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Sample records for supernatant decreased significantly

  1. Experimental prestorage filtration removes antibodies and decreases lipids in RBC supernatants mitigating TRALI in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Christopher C; Kelher, Marguerite R; Khan, Samina Y; LaSarre, Monica; West, F Bernadette; Land, Kevin J; Mish, Barbara; Ceriano, Linda; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a significant cause of transfusion-related mortality with red cell transfusion. We hypothesize that prestorage filtration may reduce proinflammatory activity in the red blood cell (RBC) supernatant and prevent TRALI. Filters were manufactured for both small volumes and RBC units. Plasma containing antibodies to human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 or human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a was filtered, and immunoglobulins and specific HNA-3a and HLA-2a neutrophil (PMN) priming activity were measured. Antibodies to OX27 were added to plasma, and filtration was evaluated in a 2-event animal model of TRALI. RBC units from 31 donors known to have antibodies against HLA antigens and from 16 antibody-negative controls were filtered. Furthermore, 4 RBC units were drawn and underwent standard leukoreduction. Immunoglobulins, HLA antibodies, PMN priming activity, and the ability to induce TRALI in an animal model were measured. Small-volume filtration of plasma removed >96% of IgG, antibodies to HLA-A2 and HNA-3a, and their respective priming activity, as well as mitigating antibody-mediated in vivo TRALI. In RBC units, experimental filtration removed antibodies to HLA antigens and inhibited the accumulation of lipid priming activity and lipid-mediated TRALI. We conclude that filtration removes proinflammatory activity and the ability to induce TRALI from RBCs and may represent a TRALI mitigation step.

  2. Cell-free supernatants from probiotic Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decrease colon cancer cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Juanita; Lane, Michelle A; Maitin, Vatsala

    2012-08-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative role in colorectal carcinogenesis but research concerning their prophylactic potential in the later stages of colorectal cancer, specifically metastasis is limited. This study explored the potential of cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 2 probiotic Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, to inhibit colon cancer cell invasion by influencing matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and levels of the tight junction protein zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) in cultured metastatic human colorectal carcinoma cells. HCT-116 cells were treated with CFS from L. casei, L. rhamnosus, or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (a gut commensal); or with uninoculated bacterial growth media. Treatment with CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased colorectal cell invasion but treatment with CFS from B. thetaiotaomicron did not. CFS from both Lactobacillus sp. decreased MMP-9 and increased ZO-1 protein levels. L. rhamnosus CFS also lowered MMP-9 activity. To begin elucidating the secreted bacterial factor conveying these responses, Lactobacillus sp. CFS were fractionated into defined molecular weight ranges and cell invasion assessed. Fractionation revealed that the inhibitory activity was contained primarily in the >100 kDa and 50-100 kDa fractions, suggesting the inhibitory compound may be a macromolecule such as a protein, nucleic acid, or a polysaccharide.

  3. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro

  4. Comprehensive supernatant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task involves testing of sorbent materials for removing cesium, strontium, and technetium from the saline solutions in DOE storage tank supernatant at Oak Ridge and other sites. Staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are recovering and treating the liquid (supernatant) portions of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste in a hot cell to separate and remove the radionuclides. Batch tests will be used to evaluate and select the most promising materials for supernatant treatment to reduce the amount of waste for final disposal. Small column tests will be made on selected sorbents to verify the batch data and to obtain additional data for process design. Efforts will be made to obtain samples of tank supernatant from Hanford for comparison.

  5. Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects pseudophakic photopic luminance contrast, photopic S-cone foveal threshold, mesopic contrast acuity, scotopic short-wavelength sensitivity and circadian photoreception. Yellow IOL chromophores provide no tangible clinical benefits in exchange for the photoreception losses they cause. They fail to decrease disability glare or improve contrast sensitivity. Most epidemiological evidence shows that environmental light exposure and cataract surgery are not significant risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not evidence-based medicine. Most AMD occurs in phakic adults over 60 years of age, despite crystalline lens photoprotection far greater than that of blue-blocking IOLs. Therefore, if light does play some role in the pathogenesis of AMD, then 1) senescent crystalline lenses do not prevent it, so neither can blue-blocking IOLs that offer far less photoprotection, and 2) all pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments. Pseudophakes have the freedom to remove their sunglasses for optimal photoreception whenever they choose to do so, provided that they are not encumbered permanently by yellow IOL chromophores. In essence, yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. If yellow IOLs had been the standard of care, then colorless UV-blocking IOLs could be advocated now as "premium" IOLs because they offer dim light and circadian photoreception roughly 15

  6. Early stationary phase culture supernatant accelerates growth of sputum cultures collected after initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwijck, E; Friedrich, S O; Karinja, M N; van Ingen, J; Warren, R M; Diacon, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture supernatant added to sputum cultures collected during the first 8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment. With ongoing treatment duration, time to culture positivity decreased significantly in supernatant-enriched cultures, possibly due to stimulation of dormant or slowly metabolizing M. tuberculosis cells.

  7. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. EFFECT OF GLYCOSYLATION AT ASN302 OF PRO-UROKINASE ON ITS STABILITY IN CULTURE SUPERNATANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glycosylation at Asn302 of pro-urokinase (pro-UK) on the stability in culture supernatant.Methods Nonglycosylated pro-UK was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of Asn302 to Ala302. The proUK mutant and native pro-UK were transfected into dhfr-CHO cells, and serum-free culture supernatant was harvested and incubated at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. The pro-UK activity in culture supernatant was measured by the optical density (OD) increase with time ( 12 hours) at 405 nm. Without thermolysin activation, the percentage of single chain pro-UK was measured.Results After 48 hours of incubation at 4℃, the activities of pro-UK mutant and native pro-UK decreased 3.7%and 2. 9% respectively, and at 37℃ decreased 37.9 % and 23.5 %, respectively. The total activity of native pro-UK was significantly higher than that of nonglycosylated mutant at 37℃. The single-chain percentage of native pro-UK was higher than that of nonglycosylated mutant at both 4℃ and 37℃.Conclusion Higher temperature increases the proteolysis of pro-UK. The glycosylation site on Asn302 is beneficial to pro-UK stability in culture supernatant.

  9. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii supernatant improves intestinal barrier function in mice DSS colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders H; Yakymenko, Olena; Olivier, Isabelle; Håkansson, Fathima; Postma, Emily; Keita, Asa V; Söderholm, Johan D

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. The intestinal microbiota plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) is underrepresented in IBD patients and have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Increased intestinal permeability is common in IBD but the relationship between FP and intestinal barrier function has not been investigated. Our aim was to study treatment with FP supernatant on intestinal barrier function in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis mice model. MATERIAL AND METHODS. C57BL/6 mice received 3% DSS in tap water ad libitum during five days to induce colitis. From day 3 the mice received a daily gavage with FP supernatant or broth during seven days. Ileum and colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for permeability studies with (51)Cr-EDTA and Escherichia coli K-12. Colon was saved for Western blot analyses of tight junction proteins. RESULTS. DSS-treated mice showed significant weight loss and colon shortening. Gavage with FP supernatant resulted in a quicker recovery after DSS treatment and less extensive colonic shortening. Ileal mucosa of DSS mice showed a significant increase in (51)Cr-EDTA-passage compared to controls. (51)Cr-EDTA passage was significantly decreased in mice receiving FP supernatant. No significant differences were observed in passage of E. coli K12. Western blots showed a trend to increased claudin-1 and claudin-2 expressions in DSS mice. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatant of FP enhances the intestinal barrier function by affecting paracellular permeability, and may thereby attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. These findings suggest a potential role of FP in the treatment of IBD.

  10. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  11. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  12. A significant decrease in diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlind, Helga; Stawiarz, Leszek; Fink, Katharina; Hillert, Jan; Manouchehrinia, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Several reports indicate changes to prevalence, incidence, female-to-male ratio in multiple sclerosis. Diagnostic criteria, course definitions and clinical management of the disease have also undergone change during the recent decades. To investigate temporal trends in the diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) in Sweden. Through the Swedish MS registry we investigated the proportion of PPMS diagnosis in birth, diagnosis and age period cohorts using Poisson regression. A total of 16,915 patients were categorised into six birth-cohorts from 1946 to 1975 and seven date-of-diagnosis-cohorts from 1980 to 2014. We observed a decrease in the uncorrected analysis of diagnosis of PPMS from 19.2% to 2.2% and an average decrease of 23% (p decrease per diagnosis-cohort was seen. In the age-specific diagnosis period cohorts the same decreasing trend of PPMS diagnosis was observed in almost all groups. The diagnosis of PPMS has significantly decreased in Sweden specifically after introduction of disease-modifying treatments. Such decrease can have severe impacts on the future research on PPMS. Our data also suggest that the current trend to emphasise presence or absence of inflammatory activity is already reflected in clinical practice. © The Author(s), 2016.

  13. INTRATHECAL GLYCINE SIGNIFICANTLY DECREASES THE MINIMUM ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION OF ISOFLURANE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhao; Yi Zhang; Edmond Ⅰ. Eger Ⅱ; James Sonner

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intrathecal administration of glycine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rats.Methods Intrathecal catheters were implanted in 40 adult male rats anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline MAC of isoflurane was measured during the infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alone. Subsequently, 10, 40, 80,160, and 300 mmol/L of glycine dissolved in artificial CSF were infused for two hours at the same rate as under control conditions, and MAC for isoflurane was re-determined.Results Intrathecal administration of glycine produced a significant, dose-dependent decrease in MAC for isoflu-rane (upto -65.2% ±16.2%).Conclusisons Intrathecal administration of glycine decreases anesthetic requirement. This result supports the idea that glycine receptors may be important to the immobilizing effect of anesthetics that enhance glycine receptor function such as isoflurane.

  14. The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Solheim, Jan-Erik; Humlum, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0 "C from solar cycle 23 to 24 for the stations and areas analyzed. We find for the Norwegian local stations investigated that 25-56% of the temperature increase the last 150 years may be attributed to the Sun. For 3 North Atlantic stations we get 63-72% solar contribution. This points to the Atlantic currents as reinforcing a solar signal.

  15. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measurements were performed using the flow cytometry technique. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that 19 (33.3%) OBI patients and 28 (28%) controls expressed HLA-A2 antigen on their PBMCs. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the rate of individuals expressing HLA-A2 antigen. Statistical analyses showed that the intensity of HLA-A2 expression significantly decreased in OBI patients (3.58 ± 0.1) in comparison to healthy controls (4.21 ± 0.25; P < 0.001). According to these results it can be concluded that decreased intensity of HLA-A2 on the PBMCs of OBI patients may lead to resistance of HBV in the patients.

