differ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Waterflooding is a common and important method of enhanced oil recovery. However, little is known about how waterflooding heavy oils differs from waterflooding lighter oils. There is a substantial body of work on designing, monitoring, and managing waterfloods. However, the problems specific to producing heavy oil by waterflooding are rarely addressed. This paper presented the results of a statistical study of 44 heavy oil waterfloods and 39 medium oil waterfloods in western Canadian waterfloods. The purpose of the study was to identify the parameters which impact heavy oil waterflood success. Each waterflood was assigned a numerical value according to the success of each waterflood operation and examined the importance of various reservoir and operating parameters to that success. Waterfloods were classified as either heavy or medium. Separate multivariate analysis models were developed for each set. It was concluded that the most important reservoir parameters to the success of medium oil waterfloods were permeability and heterogeneity. This validated the conventional knowledge of waterflooding, but were not significant to the success of heavy oil waterfloods. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2012? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? How will the refinery sector cope? The International Energy Agency (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEA Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop. By assessing all firmly planned upstream and downstream projects worldwide, this report forecasts supply and demand potential for crude and petroleum products over the next five years. The results provide an invaluable insight into vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. An essential report for all policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following oil market trends, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report is a further element of the strong commitment of the IEA to improving and expanding the quality, timeliness and accuracy of energy data and analysis.

  17. Generation of HIV-1 Gag VLPs by transient transfection of HEK 293 suspension cell cultures using an optimized animal-derived component free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Martínez, Marta; Blanco, Julià; Gòdia, Francesc; Segura, María Mercedes

    2013-07-20

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) offer great promise as candidates for new vaccine strategies. Large-scale approaches for the manufacturing of HIV-1 Gag VLPs have mainly focused on the use of the baculovirus expression system. In this work, the development and optimization of an HIV-1 Gag VLP production protocol by transient gene expression in mammalian cell suspension cultures is reported. To facilitate process optimization, a Gag-GFP fusion construct enabling the generation of fluorescent VLPs was used. The great majority of Gag-GFP present in cell culture supernatants was shown to be correctly assembled into virus-like particles of the expected size and morphology consistent with immature HIV-1 particles. Medium optimization was performed using design of experiments (DoE). Culture medium supplementation with non-animal derived components including recombinant proteins and lipids of synthetic or non-animal-derived origin resulted in improved HEK 293 cell growth and VLP production. The maximum cell density attained using the optimized Freestyle culture medium was 5.4×10(6)cells/mL in batch mode, almost double of that observed using the unsupplemented medium (2.9×10(6)cells/mL). Best production performance was attained when cells were transfected at mid-log phase (2-3×10(6)cells/mL) with medium exchange at the time of transfection using standard amounts of plasmid DNA and polyethylenimine. By using an optimized production protocol, VLP titers were increased 2.4-fold obtaining 2.8μg of Gag-GFP/mL or 2.7×10(9)VLPs/mL according to ELISA and nanoparticle tracking quantification analyses, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Candida albicans-conditioned medium protects yeast cells from oxidative stress: a possible link between quorum sensing and oxidative stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwater, Caroline; Balish, Edward; Schofield, David A

    2005-10-01

    Candida albicans, the most frequent fungal pathogen of humans, encounters high levels of oxidants following ingestion by professional phagocytes and through contact with hydrogen peroxide-producing bacteria. In this study, we provide evidence that C. albicans is able to coordinately regulate the oxidative stress response at the global cell population level by releasing protective molecules into the surrounding medium. We demonstrate that conditioned medium, which is defined as a filter-sterilized supernatant from a C. albicans stationary-phase culture, is able to protect yeast cells from both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion-generating agents. Exponential-phase yeast cells preexposed to conditioned medium were able to survive levels of oxidative stress that would normally kill actively growing yeast cells. Heat treatment, digestion with proteinase K, pH adjustment, or the addition of the oxidant scavenger alpha-tocopherol did not alter the ability of conditioned medium to induce a protective response. Farnesol, a heat-stable quorum-sensing molecule (QSM) that is insensitive to proteolytic enzymes and is unaffected by pH extremes, is partly responsible for this protective response. In contrast, the QSM tyrosol did not alter the sensitivity of C. albicans cells to oxidants. Relative reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicates that Candida-conditioned growth medium induces the expression of CAT1, SOD1, SOD2, and SOD4, suggesting that protection may be mediated through the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant-encoding genes. Together, these data suggest a link between the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol and the oxidative stress response in C. albicans.

  19. In-medium properties of mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metag Volker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the project B.4, the modification of meson properties (mass, width in a nuclear medium has been studied in photoproduction of mesons off nuclear targets. This work has been motivated by theoretical expectations of in-medium modifications of hadrons based on the conjecture of a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in a strongly interacting medium. It has been shown that these in-medium changes can be discussed in a compact form in terms of an optical potential describing the meson-nucleus interaction. Experimental approaches to determine the real and imaginary part of the meson-nucleus potential have been developed. The experiments have been performed with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS detector at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn and the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector at MAMI (Mainz. Measuring the excitation function and momentum distribution for photo production of ω and η′ mesons, the real parts of the ω and η′-nucleus potential, given by the in-medium mass shift, have been determined. For the η′ meson a lowering of the mass at normal nuclear matter density by -(39±7(stat±15(syst MeV is observed, while for the ω meson a slightly smaller mass shift is found, however, with much larger uncertainties, not excluding a zero mass shift. The imaginary part of the potentials has been extracted from the measurement of the transparency ratio which compares the meson production cross section per nucleon within a nucleus to the production cross section off the free proton. For the η′ meson the imaginary part of the potential is found to be smaller than the real part. In case of the ω meson the opposite is observed. This makes the η′ meson a good candidate for the search for meson-nucleus bound states while no resolved ω mesic states can be expected. The results are compared with theoretical predictions. An outlook on future experiments is given.

  20. Effect of the P1 Medium and the ECM Medium on Embryo Quality in IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian CHEN; Ai-jun ZHANG; Yun FENG; Xiao-wei LU; Dong-mei JI; Zhi-peng XU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the glucose-free reimplantation stage one(P1) medium and the ECM medium on embryo development quality in IVF.Methods The patients with ≥4 zygotes of 2PN were studied.A total of 201 retrieval cycles were included in a prospective randomized study.Each patient was herself control Half of zygotes of 2PN were transferred into ECM medium(group A)and half into P1 medium(group B)for further culture.Embryo development was evaluated on the day of embryo transfer.The efficacy of ECM was compared with P1 as culture medium for the development of preimplantation embryos. Results No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding embryo-cleavage rate(97.13% vs 97.55%)and rate of normal-cleaving embryos(58.29% and 58.37%).The rate of top-quality embryos was statistically higher in group A than in group B(27.59% vs 19.75%,P<0.05).Embryo quality,as assessed by morphological parameters(the amount of detached anuclear fragments>30%),was better in group A than in group B(19.86% vs 21.75%),however,there was no statistically significance.Both the rate of good-quality embryos(47.95% vs 46.17%)and available embryos(63.22% vs 61.,9%)were higher in group A than in group B,but there was also no statistically significance.Conclusion The ECM medium may be associated with a better embryo quality compared with the P1 medium.

  1. Expression of Cyt C and Caspase-3 of bone marrow supernatant in patients with chronic mountain sickness%慢性高原病患者骨髓CytC和Caspase-3表达及意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴昕; 李建平; 李文倩; 冯建明

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨细胞凋亡在慢性高原病(CMS)发生发展过程中的作用,从而寻求新的诊断和治疗途径。方法选取 CMS 患者20例为研究对象,健康人群14例为对照组,采用固相双抗体夹心 ELISA 方法测定 CMS 组及对照组骨髓上清液 Cyt C 和 Caspase-3水平。结果 CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 水平[(21.43±8.92)ng/ml]水平与对照组[(10.36±3.55)ng/ml]比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Caspase-3水平[(15.45±4.73)ng/ml]水平与对照组[(7.14±1.93)ng/ml]比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 与 Caspase-3水平呈正相关(r=0.706,P<0.01);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 和 Caspase-3表达水平均与血红蛋白(Hb)浓度呈正相关(r=0.524,P<0.01;r=0.577,P<0.01),与血氧饱和度(SaO2)呈负相关(r=-0.505,P<0.05;r=-0.554,P<0.01)。结论推测细胞凋亡可能在 CMS 病理生理过程中发挥着重要作用。%Objective To investigate the apoptosis occurred during the development of function in CMS, so as to seek a new means of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The bone marrow supernatant levels of Cyt C and Caspase-3 in 20 CMS pa-tients and 14 healthy people were determined by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results The bone marrow su-pernatant levels of Cyt C[(21.43±8.92)ng/ml] and Caspase-3[(10.36±3.55)ng/ml] in CMS were significantly higher than those in control group [(15.45±4.73)ng/ml] and [(7.14±1.93)ng/ml] respectively. And there were positive relationship between the levels of Cyt C and Caspase-3 (r=0.706,P<0.01),and between the levels of Cyt C and Hb (r=0.524,P<0.01),and also between the levels of Caspase-3 and Hb (r=0.577,P<0.01). There were negative relationship between the levels of Cyt C and SaO2(r=-0.554, P<0.05),and between the levels of Caspase-3 and SaO2 (r=-0.505,P<0.05). Conclusion Speculate that apoptosis may play an

  2. Dusty Plasma Effects in the Interplanetary Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Belheouane, Soraya

    Cosmic dust particles exist in a variety of compositions and sizes in the interplanetary medium. There is little direct information on the composition, but those interplanetary dust particles that are collected in the upper Earth’s atmosphere and can be studied in the laboratory typically have an irregular, sometimes porous structure on scales carbide, iron-nickel and iron-sulfur compounds, calcium- and aluminum oxides, and chemical compounds that contain a large mass fraction of carbon (e.g. carbonaceous species). A fraction of the dust originates from comets, but because of their bulk material temperature of about 280 K near 1 AU, most icy compounds have disappeared. The dust particles are embedded in the solar wind, a hot plasma with at 1 AU kinetic temperatures around 100 000 K and flow direction nearly radial outward from the Sun at supersonic bulk velocities around 400 km/s. Since the dust particles carry an electric surface charge they are subject to electromagnetic forces and the nanodust particles are efficiently accelerated to velocities of order of solar wind speed. The acceleration of the nanodust is similar, but not identical to the formation of pick-up ions. The S/WAVES radio wave instrument on STEREO measured a flux of nanodust at 1 AU [1]. The nanodust probably forms in the region inward of 1 AU and is accelerated by the solar wind as discussed. We also discuss the different paths of dust - plasma interactions in the interplanetary medium and their observations with space experiments. Comparing these interactions we show that the interplanetary medium near 1 AU can in many cases be described as “dust in plasma" rather than "dusty plasma”. [1] S. Belheouane, N. Meyer-Vernet, K. Issautier, G. Le Chat, A. Zaslavsky, Y. Zouganelis, I. Mann, A. Czechowski: Dynamics of nanoparticles detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft, in this session.

  3. Oral Platelet Gel Supernatant Plus Supportive Medical Treatment Versus Supportive Medical Treatment in the Management of Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Matched Explorative Active Control Trial by Propensity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni L; Marampon, Francesco; Rughetti, Anna; Di Staso, Mario; Dell'Orso, Luigi; Vittorini, Francesca; Moro, Roberto; La Verghetta, Maria E; Parente, Silvia; Reale, Marilisa; Ruggieri, Valeria; Franzese, Pietro; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Masciocchi, Carlo; Di Cesare, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    In this active control trial, the rate of radio-induced WHO grade 3/4 oral mucositis and the change in quality of life, assessed by OMWQ-HN, were measured in subjects with head and neck cancer treated by platelet gel supernatant (PGS) and supportive medical treatment versus subjects treated by supportive medical treatment alone. Eighty patients with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer underwent curative or adjuvant radiotherapy. All patients underwent supportive medical treatment and/or PGS at the beginning and during radiotherapy. Sixteen patients received PGS in association with supportive medical treatment. To obtain 2 groups virtually randomized for important clinical characteristics subjects were matched, by propensity analysis, with a group of subjects (64 patients) treated with supportive medical treatment alone. Subjects treated with standard supportive treatment experienced significant higher WHO grade 3/4 toxicity (55%; 35/64) than subjects treated by PGS (13%; 3/16). The reduced toxicity found in PGS group paralleled with the evidence that they developed later symptoms with respect to controls. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that patients treated with standard supportive medical treatment experienced 2.7-fold increase (hazard ratio=2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.7) in the occurrence of WHO grade 3/4 toxicity. PGS group significantly experienced higher quality of life than control groups as measured by OMWQ-HN. A significant decrease in the opioid analgesics usage was found in the PGS group. These preliminary data should be interpreted with caution and could serve as a framework around which to design future trials.

  4. Analysis of Tank 13H (HTF-13-14-156, 157) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Advanced Characterization and Processing

    2015-02-18

    The 2H Evaporator system includes mainly Tank 43H (feed tank) and Tank 38H (drop tank) with Tank 22H acting as the DWPF recycle receipt tank. The Tank 13H is being characterized to ensure that it can be transferred to the 2H evaporator. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 13H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples to ensure compliance with the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator. The U-235 mass divided by the total uranium averaged 0.00799 (0.799 % uranium enrichment) for both the surface and subsurface Tank 13H samples. This enrichment is slightly above the enrichment for Tanks 38H and 43H, where the enrichment normally ranges from 0.59 to 0.7 wt%. The U-235 concentration in Tank 13H samples ranged from 2.01E-02 to 2.63E-02 mg/L, while the U-238 concentration in Tank 13H ranged from 2.47E+00 to 3.21E+00 mg/L. Thus, the U-235/total uranium ratio is in line with the prior 2H-evaporator ECP samples. Measured sodium and silicon concentrations averaged, respectively, 2.46 M and 1.42E-04 M (3.98 mg/L) in the Tank 13H subsurface sample. The measured aluminum concentration in Tanks 13H subsurface samples averaged 2.01E-01 M.

  5. Leeuwpan fine coal dense medium plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lundt, M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available availability to treat the higher grade coal (the bottom layer of coal) from the no. 2 Seam for a local and export metallurgical market. Following the path of evolution, in 2007, Leeuwpan commissioned the first double stage ultra-fines dense medium cyclone... plant in the coal industry, to form part of its overall DMS plant. It replaced the spirals to treat the -1 mm material. Spirals are still the most commonly and accepted method used by the industry, but it seems as if the pioneering cyclone process...

  6. Neutrino propagation in a weakly magnetized medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar; Subinoy Das

    2004-06-01

    Neutrino—photon processes, forbidden in vacuum, can take place in the presence of a thermal medium and/or an external electro-magnetic field, mediated by the corresponding charged leptons (real or virtual). Such interactions affect the propagation of neutrinos through a magnetized plasma. We investigate the neutrino—photon absorptive processes, at the one-loop level, for massless neutrinos in a weakly magnetized plasma. We find that there is no correction to the absorptive part of the axial-vector—vector amplitude due to the presence of a magnetic field, to the linear order in the field strength.

  7. Cooperative networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on radio resource allocation in a heterogeneous wireless medium. It presents radio resource allocation algorithms with decentralized implementation, which support both single-network and multi-homing services. The brief provides a set of cooperative networking algorithms, which rely on the concepts of short-term call traffic load prediction, network cooperation, convex optimization, and decomposition theory. In the proposed solutions, mobile terminals play an active role in the resource allocation operation, instead of their traditional role as passive service recipients in the networking environment.