  16. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  17. Serum ionic fluoride concentrations are significantly decreased after treatment with alendronate in patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironori; Tanno, Kozo; Muro-oka, Genyoh; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-11-20

    We determined serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentrations before and after treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate to clarify whether SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate over a 6-month period were enrolled (mean age, 64.2 years). SIF concentrations were measured by the flow injection method with an ion-selective electrode. Concentrations of bone turnover markers (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide and urinary deoxypryridinoline) and lumbar spine BMD (LsBMD) were also measured. SIF, bone turnover markers and LsBMD before and after treatment were compared. Concentrations of SIF as well as concentrations of all bone turnover markers were significantly decreased after treatment: means (standard deviations) before and after treatment were 0.62 (0.13) and 0.32 (0.09) μmol/l, respectively (P<0.001) and the percent change was -46.3%. LsBMD was also significantly increased by 6.7% after treatment. The reduction of SIF concentrations is probably caused by inhibition of bone resorption due to the action of alendronate. The findings suggest that SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intravenous Iron Repletion Does Not Significantly Decrease Platelet Counts in CKD Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville R. Dossabhoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the effect of IV iron repletion on platelet (PLT counts in CKD patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review, including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran total dose infusion (TDI between 2002 and 2007. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin (Hgb, iron stores and PLT were recorded pre- and post-dose. Results. 153 patients received a total of 251 doses of TDI (mean ± SD = 971 ± 175 mg; age years and Creatinine  mg/dL. All CKD stages were represented (stage 4 commonest. Hgb and Fe stores improved post-TDI (. There was a very mild decrease in PLT (pre-TDI 255 versus post-TDI 244, . The mild reduction in PLT after TDI remained non-significant ( when data was stratified by molecular weight (MW of iron dextran used (low versus high, as well as by dose administered (<1000 versus ≥1000 mg. Linear regression analysis between pre-dose PLT and Tsat and Fe showed R2 of 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. Conclusion. Correction of iron deficiency did not significantly lower PLT in CKD patients, regardless of MW or dose used. Correlation of PLT to severity of iron deficiency was very weak.

  19. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  20. Significant decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Czech Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bure(s); Marcela Kopá(c)ová; Ilona Koupil; Bohumil Seifert; Milu(s)ka (S)kodová Fendrichová; Jana (S)pirková; Viktor Vo(r)í(s)ek

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study possible decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in the Czech Republic within a 10-year period.METHODS:A total of 22 centres entered the study.The catchment areas of these centres covered cities and towns with more than 20 000 inhabitants,smaller towns (≤ 20 000 inhabitants) with surrounding villages and rural areas,and were spread over the whole country,corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population.A total of 1 837 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study,randomly selected out of 38 147 people from the general population.H.pylori infection was investigated by means of a 13C-urea breath test.Breath samples in duplicates were analysed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry.The cut-off point was 3.5.Social and demographic characteristics were based on data from self-completed questionnaires.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of H.pylori infection was 23.5% (430/1826),and 4.8% (20/420) in children aged 15 or less.There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between males (24.3%; 208/857) and females (22.9%,222/969,P =0.494).H.pylori infection was strongly associated with higher age,among subjects aged 55+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was 39.8% (252/633,P <0.001).The highest prevalence of H.pylori infection was found among persons aged 55-64 years (43.9%,97/221) and 75+ years (37.9%,58/153).Among study subjects aged 15+ years,prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly increased in those with lowest education (odds risk 3.19,95% CI 1.87-5.47).Compared to never married (14.1%),the prevalence of H.pylori infection was statistically significantly higher among married (35.4%,246/694,P < 0.001),divorced (36.8%,49/133,P < 0.001) and widowed study subjects (40.2%,45/112,P < 0.001),both in minimally and fully adjusted analysis.There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H.pylori infection between married and widowed

  1. Significant decrease in yield under future climate conditions: Stability and production of 138 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    The response in production parameters to projected future levels of temperature, atmospheric carbondioxide ([CO2]), and ozone ([O3]) was investigated in 138 spring barley accessions. The comprehensive setof landraces, cultivars, and breeder-lines, were during their entire life cycle exposed...... to a two-factor treat-ment of combined elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night) and [CO2] (700 ppm), as well as single-factortreatments of elevated temperature (+5◦C day/night), [CO2] (700 ppm), and [O3] (100–150 ppb). Thecontrol treatment was equivalent to present average South Scandinavian climate...... (temperature: 19/12◦C(day/night), [CO2]: 385 ppm). Overall grain yield was found to decrease 29% in the two-factor treatmentwith concurrent elevation of [CO2] and temperature, and this response could not be predicted from theresults of treatments with elevated [CO2] and temperature as single factors, where...

  2. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...

  3. Apnea–hypopnea index decreased significantly after nasal surgery for obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhao, Guoqiang; Li, Yunchuan; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Wang, Dongbo; Han, Demin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nasal surgeries have been applied to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with nasal obstruction for decades. However, the efficiency of nasal surgery in improving OSA remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify whether isolated nasal surgery can improve apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Methods: Computerized searches were performed in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus from January 1, 2000 to April 30, 2016. A total of 18 articles and 587 participants were included. There were 1 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized trials, 11 prospective studies, and 4 retrospective studies. Data regarding study design (prospective/retrospective clinical trial, randomized, and controlled), population size, participant characteristics (age, gender, and body mass index), surgical intervention, and outcomes (AHI, Epworth sleep scale [ESS]) was collected. Results: Statistically significant improvement in AHI (subgroup 1: weighted mean difference [WMD] [95%confidence interval (CI)], −4.17 [−7.62, −0.73]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.19 [−7.51, −0.88]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.15 [−6.48, −1.82]) and ESS (subgroup 1: WMD [95%CI], −2.14 [−3.08, −1.19]; subgroup 2: WMD [95%CI], −4.70 [−5.95, −3.44]; overall: WMD [95%CI], −4.08 [−5.27, −2.88]) was revealed. Conclusion: Both AHI and ESS improved significantly after isolated nasal surgery, but the improvement of AHI is slightly significant. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the long-term benefits of nasal surgery on OSA. PMID:28151900

  4. Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, F; Miyamoto, E; Nakano, Y

    2001-11-01

    Spirulina platensis NIES-39 was grown under open culture system in the presence or absence of CoSO(4) (12 microg/L) and/or vitamin B(12) (10 microg/L) to confirm whether CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) stimulate or are essential for growth of the algal cells and for accumulation of vitamin B(12). The addition of CoSO(4) and/or vitamin B(12) could not affect both cell growth and cell yield of the alga. The amount of corrinoid-compound was increased significantly by the addition of CoSO(4) but not by vitamin B(12). A C18 reversed-phase HPLC pattern of the Spirulina corrinoid-compound increased by the addition of CoSO(4) was identical to that of authentic pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive for human. These results indicate that the algal cells grown in the absence of CoSO(4) are suitable for use of human health foods because the inactive corrinoid-compound can be reduced significantly.

  5. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  6. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  7. Moderate Hypothermia Significantly Decreases Hippocampal Cell Death Involving Autophagy Pathway after Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yichao; Lin, Yingying; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng; Gao, Guo-yi; Jiang, Ji-yao

    2015-07-15

    Here, we evaluated changes in autophagy after post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) followed by moderate hypothermia in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham injury with normothermia group (37 °C); sham injury with hypothermia group (32 °C); TBI with normothermia group (TNG; 37 °C); and TBI with hypothermia group (THG; 32 °C). Injury was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Moderate hypothermia (32 °C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0 °C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. All rats were killed at 24 h after fluid percussion TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampus in all rats was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining; terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining was used to determine cell death in ipsilateral hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, as well as transmission electron microscopy performed to assess changes in autophagy. At 24 h after TBI, the cell death index was 27.90 ± 2.36% in TNG and 14.90 ± 1.52% in THG. Expression level of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased after TBI and were further up-regulated after post-TBI hypothermia. Further, ultrastructural observations showed that there was a marked increase of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in ipsilateral hippocampus after post-TBI hypothermia. Our data demonstrated that moderate hypothermia significantly attenuated cell death and increased autophagy in ipsilateral hippocampus after fluid percussion TBI. In conclusion, autophagy pathway may participate in the neuroprotective effect of post-TBI hypothermia.

  8. Significance of decreased serum interleukin-10 levels in the progression of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zeng-Yan; Wang, Cui-Lan; Qi, Hong-Shun; Jia, Guo-Yong; Yan, Chuan-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory cytokine and its serological detection may have an important role in the process of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated whether serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) is associated with cerebral infarction or not in the general population. Identified comprehensive searching was performed covering PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, CINAHL, Google Scholar, China BioMedicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Information was extracted separately and classed into Asians and Caucasians. Summary standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used with the utilization of Z test. Nine studies ranged from 2003 to 2014 were collected for meta-analysis. Results identified a negative association between serum IL-10 levels and cerebral infarction (SMD = 1.80, 95 % CI 0.79-2.81, P IL-10 level may be the main risk factor for cerebral infarction in India (SMD = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.13-1.75, P IL-10 levels were negatively correlated with cerebral infarction in Asians (SMD = 2.52, 95 % CI 0.47-4.57, P = 0.016), while not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). The lower serum IL-10 concentration was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of cerebral infarction in this meta-analysis. More prospective studies should be conducted to provide stronger evidence justifying the use of IL-10 as new biomarker to identify a predisposition toward cerebral infarction.

  9. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  10. Bundling of Reimbursement for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement Resulted in Significantly Decreased Utilization between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Roan J; TerBush, Matthew J; Hill, Elaine L; Guido, Joseph J; Doyle, Adam; Ellis, Jennifer L; Raman, Kathleen; Morrow, Gary R; Stoner, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, reimbursement for inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) became bundled by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This resulted in ICVF placement (CPT code 37191) now yielding 4.71 relative value units (RVUs), a decrease from 15.6 RVUs for placement and associated procedures (CPT codes 37620, 36010, 75825-26, 75940-26). Our hypothesis was that IVCF utilization would decrease in response to this change as other procedures had done once they had become bundled. Including data from 2010 to 2011 (before bundling) and 2012 to 2014 (after bundling), we utilized 5% inpatient, outpatient, and carrier files of Medicare limited data sets and analyzed IVCF utilization before and after bundling across specialty types, controlling for total diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (ICD-9 codes 453.xx and 415.xx, respectively) and placement location. In 2010 and 2011, the rates/10,000 DVT/PE diagnoses were 918 and 1,052, respectively (average 985). In 2012, 2013, and 2014, rates were 987, 877, and 605, respectively (average 823). Comparing each year individually, there is a significant difference (P utilization. Comparing averages in the 2010-2011 and 2012-2014 groups, there is also a significant decrease in utilization after bundling (P utilization decreased significantly. More data from subsequent years will be needed to show if this decrease utilization continues to persist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Decreased Expression of Six Large Common Fragile Site Genes in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Gao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common fragile sites (CFSs are large regions with profound genomic instability that often span extremely large genes a number of which have been found to be important tumor suppressors. RNA sequencing previously revealed that there was a group of six large CFS genes which frequently had decreased expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments validated that these six large CFS genes (PARK2, DLG2, NBEA, CTNNA3, DMD, and FHIT had decreased expression in most of the tumor samples. In this study, we investigated whether the decreased expression of these genes has any clinical significance in OPSCCs. We analyzed the six CFS large genes in 45 OPSCC patients and found that 27 (60% of the OPSCC tumors had decreased expression of these six genes. When we correlated the expression of these six genes to each patient’s clinical records, for 11 patients who had tumor recurrence, 10 of them had decreased expression of almost all 6 genes. When we divided the patients into two groups, one group with decreased expression of the six genes and the other group with either slight changes or increased expression of the six genes, we found that there is significant difference in the incidence of tumor recurrence between these two groups by Kaplan-Meier plot analysis (P < .05. Our results demonstrated that those OPSCC tumors with decreased expression of this select group of six large CFS genes were much more likely to be associated with tumor recurrence and these genes are potential prognostic markers for predicting tumor recurrence in OPSCC.

  12. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hiery

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  13. A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiery, Eva; Poetsch, Ansgar; Moosbauer, Tanja; Amin, Bushra; Hofmann, Jörg; Burkovski, Andreas

    2015-11-12

    Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium.

  14. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing, E-mail: wuxingzhou@hnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2016-05-06

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall interactions. • The thermal conductivity of the inner tube is increased significantly due to protected by outer tube. • The outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer in multi-walled carbon nanotube.

  15. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  16. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  17. Significant decrease in thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube induced by inter-wall van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Xue-Kun; Liu, Yue-Yang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    The thermal transport properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated by using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivity of MWCNTs decreases significantly comparing to that of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to the inter-wall van der Waals interactions. The more interesting is a fact that the thermal conductance of MWCNTs is significantly greater than the thermal conductance summation of each SWCNTs. This is because the thermal conductance of a carbon nanotube protected by an outer tube is much larger than that of one that is not protected. Moreover, we also studied the thermal flux distribution of MWCNTs, and found that the outer tube plays a dominant role in heat energy transfer.

  18. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  19. Deletion of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit significantly decreases dendritic growth in maturing dentate granule neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timal S Kannangara

    Full Text Available It is known that NMDA receptors can modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the contribution of specific regulatory GluN2 subunits has been difficult to determine. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking GluN2A (formerly NR2A do not show altered cell proliferation or neuronal differentiation, but present significant changes in neuronal morphology in dentate granule cells. Specifically, GluN2A deletion significantly decreased total dendritic length and dendritic complexity in DG neurons located in the inner granular zone. Furthermore, the absence of GluN2A also resulted in a localized increase in spine density in the middle molecular layer, a region innervated by the medial perforant path. Interestingly, alterations in dendritic morphology and spine density were never seen in dentate granule cells located in the outer granular zone, a region that has been hypothesized to contain older, more mature, neurons. These results indicate that although the GluN2A subunit is not critical for the cell proliferation and differentiation stages of the neurogenic process, it does appear to play a role in establishing synaptic and dendritic morphology in maturing dentate granule cells localized in the inner granular zone.

  20. Sequence variants of interleukin 6 (IL-6 are significantly associated with a decreased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin 6 (IL-6 has been related to beta-amyloid aggregation and the appearance of hyperphosphorylated tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. However, previous studies relating IL-6 genetic polymorphisms to AD included few and unrepresentative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the results were inconsistent. Methods This is a case-control study. A total of 266 patients with AD, aged≧65, were recruited from three hospitals in Taiwan (2007-2010. Controls (n = 444 were recruited from routine health checkups and volunteers of the hospital during the same period of time. Three common IL-6 haplotype-tagging SNPs were selected to assess the association between IL-6 polymorphisms and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD. Results Variant carriers of IL-6 rs1800796 and rs1524107 were significantly associated with a reduced risk of LOAD [(GG + GC vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 0.64 and (CC + CT vs. TT: AOR = 0.60, respectively]. Haplotype CAT was associated with a decreased risk of LOAD (0 and 1 copy vs. 2 copies: AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.44-0.95. These associations remained significant in ApoE e4 non-carriers only. Hypertension significantly modified the association between rs2069837 polymorphisms and the risk of LOAD (pinteraction = 0.03. Conclusions IL-6 polymorphisms are associated with reduced risk of LOAD, especially in ApoE e4 non-carriers. This study identified genetic markers for predicting LOAD in ApoE e4 non-carriers.

  1. Bioactivities of Culture Supernatants from Retroviral Packaging Cells Carrying the Mouse Fas Ligand Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lingbo; ZOU Ping; GUO Rong; XIAO Juan; XU Zhiliang

    2001-01-01

    The bioactivities of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mouse Fas ligand (mFasL) gene was investigated. FasLcDNA was cloned into PLXIN with an internal ribosome entry site to link two cistrons through gene recombination technology, PLXIN and the recombinant vector PLFIN were separately transfected into PA317 retrovirus packing cell line by lipofectamine 2000, and the resistant clones were selected with G418 selective medium. The integration of genome DNA was assayed by genomic DNA PCR. NIH3T3 cells were transduced by the culture supernatants from PA317 carrying the mFasLcDNA gene, and were selected with G418 selective medium, so as to select the PLFIN-PA317 clone capable of producing higher titer of supernatants. The levels of mFasL protein on NIH3T3 cells membrane were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). The biological activity of mFasL on NIH3T3 cells membrane was investigated by the inducing apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells co-cultured with NIH3T3 cells expressing Fas ligand. To explore the direct mFasL cytotoxicity of culture supernatants from retroviral packaging cells carrying the mFasL gene, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 and PLXIN-PA317 were separately co-cultured with Yac-1cells in parallel. The recombinant PLFIN was successfully constructed. The highest titer of supernatants from twelve resistant clones was 8. 5 × 105 colony-forming-unit (CFU)/ml. The NIH3T3cells transfected by above supernatants had a higher level of mFasL (53.81±6.9 %), and significantly induced the apoptosis of Fas+ Yac-1 cells (56. 78±4.5 %), as both were cocultured for 5 h at1 : 1 ratio, whereas it is 7. 08±3.4 % in control group (P<0. 01). Supernatant from PLFINPA317 could also directly induce the apoptosis of Yac-1 within 5 h of incubation. Thus, the culture supernatants from PLFIN-PA317 possessed both infectivity and cytotoxicity of mFasL.

  2. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that visceral sensitivity is linked to the degree of neuronal activation. Normo- and hypersensitive IBS patients were distinguished by their discomfort/pain threshold to rectal balloon distension with a barostat. Using potentiometric and Ca(2+) dye imaging, we recorded the response of guinea-pig enteric submucous and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, respectively, to mucosal biopsy supernatants from normosensitive (n = 12 tested in enteric neurons, n = 9 tested in DRG) and hypersensitive IBS patients (n = 9, tested in both types of neurons). In addition, we analysed the association between neuronal activation and individual discomfort/pain pressure thresholds. The IBS supernatants evoked Ca(2+) transients in DRG neurons and spike discharge in submucous neurons. Submucous and DRG neurons showed significantly stronger responses to supernatants from hypersensitive IBS patients as reflected by higher spike frequency or stronger [Ca(2+)]i transients in a larger proportion of neurons. The neuroindex as a product of spike frequency or [Ca(2+)]i transients and proportion of responding neurons correlated significantly with the individual discomfort/pain thresholds of the IBS patients. Supernatants from hypersensitive IBS patients caused stronger activation of enteric and DRG neurons. The level of activation correlated with the individual discomfort/pain threshold pressure values. These findings support our hypothesis that visceral sensitivity is linked to activation of peripheral neurons by biopsy supernatants.

  3. The Effect of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosusCulture Supernatants on Expression of Autophagy Genes and HPV E6 and E7 Oncogenes in The HeLa Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevaseli, Elahe; Azam, Rosa; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Mazlomy, Mohammadali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshvar, Maryam; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which lactobacilli exert their cytotoxic effects on cervical cancer cells. In addition, we aimed to evalu- ate the effect of lactobacilli on the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) onco- genes. In this experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymer- ase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of CASP3 and three autophagy genes [ATG14, BECN1 and alpha 2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (PRKAA2)] along with HPV18 E6 and E7 genes in HeLa cells before and after treatment with Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture supernatants. The expression of CASP3 and autophagy genes in HeLa cells was de- creased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. However, this de- crease was not significant for PRKAA2 when compared with controls. In addition, expression of HPV E6 was significantly decreased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. Lactobacilli culture supernatants can decrease expression of ATG14 and BECN1 as well as the HPV E6 oncogene. It has been demonstrated that the main changes occurring during cervical carcinogenesis in cell machinery can be reversed by suppression of HPV oncogenes. Therefore, downregulation of HPV E6 by lacto- bacilli may have therapeutic potential for cervical cancer. As the role of autophagy in cancer is complicated, further work is required to clarify the link between downregula- tion of autophagy genes and antiproliferative effects exerted by lactobacilli.

  4. Significant decrease of broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation by dynamic regulation of ammonium sulfate and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Zejian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Yu, Xiaoguang

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen sources on broth viscosity and glucose consumption in erythromycin fermentation were investigated. By controlling ammonium sulfate concentration, broth viscosity and glucose consumption were decreased by 18.2% and 61.6%, respectively, whereas erythromycin biosynthesis was little affected. Furthermore, erythromycin A production was increased by 8.7% still with characteristics of low broth viscosity and glucose consumption through the rational regulations of phosphate salt, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate. It was found that ammonium sulfate could effectively control proteinase activity, which was correlated with the utilization of soybean meal as well as cell growth. The pollets formation contributed much to the decrease of broth viscosity. The accumulation of extracellular propionate and succinate under the new regulation strategy indicated that higher propanol consumption might increase the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA and thus could increase the flux leading to erythromycin A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Masakazu; Arai, Hidehiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Aizawa, Masaki; Shimooka, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Shimizu, Ken; Sugiyama, Masashi.

    1993-02-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author).