  8. Distributed medium access control in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    This brief investigates distributed medium access control (MAC) with QoS provisioning for both single- and multi-hop wireless networks including wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless mesh networks. For WLANs, an efficient MAC scheme and a call admission control algorithm are presented to provide guaranteed QoS for voice traffic and, at the same time, increase the voice capacity significantly compared with the current WLAN standard. In addition, a novel token-based scheduling scheme is proposed to provide great flexibility and facility to the network servi

  9. Medium energy hadron scattering from nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Wenes, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Glauber approximation for medium energy scattering of hadronic projectiles from nuclei is combined with the interacting boson model of nuclei to produce a transition matrix for elastic and inelastic scattering in algebraic form which includes coupling to all the intermediate states. We present closed form analytic expresions for the transition matrix elements for the three dynamical symmetries of the interacting boson model; that is for, a spherical quadrupole vibrator, a ..gamma.. unstable rotor, and both prolate and oblate axially symmetric rotors. We give examples of application of this formalism to proton scattering from /sup 154/Sm and /sup 154/Gd. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bildung in the Digital Medium Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    2016-01-01

    We are living in a period where new social structures arise in the communicative space and wake of digital media. This means that we must try to adapt to a changing social world within all social arenas like economy, work-life, love relations and last but not least education. The question of this paper is what Bildung should be or could be within this new medium environment. It draws on Luhmann (2006), Biesta (2006), Klafki (2014) and Kant (1784) describing what Bildung is seen from the view ...

  11. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djalali, C; Nasseripour, R; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H

    2007-10-01

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, rho, omega, and [cursive phi], are observed via their decay to e+e-, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. The rho mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D2, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson.

  12. Parity Breaking Medium and Squeeze Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Soldati, R

    2016-01-01

    The transition between a Minkowski space region and a parity breaking medium domain is thoroughly discussed. The requirement of continuity of the field operator content across the separating boundary of the two domains leads to Bogolyubov transformations, squeezed pairs states and squeeze operators that turn out to generate a functional SU(2) algebra. According to this algebraic approach, the reflection and transmission probability amplitude across the separating boundary are computed. The suitable generalization of the well known Sauter-Schwinger-Nikishov formula to the emission or absorption of squeezed pairs out of the vacuum is obtained.

  13. Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) for extreme acidophilic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Medium for growth of extreme acidophilic microorganisms. This medium does not contain trace elements. When not working on mineral, addition of trace element (TE) solution is necessary, see separate protocol. http://www.nature.com/protocolexchange/protocols/3811

  14. Parametric resonance and particle stochastic interactions with a periodic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    A non-markovian stochastic model shows the emergence of structures in the medium, a self-organization characterized by a relationship between particle's energy, driven frequency $\\omega$ and a frequency of interaction with the medium $\

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Xoconostle Pears (Opuntia matudae against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed A. Hayek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of xoconostle pears (Opuntia matudae against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Xoconostle pears were sliced, blended, and centrifuged. The supernatant was then filtered using a 0.45 μm filter to obtain direct extract. Direct extract of xoconostle pears was tested against four strains of E. coli O157:H7 in brain heart infusion (BHI laboratory medium using growth over time and agar well diffusion assays. Our results showed that direct extract of xoconostle pears had a significant (P<0.05 inhibitory effect at 4, 6, and 8% (v/v concentrations and complete inhibitory effect at 10% (v/v during 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Minimum inhibitory volume (MIV was 400 μL mL−1 (v/v and minimum lethal volume (MLV was 650 μL mL−1 (v/v. The inhibitory effect of xoconostle pears found to be concentration dependent and not strain dependent. Thus, xoconostle pears extract has the potential to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and could provide a natural means of controlling pathogenic contamination, thereby mitigating food safety risks.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Xoconostle Pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Saeed A.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of xoconostle pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Xoconostle pears were sliced, blended, and centrifuged. The supernatant was then filtered using a 0.45 μm filter to obtain direct extract. Direct extract of xoconostle pears was tested against four strains of E. coli O157:H7 in brain heart infusion (BHI) laboratory medium using growth over time and agar well diffusion assays. Our results showed that direct extract of xoconostle pears had a significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect at 4, 6, and 8% (v/v) concentrations and complete inhibitory effect at 10% (v/v) during 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) was 400 μL mL−1 (v/v) and minimum lethal volume (MLV) was 650 μL mL−1 (v/v). The inhibitory effect of xoconostle pears found to be concentration dependent and not strain dependent. Thus, xoconostle pears extract has the potential to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and could provide a natural means of controlling pathogenic contamination, thereby mitigating food safety risks. PMID:22934117

  17. Pathways of birnessite formation in alkali medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xionghan; TAN Wenfeng; LIU Fan; HUANG Qiaoyun; LIU Xiangwen

    2005-01-01

    Birnessite is a common weathering and oxidation product of manganese-bearing rocks. An O2 oxidation procedure of Mn(OH)2 in the alkali medium has been used to synthesize birnessite. Fast and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), energy dispersed X-ray analysis (EDAX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) techniques and chemical composition analysis, Eh-pH equilibrium diagram approaches were employed to investigate the reaction process and pathways of birnessite formation. Results showed that the process of the birnessite formation could be divided into four stages: (1) formation stage for hausmannite and feitknechtite, (2) stage of transformation of hausmannite and feitknechtite to buserite, (3) buserite crystal growing stage, and (4) stage of conversion of buserite into birnessite. Mn(OH)2 was mainly present as amorphous state only for a short initial time of oxidation reaction. In the oxidation process, buserite formed following two pathways by recrystallization after dissolution of the intermediates, and the transformations of the minerals depended on the Eh determined by the dissolved O2 concentration on their surfaces. The results are fundamental in further exploration on the mechanism of birnessite formation in the alkali medium. A great practical significance would also be expected with respect to the areas of material sciences.

  18. Poloxamer thermogel systems as medium for crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Casettari, Luca; Mencarelli, Giovanna; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo

    2012-03-01

    To prepare a thermoreversible gel system able to work as a medium for crystallization at around 20°C, allowing easy retrieval of crystals by simply decreasing the gel temperature. Lactose was selected has model substance for crystallization. Water solutions with different% of poloxamer 407, α-Lactose monohydrate, and ethanol were prepared and analysed by rheology to understand how the different components alter the gelling temperature. The systems with the required characteristics for lactose crystallization were prepared and the crystals recovered by cooling and then filtering the dispersion. Rheological analysis showed interaction between the poloxamer and lactose. Increasing the quantity of poloxamer or lactose lowered the gelation temperature while the addition of small amounts of ethanol had a modest effect on the same property. These data were used to identify the ideal concentration of the components in order to prepare a system matching the features of our purpose. Such system yielded high quality crystals, with well-defined geometry and narrow particle size distribution. Poloxamer is a very interesting polymer in that it is able to generate a reversible gelling medium from which crystals can be harvested by filtering, without the addition of any chemicals to promote the sol-gel transition.

  19. INNOVATIVE CULTURE IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Broering Mambrini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, innovation has been a key driver of economic growth. Innovation is closely related to creating value and generating wealth through successful service to consumer needs. Thus, it is not necessarily restricted to the use of new knowledge generated from research, but on the development of new products or services that are obtained with creative use of knowledge, new or already known. This study aimed to identify management practices that promote a culture of innovation in small and medium enterprises and analyze how they contribute to the innovative capacity of these companies. The research method was the multiple case study with six small and medium businesses that have at least one case of significant innovation in its history. The main results showed that amongst the practices are: a performance in highly specialized niches and deep focus on customer needs; b strong investment and incorporation of new knowledge outside the company (open innovation; c speed and agility in the absorption and deployment of new knowledge and technologies; d retention of employees; e acting as an integrator combining diverse knowledge and technologies; f the information management of the knowledge acquired by the company; g little concern to patent the technology; h flexibility and informal, fluid and open communication between employees of the company that promotes agility in management and i the management of partnerships across the value chain, including the functional areas.

  20. 7 CFR 51.2751 - U.S. Medium Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Medium Virginia. 51.2751 Section 51.2751... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2751 U.S. Medium Virginia. “U.S. Medium Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8500 - Lymphocyte separation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lymphocyte separation medium. 864.8500 Section 864.8500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A lymphocyte separation medium is a device used to isolate lymphocytes from...

  2. 21 CFR 866.2360 - Selective culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selective culture medium. 866.2360 Section 866.2360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A selective culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid or...

  3. 21 CFR 866.2300 - Multipurpose culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multipurpose culture medium. 866.2300 Section 866.2300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medium. (a) Identification. A multipurpose culture medium is a device that consists primarily of liquid...

  4. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  5. Transitioning from Maori-Medium to English-Medium Education: Emerging Findings of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Maori-bilingual education in New Zealand has come a long way towards injecting life into the Maori language. However, only a small number of families commit to bilingual education for the long term. This paper discusses why Maori parents either turn away from Maori-bilingual education or prematurely transition to English-medium schools. It then…

  6. Transcriptome profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris grown in minimal medium MMX and rich medium NYG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yu, Yan-Hua; Cao, Shi-Yuan; Niu, Xiang-Na; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Lu, Guang-Tao; He, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2013-06-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) is the causal agent of black rot disease in cruciferous plants worldwide. Although the complete genomes of several Xcc strains have been determined, the gene expression and regulation mechanisms in this pathogen are far from clear. In this work, transcriptome profiling of Xcc 8004 grown in MMX medium (minimal medium for Xanthomonas campestris) and NYG medium (peptone yeast glycerol medium) were investigated by RNA-Seq. Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, a total of 26,514,630 reads (90 nt in average) were generated, of which 15,708,478 reads mapped uniquely to coding regions of Xcc 8004 genome. Of the 4273 annotated protein-coding genes of Xcc 8004, 629 were found differentially expressed in Xcc grown in MMX and NYG. Of the differentially expressed genes, 495 were up-regulated and 134 were down-regulated in MMX. The MMX-induced genes are mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, transport systems, atypical condition adaptation and pathogenicity, especially the type III secretion system, while the MMX-repressed genes are mainly involved in chemotaxis and degradation of small molecules. The global transcriptome analyzes of Xcc 8004 grown in MMX and NYG might facilitate the gene functional characterization of this phytopathogenic bacterium.

  7. Supernova Feedback and Multiphase Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Cen, Renyue; Bryan, Greg; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Without feedback, galaxies in cosmological simulations fail to generate outflows and tend to be too massive and too centrally concentrated, in contrast to the prominent disks observed ubiquitously in our universe. The nature of supernova (SN) feedback remains, however, highly uncertain, and most galaxy simulations so far adopt ad hoc models. Here we perform parsec-resolution simulations of a patch of the interstellar medium (ISM), and show that the unresolved multiphase gas in cosmological simulations can greatly affect the SN feedback by allowing blastwaves to travel in-between the clouds. We also show how ISM clumping varies with the mean gas density and SN rate encountered in real galactic environments. We emphasize that the inhomogeneity of the ISM must be considered in coarse-resolution simulations. We discuss how the gas pressure maintained by SN explosions can help to launch the galactic winds, and compare our results with the sub-grid models adopted in current cosmological simulations.

  8. Intracluster Medium through three years of WMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Afshordi, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has provided us with the yet highest resolution all-sky maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background. As a result of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, clusters of galaxies are imprinted as tiny, poorly resolved dips on top of primary CMB anisotropies in these maps. Here, I describe different efforts to extract the physics of Intracluster Medium (ICM) from the sea of primary CMB, through combining WMAP with low-redshift galaxy or X-ray cluster surveys. This finally culminates at a mean (universal) ICM pressure profile, which is for the first time directly constrained from WMAP 3yr maps, and leads to interesting constraints on the ICM baryonic budget.

  9. Dynamics of osmosis in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Silvana S S; Cartwright, Julyan H E

    2014-11-01

    We derive from kinetic theory, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics the minimal continuum-level equations governing the flow of a binary, non-electrolytic mixture in an isotropic porous medium with osmotic effects. For dilute mixtures, these equations are linear and in this limit provide a theoretical basis for the widely used semi-empirical relations of Kedem & Katchalsky (Kedem & Katchalsky 1958 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 27, 229-246 (doi:10.1016/0006-3002(58)90330-5), which have hitherto been validated experimentally but not theoretically. The above linearity between the fluxes and the driving forces breaks down for concentrated or non-ideal mixtures, for which our equations go beyond the Kedem-Katchalsky formulation. We show that the heretofore empirical solute permeability coefficient reflects the momentum transfer between the solute molecules that are rejected at a pore entrance and the solvent molecules entering the pore space; it can be related to the inefficiency of a Maxwellian demi-demon.

  10. Double hadron leptoproduction in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Belostotskii, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Borysenko, A; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; Demey, M; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Funel, A; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Gavrilov, G; Karibian, V; Giordano, F; Grebenyuk, O; Gregor, I M; Griffioen, K; Guler, H; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hasegawa, T; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Hristova, I; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Kobayashi, T; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Kravchenko, P; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Linden-Levy, L A; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Lu, S; Ma, B Q; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Michler, T; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Murray, M; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Negodaev, M; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Ohsuga, H; Osborne, A; Perez-Benito, R; Pickert, N; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Streit, J; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Van Haarlem, Y; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2006-01-01

    First measurement of double-hadron production in deep-inelastic scattering has been measured with the HERMES spectrometer at HERA using a 27.6 GeV positron beam with deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The influence of the nuclear medium on the ratio of double-hadron to single-hadron yields has been investigated. Nuclear effects are clearly observed but with substantially smaller magnitude and reduced $A$-dependence compared to previously measured single-hadron multiplicity ratios. The data are in fair agreement with models based on partonic or pre-hadronic energy loss, while they seem to rule out a pure absorptive treatment of the final state interactions. Thus, the double-hadron ratio provides an additional tool for studying modifications of hadronization in nuclear matter.

  11. Renal infarction caused by medium vessel vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavarthapol Jayaraman, Vinothkumar; Chakera, Aron

    2015-04-24

    A 44-year-old Italian man presented to the emergency department on three occasions over 4 days with severe left flank pain. Initial investigations including a renal tract ultrasound were normal and he was discharged with analgaesia. On his third presentation, a CT angiogram was performed due to persisting pain, which demonstrated infarction of his left kidney as well as thickening of the anterior branch of left renal artery and complete occlusion with focal intimal dissection of the coeliac artery. His antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative. A medium vessel vasculitis was suspected and confirmed on positron emission tomography-CT, which revealed increased metabolic activity involving the right internal mammary artery and coeliac artery. Treatment with pulse methylprednisolone was started followed by a tapering prednisolone regimen, with a rapid reduction in his inflammatory indices. Twenty-four months later his renal function remains normal off all immunosuppression.

  12. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  13. Acoustoelectric effects in a gaseous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, R. E.; Paranjape, B. V.

    1992-06-01

    The well-known acoustoelectric coupling effect in semiconductors, whereby a sound wave is amplified if a charge carrier's drift velocity exceeds the speed of sound, also exists for ions and electrons in a gaseous medium, but theoretical analysis so far has been limited to simplified collisional-exchange models [G. M. Sessler, Phys. Fluids 7, 90 (1964); U. Ingard and M. Schultz, Phys. Rev. 158, 106 (1967); T. D. Mantei and M. Fitaire, in 2 Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971), p. 309]. The present paper is based upon more accurate considerations of collisional phenomena, leading to more realistic predictions of the qualitative and quantitative nature of the effect.

  14. SPIRE spectroscopy of the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habart, E.; Dartois, E.; Abergel, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Naylor, D.; Polehampton, E.; Joblin, C.

    2010-12-01

    The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board Herschel allows us, for the first time, to simultaneously measure the complete far-infrared spectrum from 194 to 671 μm. A wealth of rotational lines of CO (and its isotopologues), fine structure lines of C^0 and N^+, and emission lines from radicals and molecules has been observed towards several galactic regions and nearby galaxies. The strengths of the atomic and molecular lines place fundamental constraints on the physical conditions but also the chemistry of the interstellar medium. FTS mapping capabilities are also extremely powerful in characterizing the spatial morphology of the extended region and understand how the gas properties vary within the studied region. Here, we present a first analysis of SPIRE spectroscopic observations of the prototypical Orion Bar photodissociation region.