  6. THE EFFECT OF ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ON THE INTERLEUKIN-5 IN THE SUPERNATANTS OF SPLEEN CELL CULTURES OF ASTHMATIC MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美琴; 白春学; 钮善福; 方晓惠; 陈常庆; 陈波

    2001-01-01

    To explore the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on the production of IL-5 by mouse spleen T lymphocytes.Methods Based on the IL-5 cDNA sequence of mouse, a segment of antisense oligonucleotide was designed and synthesized. 5’-labeling of antisense oligonucleotide was signed by T4 PNK in order that the efficiency of stearylamine liposome in transfecting antisense oligonucleotide can be evaluated. Asthma model was duplicated with ovalbumin(OVA) absorbed to aluminum hydroxide. T lymphocytes of mice were separated by nylon fiber method, then T lymphocytes transfected with different concentration of antisense oligonucleotide with cation stearylamine liposme were incubated respectively in order to observe the effect of antisense oligonucleotide on Il-5 production by T lymphocytes. IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were determined by ELISA.Results Stearylamine liposome could markedly increase the efficiency of antisense oligonucleotide transfection. The transfection efficiency of antisense oligouncleotide increased approximately 12 times at a ratio of 1: 15m/m (antisense oligonucleotide to SA liposome). In healthy and asthma Balb/c mice, IL-5 was not detectable in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures without stimulated with OVA; however, IL-5 was increased markedly in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures stimulated with OVA. After transfection with different concentrations of antisense oligonucleotide, IL-5 levels in the supernatants of T lymphocyte cultures were significantly lower than those in control cultured without antisense oligonucleotide transfection. IL-5 levels decreased from 44.60±6.23 pg/ml to 30.70±7.362 pg/ml, 17.20±6.181 pg/ml and 8.16±2.34 pg/ml respectively. And IL-5 synthesis was inhibited by 31.17%, 61.43% and 81.7% respectively.Conclusion IL-5 synthesis could be obviously inhibited by antisense oligonucleotide and showed a markedly correlation between dose and effectiveness. It suggests the production

  7. Mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas correlates significantly with basal-like phenotype, distant metastases and decreased survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tozbikian

    Full Text Available Mesothelin is a cell surface associated antigen expressed on mesothelial cells and in some malignant neoplasms. Mesothelin-targeted therapies are in phase I/II clinical trials. The clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of mesothelin expression in triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC has not been fully assessed. We evaluated the expression of mesothelin and of basal markers in tissue microarrays of 226 TNBC and 88 non-TNBC and assessed the clinicopathologic features of mesothelin-expressing breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of mesothelin expression on the disease-free and overall survival of patients with TNBC. We found that mesothelin expression is significantly more frequent in TNBC than in non-TNBC (36% vs 16%, respectively; p = 0.0006, and is significantly correlated with immunoreactivity for basal keratins, but not for EGFR. Mesothelin-positive and mesothelin-negative TNBC were not significantly different by patients' race, tumor size, histologic grade, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastases. Patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC were older than patients with mesothelin-negative TNBC, developed more distant metastases with a shorter interval, and had significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Based on our results, patients with mesothelin-positive TNBC could benefit from mesothelin-targeted therapies.

  8. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  9. Fate of cyanobacteria in drinking water treatment plant lagoon supernatant and sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carlos J.; Reeve, Petra J.; Sawade, Emma [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Voldoire, Camille F. [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Newton, Kelly; Praptiwi, Radisti [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Collingnon, Lea [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM), Strasbourg 67087 (France); Dreyfus, Jennifer [Allwater, Adelaide Services Alliance, Wakefield St, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Hobson, Peter [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Gaget, Virginie [University of Adelaide, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Newcombe, Gayle, E-mail: gayle.newcombe@sawater.com.au [Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    In conventional water treatment processes, where the coagulation and flocculation steps are designed to remove particles from drinking water, cyanobacteria are also concentrated into the resultant sludge. As a consequence, cyanobacteria-laden sludge can act as a reservoir for metabolites such as taste and odour compounds and cyanotoxins. This can pose a significant risk to water quality where supernatant from the sludge treatment facility is returned to the inlet to the plant. In this study the complex processes that can take place in a sludge treatment lagoon were investigated. It was shown that cyanobacteria can proliferate in the conditions manifest in a sludge treatment lagoon, and that cyanobacteria can survive and produce metabolites for at least 10 days in sludge. The major processes of metabolite release and degradation are very dependent on the physical, chemical and biological environment in the sludge treatment facility and it was not possible to accurately model the net effect. For the first time evidence is provided to suggest that there is a greater risk associated with recycling sludge supernatant than can be estimated from the raw water quality, as metabolite concentrations increased by up to 500% over several days after coagulation, attributed to increased metabolite production and/or cell proliferation in the sludge. - Highlights: • Cyanobacteria in water treatment sludge significantly impact supernatant quality • Cyanobacteria can survive, and thrive, in sludge lagoon supernatant and in treatment sludge • Metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria in sludge can increase up to 500% • The risk associated with supernatant recycling was assessed relative to available treatment barriers.

  10. [Induced sputum supernatant prostaglandin E2 during oral aspirin challenge of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin hypersensitivity and healthy controls--pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacak, Maria; Celejewska-Wójcik, Natalia; Wójcik, Krzysztof; Sałapa, Kinga; Konduracka, Ewa; Sanak, Marek; Tyrak, Katarzyna; Sładek, Krzysztof; Musiał, Jacek; Mastalerz, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate changes in the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in induced sputum supernatant in 3 groups: sub- jects with NSAID-exacerbated respira- tory disease (NERD), aspirin tolerant asthma (ATA) and healthy controls (HC), before and after oral aspirin chal- lenge test. The study was conducted in the years 2014-2015 at the Clinical Department of the Pulmonology Clinic at the University Hospital in Cracow. 43 patients were enrolled in the study (NERD - n = 15, ATA - n = 15 and HC - n = 13). All of them underwent a placebo-controlled oral aspirin challenge. Sputum was induced 24 hours before the challenge and immediately after the test. Induced sputum was processed in order to obtain cystospin slides to depict inflammatory cell patterns and supernatants, in which PGE2 was measured. The concentration of PGE2 was determined using mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry - GC/MS). After aspirin challenge, the concentration of PGE2 in induced sputum supernatant decreased in both asthmatics hypersensitive to aspirin (p = 0.01) and those who tolerated aspirin well (p = 0.17). The change in the healthy control group was not statistically significant. These results support the cyclooxygenase theory of PGE2 inhibition by aspirin. However, the mechanism of bronchoconstriction after aspirin administration alone in patients with NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease remains unclear.

  11. Optimization of temperature, sugar concentration, and inoculum size to maximize ethanol production without significant decrease in yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laluce, Cecilia; Tognolli, João Olimpio; de Oliveira, Karen Fernanda; Souza, Crisla Serra; Morais, Meline Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Aiming to obtain rapid fermentations with high ethanol yields and a retention of high final viabilities (responses), a 2(3) full-factorial central composite design combined with response surface methodology was employed using inoculum size, sucrose concentration, and temperature as independent variables. From this statistical treatment, two well-fitted regression equations having coefficients significant at the 5% level were obtained to predict the viability and ethanol production responses. Three-dimensional response surfaces showed that increasing temperatures had greater negative effects on viability than on ethanol production. Increasing sucrose concentrations improved both ethanol production and viability. The interactions between the inoculum size and the sucrose concentrations had no significant effect on viability. Thus, the lowering of the process temperature is recommended in order to minimize cell mortality and maintain high levels of ethanol production when the temperature is on the increase in the industrial reactor. Optimized conditions (200 g/l initial sucrose, 40 g/l of dry cell mass, 30 degrees C) were experimentally confirmed and the optimal responses are 80.8 +/- 2.0 g/l of maximal ethanol plus a viability retention of 99.0 +/- 3.0% for a 4-h fermentation period. During consecutive fermentations with cell reuse, the yeast cell viability has to be kept at a high level in order to prevent the collapse of the process.

  12. [Effects of combined application of culture supernatant of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and ciprofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Tu, H L; Ba, T; Wang, L F; Wang, S J; Nie, S Y

    2017-06-20

    bacterial inhibition ring of ciprofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin against SA of each group was recorded. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes of ciprofloxacin in groups CS and CSL at PCH 12, 24, and 48 were calculated, and the effect of synergy was evaluated. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, LSD-t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: (1) At each PCH, the content of LL-37 in culture supernatant of cells in 10, 100, and 1 000 ng/mL LPS groups was higher than that in 0 ng/mL LPS group (with t values from 11.22 to 33.36, P values below 0.01); the content of LL-37 in culture supernatant of cells in 100 and 1 000 ng/mL LPS groups was higher than that in 10 ng/mL LPS group (with t values from 2.24 to 18.73, Pculture supernatant of cells in 1 000 ng/mL LPS group was higher than that in 100 ng/mL LPS group (with t values from 12.46 to 14.70, P values below 0.01). (2) At PCH 12, 24, and 48, the bacterial colonies in groups CC, CS, and CSL began to integrate over time. At PCH 12, 24, and 48, the diameters of bacterial inhibition ring of ciprofloxacin in group CC were 26, 24, and 23 mm, respectively, with no obvious change. At PCH 12, 24, and 48, the diameters of bacterial inhibition ring of ciprofloxacin in groups CS and CSL were 82, 71, 68 mm, and 74, 59, 56 mm, respectively, significantly longer than those of group CC. (3) At each PCH, the MIC of ciprofloxacin against SA was significantly higher in group CC than in groups CS and CSL (with Z values from 6.22 to 6.71, P values below 0.01); the MIC of ciprofloxacin against SA was significantly higher in group CSL than in group CS (with Z values all equal to 6.72, P values below 0.01). (4) FIC indexes of ciprofloxacin in groups CS and CSL at PCH 12, 24, and 48 were 0.011, 0.032, 0.032, and 0.122, 0.350, 0.350, respectively. The results indicated that culture supernatant of hUCMSCs had synergistically

  13. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation and modulation of gene expression by probiotic cells and supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K M; MacDonald, K W; Chanyi, R M; Cadieux, P A; Burton, J P

    2016-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a disease caused by opportunistic species of Candida that normally reside on human mucosal surfaces. The transition of Candida from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows for covalent attachment to oral epithelial cells, followed by biofilm formation, invasion and tissue damage. In this study, combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum SD5870, Lactobacillus helveticus CBS N116411 and Streptococcus salivarius DSM 14685 were assessed for their ability to inhibit the formation of and disrupt Candida albicans biofilms. Co-incubation with probiotic supernatants under hyphae-inducing conditions reduced C. albicans biofilm formation by >75 % in all treatment groups. Likewise, combinations of live probiotics reduced biofilm formation of C. albicans by >67 %. When live probiotics or their supernatants were overlaid on preformed C. albicans biofilms, biofilm size was reduced by >63 and >65 % respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that the combined supernatants of SD5870 and CBS N116411 significantly reduced the expression of several C. albicans genes involved in the yeast-hyphae transition: ALS3 (adhesin/invasin) by 70 % (P biofilm formation) by >99 % (P formation of and removing preformed C. albicans biofilms. Our novel results point to the downregulation of several Candida genes critical to the yeast-hyphae transition, biofilm formation, tissue invasion and cellular damage.