  15. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Jop, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solidlike behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: The capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains, confirming our model.

  16. INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM REHEATING BY RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perucho, Manel; Quilis, Vicent; Marti, Jose-Maria [Departament d' Astronomia i Astrofisica, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2011-12-10

    Galactic jets are powerful energy sources reheating the intracluster medium in galaxy clusters. Their crucial role in the cosmic puzzle, motivated by observations, has been established by a great number of numerical simulations excluding the relativistic nature of these jets. We present the first relativistic simulations of the very long-term evolution of realistic galactic jets. Unexpectedly, our results show no buoyant bubbles, but large cocoon regions compatible with the observed X-ray cavities. The reheating is more efficient and faster than in previous scenarios, and it is produced by the shock wave driven by the jet, that survives for several hundreds of Myr. Therefore, the X-ray cavities in clusters produced by powerful relativistic jets would remain confined by weak shocks for extremely long periods and their detection could be an observational challenge.

  17. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  18. The Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    The bulk of cosmic matter resides in a dilute reservoir that fills the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM). The history of this reservoir is intimately tied to the cosmic histories of structure formation, star formation, and supermassive black hole accretion. Our models for the IGM at intermediate redshifts (2≲z≲5) are a tremendous success, quantitatively explaining the statistics of Lyα absorption of intergalactic hydrogen. However, at both lower and higher redshifts (and around galaxies) much is still unknown about the IGM. We review the theoretical models and measurements that form the basis for the modern understanding of the IGM, and we discuss unsolved puzzles (ranging from the largely unconstrained process of reionization at high z to the missing baryon problem at low z), highlighting the efforts that have the potential to solve them.

  19. Thermal instability in the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available   This study demonstrates how thermal structures in the interstellar medium can emerge as a result of thermal instability. For a two-dimensional case, the steady state thermal structures was investigeted and it was shown that a large class of solutions exist. For a one –dimensional case the conductivity was found to be negligible. The effects of to cal cooling on the thermal instability were explored in some depth. In this case analytical results for time-dependent cooling function were presented, too. We studied nonlinear wave phenomena in thermal fluid systems, with a particular emphasis on presenting analytical results. When conductivity is proportional to temperature, the beliavior of thermal waves is soliton like. For slow thermal waves, approximate analytical results were presented. Extensions of this work are discussed briefly, together with possible astrophysical applications.

  20. Light Vector Mesons in the Nuclear Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Michael; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Weygand, Dennis; Djalali, Chaden; Tur, Clarisse; Mosel, Ulrich; Muehlich, Pascal; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, Gegham; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, James; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Burkert, Volker; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Carnahan, Bryan; Casey, Liam; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Crabb, Donald; Crannell, Hall; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dickson, Richard; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Feuerbach, Robert; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Gordon, Christopher; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guidal, Michel; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hakobyan, Rafael; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Khetarpal, Puneet; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klimenko, Alexei; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, David; Li, Ji; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacCormick, Marion; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mehrabyan, Surik; Melone, Joseph; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Minehart, Ralph; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Pereira, Sergio; Pierce, Joshua; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Prok, Yelena; Protopopescu, Dan; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinsky, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vineyard, Michael; Vlassov, Alexander; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Williams, Michael; Wolin, Elliott; Yegneswaran, Amrit; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2008-07-01

    The light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the $\\rho$ meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to $e^{+}e^{-}$. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The $\\rho$ meson mass spectrum was extracted after the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the $\\rho$ mass spectra from the heavy targets ($A > 2$) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the $\\rho$-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body eff

  1. Crystal growth as an excitable medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Checa, Antonio G; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio

    2012-06-28

    Crystal growth has been widely studied for many years, and, since the pioneering work of Burton, Cabrera and Frank, spirals and target patterns on the crystal surface have been understood as forms of tangential crystal growth mediated by defects and by two-dimensional nucleation. Similar spirals and target patterns are ubiquitous in physical systems describable as excitable media. Here, we demonstrate that this is not merely a superficial resemblance, that the physics of crystal growth can be set within the framework of an excitable medium, and that appreciating this correspondence may prove useful to both fields. Apart from solid crystals, we discuss how our model applies to the biomaterial nacre, formed by layer growth of a biological liquid crystal.

  2. Managing Safety in Small and Medium Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, legg; Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Ian S., laird

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model for increasing acceptable working environments for SMEs. It also acts as an editorial for the special issue of Safety Science on ‘Managing safety in small and medium enterprises (SMEs)’. It describes how seven of the ten papers in the special issue originate...... from an international conference in 2013 on Understanding Small Enterprises. It includes a commentary on the papers in the special issue as well as directing the reader to all of the current state-of-the-science sources known to the authors. The paper provides a background to previous research...... on safety in SMEs, showing how most current policy and legislation on occupational health and safety (OSH) and the work environment is based on large enterprises and that there is a relative paucity of research on OSH in SMEs. In a summary of current knowledge, it is argued that modern OHS legislation...

  3. Perturbative photon production in a dispersive medium

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, Francesco; Piazza, Francesco Dalla

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photon pair-creation in a dispersive dielectric medium induced by the presence of a spacetime varying dielectric constant. Our aim is to examine the possibility to observe new phenomena of pair creation induced by travelling dielectric perturbations e.g. created by laser pulses by means of the Kerr effect. In this perspective, we adopt a semi-phenomenological version of the Hopfield model in which a space-time dependent dielectric susceptibility appears. We focus our attention on perturbation theory, and provide general formulas for the photon production induced by a local but arbitrarily spacetime dependent refractive index perturbation. As an example, we further explore the case of an uniformly travelling perturbation, and provide examples of purely time-dependent perturbations.

  4. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Bailey, J I; Beard, S; Dicken, D; García-Marín, M; Geers, V; Glasse, A; Glauser, A; Gordon, K; Justtanont, K; Klaassen, P; Lahuis, F; Law, D; Morrison, J; Müller, M; Rieke, G; Vandenbussche, B; Wright, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  5. Silicate Composition of the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fogerty, Shane; Watson, Dan M; Sargent, Benjamin A; Koch, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. Analysis of the well-known 9.7{\\mu}m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modelled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modelling the optical depth along lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and {\\zeta} Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as "polivene." Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapez...

  6. Molecular hydrogen formation in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Cazaux, S

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model for molecular hydrogen formation under astrophysically relevant conditions. This model takes fully into account the presence of both physisorbed and chemisorbed sites on the surface, allows quantum mechanical diffusion as well as thermal hopping for absorbed H-atoms, and has been benchmarked versus recent laboratory experiments on H2 formation on silicate surfaces. The results show that H2 formation on grain surface is efficient in the interstellar medium up to some 300K. At low temperatures (<100K), H2 formation is governed by the reaction of a physisorbed H with a chemisorbed H. At higher temperatures, H2 formation proceeds through reaction between two chemisorbed H atoms. We present simple analytical expressions for H2 formation which can be adopted to a wide variety of surfaces once their surfaces characteristics have been determined experimentally.

  7. Synchrony in embryogenesis via an active medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R. Scott; Sengupta, Anirvan; Wingreen, Ned

    2009-03-01

    In developing embryos of the frog Xenopus, mitotic divisions occur at 8-minute intervals. After the initial rounds of division, nuclei divide in near-perfect synchrony throughout the embryo. Given a typical protein diffusion constant of 10 μm^2sec, and an embryo length of 1mm, it would take diffusion many hours to propagate a signal across the embryo. Therefore, synchrony cannot be attained by diffusion alone. We hypothesize that known autocatalytic reactions of cell-cycle components make the embryo an ``active medium'' in which waves propagate much faster than diffusion, enforcing synchrony. Furthermore, developing embryos are found to be very robust, meaning that their spatial and temporal patterns are highly repeatable over a broad range of environmental conditions and despite biochemical noise. We report on robust synchronization of oscillations for a coupled two-species system consisting of diffusing activator and repressor molecules.

  8. Leadership in Romanian Small to Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Crăciun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a broad statistical research on Romanian small to medium enterprises (SMEs, with the goal of better understanding: (1 the incipient organizational culture of a recently-opened East European market; and (2 the role of leadership in increasing the competitiveness of SMEs. The paper studies the perceived characteristics of a leader and their influence on the organization’s results (as seen by employees, and it tries to reveal the subliminal inter-correlations among these characteristics. The method is factor analysis (implemented in SPSS, for a questionnaire with 23 items, answered by 930 subjects on a five-point Likert scale. The six factors identified by our analysis were: adaptability; cooperation; authority; charisma; confidence; motivation. By highlighting these basic components, our study aims both at increasing competitiveness in Romanian enterprises and at designing better training programs for managers and entrepreneurs acting on East European markets, adapted to the real characteristics of these young economic environments.

  9. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  10. 脂肪干细胞上清液培养雪旺细胞的实验研究%An Experimental Study on Cultivating Schwann Cells in the Supernatant of the Culture Medium of Adipose-derived Stem cells(ADSC-CM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈露露; 沈尊理; 金羽青; 刘璋寅; 沈华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究应用脂肪干细胞上清液培养新生小鼠雪旺细胞的可行性.方法:取新生(出生5-7天)C57BL/6小鼠的坐骨神经,采用0.2%的复合胶原酶NB4消化法分离获取细胞,然后应用雪旺细胞条件培养基(SCCM)和C57BL/6小鼠的脂肪干细胞上清液(ADSC-CM)分别培养雪旺细胞.用0.2%复合胶原酶NB4差速分离纯化这两种方法培养的雪旺细胞,每48h纯化1次,共进行2次纯化.应用P75免疫荧光染色方法鉴别两组P2代雪旺细胞并比较两组雪旺细胞的纯度和生长情况.结果:脂肪干细胞上清液培养的雪旺细胞纯化两次后,数量明显增多,其纯度与雪旺细胞条件培养基相比没有明显差异(P> 0.05).结论:脂肪干细胞上清液可以较好的培养雪旺细胞,可以作为一种新的廉价方便的培养基代替雪旺细胞条件培养基来培养许雪旺细胞.

  11. Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).

  12. Effective Medium Theories for Multicomponent Poroelastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-02-08

    In Biot's theory of poroelasticity, elastic materials contain connected voids or pores and these pores may be filled with fluids under pressure. The fluid pressure then couples to the mechanical effects of stress or strain applied externally to the solid matrix. Eshelby's formula for the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a strain imposed at a distant boundary is a very well-known and important result in elasticity. Having a rigorous generalization of Eshelby's results valid for poroelasticity means that the hard part of Eshelby's work (in computing the elliptic integrals needed to evaluate the fourth-rank tensors for inclusions shaped like spheres, oblate and prolate spheroids, needles and disks) can be carried over from elasticity to poroelasticity--and also thermoelasticity--with only relatively minor modifications. Effective medium theories for poroelastic composites such as rocks can then be formulated easily by analogy to well-established methods used for elastic composites. An identity analogous to Eshelby's classic result has been derived [Physical Review Letters 79:1142-1145 (1997)] for use in these more complex and more realistic problems in rock mechanics analysis. Descriptions of the application of this result as the starting point for new methods of estimation are presented, including generalizations of the coherent potential approximation (CPA), differential effective medium (DEM) theory, and two explicit schemes. Results are presented for estimating drained shear and bulk modulus, the Biot-Willis parameter, and Skempton's coefficient. Three of the methods considered appear to be quite reliable estimators, while one of the explicit schemes is found to have some undesirable characteristics.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  14. BIFIDUM-MEDIUM FOR ISOLATION AND CULTIVATION OF BIFIDOBACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Domotenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative evaluation of Bifidum-medium quality (the nutrient medium for cultivation and selection bifidobacteria, dry and Blaurock medium has been performed. It was shown that Bifidum-medium supports the typical growth of the main types of bifidobacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, B. adolescentis, B. infantis, B. longum. The comparable results for the efficacy and the activity accumulation of acid were obtained in the study of probiotic «bifidumbacterin » using both media. In studies of faecal material the medium concentration of bifidobacteria was found 8.15 lg CFU/g on Bifidum-medium and 6.68 lg CFU/g on Blaurock medium.

  15. Medium optimization to improve the flocculation rate of a novel compound bioflocculant, CBF-256, using response surface methodology and flocculation characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dunjian; Li, Hongyang; Pu, Yuewu; Yi, Lvyun

    2013-01-01

    A novel compound bioflocculant, CBF-256, was obtained using three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Aeromonas sp., which were screened from activated sludge of a printing and dyeing wastewater treatment plant. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation medium dosage to improve the flocculation rate of CBF-256, which increased from 69.00% to 82.65%. In addition the yield of the compound bioflocculant increased from 2.31 g·L(-1) to 2.84 g·L(-1). The flocculating efficiency distribution of the components of the culture broth indicated that the supernatant was the most effective component in the flocculation process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the fermentation medium and composite bacteria. The compound flocculants were produced easily, and during the flocculation process, all the flocculation ingredients settled down in the remaining sludge along with the bacteria screened from the activated sludge, without causing secondary pollution.

  16. iBook – a New Medium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Štular

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:On January 19th 2012 Apple launched iBooks®2 for iPad® - a new application for downloading digital content to the iPad - and the new software (iBooks Author® which allows creating and publishing digital content using the .iba digital format and all-new iTunes® application offering access to a variety of digitised educational content. Our aim was to test the attractiveness of the new Apple releases and the effect of a relatively easy access to the world market of digital content on the promotion of Slovenian cultural heritage. We added three books to the iTunes digital collection which might be of interest to the general public: a re-edition of a scientific monograph by Andrej Pleterski: Mythical Reality of the Carintian Dukes' Stones (Mitska stvarnost knežjega kamna in Slovenian and German version and a non-fiction iBook by Benjamin Štular: Ljubljana in the Middle Ages. Archaeological Research (Srednjeveška Ljubljana. Arheološke raziskave. The digital version of the Andrej Pleterski's book was chosen for the actuality of the topic in Slovenia and Austria. People and politicians in Carinthia were annoyed by the book contents as it was published by the Regional Museum in Klagenfurt in December 2011. While the science in this book is sound it has been abused to meet the current needs of some of the Carinthian politicians. The incident was polemically reflected in the main Slovenian newspapers, too. The non-fiction iBook was selected because of the attractiveness of the theme, besides a lot of multimedia content had already been created and could be easily published to Apple's iBookstore. All three iBooks were posted to iTunes® less than three weeks after the release of the iBooks Author application to create digital content. We wish to present our experience with the applicability of the new medium, users' feedback and access statistics. Guidelines for Apple licenses are presented. The applicability of the new medium and

  17. Commercial cinema: a medium for development communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, J; Smith, S

    1985-01-01

    concerns about family planning. Understanding audience expectations in a commercial cinema context is the key to successfully adapting this medium for social development messages. Although some foreign technical assistance was provided, the success of the 2 films described depended on how their themes were adapted to the traditional feature film format. To date, commercial cinema has been an underutilized medium for development messages. WIF's experiences demonstrate how effective, well-conceived social messages can be presented in a commercial cinema context. It is hoped this will encourage other to use this widely available channel of mass communication.

  18. IMPLEMENTING SMALL AND MEDIUM IT PROJECTS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix DUMITRESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is essential nowadays for all companies. Small enterprises are an important part of the economy and this article aims at providing some useful insight in implementing modern IT projects to their benefit. Due to the limited funding available for the IT infrastructure in most start-ups and small businesses, the projects should be adapted to fulfill the needs of the company for the lowest cost. The paper will start by defining small and medium project management theory and outlining the target of the study, small and medium sized companies. Next it will show a number of case studies of IT projects implemented in different types of small companies in Romania. Based on these implementations the article will draw some conclusions relevant to most small companies which need to design or improve their IT infrastructure.

  19. Stabilizing the cold plasma-stimulated medium by regulating medium's composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dayun; Nourmohammadi, Niki; Bian, Ka; Murad, Ferid; Sherman, Jonathan H; Keidar, Michael

    2016-05-13

    Over past several years, the cold plasma-stimulated medium (PSM) has shown its remarkable anti-cancer capacity in par with the direct cold plasma irradiation on cancer cells or tumor tissues. Independent of the cold plasma device, PSM has noticeable advantage of being a flexible platform in cancer treatment. Currently, the largest disadvantage of PSM is its degradation during the storage over a wide temperature range. So far, to stabilize PSM, it must be remained frozen at -80 °C. In this study, we first reveal that the degradation of PSM is mainly due to the reaction between the reactive species and specific amino acids; mainly cysteine and methionine in medium. Based on this finding, both H2O2 in PSM and the anti-cancer capacity of PSM can be significantly stabilized during the storage at 8 °C and -25 °C for at least 3 days by using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and cysteine/methionine-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM). In addition, we demonstrate that adding a tyrosine derivative, 3-Nitro-L-tyrosine, into DMEM can mitigate the degradation of PSM at 8 °C during 3 days of storage. This study provides a solid foundation for the future anti-cancer application of PSM.

  20. Business Model Innovation for Small Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirania Swasty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian economy through Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs is expected to absorb labor and contribute to the growth of Gross Domestic Product. However, SMEs lack both managerial and technical skills. This research is about business model innovation for SMEs especially in fashion and garment industry. Study used qualitative approach by mentoring four selected SMEs in Babakan Penghulu Village– Cinambo Sub-District, Eastern Bandung. The tools used to analyze them including PEST analysis, Porter’s Five Forces,Resource Based View, Value Chain Analysis and Business Model Canvas. Finding suggests SMEs to have business model innovation derived from value proposition. SMEs should build their own brand awareness. Moreover, as garment and fashion industry, design can be a particularly important part of the Value Proposition. SMEs could communicate its value propositions and inform their service through its official websites and other social media. Since the intangible resources include brand and design, thus SMEs should build brand image and innovate year by year. SMEs must hire designers and launch a series of new products offers under the signature of their own brands. Ideation to strengthen strategies derives from value proposition building block as a starting point. Moreover, Business Model Canvas makes strategy more focused and measurable. Business model innovation is expected to increase overall performance of SMEs.

  1. Medium Density Particleboard Reinforced with Bamboo Laminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cortez Barbosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of bamboo laminas of the species Dendrocalamus giganteus to three-layer medium density particleboard (MDP. These laminas were glued onto both the top and the bottom of each panel. With the manufactured panels laminated with bamboo, mechanical tests based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 14810 were carried out to determine the modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and the tensile strength parallel-to-surface. These mechanical tests were realized in particleboards of eucalyptus and in reinforced particleboard, both produced in the laboratory. The modulus of rupture and tensile strength parallel-to-surface of the laminated MDP had values close to those that have been reported. The reinforcements increased the values of these studied properties. Nevertheless, this fact indicated the possibility to produce a stronger MDP using bamboo lamina as surface layers. These results show the possibility of using coated-bamboo MDP for utilization in large spans, for example, in flooring for mezzanines with finish on both sides, and for robust furniture as bookshelves, beds, tables, etc.

  2. Localized fluidization in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, P; Badiane, M

    2013-04-01

    We present here experimental results on the progressive development of a fluidized zone in a bed of grains, immersed in a liquid, under the effect of a localized upward flow injected through a small orifice at the bottom of the bed. Visualization inside the model granular medium consisting of glass beads is made possible by the combined use of two optical techniques: refractive index matching between the liquid and the beads and planar laser-induced fluorescence. Gradually increasing the injection rate, three regimes are successively observed: static bed, fluidized cavity that does not open to the upper surface of the granular bed, and finally fluidization over the entire height of the granular bed inside a fluidized chimney. The phase diagram is plotted and partially interpreted using a model previously developed by Zoueshtiagh and Merlen [F. Zoueshtiagh and A. Merlen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 053613 (2007)]. A typical sequence, where the flow rate is first increased and then decreased back to zero, reveals a strong hysteretic behavior since the stability of the fluidized cavity is considerably strengthened during the defluidization phase. This effect can be explained by the formation of force arches within the granular packing when the chimney closes up at the top of the bed. A study of the expansion rate of the fluidized cavity was also conducted as well as the analysis of the interaction between two injection orifices with respect to their spacing.

  3. Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Mark; PS1 Science Consortium; Pan-STARRS IPP Team

    2017-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1, PS1) has been in full science operation since Spring 2010 with the PS1 Science Consortium (PS1SC) observational program concluding in early 2014. The Medium Deep Survey (MDS) component of the program, allocated 25% of the time, regularly visited 10 fields (~7 sq. deg. each) with significant multi-wavelength overlap from previous and concurrent surveys (e.g. SDSS, DEEP2, CDFS, COSMOS, GALEX). The cadence generally includes the g & r, i, z filters in a 3 day cycle with nightly 5-sigma point source stack depths of r,i~23.5 mag and switching to the y filter primarily during bright time over the 6-8 month season a MDS field is visible. While nightly processing was regularly producing data for the transient event discovery and other science consortium programs with incremental improvements during the survey, the entire MDS dataset has now been uniformly reprocessed for the upcoming public data release. The MDS data products, to be made available after the full release of the 3PI dataset, will be summarily presented.For details on PS1 and the Science Consortium, visit http://ps1sc.org/

  4. Medium effects in $K^+$ nuclear interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, E; Mares, J

    1997-01-01

    Total and reaction cross sections are derived self consistently from the attenuation cross sections measured in transmission experiments at the AGS for K^+ on Li^6, C, Si and Ca in the momentum range of 500-700 MeV/c by using a V_{opt}=t_{eff}(rho)rho optical potential. Self consistency requires, for the KN in-medium t matrix, that Im t_{eff}(rho) increases linearly with the average nuclear density in excess of a threshold value of 0.088+-0.004 fm^-3. The density dependence of Re t_{eff}(rho) is studied phenomenologically, and also applying a relativistic mean field approach, by fitting the integral cross sections. The real part of the optical potential is found to be systematically less repulsive with increasing energy than expected from the free-space repulsive KN interaction. When the elastic scattering data for Li^6 and C at 715 MeV/c are included in the analysis, a tendency of Re V_{opt} to generate an attractive pocket at the nuclear surface is observed.

  5. Pulverized glass as an alternative filter medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    A significant amount of low-value, recycled glass is stockpiled at recycling facilities or landfilled. This study was conducted to investigate the use of pulverized recycled glass as a filter medium in slow sand filtration. The glass was pulverized using a flail mill-type pulverizer. The size distribution of the pulverizer output was adjusted by sieving to meet the grain size requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media were compared to a fourth unit containing silica sand media. The filter influent was spiked with clay, coliform group bacteria and the cysts and oocyst of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good as or better than the silica sand, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; and 99.92% to 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. According to a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

  6. Magneto Binary Nanofluid Convection in Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an externally impressed magnetic field on the stability of a binary nanofluid layer in porous medium is considered in this work. The conservation equations related to the system are solved using normal mode technique and Galerkin method to analyze the problem. The complex expressions are approximated to get useful results. Mode of heat transfer is stationary for top heavy distribution of nanoparticles in the fluid layer and top heavy nanofluids are very less stable than regular fluids. Oscillatory motions are possible for bottom heavy distribution of nanoparticles and they are not much influenced by properties of different nanoparticles. A comparative analysis of the instability of water based nanofluids with metallic (Cu, Ag and semiconducting (TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles under the influence of magnetic field is examined. Semiconducting nanofluids are found to be more stable than metallic nanofluids. Porosity destabilizes the layer while solute difference (at the boundaries of the layer stabilizes it. Magnetic field stabilizes the fluid layer system significantly.

  7. Light Vector Mesons in the Nuclear Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M H; Weygand, D P; Djalali, C; Tur, C; Mosel, U; Mühlich, P; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Blaszczyk, L; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Casey, L; Chen, S; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Coltharp, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Credé, V; Cummings, J P; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Dickson, R; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Fradi, A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hakobyan, R S; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kalantarians, N; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Kossov, M; Krahn, Z; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Ji, Li; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacCormick, M; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Müller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Anefalos Pereira, S; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati, F; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Sharov, D; Shvedunov, N V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Todor, L; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Yegneswaran, A; Zana, L; Zhang, B; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2008-01-01

    The light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, and $\\phi$) were produced in deuterium, carbon, titanium, and iron targets in a search for possible in-medium modifications to the properties of the $\\rho$ meson at normal nuclear densities and zero temperature. The vector mesons were detected with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) via their decays to $e^{+}e^{-}$. The rare leptonic decay was chosen to reduce final-state interactions. A combinatorial background was subtracted from the invariant mass spectra using a well-established event-mixing technique. The $\\rho$ meson mass spectrum was extracted after the $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ signals were removed in a nearly model-independent way. Comparisons were made between the $\\rho$ mass spectra from the heavy targets ($A > 2$) with the mass spectrum extracted from the deuterium target. With respect to the $\\rho$-meson mass, we obtain a small shift compatible with zero. Also, we measure widths consistent with standard nuclear many-body effects such as collisional...

  8. The intergalactic medium in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) accounts for >~ 90% of baryons at all epochs and yet its three dimensional distribution in the cosmic web remains mostly unknown. This is so because the only feasible way to observe the bulk of the IGM is through intervening absorption line systems in the spectra of bright background sources, which limits its characterization to being one-dimensional. Still, an averaged three dimensional picture can be obtained by combining and cross-matching multiple one-dimensional IGM information with three-dimensional galaxy surveys. Here, we present our recent and current efforts to map and characterize the IGM in the cosmic web using galaxies as tracers of the underlying mass distribution. In particular, we summarize our results on: (i) IGM around star-forming and non-star-forming galaxies; (ii) IGM within and around galaxy voids; and (iii) IGM in intercluster filaments. With these datasets, we can directly test the modern paradigm of structure formation and evolution of baryonic matter in the Universe.

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamical Friction in a Gaseous Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosun

    2009-01-01

    Using high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate nonlinear gravitational responses of gas to, and the resulting drag force on, a very massive perturber M_p moving at velocity V_p through a uniform gaseous medium of adiabatic sound speed a_0. We model the perturber as a Plummer potential with softening radius r_s, and run various models with differing A=GM_p/(a_0^2 r_s) and M=V_p/a_0 by imposing cylindrical symmetry with respect to the line of perturber motion. For supersonic cases, a massive perturber quickly develops nonlinear flows that produce a detached bow shock and a vortex ring, which is unlike in the linear cases where Mach cones are bounded by low-amplitude Mach waves. The flows behind the shock are initially non-steady, displaying quasi-periodic, overstable oscillations of the vortex ring and the shock. The vortex ring is eventually shed downstream and the flows evolve toward a quasi-steady state where the density wake near the perturber is in near hydrostatic equilibr...

  11. Pulse propagation through a dispersive intracavity medium

    CERN Document Server

    Yum, Honam; Shahriar, Selim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study theoretically the behavior of a pulse as it propagates through an intracavity fast-light medium. The method of using a transfer function to determine a pulse after it passes through a cavity is well known. However, this approach cannot be used to determine the behavior of the pulse inside the cavity. To circumvent this constraint, we use an approach that starts by finding a self-consistent solution for a monochromatic field of infinite spatial and temporal extents, and determine its amplitudes before, inside, and after the cavity. We then construct a Gaussian input pulse by adding a set of these waves, properly phased and weighted, to represent a moving pulse before the cavity. Adding these waves at various time intervals then yields the complete spatial profile everywhere, including before, inside and after the cavity. We first confirm the prediction of this model by analyzing the behavior of a pulse passing through an empty cavity, and comparing the prediction of the output with the ...

  12. Coal char oxidation kinetics in air medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of oxidation kinetics for three types of coal char with different carbon content in air is presented. The coal char powders of anthracite, bituminous T-grade coal and 2B-grade lignite with particle size less than 80 μm were tested. The coal char oxidation was researched by isothermal method via simultaneous TG-DSC analyzer Netzsch STA 449 Jupiter F3 in the temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Measurements were carried out at ambient pressure. Volumetric flow rate of oxidizing medium into analyser chamber was 250 ml/min. Flow consisted of air and argon with volumetric ratio 24/1. Carbon average rate of oxidation reaction at each temperature were defined based on experimental results. Kinetic constants (the frequency factor and activation energy were defined for Arrhenius equation modified with three submodels: volumetric model, shrinking core model and random pore model. The activation energy values for anthracite are 1,6-1,7 times higher than for chars of bituminous coal and lignite.

  13. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, J; Brown, D L; Hubbard, M E; O'Dea, R D

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid-structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The 'active' nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection-reaction-diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits.

  14. The Low-Redshift Intergalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Shull, J M; Stocke, J T; Penton, Steven V.; Stocke, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The low-redshift Ly-alpha forest of absorption lines provides a probe of large-scale baryonic structures in the intergalactic medium, some of which may be remnants of physical conditions set up during the epoch of galaxy formation. We discuss our recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and interpretation of low-z Ly-alpha clouds toward nearby Seyferts and QSOs, including their frequency, space density, estimated mass, association with galaxies, and contribution to Omega-baryon. Our HST/GHRS detections of 70 Ly-alpha absorbers with N_HI > 10^12.6 cm-2 along 11 sightlines covering pathlength Delta(cz) = 114,000 km/s show f(>N_HI) ~ N_HI^{-0.63 +- 0.04} and a line frequency dN/dz = 200 +- 40 for N_HI > 10^12.6 cm-2 (one every 1500 km/s of redshift). A group of strong absorbers toward PKS 2155-304 may be associated with gas (400-800) h_75^-1 kpc from 4 large galaxies, with low metallicity (< 0.003 solar) and D/H < 2 x 10^-4. At low-z, we derive a metagalactic ionizing radiation field from AGN of J_...

  15. Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1985-08-01

    The design and fabrication of an objective-grating echelle spectrograph to fly on sounding rockets and record spectra of stars from approximately 920 to 1120A with a resolving power lambda/delta lambda = 200,000 is discussed. The scientific purpose of the program is to observe, with ten times better velocity resolution than before, the plentiful absorption lines in this spectral region produced by atoms, ions and molecules in the interstellar medium. In addition, an important technical goal is to develop and flight-quality a new ultraviolet, photon-counting image sensor which has a windowless, opaque photocathode and a CCD bombarded directly by the accelerated photoelectrons. Except for some initial difficulties with the performance of CCDs, the development of the payload instrument is relatively straightforward and our overall design goals are satisfied. The first flight occurred in late 1984, but no data were obtained because of an inrush of air degraded the instrument's vacuum and caused the detector's high voltage to arc. A second flight in early 1985 was a complete success and obtained a spectrum of pi Sco. Data from this mission are currently being reduced; quick-look versions of the spectra indicate that excellent results will be obtained. Currently, the payload is being reconfigured to fly on a Spartan mission in 1988.

  16. The Intragroup versus the Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, A; Lapi, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy groups differ from clusters primarily by way of their lower masses, M~10^14 M_sun vs. M~10^15 M_sun. We discuss how mass affects the thermal state of the intracluster or the intragroup medium, specifically as to their entropy levels and radial profiles. We show that entropy is produced in both cases by the continuing inflow of intergalactic gas across the system boundary into the gravitational potential well. The inflow is highly supersonic in clusters, but weakly so in groups. The former condition implies strong accretion shocks with substantial conversion of a large inflow kinetic into thermal energy, whereas the latter condition implies less effective conversion of lower energies. These features produce a conspicuous difference in entropy deposition at the current boundary. Thereafter, adiabatic compression of the hot gas into the potential well converts such time histories into radial profiles throughout a cluster or a group. In addition, in both cases a location of the system at low z in the accel...