  14. The Effect of Anaerobic and Aerobic Fish Sludge Supernatant on Hydroponic Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobilization of nutrients from fish sludge (i.e., feces and uneaten feed plays a key role in optimizing the resource utilization and thus in improving the sustainability of aquaponic systems. While several studies have documented the aerobic and anaerobic digestion performance of aquaculture sludge, the impact of the digestate on plant growth has yet to be understood. The present study examines the impact of either an aerobic or an anaerobic digestion effluent on lettuce plant growth, by enriching a mixture of aquaculture and tap water with supernatants from both aerobic and anaerobic batch reactors. The lettuce plants grown in the hydroponic system supplied with supernatant from an anaerobic reactor had significantly better performance with respect to weight gain than both, those in the system where supernatant from the aerobic reactor was added, as well as the control system. It can be hypothesized that this effect was caused by the presence of NH4+ as well as dissolved organic matter, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and fungi, and humic acid, which are predominantly present in anaerobic effluents. This study should therefore be of value to researchers and practitioners wishing to further develop sludge remineralization in aquaponic systems.

  15. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients undergoing regadenoson stress gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Javier; Golzar, Yasmeen; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Olusanya, Adebayo; Doukky, Rami

    2017-02-08

    The significance of post-stress decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with regadenoson stress gated SPECT (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has not been studied. Consecutive patients who underwent rest/regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI followed by coronary angiography within 6 months were analyzed. Change in LVEF by GSPECT-MPI was calculated as stress LVEF minus rest LVEF; a significant decrease was tested at 5% and 10% thresholds. In a diagnostic cohort of 793 subjects, LVEF change was not predictive of severe/extensive coronary artery disease (area under the curve, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.57; P = 0.946). There was no significant difference in the rates of severe/extensive coronary artery disease in patients with or without a decrease in LVEF, irrespective of MPI findings. In an outcome cohort of the 929 subjects followed for 30 ± 16 months, post-regadenoson stress decrease in LVEF was not associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction or in the risk of coronary revascularization. In patients selected to undergo coronary angiography following regadenoson stress GSPECT-MPI, a decrease in LVEF after regadenoson stress is not predictive of severe/extensive CAD or adverse clinical outcomes, irrespective of MPI findings.

  18. Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Julie M; Visscher, Daniel; Sabel, Michael; Breslin, Tara; Healy, Patrick; Daignaut, Stephanie; Myers, Jeffrey L; Wu, Angela J

    2012-11-01

    Intraoperative frozen section (FS) margin evaluation is not common practice for patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT), but offers a significant reduction in reoperation. In this study, a technique to allow for more effective freezing of breast tissue was developed to perform FS evaluation of lumpectomy margins (FSM) for all patients undergoing BCT at an ambulatory surgery center. FS evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens was performed concurrently. One hundred eighty-one study and 188 control patients, with and without FS evaluation, were compared. Reexcision was reduced 34% (from 48.9% to 14.9%) and reoperation was reduced 36% (from 55.3% to 19.3%) with FS evaluation. Most of the decrease in reoperative rate was because of a decrease in the need for margin reexcision. The number of patients requiring 1, 2, or 3 operations to complete therapy was 84, 92, and 12, respectively, in the control group, and 146, 33, and 2, respectively, in the study group. Lobular subtype, multifocal disease, and larger tumor size (≥2 cm) were significantly associated with failure of FSM to prevent reoperation, but reoperation rates were still significantly decreased in this subgroup of patients (from 75.5% to 43.8%) with FSM. This study highlights an innovative yet simple and adaptable FS approach that resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in reoperation for patients undergoing BCT.

  19. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  20. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  1. Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2013-07-01

    Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner.

  2. Rheological properties in supernatant of peach gum from almond(Prunus dulcis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 谢碧霞; 钟秋平; 杜红岩

    2008-01-01

    The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum from Prunnus dulcis were discussed in order to provide more scientific technical parameters and references for developing peach gum as a kind of medicinal gum.The rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum were comparatively studied in different material ratios,temperatures,shaking times,pH values and salinities.The results show that,1) the mathematical model of shear rate with material ratio and shear stress is Y=0.069X12+0.035X2 -1.174,R2=0.942;2) the mathematical model of shear rate with temperature and shear stress is Y=4.936X12+0.023 2X2-1.688,R2=0.937;3) the mathematical model of shear rate with shaking time and shear stress is Y=0.005 192 X13-0.140 73X12+1.249 045X1+ 0.036 546 X2-3.644 29,R2=0.954 3;4) the effects of pH value on the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum are comparatively complicated with a varying range of 3-11 and the shear rate shows a change trend of saddle model;5) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of NaCl and shear stress is Y=-0.037 44X1+0.012 93 X2,R2=0.998;6) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of CaCl2 and shear stress is Y=0.025 789X1+0.016 19X2,R2 =0.999;and 7) the mathematical model of shear rate with the concentration of sorbic acid potassium and shear stress is Y=0.079 5X1+0.017 3X2,R2=0.998.The results show that the material ratio,temperature,shaking time,pH value significantly affect the rheological properties in the supernatant of peach gum,and the concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 also significantly affect the rheological properties expect the concentration of sorbic acid potassium.

  3. Impact of Cell-free Supernatant of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Putrescine and Other Polyamine Formation by Foodborne Pathogens in Ornithine Decarboxylase Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Fatih; Tabanelli, Giulia; Toy, Nurten; Gardini, Fausto

    2015-06-24

    Conversion of ornithine to putrescine by Salmonella Paratyphi A, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was investigated in ornithine decarboxylase broth (ODB) using cell-free supernatants (CFSs) obtained from Leuconostoc mesenterodies subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus. Two groups of cell-free supernatants (25 or 50%) and control (only ODB) were prepared to investigate putrescine (PUT) and other polyamine formation by foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the species for each amine. All of the CFSs reduced the formation of PUT by ≥65%. The production of cadaverine (CAD) was scarcely affected by the presence of CFSs, with the exception of the samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The variation in polyamine was found with respect to the control samples. Spermidine (SPD) was produced in lower amount in many samples, especially in Gram-negative FBPs, whereas spermine (SPN) increased drastically in the major part of the samples concerning the control. Histamine (HIS) was characterized by a marked concentration decrease in all of the samples, and tyramine (TYR) was accumulated in very low concentrations in the controls. Therefore, the ability of bacteria to produce certain biogenic amines such as HIS, TYR, PUT, and CAD has been studied to assess their risk and prevent their formation in food products. The results obtained from this study concluded that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with non-decarboxylase activity are capable of avoiding or limiting biogenic amine formation by FBP.

  4. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  6. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatants interfere with killing of Pasteurella multocida by swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, W. B.; Bäckström, L; McDonald, J.; Collins, M T

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant on swine pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) functions was studied. The A. pleuropneumoniae culture supernatant was toxic to PAMs when tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Biological activity of the supernatant was ascribed to cytotoxins. Both the LDH and MTT assays were used for measurement of crude A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin concentrati...

  7. Decreased expression of Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) contributes to oral squamous cell carcinoma progression and significantly correlates with poorly differentiated grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Wantao; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Chenping

    2015-02-01

    Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene (KAL1) protein is an extracellular matrix associated protein which plays vital roles in neurons development and cell migration. However, its biological functions and clinical implications have yet not been revealed in oral carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of KAL1 in oral cancer and determine clinical significance of KAL1 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The expression pattern of KAL1 was examined in a testing cohort including OSCCs (n = 42) and paired adjacent tissues (PATs) (n = 14) by real-time PCR. The result was further validated in a validating cohort of OSCCs (n = 32). Correlation between clinicopathological parameters and KAL1 mRNA levels was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. In vitro, the effects of KAL1 ablation through siRNA-mediated knockdown on the proliferation of OSCC cells were determined by CCK-8, BrdU, and colonies formation assays, respectively. In addition, cell cycle distribution was further evaluated by cytometry. We observed that remarkably decreased expression of KAL1 mRNA in two independent cohorts (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.033, respectively). Furthermore, downregulated KAL1 mRNA was significantly associated with worse pathological grade (P = 0.013 and P = 0.035, respectively). Upon KAL1 silencing, the proliferation and colonies formation potentials of OSCC cells were notably promoted by accelerating G1 to M phase transition. These data indicated that KAL1 plays a potential suppressive role on OSCC initiation and progression, and KAL1 gene may serve as an adjuvant biomarker for the identification of pathological grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Delaying discharge after the stimulus significantly decreases muscle activation thresholds with small impact on the selectivity: an in vivo study using TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejasz, Paweł; Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Andreu, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Jensen, Winnie; Navarro, Xavier; Guiraud, David

    2015-04-01

    The number of devices for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres implanted worldwide for medical applications is constantly increasing. Stimulation charge is one of the most important parameters of stimulation. High stimulation charge may cause tissue and electrode damage and also compromise the battery life of the electrical stimulators. Therefore, the objective of minimizing stimulation charge is an important issue. Delaying the second phase of biphasic stimulation waveform may decrease the charge required for fibre activation, but its impact on stimulation selectivity is not known. This information is particularly relevant when transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) is used, since it has been designed to provide for high selectivity. In this in vivo study, the rat sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated using monopolar and bipolar configurations with TIME. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of a 100-μs delay between the cathodic and the anodic phase of the stimulus allows to reduce charge requirements by around 30 %, while only slightly affecting stimulation selectivity. This study shows that adding a delay to the typical stimulation waveform significantly ([Formula: see text]) reduces the charge required for nerve fibres activation. Therefore, waveforms with the delayed discharge phase are more suitable for electrical stimulation of nerve fibres.

  9. Facile purification of Escherichia coli expressed tag-free recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha from supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhao, Dawei; Li, Xiunan; Yu, Rong; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-03-01

    Fusing affinity tag at N-terminus was reported to decrease the biological activity of the recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although preparation of tag-free rhTNF-α has already been achieved, the processes were yet laborious, especially in large scale. In this paper, tag-free rhTNF-α was almost equally synthesized by Escherichia coli in both soluble and insoluble forms. A two-step ion exchange chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose combined with CM-Sepharose, was developed to purify the soluble specie from supernatant after cell lysis. Native PAGE and HP-SEC showed the rhTNF-α extracted from supernatant existed in a homogeneous form. HP-SAX and SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated the purity of the final fraction was over 98% with a very high recovery of 75%. Circular dichroism spectrum demonstrated that β-sheet structure was dominant and fluorescence analysis suggested no dramatic exposure of aromatic amino acid residues on the protein surface. Bioassay indicated that purified rhTNF-α was biologically active with a specific activity of approximately 2.0×10(7)U/mg. All these results suggested that this two-step ion exchange chromatography is efficient for preparation of biologically active tag-free rhTNF-α from supernatant.