  17. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  18. Euclid - an ESA Medium Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.

    2016-10-01

    Euclid is an ESA Medium Class mission in the Cosmic Visions program to be launched in 2020. With its 1.2 m telescope, Euclid is going to survey 15,000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in a broad optical band with outstanding image quality fit for weak gravitational lensing measurements. It will also provide near-infrared slitless spectroscopy of more than 107 emission-line galaxies with the main goal of measuring galaxy clustering. Imaging in three near-infrared bands by Euclid will be complemented by ground-based follow-up in optical bands to supply high-quality photometric redshift estimates out to z=2. In combination, its primary cosmological science drivers, weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, will yield unprecedented constraints on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the validity of Einstein gravity on large scales. Euclid's rich datasets will facilitate further cosmological probes such as statistics of galaxy clusters or the study of galactic dark matter haloes, and a vast array of legacy science. In the following a brief overview on the Euclid mission and its key science is provided.

  19. The effects of protoype medium on usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Chase; Strawderman, Lesley; Hosea, Ethan

    2013-11-01

    Inconsistencies among testing methods and results in previous research prompted this study that builds upon a systematic usability testing research framework to better understand how interface medium influences users' abilities to detect usability flaws in applications. Interface medium was tested to identify its effects on users' perceptions of usability and abilities to detect usability problems and severe usability problems. Results indicated that medium has no effect on users' abilities to detect usability problems or perceptions of usability. However, results did indicate an interaction between the medium and the tested application in which users were able to identify significantly more usability problems on a higher fidelity medium using a particular application. Results also indicated that as users' perceptions of an application's usability increases, the users are less able to detect usability problems in that application. Usability testing should begin early in the design process, even if low fidelity mediums will be used.

  20. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  1. The spin Hall effect of light in moving medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hehe; Li, Xinzhong; Wang, Jingge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spin Hall effect of light in moving inhomogeneous medium using the Gordon metric and the Maxwell’s equations in the gravitational field. Light experiences a moving medium as a gravitational field by means of the Gordon metric. It is shown that the spin Hall effect of light is modified by the motion of medium, and the deflection of the ray trajectory is dependent on the polarization and the motion of the medium. It is interesting that there is no coupling of the spin angular momentum of light and the effective gravitational field when the medium is moving along the direction of the gradient ∇n(r). The results provide a potential method for controlling the spin Hall effect of light in medium.

  2. Micropropagation of orchid hybrids in knudson culture medium with addiction of vitamins of ms culture medium, benzilaminopurine and activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The genera Cattleya and Brassavola, naturally occurring in Brazil, are widely used in hybridization to obtain better shape of the lip in the hybrids. This demand creates the need to develop more effective propagation to meet the market and contributing to avoid the extinction of these plants. This study aimed to test BAP concentrations, activated charcoal, culture medium Knudson and culture medium MS’s vitamins in subculture of Brassocattleya Pastoral x Laeliocattleya Amber Glow orchids plants. There were used seedlings from in vitro germination, with 1-1.5 cm length, undergoing standardization in the culture medium Knudson for three months. The experiment were performed using concentrations of culture medium Knudson (0%, 50%, 100%, 150% and 200%, combined with concentrations of culture medium MS’s vitamins (0%, 50%, 100% and 200% and BAP concentrations (0; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 versus activated charcoal (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, incorporated in a culture medium Knudson. In each flask of 250 mL containing approximately 50 mL of culture medium, four seedlings were placed under aseptic conditions. It was concluded that can use 129% of Knudson, supplemented with 137.5 mg L-1 activated charcoal, 104% of vitamin MS medium without addition of BAP as the best composition for culture medium of hybrid orchid in vitro propagation. The Knudson culture medium does not promote increase in the root system.

  3. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Gentrit Berisha; Justina Shiroka Pula

    2015-01-01

    The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013). Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy ...

  4. Casimir force in the presence of a magnetodielectric medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Sarabadani, Jalal

    2010-01-01

    In this article we investigate the Casimir effect in the presence of a medium by quantizing the Electromagnetic (EM) field in the presence of a magnetodielectric medium by using the path integral formalism. For a given medium with definite electric and magnetic susceptibilities, explicit expressions for the Casimir force are obtained which are in agree with the original Casimir force between two conducting parallel plates immersed in the quantum electromagnetic vacuum.

  5. Effect of Mg2+ and Fe2+ Concentrations in Culture Medium on CGF Formation from Microalgae Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Ink and Analysis of Amino Acids by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiati Kusmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa contains Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF, which consists of proteins and polysaccharides. CGF is located inside the nucleus of cells and is beneficial to humans as a food supplement, an immunity booster, and an antioxidant. CGF formation of C. pyrenoidosa is influenced by medium composition. C. pyrenoidosa INK was cultured in a modified basal medium (MBM with various concentrations of Mg2+ (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/L and Fe2+ (3.5×10-4 and 5.0×10-4 g/L. The experiments were performed and analyzed under a completely randomized design using a 2-L bottle with three replications. The results showed that MBM with 1.0 g/L of Mg2+ and 3.5×10-4 g/L of Fe2+ yielded the optimal growth curve for C. pyrenoidosa. Analysis of protein content was carried out using the Lowry method with a spectrophotometer at λ=750 nm, and the obtained results were 0.0974 mg/mL (extract and 6.4097 mg/ml (supernatant. Furthermore, analysis of glucose content was carried out using the phenol sulfate method (λ = 490 nm, and the obtained results were 49.331 ppm (extract and 1566.911 ppm (supernatant. Analysis of amino acids in CGF using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS indicated the presence of tyrosine, proline, glutamate, alanine, valine, tryptopan, phenylalanine, methionine, and leucine-isoleucine.

  6. Preparation and Application of New Porous Environmental Ceramics Filter Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; WU Jianfeng; JIN Jianhua; LIU Xinming

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of environmental ceramics medium which was made of industrial solid wastes discharged by Shandong Alum Corporation has been used in the process of drinking water treatment. New techniques were introduced to ensure its remarkable advantages such as high porosity and strength. The results of practical application show that this sort of filter medium has shorter filtration run, shorter mature period and higher filter deposit capability compared with traditional sand filter medium. Moreover, up to 25%- 30% of the daily running costs are expected to be reduced by using this ceramics medium.

  7. Amniocar as a proliferative medium for mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chestkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop the Amniocar nutrient medium that contains fetal calf serum (FCS and growth factors cocktail for mass cultivation of human fibroblasts. To study proliferative activity of the medium on cultures of HUVEC cells of mesenchymal origin and mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as on cell culture of human amniotic fluid.Materials and methods. Determination of the rate of accumulation of the cellular mass and cell morphology in the course of cultivation of cells of various histogenesis in the Amniocar medium and nutrient medium that contains 10 % of FCS.Results. It has been demonstrated that the Amniocar medium is prevalent as compared to the standard DMEM medium with 10 % of FCS by 2 to 5 times for cultivation of skin fibroblasts, HUVEC, and mesenchymal stem cells. The Amniocar medium increased the quantity of endothelial cells that enter mitosis and maintained the culture of HUVEC cells with prolonged passaging in vitro. Clonal cultivation of human amniotic fluid cells in the Amniocar medium secured development of colonies of both fibroblast and epithelial type.Conclusions. Proliferative Amniocar medium is efficient for mass cultivation of various cells of mesenchymal origin and can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical genetics, oncology, etc.

  8. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  9. Seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the propagation of seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium. The medium is modeled by a spatial lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. We study Lamb's problem under a surface point vertical load. The cases of both step and pulse load are considered. The displacements and velocities are calculated for surface masses. The influence of the viscosity of the dampers on the attenuation of perturbations is studied. We compare our numerical results for the block medium with known analytical solutions for the elastic medium.

  10. The Double Jones Birefringence in Magneto-electric Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Waqas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the Maxwell's equations for the tensorial magneto-electric (ME) medium have been solved which in fact is the extension of anisotropic nonmagnetic medium. All of the dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability and the ME tensors are considered. The transverse polarization is shown explicitly and the propagation of electromagnetic wave in the ME medium is found to have the Double Jones Birefringence. We also find the condition of D'yakonov surface wave for magneto-isotropic but with ME anisotropic medium. Especially when the incident angle is $\\frac{\\pi}{4}$, it may be measurable in principle.

  11. Electromagnetic Properties of a Hot and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of an electromagnetically interacting medium in the presence of high concentration of electrons at extremely high temperatures and chemical potentials. We show that the electromagnetic properties of a medium such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, magnetic moments and the propagation speed of electromagnetic waves as well as the corresponding particle processes depend on temperature and density of the medium. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos are significantly modified due to their interactions with electrons when they propagate through such a medium of hot and dense electrons.

  12. Effect of discrete track medium at high areal density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizu, Akimasa; Soeno, Yoshikazu; Tagami, Katsumichi

    The degradation of SNR caused by the higher uniaxial crystalline anisotropy field (Hk) of medium and small write fields of narrower write width is one of the problems for achieving higher areal density. The SNR dependence on Hk of a medium with different write fields of head using the discrete track medium (DTM) is investigated by using micromagnetics simulation. As a result, the curves of SNR as a function of Hk have peak values. In DTM, the peak values of SNR are almost constant at any Hk of the medium and different write fields. Higher SNR is realized even at low Hk and small write field in DTM.

  13. In-plant evaluation of dense medium process performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Q. Honaker; A. Patwardhan [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-15

    The separation density and process efficiency values achieved by dense medium processes are a function of the particle size fractions being treated, hydrodynamics of the separator, and medium rheology. An in-plant evaluation of the dense medium processes being used in an operating preparation plant was conducted in an effort to develop relationships between the actual separation density and the medium density and to quantify the separation efficiency values. The results were found to correlate well with current fundamental and operating principles governing the processes, which are reviewed and discussed.

  14. Seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N. I.

    2016-08-01

    We study numerically the propagation of seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium. The medium is modelled by a spatial lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. We study Lamb's problem under a surface point vertical load. The cases of both step and pulse load are considered. The displacements and velocities are calculated for surface masses. The influence of the viscosity of the dampers on the attenuation of perturbations is studied. We compare our numerical results for the block medium with known analytical solutions for the elastic medium.

  15. Chemically Defined Medium and Caenorhabditis elegans: A Powerful Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, N. J.; Kozak, E.; Conley, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Growth in a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of me in large-scale growth and screening of animals. Here we present our initial results from developing culture systems with CeMM. We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats of using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change defined medium composition. As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.

  16. Anomalous Positive Refraction in an Anisotropic Left-Handed Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei; LUO Hai-Lu; CAO Jing-Xiao

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the refraction phenomena of extraordinary light at a planar interface associated with a uniaxial left-handed medium. It is found that the anomalous positive refraction can occur at the interface from anisotropic right-handed medium to a uniaxially anisotropic left-handed medium. When the optical axis of a uniaxial left-handed medium is not normal or parallel to the interface, the refraction of the Poynting vector for the extraordinary waves can be either positive or negative depending on the incident angles, while the refraction of the wave vector is always negative. The physical essential of the anomalous positive refraction results from the anisotropy of uniaxial crystals.

  17. Development of a selective culture medium for Fusarium moniliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellá, G; Bragulat, M R; Rubiales, M V; Cabañes, F J

    1997-12-01

    Nash and Snyder medium and malachite green agar 2.5 ppm medium, a new selective culture medium designed in our laboratory, were challenged with pure cultures of Fusarium moniliforme strains and two different mixed-conidium suspensions, which included rapidly spreading fungi, for their utility in the isolation and enumeration of F. moniliforme. From the results of this comparative study, malachite green agar 2.5 ppm allowed only the selective growth of F. moniliforme whereas Nash and Snyder medium allowed both the growth of F. moniliforme and other species not belonging to Fusarium spp. The enumeration of F. moniliforme propagules was similar in both culture media.

  18. Enclosed Small and Medium Caliber Firing Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility conducts completely instrumented terminal ballistics experimental tests with small and medium-caliber tungsten alloy penetrators against advanced armor...

  19. [The poster as a communication medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar Samanez, C

    1987-01-01

    The poster as a medium of communication serves to transmit a message by means of a graphical synthesis. It elicits attention by its originality, contrast, and focus on the center of interest. The poster is effective if the images and slogans can be identified easily. Its visual attractiveness is also essential. The understanding of the message is the function of the cultural characteristics of the public with symbols, metaphors, gestures, and detailed description. The appeal of the message allows the public to accept it on sensorial, emotional, social, intellectual, and economical levels. Adverse motivations should not be confused with the positive appeal (prejudice, preconceived ideas, and bias). Confusion and ambiguity can carry conflicting messages, therefore negative examples should be avoided. The force of the message targets the memory carrying conviction and calling to action. The target group and objective must be defined as to age, occupation, location, and sex. The message also has to be defined precisely for the target audience. It is in the analysis of the context whereby the poster is received as to notions of the target topic, alternative attitudes relative to the promotion of the message, obstacles that are encountered in the mentality of the target, and cultural characteristics of the target audience. The text of the slogan must be given before drawing the poster. The designing of the poster should be creative with association of ideas, metaphors and symbols, descriptive images, fusion of symbolic and descriptive forms, humor, the fusion of graphics with letters, and the fusion of letters with images. Completed forms of the poster use illustration, photography, typography, calligraphy, and photo montage.

  20. Effect of the medium composition on formation of amylase by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Oliveira. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the alpha -amylase synthesis was carried out with a moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic Bacillus sp, isolated from soil samples. The cells were cultivated in a complex medium containing soluble starch or maltose as carbon source. The levels of the alpha -amylaseactivity detected in culture supernatants varied greatly with the type of carbon source used. Maltose, soluble starch and citrate stimulated alpha -amylaseformation. Addition of exogenous glucose repressed formation of alpha -amylase, demonstrating that a classical glucose effect was operative in this organism. The concentration of yeast extract was found to be important factor in the alpha -amylase synthesis bythe isolate.The activity of the enzyme increased between 2 and 5 g/L yeast extract concentration and then fell very rapidly beyond this point. The best concentration of peptone to alpha-amylase formation was found to be around 10g/L.Estudos sobre a síntese de alfa -amilase foram realizados com uma bactéria termofílica moderada e facultativa anaeróbica, isolada de amostras de solo. As células foram cultivadas em um meio complexo contendo amido solúvel ou maltose como fonte de carbono. Os níveis da atividade de alfa -amilase detectados no sobrenadante da cultura variaram grandemente com o tipo da fonte de carbono utilizada. Amido solúvel, maltose e citrato estimularam a formação de alfa -amilase. A adição de glicose as culturas reprimiu a formação da alfa -amilase, demonstrando que o clássico efeito glicose foi operativo neste organismo. A concentração de extrato de levedura foi um fator importante na formação de alfa -amilase pelo isolado. A atividade da enzima aumentou entre concentrações de 2 a 5 g/L e então caiu muito rapidamente em torno deste ponto. A melhor concentração de peptona para a formação da alfa -amilase foi em torno de 10 g/L.

  1. Methodology for monitoring gold nanoparticles and dissolved gold species in culture medium and cells used for nanotoxicity tests by liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanz, Sara; Fariñas, Nuria Rodríguez; Vargas, Rosario Serrano; Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Del Carmen Rodríguez; Ríos, Ángel

    2017-03-01

    An analytical methodology based on coupling reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed for the characterization and identification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold dissolved species (Au(3+)) in culture medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, DMEM) and HeLa cells (a human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line) used in nanotoxicity tests. The influence of the culture medium was also studied and the method applied for nanotoxicity tests. It was also observed that AuNPs can undergo an oxidation process in the supernatants and only a small amount of AuNPs and dissolved Au(3+) was associated with cells. To evaluate the biological impact of AuNPs, a classical viability assay onto HeLa cells was performed using cellular media DMEM in the presence of increasing dosage of 10nm AuNPs. The results showed that 10nm AuNPs exhibit a slight toxic effect.