  10. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  11. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  12. Compressibility of the fouling layer formed by membrane bioreactor sludge and supernatant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Poorasgari, Eskandar; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    the pressure range 0.08 - 0.13 bar. The fouling layer resistance increased while fouling layer compression was reversible. Conversely, the supernatant filtrations showed that the gel layer is compressible within the range 0.1 - 2 bar applied pressure. Calculated resistance of the gel layer indicated....... Compressibility of the gel layer was studied in a dead-end filtration system, whereas the compressibility of a fouling layer formed by MBR sludge was studied in a submerged system hollow sheet membrane by TMP stepping. It was shown that the fouling layer formed by the MBR sludge was highly compressible within...... that higher pressure causes higher change in resistance. The results of the gel compression study showed a lower compressibility of gel layers than the fouling layer formed by sludge flocs. At pressures between 0.1 to 0.5 bar there was no significant change in specific cake resistance with pressure compared...

  13. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  14. Anion-exchange purification of recombinant factor IX from cell culture supernatant using different chromatography supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R

    2013-11-01

    Both recombinant and plasma-derived factor IX concentrates are used in replacement therapies for the treatment of haemophilia B. In the present work, the capture step for a recombinant FIX (rFIX) purification process was investigated. Different strong anion-exchange chromatography media (the resins Q Sepharose(®) FF and Fractogel(®) TMAE, the monolith CIM(®) QA and the membrane adsorber Sartobind(®) Q) were tested for their rFIX binding capacity under dynamic conditions. In these experiments, crude supernatant from CHO cells was used, thus in the presence of supernatant contaminants and mimicking process conditions. The highest dynamic binding capacity was obtained for the monolith, which was then further investigated. To study pseudoaffinity elution of functional rFIX with Ca(2+) ions, a design of experiments to evaluate the effects of pH, NaCl and CaCl2 on yield and purification factor was carried out. The effect of pH was not statistically significant, and a combination of no NaCl and 45mM CaCl2 yielded a good purification factor combined with a high yield of active rFIX. Under these conditions, activity yield of rFIX was higher than the mass yield, confirming selective elution of functional, γ-carboxylated rFIX. Scaling-up of this process 8 fold resulted in very similar process performance. Monitoring of the undesired activated FIX (FIXa) revealed that the FIXa/FIX ratio (1.94%) was higher in the eluate than in the loaded sample, but was still within an acceptable range. HCP and DNA clearances were high (1256 and 7182 fold, respectively), indicating that the proposed process is adequate for the intended rFIX capture step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios.

  16. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  17. Cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid supernatant for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M; Nemati, M; Maralani, M; Estiar, M A; Andalib, S; Fardiazar, Z; Sakhinia, E

    2016-04-30

    In widespread conviction, amniotic fluid is utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Amniotic fluid supernatant is usually discarded, notwithstanding being a good source of fetal DNA. The aim of the present study was to assess cell-free fetal DNA extracted from amniotic fluid supernatant for application in prenatal diagnosis such as gender determination and early diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Samples of amniotic fluid of 70 pregnant women were collected and went through routine tests along with tests for cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant. The DNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant was extracted and analyzed for gender determination by PCR and Real-time PCR. ARMS-PCR was applied to test early diagnosis of IVS II-I mutation (common β-thalassemia mutation) and E7V mutation for sickle cell anemia using DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant. Using the cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant, the sensitivity of PCR and Real-time PCR for gender detection was compared with the routine cytogenetic method. The fetus tested for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia was observed to be healthy but heterozygous for IVS II-I mutation. The findings indicated that cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant can be a good source of fetal DNA and be used in early prenatal diagnosis since because of its fast and accurate application. Therefore, it would be suggested that the amniotic fluid supernatant's disposal is prevented because if the tests needs to be repeated, cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant can be used as an alternative source for prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Narges [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza [Hydrometallurgy Research Unit, Research and Development Center, National Iranian Copper Industries Company, Sarcheshmeh, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Khosro [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, Saeed [Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Minaian, Sara [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Hamid Reza [Department of Material Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  19. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  20. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  1. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate significantly decreases serum lipoprotein levels compared with entecavir nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy in chronic hepatitis B carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, A A; AlMattooq, M; Yazdanfar, S; Burak, K W; Swain, M G; Congly, S E; Borman, M A; Lee, S S; Myers, R P; Coffin, C S

    2017-09-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Studies suggest lipid lowering effect of TDF in human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) individuals, but the effect on lipids and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in CHB is unknown. To compare TDF vs ETV effects on lipid levels in CHB. In this retrospective cohort study, data on serum lipids and CVD risk factors at baseline and ~1 year on TDF or ETV were collected from CHB carriers. We used propensity score matched models to assess the effect on total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL and triglycerides (TGL). In 348 patients, median age was 57 (IQR: 47-65 years), 63% were male, 77% were Asian, 19% were cirrhotic, 25% were HBeAg positive at baseline, and 72% received TDF vs 28% ETV. ETV-treated patients were older (median age: 60 vs 55, P<.01), had similar smoking and hypertension rates, but diabetes and dyslipidemia were more prevalent (19% vs 9%, P=.01; 14% vs 6%, P=.05, respectively). In propensity score matched models for age, gender, usage of lipid lowering agents, dyslipidemia and diabetes, TDF-treated patients were more likely to show a 20% decrease in TC (95% CI: 3%-25%), LDL-C (95% CI: 1%-25%) and HDL-C (CI: 10%-30%) levels compared with those on ETV. No change in TGL was observed in either group. A greater decline in TC, LDL-C and HDL was observed in CHB carriers receiving TDF compared with ETV. These data may influence anti-viral choice in CHB carriers at risk for CVD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  3. Label-free LC-MSMS analysis of vitreous from autoimmune uveitis reveals a significant decrease in secreted Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Hofmaier, Florian; Dietter, Johannes; Swadzba, Margarete E; Blindert, Marcel; Amann, Barbara; Behler, Jennifer; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2012-07-19

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a severe and frequent blinding disease in horses which presents with auto-reactive invading T-cells, resulting in the destruction of the inner eye. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the retina and vitreous is driven by currently unknown guidance cues, however surgical removal of the vitreous (vitrectomy) has proven therapeutically successful. Therefore, proteomic analyses of vitrectomy samples are likely to result in detection of proteins contributing to disease pathogenesis. Vitreous from healthy and ERU diseased horses were directly compared by quantitative mass spectrometry based on label-free quantification of peak intensities across samples. We found a significant upregulation of complement and coagulation cascades and downregulation of negative paracrine regulators of canonical Wnt signalling including the Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2. Based on immunohistochemistry, both proteins are expressed in equine retina and suggest localisation to retinal Müller glial cells (RMG), which may be the source cells for these proteins. Furthermore, retinal expression levels and patterns of DKK3 change in response to ERU. Since many other regulated proteins identified here are associated with RMG cells, these cells qualify as the prime responders to autoimmune triggers.

  4. Pediatric residents experience a significant decline in their response capabilities to simulated life-threatening events as their training frequency in cardiopulmonary resuscitation decreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin M; Miller, Michael P; Schmidt, Kathleen; Sagy, Mayer

    2011-05-01

    To determine the frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education using high-fidelity patient simulators during pediatric residency training. Randomized controlled trial. Suburban tertiary care children's hospital residency training program. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents. Twenty-four second year pediatric residents were randomized into two study groups, 12 residents in each. Both groups completed a formal resuscitation training course utilizing lectures, skill stations, and six scenarios on high-fidelity patient stimulators. Group A was retested on three scenarios 4 months after training and group B was similarly retested 8 months after training. Time intervals from induction of a clinical problem to its definitive management were recorded for each resident. Residents were also asked to complete surveys following each episode of training and testing. The mean time intervals, for group A, to start effective bag mask ventilation and chest compressions in response to apnea and cardiac arrest were 17.75 secs (± 3.39 secs) and 23.42 secs (± 9.33 secs), respectively. These were significantly shorter than 32.7 secs (± 18.6 secs) and 81.2 secs (± 74.9 secs), for group B, respectively (p training, when compared to 4 months after training. These results may indicate that residents require more frequent training than currently recommended.

  5. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boil down study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-I06 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27°C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C. The boiling temperature of the composite was measured at three different pressures (40, 60, and 80 Torr) throughout the volume reduction, and the results show steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction and no significant discontinuities. Moderate foaming was observed at the onset of the boildown. The foaming disappeared during the first reduction step, and minimal foaming was observed throughout the rest of the study. The bulk densities at 18.0 °C (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates. Estimated values of the bulk densities at the 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were first observed at boildown temperatures when the % VWR reached 39.3%. The quantity of solids in the composite quickly increased after this initial formation; the amount of centrifuged solids increased by 22% as the %WVR increased from 39.3 to 44.1 %. A small amount of solids did appear in the samples collected prior to the initial formation during the boildown. These solids precipitated while they sat at hot cell ambient temperature and in the 18. 0 °C water bath. Analysis of boil down test samples indicated that natrophosphate (Na7{sub 3}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{centerdot} 19 H{sub 2}O) and kogarkoite (Na3FS04) accounted for a majority of the initial solids (~80% of the

  6. Treatment of serum with supernatants from cultures of Candida albicans reduces its serum-dependent phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Aderbal Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a potent activator of the complement system, and heat labile opsonins produced by activation of C3 (C3b and iC3b enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans mediated by complement receptors. In this study we treated mouse serum with supernatants from cultures of a protease producer strain of C. albicans and evaluated the ability of this serum to enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans. Cell-free supernatants from cultures of C. albicans were concentrated 5 fold and added to mouse serum for 30 min at 37ºC, before using this serum for opsonization of glutaraldehyde-fixed yeast cells. We observed that normal mouse serum increased about 3 fold the phagocytosis of C. albicans by mice peritoneal macrophages, whereas supernatant-treated serum did not increase phagocytosis. This effect of supernatants on serum was prevented by addition of pepstatin (5 µg/ ml; an inhibitor of C. albicans acid proteases to the medium. Serum treated with supernatants from cultures of a protease-deficient mutant of C. albicans also increased about 3 fold phagocytosis of the yeast. These results suggest that a protease produced by C. albicans causes proteolysis of serum opsonins, thereby reducing the phagocytosis of the yeast.

  7. Residual urinary extracellular vesicles in ultracentrifugation supernatants after hydrostatic filtration dialysis enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Tataruch-Weinert, Dorota; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Holthofer, Harry

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant. TEM showed the presence of a variety of small size vesicles in the supernatant while protein identification by MS matched accurately with the protein list available in Vesiclepedia. Screening and relative quantification for specific vesicle markers showed that the supernatant was preferentially positive for CD9 and TSG101. ELISA tests for quantification of exosome revealed that 14%, was left in the supernatant with a particle diameter of 110 nm and concentration of 1.54 × 1010/ml. Here we show a comprehensive characterisation of exosomes and other small size urinary vesicles which the conventional differential centrifugation protocol may lose.

  8. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiu Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%, O2•- (85%, OH• (76%, and Fe2+ chelation (82% and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L, and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.01. Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases.

  9. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2•− (85%), •OH (76%), and Fe2+ chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  10. Evaluation of Hanford Tank Supernatant Availability for Technetium Management Project Studies in FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report examines the need for actual Hanford tank waste solutions to support tasks in the Technetium Management Program in fiscal year (FY) 2016. One key need is to identify both samples where a majority of the soluble technetium is present as pertechnetate and samples where it is not. The total amount of tank supernatant needed from any given tank waste supernatant was determined by polling the tasks leaders for their technology testing needs in FY16 and then arbitrarily ascribing a 10% process loss associated with consolidation and the Cs-137 removal needed to reduce the dose to a level suitable for testing in radiological fumehoods. These polling results identified a need for approximately 2.1 to 3.6 kg of any particular targeted Hanford tank waste supernatant.

  11. Long acting β2-agonist and corticosteroid restore airway glandular cell function altered by bacterial supernatant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrocki-Raby Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus releases virulence factors (VF that may impair the innate protective functions of airway cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate, Sal combined with a corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate, FP was able to regulate ion content and cytokine expression by airway glandular cells after exposure to S. aureus supernatant. Methods A human airway glandular cell line was incubated with S. aureus supernatant for 1 h and then treated with the combination Sal/FP for 4 h. The expression of actin and CFTR proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Videomicroscopy was used to evaluate chloride secretion and X-ray microanalysis to measure the intracellular ion and water content. The pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results When the cells were incubated with S. aureus supernatant and then with Sal/FP, the cellular localisation of CFTR was apical compared to the cytoplasmic localisation in cells incubated with S. aureus supernatant alone. The incubation of airway epithelial cells with S. aureus supernatant reduced by 66% the chloride efflux that was fully restored by Sal/FP treatment. We also observed that Sal/FP treatment induced the restoration of ion (Cl and S and water content within the intracellular secretory granules of airway glandular cells and reduced the bacterial supernatant-dependent increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and TNFα. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that treatment with the combination of a corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist after bacterial infection restores the airway glandular cell function. Abnormal mucus induced by defective ion transport during pulmonary infection could benefit from treatment with a combination of β2 adrenergic receptor agonist and glucocorticoid.

  12. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AW-106 in December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.

    2013-06-04

    This document reports the results of a boildown study using a composite created from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AW-106 in December of 2012. The composite was made using predetermined volumes of the grab samples which accounted for layering of the supernatant liquid in the tank. The finished composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (24 - 27 °C). The density of the test composite was measured in the hot cell immediately before the boildown study and was 1.266 g/mL at 27.1 °C.

  13. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  14. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils.

  15. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Schaumberger, Simone; Nagl, Veronika; Hessenberger, Sabine; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL) on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis.

  16. Concentration Dependent Influence of Lipopolysaccharides on Separation of Hoof Explants and Supernatant Lactic Acid Concentration in an Ex Vivo/In Vitro Laminitis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Reisinger

    Full Text Available Laminitis is one of the most common diseases in horses. It is not only painful for the animal, but also has a significant financial impact on the equine industry. This multifactorial disease affects the connective tissue of the hoof. However, the pathogenesis of laminitis is still not fully understood. Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, and bacterial exotoxins seem to play an important role during the development of laminitis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of increasing LPS concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 100 μg/mL on cell viability of isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells as well as on the tissue integrity of hoof explants. Furthermore, glucose, acetic acid, lactic acid, and propionic acid concentrations in explant supernatants were measured to evaluate the energy metabolism in the hoof tissue. LPS did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on epidermal or dermal cells. Force required to separate LPS treated hoof explants decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Specifically, explants incubated with 10 and 100 μg/mL needed significantly less force to separate compared to control explants. Lactic acid concentrations were significantly decreased in explants incubated with 5, 10, or 100 μg/mL LPS, while glucose, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were unaffected by LPS treatment. Our study indicates that LPS has no cytotoxic effect on epidermal and dermal cells isolated from hoof tissue, but impairs integrity of hoof explants. In addition, LPS led to an alteration of the lactic acid production in the lamellar tissue. Since our data highlight that LPS can affect the integrity of the equine hoof tissue in vitro, endotoxins should be further explored for their contribution to facilitate the development of laminitis.

  17. Boildown Study on Supernatant Liquid Retrieved from AP-107 in May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Page, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-12

    A boildown study was completed on a composite prepared from supernatant liquid grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-107 in May of 2010. The composite was a clear, yellow liquid containing no visible solids at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C). The density of the test composite was 1.216 g/mL at 26.8 °C. The boiling temperature curves generated at three reduced pressures—40-, 60-, and 80 Torr—displayed steadily increasing boiling temperatures with increasing volume reduction with no significant discontinuities. Only minimal foaming was observed after the volume reduction proceeded beyond 50 %WVR (percent waste volume reduction). The bulk densities (D{sub Bulk}{sup 18 °C}) and quantities of settled and centrifuged solids present were measured on samples of the boildown concentrates that were kept at 18 °C for 7-8 days. Estimated values of the bulk densities of the concentrates at 60-Torr boiling temperatures (D{sub Bulk}{sup 60 Torr}) were also calculated. Solids were observed in all boildown concentrates at process temperatures, at hot cell ambient temperatures (25-27 °C), and at 18 °C. The quantity of solids found in the cooled concentrates increased slowly through 50.2 %WVR. The quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54.0 %WVR was noticeably greater. Beyond 54.0 %WVR, the quantity of solids found in cooled concentrates increased dramatically. Analysis of boildown test samples indicated that sodium oxalate and sodium carbonate solids form in cooled concentrates after volume reduction of 8.4 %WVR or less. The major contributors to the large increase in the quantity of solids found in concentrates after 54 %WVR were sodium nitrate and sodium carbonate.

  18. Rapid Extracellular Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cunninghamella phaeospora Culture Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareib, Mohamed; Tahon, Medhat Abu; Saif, Mona Mostafa; El-Sayed Abdallah, Wafaa

    2016-01-01

    The development of green approaches for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is of prime significance in the field of nanotechnology research. A fast and eco-friendly protocol for the biosynthesis of extracellular AgNPs using culture supernatant (CS) from the fungus Cunninghamella phaeospora was studied in this work. This CS was proved as a potential new source for the extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs were formed at 100 oC and pH 9 within four min of contact between CS and 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. Nitrate reductase (NR) was confirmed to play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The enzyme expressed its highest activity at 80 oC and pH 9. At 100 oC the enzyme retained 70% of its original activity for one hour. The half-life (T1/2) of the enzyme activity was calculated to be 1.55 h confirming its thermostability. The produced AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high resolution-transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). These NPs showed an absorption peak at 415 nm in UV-Vis spectrum corresponding to the plasmon resonance of AgNPs. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the production of monodispersed spherical NPs with average particle size 14 nm. XRD spectrum of the NPs confirmed the formation of metallic crystalline silver. It was also suggested that the aromatic amino acids play a role in the biosynthesis process. The current research provided an insight on the green biosynthesis of AgNPs including some mechanistic aspects using a new mycogenic source.

  19. Cell vacuolation induced by Haemophilus influenzae supernatants in HEp-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario Espinoza-Mellado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae belongs to respiratory tract microbiota. We observed vacuoles formation in previous studies with H. influenzae culture supernatants, so in this work we characterised that cytotoxic effect. We observed an abundant production of acidic cytoplasmic vacuoles due to the presence of a “vacuolating factor” in H. influenzae supernatants which was characterised as thermolabile. Greatest vacuolating activity was observed when utilizing the fraction > 50 kDa. The presence of a large number of vacuoles in HEp-2 cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy and some vacuoles were identified with a double membrane and/or being surrounded by ribosomes. These results suggest similar behaviour to that of vacuolating effects described by autotransporter proteins an undescribed cytotoxic effect induced by H. influenzae .

  20. Use of spray-dried zirconia microspheres in the separation of immunoglobulins from cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A; Carr, P W; McNeff, C V

    2000-08-18

    A method suitable for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on novel zirconia microspheres (20-30 microm) is described. Zirconia microspheres were generated by spray drying colloidal zirconia. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were further classified and characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were modified with ethylenediamine-N,N'-tetra(methylenephosphonic) acid (EDTPA) to create a cation-exchange chromatographic support. The chromatographic behavior of a semi-preparative column packed with EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres was evaluated and implications for scale-up are provided. EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres were further used to purify MAbs from cell culture supernatant. Analysis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis demonstrate that MAbs can be recovered from a cell culture supernatant at high yield (92-98%) and high purity (>95%) in a single chromatographic step.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Profiles of Cytokine, Chemokine, and Growth Factors Produced by Human Decidual Cells Are Altered by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Siwen; Kim, Sung O; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R G; Bocking, Alan D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 supernatant (GR-1SN) on secretion profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from primary cultures of human decidual cells. Lipopolysaccharide significantly increased the output of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1B, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]); anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN, IL-4, IL-9, and IL-10); chemokines (IL-8, eotaxin, IFN-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α], macrophage inflammatory protein-1β [MIP-1β], and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES]); and growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] 3, CSF-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1SN alone significantly increased CSF-3, MIP-1α MIP-1β, and RANTES but decreased IL-15 and IP-10 output. The GR-1SN also significantly or partially reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17, and IP-10; partially reduced LPS-induced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RN, IL-4 and IL-10, and LPS-induced VEGFA output but did not affect CSF-3, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-9. Our results demonstrate that GR-1SN attenuates the inflammatory responses to LPS by human decidual cells, suggesting its potential role in ameliorating intrauterine infection.