  2. Two prototypes for medium rotation forestry harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five years old poplar (Populus spp. plantation represents an interesting model of productivity. The most attractive characteristics of this energy crop are the handling flexibility, the high yield of biomass per area unit and the good quality of the chips obtainable. The mechanical harvesting of five-years old poplar plantations requires the use of specialized forest machineries such as harvester, feller, forwarder and chipper. Usually, after felling, the working phases consist of extraction, stacking and chipping. Generally, the last one is carried out in a “static phase”, where the product is taken from staked logs by using a hydraulic arm having a gripper that feed the chipping machine. In order to introduce technological innovations for the medium rotation forestry harvesting, the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’Ingegneria agraria (CRAING of Monterotondo (Rome, Italy has developed a five years poplar cutwindrower and a self-propelled chipper equipped with a pick up system. The prototype of cut-windrower is a semi-trailed machine powered by a 95 kW tractor (at least. It mounts a cutting system and a double pincer with variable positioning. During the cutting phase the plant is grasped by the double pincer which conveys and unloads the stem along the inter-row. The trees are placed parallel to the progress of the tractor, but oriented in the opposite direction. The biomass windrowed is then chipped in a dynamic phase directly from the inter row using the self-propelled chipper equipped with the pick-up head. In the first tests, the cut-windrower has reached an operative working capacity of 0.22 ha h-1, with an operative production of 44 t h-1. On the other hand, the self-propelled chipper has showed an operative working capacity equal to 0.18 ha h-1, and an operative production of 35 t h-1 about. Both machines have shown good quality of the work performed and the results obtained

  3. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the hot interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indebetouw, Remy

    I study the hot phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) in our Galaxy. The lithium-like ions of common metals are a powerful tracer of gas between the hot (106 K) and cooler (104 K) phases of the ISM, and are particularly sensitive to dynamical processes because gas at several 105 K cools very rapidly. These ions are usually produced in nonequilibrium processes such as shocks, evaporative interfaces, or rapidly cooling gas. There are two different approaches to studying the hot ISM via Li-like ions---analysis of the microphysics in a well-defined location in the Galaxy, and observation of a large part of the Galaxy searching for global trends. This thesis describes two experiments which follow these two approaches. Chapter 2 describes a sounding rocket experiment which could perform simultaneous ultra-high spectroscopy of C IV, N V, and O VI. In particular, it was to study the interface between the local bubble, a diffuse region of the Galaxy in which the Sun is located, and denser neighboring gas. I redesigned, integrated, and directed the flight of the payload, which in addition to its scientific goals was the first space demonstration of a low-order echelle spectrograph. Chapter 3 describes a survey of N V, O VI, and C IV in the Galactic halo using data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope. Searching for global trends, I found a general trend of higher ionization (lower N V/O VI column density ratio) at larger positive line-of-sight velocities. I modeled the various physical situations in which Li-like ions are produced, and found that the observed trend is qualitatively consistent with a cooling Galactic fountain flow which rises, cools, and recombines as it returns to the disk. The observed trend is also consistent with shocks moving towards the observer, and with observing through a conductive interface, looking from the hot gas into cooler gas. The latter geometry is consistent with the solar system being inside a hot

  4. Surface Polaritons in a Wire Medium with Spatial Dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zheng; GONG Qi-Huang

    2008-01-01

    The dispersion relations of the surface polariton in a semi-infinite wire medium with spatial dispersion are analysed.In comparison with the traditional spatial dispersive medium there only exists one branch instead of multibranch for the dispersion curve.The possibility of the experimentally observing the surface polaritons by attenuated total reflection is simulated numerically.

  5. Coupling of Elastic Isotropic Medium Parameters in Iterative Linearized Inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anikiev, D.V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Mulder, W.A.; Troyan, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    An elastic isotropic medium is described with three parameters. In seismic migration the perturbation of one elastic parameter affects the images of all the three, which means that these parameters are coupled. For an effective quantitative reconstruction of the true elastic medium reflectivity one

  6. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A common concern The outer environment At present,small and medium-sized enterprises are faced with many serious challenges.Since most of the large-sized enterprises ln China are state-owned ones,small and medium-sized enterprises in this article are referred mainly to those in the private sector.

  7. Pions in the nuclear medium and Drell-Yan scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Korpa, CL

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the modification of the pion cloud in the nuclear medium and its effect on the nuclear Drell-Yan process. The pion's in-medium self-energy is calculated in a self-consistent delta-hole model, with particle-hole contributions also included. Both the imaginary and real parts of the pion

  8. Analysis of the Medium Resistance for Constant Pressure Filtration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕翔; 王碧玉

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model for constant pressure filtration is established. The distribution of hydraulic pressure within the cake and the medium resistance are measured. The medium resistance Rm is calculated from the suppositional filtration time Ore. It is demonstrated that Rm is nearly a constant for a given filter cloth.

  9. A possible mechanism of current in medium under electromagnetic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a possible mechanism of current in medium is presented. Comparison between this current and the magnetization current was made. Expression for this current was derived. This work is helpful to understanding the interaction between medium and electromagnetic wave.

  10. Atomic decay near a quantized medium of absorbing scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; van Wonderen, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The decay of an excited atom in the presence of a medium that both scatters and absorbs radiation is studied with the help of a quantum-electrodynamical model. The medium is represented by a half-space filled with a randomly distributed set of non-overlapping spheres, which consist of a linear absor

  11. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  12. The use of medium-chain triglycerides in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Sulkers (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFor many years, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), with a chain length of eight and ten carbon atoms, have been included in preterm infant formulas. MCTs are manufactured by reesterification of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from coconut oil, and their intestil1al absorption is assumed

  13. The use of medium-chain triglycerides in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Sulkers (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFor many years, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), with a chain length of eight and ten carbon atoms, have been included in preterm infant formulas. MCTs are manufactured by reesterification of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from coconut oil, and their intestil1al absorption is assumed

  14. FORMATION OF INFORMATION SENSOR IMAGES OF INTELLIGENT VITA-MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a generalized approach to procedures of control and analysis of vita-medium properties when «the subjective sensor system» is used. The state of vita-medium is determined on the basis of the applied sources of expert assessments which reflect its properties in the natural language by means of aggregation of quantitative and qualitative features. Being so, a totality of information sensor images of vita-medium is formed, which represent a certain informational coherence and characterize vita-medium as a specific coherence.It is shown that the creation of information images is carried out according to the known principles of formalized subjective description of complex systems. Accordingly, the technology of formalized presentation of information flows and sensor images is considered in the process of vita-medium modeling with the use of categorical variables. Possible vita-medium structuring is shown at practically any complexity level with the aid of the following components: need; idea; resources; results; construction.Organization of data structures has been analyzed for formation of the intelligent vita-medium, and external, systematic and physical levels in the intelligent model base have been provided. A peculiarity of data is that in the vita-medium model it is relevant to certain material objects of the real world, to physical or informational processes. This provide data filling with the distinctive contents having the principal meaning for a set of functional tasks resolved in the intelligent model volume.

  15. Wave propagation in a strongly heterogeneous elastic porous medium: Homogenization of Biot medium with double porosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Eduard; Naili, Salah; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu

    2016-08-01

    We study wave propagation in an elastic porous medium saturated with a compressible Newtonian fluid. The porous network is interconnected whereby the pores are characterized by two very different characteristic sizes. At the mesoscopic scale, the medium is described using the Biot model, characterized by a high contrast in the hydraulic permeability and anisotropic elasticity, whereas the contrast in the Biot coupling coefficient is only moderate. Fluid motion is governed by the Darcy flow model extended by inertia terms and by the mass conservation equation. The homogenization method based on the asymptotic analysis is used to obtain a macroscopic model. To respect the high contrast in the material properties, they are scaled by the small parameter, which is involved in the asymptotic analysis and characterized by the size of the heterogeneities. Using the estimates of wavelengths in the double-porosity networks, it is shown that the macroscopic descriptions depend on the contrast in the static permeability associated with pores and micropores and on the frequency. Moreover, the microflow in the double porosity is responsible for fading memory effects via the macroscopic poroviscoelastic constitutive law. xml:lang="fr"

  16. System and method for treatment of a medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Acharya, Harish Radhakrishna; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-05-23

    A system and method for treatment of a medium is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of separator zones and a plurality of heat transfer zones. Each of the separator zone and the heat transfer zone among the plurality of separator zones and heat transfer zones respectively, are disposed alternatively in a flow duct. Further, each separator zone includes an injector device for injecting a sorbent into the corresponding separator zone. Within the corresponding separator zone, the injected sorbent is reacted with a gaseous medium flowing in the flow duct, so as to generate a reacted gaseous medium and a reacted sorbent. Further, each heat transfer zone exchanges heat between the reacted gaseous medium fed from the corresponding separator zone and a heat transfer medium.

  17. In-medium Properties of Hadrons - an Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Metag, Volker

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given over recent results on in-medium properties of hadrons, obtained in experiments with photon, proton and deuteron beams at ANKE, CBELSA/TAPS, Crystal Ball, HADES, and BigRIPS. These experiments focus on identifying spectral in-medium modifications of hadrons, frequently discussed in the context of a partial restoration of chiral symmetry at finite nuclear densities. Three experimental approaches are presented: the measurement of the transparency ratio, the meson line shape analysis, and the search for meson-nucleus bound states. Results for $\\omega,\\phi, $ and $ \\eta^\\prime$ mesons indicate a broadening in the nuclear medium. Corresponding inelastic in-medium meson-nucleon cross sections have been extracted. Evidence for an in-medium mass shift has not been reported. Further information on the meson-nucleus interaction is derived from a spectroscopy of meson-nucleus bound states. A critical comparison of the results with theoretical predictions is presented.

  18. Small and medium business in the contractual relationship system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obalyaeva Julia, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the role of small and medium business in the national economy. The comparative analysis of the indicators characterizing the development of small business in Russia, South Korea and France is given are compared. Two laws that support small and medium businesses in public purchasing. The author’s vision of the problems of development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation and specification of the path of the national economy development is presented. Two schemes, revealing the organization of interaction of large corporate sector and the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises in the system of contractual relations and analysis of internal and external factors in the development of small and medium-sized enterprises are presented. The experience of conducting digital auctions with participation of small businesses on an digital platform CJSC "Sberbank AST" is considered.

  19. RESEARCH ON DENSITY STABILITY OF AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆振福; 陈清如

    1994-01-01

    In this papcr on thc basis of studying the distribution of fine coal in the dense medium fluidized bed, the optimal size range of fine coal, which constitutes a fluidized bed together with the dense medium, has been found. In the separating process the fine coal will continuously accumulate in fluidized bed, thus inevitably reducing the density of the bed. In order to keep bed density stable, the authors adopted such measures as split-flow of used medium and complement of fresh dense medium. The experiment results in both lab and pilot systems of the air-dense medium fluidized bed show that these measures are effective and satisfactory. Then authors also have established some relative dynamic mathematical models for it.

  20. Propagation of Light in a Hot and Dense Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Photons, as quanta of electromagnetic fields, determine the electromagnetic properties of an extremely hot and dense medium. Considering the properties of photons in the interacting medium of charged particles, we explicitly calculate the electromagnetic properties such as the electric permittivity, magnetic permeability, refractive index and the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in extremely hot and dense background in cosmos. Photons acquire dynamically generated mass in a medium. The screening mass of photon, Debye shielding length and the plasma frequency are calculated as functions of statistical parameters of the medium. We study the properties of the propagating particles in astrophysical systems of distinct statistical conditions. The modifications in the medium properties lead to the equation of state of the system. We mainly calculate all these parameters for extremely high temperatures of the early universe.

  1. Dynamical Effects on Jet Energy Loss in QCD Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size dynamically screened QCD medium is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a theory which allows calculating, to first order in the number of scattering centers, the energy loss of a heavy quark traveling through a finite size dynamical QCD medium. We show that the result for a dynamical medium is significantly larger compared to a medium consisting of randomly distributed static scattering centers. Therefore, a quantitative description of jet suppression at RHIC and LHC experiments must correctly account for the dynamics of the medium's constituents. Furthermore, qualitative predictions that come from this energy loss formalism are also presented.

  2. Fracture Interface Waves in an Anisotropic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Shao, S.; Abell, B.

    2011-12-01

    The detection of fractures in an anisotropic medium is complicated by discreet modes that are guided or confined by fractures and that travel with velocities close (~92%) to the shear wave velocity. For instance, fractures can mask the presence of textural anisotropy in a rock, and can increase the apparent shear wave velocity anisotropy. In this study, we examine how fracture interface waves affect the interpretation of shear wave velocities for two orthogonal polarizations propagating parallel to the layers. Samples with textural anisotropy measuring 100 x 100 x 100 mm were fabricated from garolite, an epoxy - cloth laminate, with layer thickness on the order of 0.5 mm. Three fracture samples were created with: (1) a fracture oriented parallel to layering, (2) a fracture oriented perpendicular to layering, and (3) two intersecting orthogonal fractures. An intact sample without fractures was used a standard. A seismic array, consisting of source and receiver arrays, was used to perform full waveform measurements. Each array contained two compressional and five shear wave piezoelectric contact transducers with a central frequency of 1 MHz. Shear wave transducers were polarized both perpendicular and parallel to the layering as well as to the fracture. Measurements were made for a range of stresses (0.4 - 4MPa). When the shear wave was polarized parallel to a fracture, the shear wave traveled at the bulk shear velocity respective to the layering. However, when the shear wave was polarized perpendicular to a fracture, the measured velocity ranged between the Rayleigh wave velocity at low stress and the bulk shear wave at high stress. The shear wave velocities perpendicular and parallel to the layering (propagation direction parallel to the layers) were ~1500 m/s and ~1600 m/s, respectively, in the intact sample. However, in the fractured samples, the observed shear wave anisotropy depended on the stress and fracture orientation relative to the layering. When the

  3. Effects of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cel supernatant on differetiation of mononulear cel s from human umbilical cord blood%急性早幼粒白血病细胞培养上清液对人脐带血单个核细胞分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 方宁; 陈代雄

    2013-01-01

    目的白血病细胞能够通过自分泌方式分泌细胞因子而作用于自身,使细胞大量的增殖而不分化;白血病细胞所分泌的细胞因子也能作用于人脐带血(UCB)单个核细胞(MNCs)中的CD34+/CD133+细胞亚群使之增殖而抑制其分化。关于急性早幼粒白血病细胞(HL-60细胞)培养上清液能否使UCB- MNCs分化尚未见报道,本实验主要目的是观察HL-60细胞培养上清液对人UCB-MNCs分化的影响。方法实验分为①有HL-60细胞培养上清液+StemSpan® SFEM组;②StemSpan® SFEM组;③HL-60细胞培养上清液+高糖(HG)-DMEM组;④HG-DMEM组;⑤HL-60细胞培养上清液+低糖(LG)-DMEM组;⑥LG-DMEM组。收分离的人UCB-MNCs按2.5×106/瓶分别接种于6组培养液中,37℃,5%CO2,饱和湿度培养,于培养前和培养12天用流式细胞仪(FCM)分析表型CD34,CD90和CD166的变化。结果各实验组CD34,CD34/CD90和CD166阳性细胞百分比均较培养前升高。结论%Objective:Leukemic cel s can excrete cytokines by an autocrine way, which contribute to its large-scale proliferation, and the cytokines may also contribute to the proliferations of CD34+/CD133+ subpopulation of UCB-MNCs too. To the effect of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cel supernatant on the differentiation of UCB-MNCs, there is not related report so far. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of HL-60 cel supernatant on differentiations of mononuclear cel s from human umbilical cord blood. Methods:Six various cultural system are listed as fol ows: ① HL-60 cel supernatant+ StemSpan–SFEM; ② StemSpan–SFEM; ③ HL-60 cel supernatant+ HG-DMEM; ④ HG-DMEM; ⑤HL-60 cel supernatant LG-DMEM; ⑥ LG-DMEM. 2.50×106 of UCB-MNCs per bottle with the above each cultural system is incubated at 37℃ in a 5%CO2, saturation humidity of incubator, the changes of phenotype of CD34,CD90 and CD166 analyzed by FCM after 12 days. Results: Positive cel s with CD34+, CD166+ and CD34+/CD

  4. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of English-Medium and Turkish-Medium Accounting Education: Gazi University Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaif, Figen; Karapinar, Aydin; Yangin Eksi, Gonca

    2017-01-01

    The authors explore the effect of medium of instruction on students' attainments at a large state university in Turkey in the Department of Business Administration. The findings indicate no statistically significant difference in grades of 386 students with respect to medium of instruction. As for entry rankings however, those in the…

  5. Reading Habits of the Students with Bengali Medium Background at the English Medium Private Universities in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Md. Golam Hoshain; Mahmud, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates into the reading habits of the English medium private university students with Bengali medium background. It analyses the realities in the context, which are both nurturing the old and shaping new reading habits of the students. The data gathered by means of interview schedule have been analyzed both quantitatively and…

  6. Differentiation efficiency of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocytes under two kinds of liver homogenate supernatants: a comparative study%两种肝组织匀浆上清液诱导人脐带间充质干细胞向肝细胞分化的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫成; 薛改; 吴丽颖; 刘建芳; 侯艳宁

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that normal rat liver homogenate supernatant can induce human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cels to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cels with partial hepatocyte functions. However, whether fibrotic liver homogenate supernatant can work or how the inducing effect is remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the differentiation potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cels into hepatocytes under the normal liver and fibrotic liver microenvironment in vitro. METHODS:Liver fibrosis was induced in the SD rats by repeated intraperitoneal injections of 3% thioacetamide at a dose of 200 mg/kg body mass, twice a week for 4 weeks, and then fibrotic liver tissues and normal liver tissues were used to prepare liver homogenate supernatants. Passage 3 human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cels were used and divided into standard control group (cels were cultured in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum), fibrotic liver homogenate supernatants group (cels were cultured in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum and 50 g/L fibrotic liver homogenate supernatants), normal liver homogenate supernatants group (cels were cultured in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum and 100 g/L normal liver homogenate supernatants). The morphological changes of the cels in each group were recorded under inverted microscope; the protein levels of CK18, AFP, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6 and TPH2 were evaluated using western blot assay. Furthermore, the concentration of albumin in the cels was measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After a 7-day inducement, the stem cels in liver homogenate supernatants groups lost their fusiform shape and changed into hepatocyte-like cels with the morphous of round shape. Compared with the standard control group, the hepatocyte-like cels in the two liver homogenate supernatants groups exhibited human hepatocyte biomarkers, CK18 and AFP. The standard control group cels could express a little amount of CYP2E1, while cels in

  7. MEDIUM-FORMAT CAMERAS AND THEIR USE IN TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Höhle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on practical experiences with large-format aerial cameras the impact of new medium-format digital cameras on topographic mapping tasks is discussed. Two new medium-format cameras are investigated with respect to elevation accuracy, area coverage and image quality. The produced graphs and tables show the potential of these cameras for general mapping tasks. Special attention is given to the image quality of the selected cameras. Applications for the medium-format cameras are discussed. The necessary tools for selected applications are described. The impact of sensors for georeferencing, multi-spectral images, and new matching algo-rithms is also dealt with. Practical investigations are carried out for the production of digital elevation models. A comparison with large-format frame cameras is carried out. It is concluded that the medium-format cameras have a potential for mapping of smaller areas and will be used in future in true orthoimage production, corridor mapping, and updating of maps. Their small dimensions and low weight allow installation in small airplanes, helicopters, and high-end UAVs. The two investigated medium-format cameras are low-cost alternatives for standard mapping tasks and special applications. The detection of changes in topographic databases and DTMs can be carried out by means of those medium-format cameras which can image the same area in four bands of the visible and invisible spectrum of light. Medium-format cameras will play an important role in future mapping tasks.

  8. Isolated Cells of Porphyra yezoensis Cultured on Solid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颂东; 戴继勋

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative cells of Porphyra yezoensis are isolated with sea snail enzyme and cultured on the solidified agar medium. The results of experiments show that the isolated cells can survive,divide and regenerate well on the medium solidified with agar. The first division on the solid medium starts after 7 days' culture, 4 days later than the liquid culture. The survival rate of isolated cells is 71.3% on the solid medium, lower than the 86.2% of that in seawater.Thalli, thalloids,conchocelis, spermatangia and multicellular masses are developed on the solid/medium in the first month, slowly but normally. Spermatangia sacs disappear within 4 weeks. Without adding nutrient liquid onto the surface of solid medium or injecting seawater under the agar layer in order to keep moisture, the thalli and cell groups release monospores to form new thalli instead of enlarging their areas after 5 weeks' culturing. Some monospores regenerate new thalli. Other monospores lose their pigments and minimize their volume and divide quickly to form light pink calli. After 16 weeks, numerous calli can be seen on the solid medium and after 24 weeks' culturing, almost only calli and conchocelis can be seen. If the calli are immersed in seawater, the monospores are released and may develop into young thallus.

  9. The Distribution of Pressures in a Supernova-Driven Interstellar Medium. I. Magnetized Medium

    CERN Document Server

    MacLow, M M; Kim, J; Avillez, M A; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Kim, Jongsoo; Avillez, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    Observations have suggested substantial departures from pressure equilibrium in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the plane of the Galaxy, even on scales under 50 pc. Nevertheless, multi-phase models of the ISM assume at least locally isobaric gas. The pressure then determines the density reached by gas cooling to stable thermal equilibrium. We use numerical models of the magnetized ISM to examine the consequences of supernova driving for interstellar pressures. In this paper we examine a (200 pc)^3 periodic domain threaded by magnetic fields. Individual parcels of gas at different pressures reach widely varying points on the thermal equilibrium curve: no unique set of phases is found, but rather a dynamically-determined continuum of densities and temperatures. A substantial fraction of the gas remains entirely out of thermal equilibrium. Our results appear consistent with observations of interstellar pressures. They also suggest that the high pressures observed in molecular clouds may be due to ram pressures ...

  10. The Quiet Rise of Medium-Scale Farms in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Anseeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-scale farms have become a major force in Malawi’s agricultural sector. Malawi’s most recent official agricultural survey indicates that these account for over a quarter of all land under cultivation in Malawi. This study explores the causes and multifaceted consequences of the rising importance of medium-scale farms in Malawi. We identify the characteristics and pathways of entry into farming based on surveys of 300 medium-scale farmers undertaken in 2014 in the districts of Mchinji, Kasungu and Lilongwe. The area of land acquired by medium-scale farmers in these three districts is found to have almost doubled between 2000 and 2015. Just over half of the medium-scale farmers represent cases of successful expansion out of small-scale farming status; the other significant proportion of medium-scale farmers are found to be urban-based professionals, entrepreneurs and/or civil servants who acquired land, some very recently, and started farming in mid-life. We also find that a significant portion of the land acquired by medium-scale farmers was utilized by others prior to acquisition, that most of the acquired land was under customary tenure, and that the current owners were often successful in transferring the ownership structure of the acquired land to a long-term leaseholding with a title deed. The study finds that, instead of just strong endogenous growth of small-scale famers as a route for the emergence of medium-scale farms, significant farm consolidation is occurring through land acquisitions, often by urban-based people. The effects of farmland acquisitions by domestic investors on the country’s primary development goals, such as food security, poverty reduction and employment, are not yet clear, though some trends appear to be emerging. We consider future research questions that may more fully shed light on the implications of policies that would continue to promote land acquisitions by medium-scale farms.

  11. Quantization of the radiation field in an anisotropic dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Liu Shi-Bing; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.

  12. Highly-Efficient and Modular Medium-Voltage Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Highly-Efficient and Modula Medium -Voltage Converters 6. AUTHOR(S) Maryam Saeedifard 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIC i NAME(S...realization of highly efficient, modular medium - voltage dc-ac and dc-dc energy conversion systems by development of new control strategies that improve the...Z39.18 a 01^ 100(0^5 Final Report for Grant N00014-14-1-0615 Highly-Efficient and Modular Medium -Voltage Converters Lead Organization: Georgia Tech

  13. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-06-15

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium.

  14. Boolean Differentiation Equations Applicable in Reconfigurable Computational Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidlovskiy Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing environment synthesis with parallel architecture reconstructing throughout the process itself is described. Synthesized computational medium involving Boolean differential equation calculations so as to function in real-time image processing. Automaton imaging was illustrated involving the rearrangement of every processing medium element to calculate the partial differentials of n-th order in respect to Boolean function variables. The method of obtaining setting codes for each element was also described. An example in calculating 2nd -order Boolean derivative to two differentials in respect to Boolean functions, depending on three arguments within the reconstructible computational medium of 8×8 processing elements was given.

  15. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J. S.; Shen, H.

    2013-09-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in Λ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the Λ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and Λ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  16. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  17. Hadron spectrum and hadrons in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    Some recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a medium are presented. Unitary schemes based on chiral Lagrangians describe some hadronic states as being dynamically generated resonances. We discuss how standard quantum many body techniques can be used to calculate the properties of these dynamically generated and other hadrons in the nuclear medium. We present some results for vector mesons ($\\rho$ and $\\phi$), scalar mesons ($\\sigma$, $\\kappa$, $a_0(980)$, $f_0(980)$), the $\\Lambda(1520)$ and for the in-medium baryon-baryon interaction.

  18. Seismic exploration of layered mediums. Seysmorazvedka sloistykh sred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riznichenko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics and parameters of the wave process in real (discontinuous and heterogeneous) mediums are examined in order to find the optimal ways to process and interpret data from seismic exploration. The fundamentals of geometric seismic studies of layered medium are presented, along with a theory of a method of time fields for solving the developed problems of seismic exploration by reflected and refracted waves. Methods for converting complex medium and the dynamics of seismic fields and the separation of the effects of divergence and absorption of waves are also presented.

  19. Control of superluminal transit through a heterogeneous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, M; Rao, V S C Manga; Gupta, S Dutta

    2004-01-01

    We consider pulse propagation through a two component composite medium (metal inclusions in a dielectric host) with or without cavity mirrors. We show that a very thin slab of such a medium, under conditions of localized plasmon resonance, can lead to significant superluminality with detectable levels of transmitted pulse. A cavity containing the heterogeneous medium is shown to lead to subluminal-to-superluminal transmission depending on the volume fraction of the metal inclusions. The predictions of phase time calculations are verified by explicit calculations of the transmitted pulse shapes. We also demonstrate the independence of the phase time on system width and the volume fraction under specific conditions.

  20. Aneurysms of medium-sized arteries in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Mazen; Williams, David M; Deeb, G Michael; Shea, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Marfan syndrome is a relatively common connective tissue disorder that causes skin, ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular abnormalities. High morbidity and mortality occur with aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other large-artery aneurysms, including carotid, subclavian, and iliac artery aneurysms, have also been associated with Marfan syndrome. It is not clear whether small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms are associated with Marfan syndrome. This report describes 4 patients with Marfan syndrome who have associated small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms with several complications. Additional investigations are needed to determine whether Marfan syndrome can cause small- to medium-sized artery aneurysms and how patients with these aneurysms should be treated.

  1. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, J S

    2013-01-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the $\\Lambda$ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  2. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  3. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066

  4. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M D Sharma; Neetu Garg

    2006-04-01

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase velocities.These derivatives are,further,used to calculate the group velocities and ray directions of the three quasi-waves in a pre-stressed anisotropic medium.Effect of initial stress on wave propagation is observed through the deviations in phase velocity,group velocity and ray direction for each of the quasi-waves.The variations of these deviations with the phase direction are plotted for a numerical model of general anisotropic medium with triclinic/ monoclinic/orthorhombic symmetry.

  5. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldip Singh; Dinesh Kumar Madan; Anita Goel; Nat Ram Garg

    2005-08-01

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular case of a normal line-load acting inside an orthotropic elastic half-space has been considered in detail and closed form expressions for the displacements and stresses are obtained. Further, the results for the displacements for a transversely isotropic as well as for an isotropic medium have also been derived in the closed form. The use of matrix notation is straightforward and avoids unwieldy mathematical expressions. To examine the effect of anisotropy, variations of dimensionless displacements for an orthotropic, transversely isotropic and isotropic elastic medium have been compared numerically and it is found that anisotropy affects the deformation significantly.

  6. RSW Mixed Element Cell-Centered Medium Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This RSW gridset is designed as the medium size mixed element grid for use with cell-centered unstructured meshes. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_med_mixedcc.b8.ugrid...

  7. RSW Fully Tet Medium Cell-Centered Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Fully tetrahedral medium cell-centered unstructured grid with a viscous wall. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_med_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces=...

  8. Defining Small and Medium Enterprises: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentrit Berisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The OECD estimates that small and medium enterprises account for 90% of firms and employ 63% of the workforce in the world (Munro: 2013. Small and medium enterprises account for that amount of businesses thatit is senseless the arbitrariness with which they are defined. Language mainly used for definition is numbers, but it is difficult to find two institutions, statistical agencies or countries who speak the same language in terms of small and medium enterprises. Academics, authors, policy makers apply SMEdefinitions in terms of dichotomy between universality and standardization of a unique definition and relativity and sectored specialization. Although qualitative criteria-characteristics of SMEs easily distinguish them from large businesses, quantitative criteria are mainlyused for their dimensional classification. This paper deals with a critical approachto the definition of small and medium enterprises, inconsistencies in criteria and various proposed approaches to the definition towards universal acceptance.

  9. Medium-term carbohydrate tolerance improves and then ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in pregnancy in the African, an observation at variance with general teaching. ... changes in Glycoted Plasma Proteins (GPP) as a surrogate for medium-term ... Keywords: Pregnancy, Carbohydrate intolerance, Glycated plasma proteins, ...

  10. Fem Formulation of Heat Transfer in Cylindrical Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem; Khaleed, H. M. T.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer in porous medium can be derived from the fundamental laws of flow in porous region ass given by Henry Darcy. The fluid flow and energy transport inside the porous medium can be described with the help of momentum and energy equations. The heat transfer in cylindrical porous medium differs from its counterpart in radial and axial coordinates. The present work is focused to discuss the finite element formulation of heat transfer in cylindrical porous medium. The basic partial differential equations are derived using Darcy law which is the converted into a set of algebraic equations with the help of finite element method. The resulting equations are solved by matrix method for two solution variables involved in the coupled equations.

  11. Multiphase turbulent interstellar medium: some recent results from radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at d...

  12. Optimal Medium Access Protocols for Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Jiang, Hai; Poor, H Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of medium access control protocols for cognitive radio networks. The scenario in which a single cognitive user wishes to opportunistically exploit the availability of empty frequency bands within parts of the radio spectrum having multiple bands is first considered. In this scenario, the availability probability of each channel is unknown a priori to the cognitive user. Hence efficient medium access strategies must strike a balance between exploring (learning) the availability probability of the channels and exploiting the knowledge of the availability probability identified thus far. For this scenario, an optimal medium access strategy is derived and its underlying recursive structure is illustrated via examples. To avoid the prohibitive computational complexity of this optimal strategy, a low complexity asymptotically optimal strategy is developed. Next, the multi-cognitive user scenario is considered and low complexity medium access protocols, which strike an optimal balanc...

  13. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS FROM VASLUI, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu DUTA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of market economy requires issues to improve the business environment and stimulate small and medium enterprise (SME in crisis and need recovery of investment in Vaslui, Romania

  14. Neutrino oscillations in medium with periodic square potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarian, N A

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated two flavor neutrino oscillations in medium with periodic step electron number density profile. An approximate analytical solution have been found when the length of the density fluctuation is smaller then the neutrino oscillation length.

  15. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  16. Culture medium optimization for pigment production with RSM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for a red-pigmented marine bacterium S-9801 strain (Flavobacterium sp.). In the first optimization step the influence of yeast extract, peptone, glucose and sodium chloride on pigment production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Pigment production was positively influenced by glucose and sodium chloride while other components had no significant effect. In the second step the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentration of glucose and sodium chloride was determined by a central composite design and response analysis. The optimized medium allowed pigment production (A 535~650) to be increased from 0.137 to0.559, being 320% higher than the original medium.

  17. Hydrodynamical interaction of mildly relativistic ejecta with an ambient medium

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamical interaction of spherical ejecta freely expanding at mildly relativistic speeds into an ambient cold medium is studied in semi-analytical and numerical ways to investigate how ejecta produced in energetic stellar explosions dissipate their kinetic energy through the interaction with the surrounding medium. We especially focus on the case in which the circumstellar medium is well represented by a steady wind at a constant mass-loss rate having been ejected from the stellar surface prior to the explosion. As a result of the hydrodynamical interaction, the ejecta and circumstellar medium are swept by the reverse and forward shocks, leading to the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We present a semi-analytical model describing the dynamical evolution of the shell and compare the results with numerical simulations. The shell can give rise to bright emission as it gradually becomes transparent to photons. while it is optically thick. We develop an emission model for the expected emission from th...

  18. De zuigkracht van het medium. Historici als televisiedeskundigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Tollebeek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Jo Tollebeek, The power of attraction of the medium. Historians as experts on television.Dutch historians have a long tradition of appearing as experts on television. However, the shape that this 'tele-expertise' has taken has varied greatly since the growth of the medium began in thel950s. Initially, historians presented themselves as authoritative figures who were not afraid to hand down moral judgements on the issues they were discussing. Later on, theyadopted a more reticent approach and strove to project their expertise on the screen in a more businesslike, impartial way. However, developments in this medium forced historians further onto the defensive: as TV experts the historians were in danger of being perceived as 'imagedistorters', rather than as an asset. Only those who succeeded in adapting to the laws of the medium managed to become true 'television personalities'. It was a long haul to get from Lou de Jong to Maarten van Rossem.

  19. Waves in a Uniform Medium: Arbitrary Angle of Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 23, we showed that in an infinite, uniform medium, the solutions of the ideal MHD wave equation could be decomposed into plane wave solutions ξ _{{k}} e^{i(k \\cdot r + ω _k t)} that satisfy.

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  1. Optimization of fermentation medium for nisin production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    production from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis using ... the optimal medium obtained by ANN-GA was located at the verge of the test region, a further Box- ...... Lactococcus lactis in fed-batch culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 68: 322-. 326.

  2. A Conditioned Medium of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Wnt7a Promotes Wound Repair and Regeneration of Hair Follicles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can affect the microenvironment of a wound and thereby accelerate wound healing. Wnt proteins act as key mediators of skin development and participate in the formation of skin appendages such as hair. The mechanisms of action of MSCs and Wnt proteins on skin wounds are largely unknown. Here, we prepared a Wnt7a-containing conditioned medium (Wnt-CM from the supernatant of cultured human umbilical cord-MSCs (UC-MSCs overexpressing Wnt7a in order to examine the effects of this CM on cutaneous healing. Our results revealed that Wnt-CM can accelerate wound closure and induce regeneration of hair follicles. Meanwhile, Wnt-CM enhanced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM components and cell migration of fibroblasts but inhibited the migratory ability and expression of K6 and K16 in keratinocytes by enhancing expression of c-Myc. However, we found that the CM of fibroblasts treated with Wnt-CM (HFWnt-CM-CM can also promote wound repair and keratinocyte migration; but there was no increase in the number of hair follicles of regeneration. These data indicate that Wnt7a and UC-MSCs have synergistic effects: they can accelerate wound repair and induce hair regeneration via cellular communication in the wound microenvironment. Thus, this study opens up new avenues of research on the mechanisms underlying wound repair.

  3. A Conditioned Medium of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing Wnt7a Promotes Wound Repair and Regeneration of Hair Follicles in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hao, Haojie; Liu, Jiejie; Ti, Dongdong; Tong, Chuan; Hou, Qian; Li, Meirong; Zheng, Jingxi; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect the microenvironment of a wound and thereby accelerate wound healing. Wnt proteins act as key mediators of skin development and participate in the formation of skin appendages such as hair. The mechanisms of action of MSCs and Wnt proteins on skin wounds are largely unknown. Here, we prepared a Wnt7a-containing conditioned medium (Wnt-CM) from the supernatant of cultured human umbilical cord-MSCs (UC-MSCs) overexpressing Wnt7a in order to examine the effects of this CM on cutaneous healing. Our results revealed that Wnt-CM can accelerate wound closure and induce regeneration of hair follicles. Meanwhile, Wnt-CM enhanced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell migration of fibroblasts but inhibited the migratory ability and expression of K6 and K16 in keratinocytes by enhancing expression of c-Myc. However, we found that the CM of fibroblasts treated with Wnt-CM (HFWnt-CM-CM) can also promote wound repair and keratinocyte migration; but there was no increase in the number of hair follicles of regeneration. These data indicate that Wnt7a and UC-MSCs have synergistic effects: they can accelerate wound repair and induce hair regeneration via cellular communication in the wound microenvironment. Thus, this study opens up new avenues of research on the mechanisms underlying wound repair.

  4. Marketing legal services to medium-sized companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines marketing and buying of legal services in the context of medium-sized companies from theoretical and empirical perspectives. The theoretical foundations for the market of legal services are laid by studying the particularities of services and their intrinsic challenges for marketing. Different ways to segment the legal market are examined, including client-led segmentation, which includes segmentation by client size, such as medium-sized companies. After studying the theo...

  5. Electromagnetic Radiation in a Uniformly Moving, Homogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1972-01-01

    A new method of treating radiation problems in a uniformly moving, homogeneous medium is presented. A certain transformation technique in connection with the four-dimensional Green's function method makes it possible to elaborate the Green's functions of the governing differential equations in th...... in the rest system of the medium, whereas the final integrals determining the field may be calculated in the rest system of the source. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics...

  6. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Li; Haifei Zhuang; Weihao Geng

    2012-01-01

    The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the sh...

  7. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  8. Marketing legal services to medium-sized companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, S

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines marketing and buying of legal services in the context of medium-sized companies from theoretical and empirical perspectives. The theoretical foundations for the market of legal services are laid by studying the particularities of services and their intrinsic challenges for marketing. Different ways to segment the legal market are examined, including client-led segmentation, which includes segmentation by client size, such as medium-sized companies. After studying the theo...

  9. Electromagnetic Scattering in a Two-layered Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG LI-XIN; LI YUAN; Ma Fu-ming

    2011-01-01

    The object of this paper is to investigate the three-dimensional electro-magnetic scattering problems in a two-layered background medium.These problems have an important application in today's technology,such as to detect objects that are buried in soil.Here,we model both the exterior impedance problem and the inhomogeneous medium problem in R3.We establish uniqueness and existence for the solution of the two scattering problems,respectively.

  10. Remote measurements of electro-physical parameters of layer mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Vladimir T.; Dmitriev, Vladimir A.; Lobatch, Yaroslav V.

    1999-07-01

    The paper deals with the problem of measuring electrical and geometrical parameters of the layer medium. The measurements are based on the control of radio wave reflection coefficient as a function of frequency. Based on solution of the system of transcendental equations for reflection coefficient such parameters of the homogeneous layer medium as complex dielectric permeability, depth of the layer and complex dielectric permeability of the lower homogeneous hemispace.

  11. The use of medium-chain triglycerides in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sulkers, Eric

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFor many years, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), with a chain length of eight and ten carbon atoms, have been included in preterm infant formulas. MCTs are manufactured by reesterification of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from coconut oil, and their intestil1al absorption is assumed to be nearly complete, in contrast with "regular" long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). There is however no consensus on the exact benefit of their routine use in the preterm neonate

  12. Acoustic Radiation from Transducer in Semi-infinite Fluid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    IIIII v 841087 121CilN ACOUSTIC RADIATION F~ TRANSDUCER IN SFMI-INFINITE FLUID MEDIUM Date: June 19, 1984 Prepared by: Jay ant S. Patel...1. REPORT DATE 19 JUN 1984 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Memo 3. DATES COVERED 19-06-1984 to 19-06-1984 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acoustic Radiation ...Technical Menorandum TM No. 841087 ACOUSTIC RADIATION FROM TRANSOOCER IN SEMI-INFINITE FliJID MEDIUM Date: June 19, 1984 Prepared by: Jayant s. Patel

  13. Medium Modification of Hadronic Interactions from Low Energy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.

    Medium-modification of hadronic interactions is defined as the differences between hadron-hadron interaction in the nuclear medium and the corresponding interaction in free space. Deeply penetrating hadrons provide such information and we discuss here pionic atoms and scattering by nuclei of 21.5 MeV pions. Brief mention is made also of the interaction of 500-700 MeV/c K+ with nuclei.

  14. Density distribution in a heavy-medium cyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuling; Zhao Yuemin; Yang Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-medium cyclones are widely used to upgrade run-of-mine coal. But the understanding of flow in a cyclone containing a dense medium is still incomplete. By introducing turbulent diffusion into calculations of centrifugal settling a theoretical distribution function giving the density field can be deduced. Qualitative analysis of the density field in every part of a cylindrical cyclone suggests an optimum design that has exhibited good separation effectiveness and anti-wear performance when in commercial operation.

  15. Redshift and Blueshift are due to the Medium Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2017-01-01

    The redshift is the shift from shorter wavelengths towards longer wavelengths [or from higher wave frequency to lower wave frequency]. And, reciprocally, the blueshift is the shift from longer wavelengths towards shorter wavelengths [or from lower wave frequency towards higher wave frequency]. The General Theory of Relativity asserts that the redshift and blueshift are entirely due to the Doppler's Effect, which is caused by the motion of light source: if the source is moving away from the observer the frequency received is lower [redshift], but if the source is moving towards the observer the frequency received is higher [blueshift]. But Doppler's Effect itself is actually an appearance to a Subjective Observer, because the frequency is the same all over (if one considers the Absolute Observer). We believe that the redshift and blueshift are not entirely due to the Doppler's Effect, but also due (as in the light bending) to the medium composition (medium that could be formed by waves, particles, plasma, dust, gaseous, fluids, solids, etc.), to the medium density, to the medium heterogeneity, to the medium structure, and to the electromagnetic and gravitational fields contained in that medium that may interfere with the light that passes through.

  16. Boric acid-enhanced embedding medium for cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-05-01

    A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based resin is commonly used as a cryoembedding medium for the histological analysis of frozen tissue sections. However, it is not easy to obtain sufficient numbers of satisfactory reproducible sections owing to the differences between the mechanical properties of the medium and embedded tissue and the low cohesive force of the medium. We describe a modified PVA-based cryoembedding medium, composed of PVA (10wt% and 15wt%) with the addition of boric acid (from 0 to 5wt%), that can improve the sectioning properties and efficiency of frozen tissue for histological analysis. The amount of load under the same compressive displacement as well as cohesive force increased with increasing boric acid and PVA contents. 15wt% PVA and 3wt% boric acid was determined as an optimal composition for cryoembedding material based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices and the amount of load under the same compressive displacement test. On the basis of the results of routine hematoxylin and eosin staining of cryosections of tissue embedded in a medium with 3wt% boric acid and PVA, it was concluded that the modified PVA cryoembedding medium can improve the efficiency of cryosectioning for subsequent histological or histochemical analysis of various tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, Donald W.; Minkoff, Susan E.

    2009-06-01

    Using an asymptotic methodology, including an expansion in inverse powers of {radical}{omega}, where {omega} is the frequency, we derive a solution for flow in a medium with pressure dependent properties. The solution is valid for a heterogeneous medium with smoothly varying properties. That is, the scale length of the heterogeneity must be significantly larger then the scale length over which the pressure increases from it initial value to its peak value. The resulting asymptotic expression is similar in form to the solution for pressure in a medium in which the flow properties are not functions of pressure. Both the expression for pseudo-phase, which is related to the 'travel time' of the transient pressure disturbance, and the expression for pressure amplitude contain modifications due to the pressure dependence of the medium. We apply the method to synthetic and observed pressure variations in a deforming medium. In the synthetic test we model one-dimensional propagation in a pressure-dependent medium. Comparisons with both an analytic self-similar solution and the results of a numerical simulation indicate general agreement. Furthermore, we are able to match pressure variations observed during a pulse test at the Coaraze Laboratory site in France.

  18. Effects of LPS-stimulated monocyte culture supernatant on the osteogenic function of osteoblastic cells in vitro%脂多糖刺激单核巨噬细胞培养上清液对成骨细胞成骨特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 邓辉; 徐春燕; 叶洁; 胡荣党

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨建立牙周炎症的体外实验模型的可行性,为后续进行牙周炎症状态下应力对牙槽骨改建的研究奠定基础.方法 以牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,P.g)脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)Pg-LPS刺激小鼠单核巨噬细胞(RAW264.7)的培养上清液作用于体外培养的小鼠成骨细胞(MC3T3-E1)24 h和48 h后,分别通过噻唑蓝(MTT)法和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)试剂盒检测MC3T3-E1的增殖活性和碱性磷酸酶活性,观察脂多糖刺激的小鼠单核巨噬细胞培养上清液对小鼠成骨细胞成骨功能的影响.结果 Pg-LPS刺激RAW264.7后其上清液含L-1β、IL-6 和TNF-α等炎症因子,且与LPS的浓度和刺激时间呈依赖性.此上清液对MC3T3-E1的增殖和ALP活性均有抑制作用,亦与上清液中以上炎症因子的浓度呈依赖性,与体内牙周炎症状态相似.结论 Pg-LPS体外刺激RAW264.7的培养上清液可以应用于建立体外牙周炎症模型,这将为后续研究牙周炎症状态下应力对牙槽骨改建的影响奠定初步的基础.%Objective To investigate the influence of Pg-LPS stimulated monocyte (RAW264.7) culture supernatant on the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. Methods The culture supernatant of monocytes stimulated with Pg-LPS was applied to osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 with different diluted concentrations(10%、20%、30%、40% and 50%) simultaneously for 24 h and 48 h in vitro.The cellular proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, Cellular ALP activity was examined using ALP measurement kit, and the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software package. Results LPS stimulated RAW264.7 to release inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, whose secretion was in a time and dose dependent manner with the concentration of LPS. After the stimulation of different concentrations of inflammatory supernatant, the proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-El

  19. Choice of Scottish Gaelic-Medium and Welsh-Medium Education at the Primary and Secondary School Stages: Parent and Pupil Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the reasons for parental choice of Scottish Gaelic-medium and Welsh-medium primary education in the year 2000 and of the reasons for pupils' decisions to continue with Gaelic or Welsh-medium education at secondary school in 2007. Parents in both contexts cited the quality of Celtic-medium education…

  20. Choice of Scottish Gaelic-Medium and Welsh-Medium Education at the Primary and Secondary School Stages: Parent and Pupil Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the reasons for parental choice of Scottish Gaelic-medium and Welsh-medium primary education in the year 2000 and of the reasons for pupils' decisions to continue with Gaelic or Welsh-medium education at secondary school in 2007. Parents in both contexts cited the quality of Celtic-medium education…