  2. Thalidomide and pentoxifylline block the renal effects of supernatants of macrophages activated with Crotalus durissus cascavella venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.C. Martins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Because thalidomide and pentoxifylline inhibit the synthesis and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, we determined the effect of these drugs on the renal damage induced by supernatants of macrophages activated with Crotalus durissus cascavella venom in order to identify the role of TNF-alpha in the process. Rat peritoneal macrophages were collected with RPMI medium and stimulated in vitro with C.d. cascavella venom (10 µg/ml in the absence and presence of thalidomide (15 µM or pentoxifylline (500 µM for 1 h and washed and kept in culture for 2 h. Supernatant (1 ml was tested on an isolated perfused rat kidney (N = 6 for each group. The first 30 min of each experiment were used as control. The supernatant was added to the perfusion system. All experiments lasted 120 min. The toxic effect of the preparation of venom-stimulated macrophages on renal parameters was determined. At 120 min, thalidomide (Thalid and pentoxifylline (Ptx inhibited (P < 0.05 the increase in perfusion pressure caused by the venom (control = 114.0 ± 1.3; venom = 137.1 ± 1.5; Thalid = 121.0 ± 2.5; Ptx = 121.4 ± 4.0 mmHg, renal vascular resistance (control = 4.5 ± 0.2; venom = 7.3 ± 0.6; Thalid = 4.5 ± 0.9; Ptx = 4.8 ± 0.6 mmHg/ml g-1 min-1, urinary flow (control = 0.23 ± 0.001; venom = 0.44 ± 0.01; Thalid = 0.22 ± 0.007; Ptx = 0.21 ± 0.009 ml g-1 min-1, glomerular filtration rate (control = 0.72 ± 0.06; venom = 1.91 ± 0.11; Thalid = 0.75 ± 0.04; Ptx = 0.77 ± 0.05 ml g-1 min-1 and the decrease in percent tubular sodium transport (control = 77.0 ± 0.9; venom = 73.9 ± 0.66; Thalid = 76.6 ± 1.1; Ptx = 81.8 ± 2.0%, percent tubular chloride transport (control = 77.1 ± 1.2; venom = 71.4 ± 1.1; Thalid = 77.6 ± 1.7; Ptx = 76.8 ± 1.2%, and percent tubular potassium transport (control = 72.7 ± 1.1; venom = 63.0 ± 1.1; Thalid = 72.6 ± 1.0; Ptx = 74.8 ± 1.0%, 30 min before and during the stimulation of macrophages with C.d. cascavella venom

  3. Inhibition of biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica by quorum sensing signal in cell-free supernatant from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Aifei; Zhu, Junli; Ye, Xiaofeng; Ge, Yangyang; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-02

    The objective of this study was to in vitro evaluate the effect of a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing quorum sensing (QS) signal of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth, biofilm development and spoilage potential of Shewanella baltica, and preliminarily assess the interactive influences of various chemically synthesized autoinducers on spoilage phenotypes of S. baltica. PF01 strain isolated from spoiled Pseudosciaen crocea was identified P. fluorescens. The addition of 25% and 50% CFS to S. baltica culture had no effect on the growth rate during the lag and exponential phase, however, caused cell decline during the stationary phase. The presence of CFS from P. fluorescens significantly inhibited biofilm development, and greatly decreased the production of trimethylamine (TMA) and biogenic amino in S. baltica. Various signal molecules of QS in the CFS of P. fluorescens culture were detected, including seven N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and two diketopiperazines (DKPs). Exogenous supplement of synthesized seven AHLs containing in the CFS decreased biofilm formation and TMA production in S. baltica, while exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was showed to promote spoilage potential, which revealed that S. baltica also sense the two QS molecules. Furthermore, the stimulating effect of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was affected when AHL was simultaneously added, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of spoilage phenotypes in S. baltica might be attributed to a competitive effect of these QS compounds in the CFS of P. fluorescens. The present studies provide a good basis for future research on the role of QS in the regulation of spoilage microbial flora.

  4. Modelling antagonic effect of lactic acid eacteria supernatants on some pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a statistical model of survival analysis for three pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus), when treated with neutralized and non-neutralized filtered supernatants broth from cultures of Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake. Survival analysis is a method employed to determine the period of time from an initial stage up to the occurrence of a particular event of interest, as death...

  5. A circle dance in a psychiatric setting : can a circle dance intervention decrease levels of depressed affect among patients with mental health illnesses and, if so, what aspect of this dance is most significant?

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, Ella King

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the circle dance in decreasing depressed affect amongst a group of 45 patients with severe mental health illnesses and highlights the most significant aspect of that dance. Patients participated in one of four conditions: a group performing a regular traditional upbeat Irish circle dance holding hands and with a jump step [jump+hands]; a group performing the same dance holding hands with no jump step [hands]; a group performing the same dance without holdin...

  6. Dormant cells of Staphylococcus aureus are resuscitated by spent culture supernatant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Pascoe

    Full Text Available We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 10(6-10(7 cfu/ml to 600-fold increase in bacterial growth. Resuscitation was a specific effect, greatly reduced by boiling or addition of trypsin to the spent supernatant. Supernatant also effected a reduction in lag phase of dormant cultures. SEM demonstrated the presence of small coccoid cells in dormant cultures. The results are similar to those seen with resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs in actinobacteria. This is the first time resuscitation has been demonstrated in Staphylococcus aureus, which is an important human pathogen. A better understanding of control and reactivation of dormant cells could lead to major improvements in managing staphylococcal infections; resuscitation could be an important step in restoring susceptibility to antibiotic treatment.

  7. Beneficial effects of BV2 cell on proliferation and neuron-differentiating of mesenchymal stem cells in the circumstance of injured PC12 cell supernatant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Guang LUO; Hong WANG; Jin ZHOU; Rong YAN; Zhe WU; Chao-Dong ZHANG; Qiu-Shuang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective The microglias is the representative of immune cells in the brain. It plays dual roles of both repairing and damaging in injured nervous system, and works as an inevitable component of the circumstance of injured neurons. This study was aiming at the effects of the microglias on the biological activities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) inthe circumstance of injured neurons. Methods MSCs were obtained by primary culture. We adopted PC12 cells (PC12) and BV2 cells (BV2) to substitute for neurons and microglias, respectively. PC12 were injured by aged Aβ1-40 and the supernatant of the injured PC12 was used to set up the circumstance of injured neurons. Transwells were used for co-culture of BV2 and MSCs, which allowed the independent detection of cells after co-culture. Immunofluorescence was used to identify MSCs and neuron-differentiating cells with CD44 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) staining, respectively. MTT assay was adopted to measure the proliferation. Results In the circumstance of both BV2 presence and injured PC12 supernatant incubation, either the proliferation or the differentiation of MSCs reached the highest, which seemed to be contradictory, but we gave our explanations. With the BV2 co-culture, the proliferation of MSCs tend to be higher, but the neuron-differentiating MSCs were similar to those incubated without BV2 co-culture either in normal or injured in PC12 supernatant. With the incubation of injured PC12 supernatant, the neuron-differentiating cells were significantly higher than that of control (P < 0.05). Conclusion In the circumstance of injured neurons, microlgias tend to promote the MSCs proliferation. Although not helpful in neuron-differentiating, microglias did not exert any negative effect either.

  8. The effect of NaCl substitution with KCl on proteinase activities of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant at different pH levels and salt concentrations: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash, M M; Sherkat, F; Shah, N P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl at different pH levels and salt concentrations on proteinase activity of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant of the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei. de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth aliquots were mixed with 2 pure salts (NaCl and KCl) and 2 salt concentrations at 2 concentration levels (5 and 10%), inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei, and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 22 h. The cultures were then centrifuged at 4,000×g for 30 min, and the collected cell pellets were used to prepare cell-wall proteinases and the supernatants used as a source of supernatant (extracellular) proteinases. The proteolytic activity and protein content of both portions were determined. After incubation of both portions with 3 milk caseins (α-, β-, κ-casein), the supernatants were individually subjected to analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and proteolytic activity using the o-phthalaldehyde method. Significant differences were observed in ACE-inhibitory and proteolytic activities between salt substitution treatments of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant from both probiotic strains at the same salt concentration and pH level.

  9. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application.

  11. Study of gelatin-agar intermolecular aggregates in the supernatant of its coacervate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S Santinath; Bohidar, H B; Bandyopadhyay, S

    2007-05-15

    Intermolecular interaction leading to formation of aggregates between gelatin, a polyampholyte, and agar, a polysaccharide was studied in the supernatant of the complex coacervate formed by these biopolymers. Electrophoresis, laser light scattering and viscometry data were used to determine the interaction and the physical structure of these intermolecular soluble complexes by modeling these to be prolate ellipsoids of revolution (rod-like structures with well defined axial ratio and Perrin's factor). Solution ionic strength was found to reduce the axial ratio of these complexes implying the presence of screened polarization-induced electrostatic interaction between the two biopolymers.

  12. Detection of p-coumaric acid from cell supernatant using surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Zor, Kinga

    2016-01-01

    A standard protocol for analysis of microbial factories requires the screening of several populations in order to find the bestperforming ones. Standard analytical methods usually include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layerchromatography (TLC) or spectrophotometry, which...... on detection ofp-coumaric acid (pHCA) in cell supernatant.SERS active substrates, based on leaning gold-capped silicon nanopillars, were used for detection. They were successfullyused to detect culture medium spiked with pHCA, and the effect of medium dilution was studied. For analysis of biologicalproduction...

  13. Plasma levels of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) are significantly lower preoperatively in colorectal cancer patients than in cancer-free patients and are further decreased during the first month after minimally invasive colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha Kumara, H M C; Kirchoff, Daniel; Herath, Sajith A; Jang, Joon Ho; Yan, Xiaohong; Grieco, Michael; Cekic, Vesna; Whelan, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    Surgery has been associated with proangiogenic plasma protein changes that may promote tumor growth. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is expressed by endothelial cells and other tissues in response to hypoxia. Both intact ANGPTL4 and its partly degraded C-terminal fragment may promote tumor angiogenesis. This study had two purposes: to measure and compare preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and benign colorectal disease (BCD) and to determine plasma levels after minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR) for CRC. Plasma was obtained from an IRB-approved plasma/data bank. Preoperative plasma ANGPTL4 levels were measured for CRC and BCD patients, but postoperative levels were determined only for CRC patients for whom a preoperative, a postoperative day (POD) 3, and at least one late postoperative sample (POD 7-55) were available. Late samples were bundled into four time blocks and considered as single time points. ANGPTL4 levels (mean ± SD) were measured via ELISA and compared (significance, p MICR for CRC, levels are significantly lower for over a month compared with the preoperative level; the cause for this persistent decrease is unclear. The implications of both the lower preoperative level and the persistently decreased postoperative levels are unclear. Further studies are needed.

  14. Immunoproteomic analysis of antibody in lymphocyte supernatant in patients with typhoid fever in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Richelle C; Liang, Li; Khanam, Farhana; Sayeed, M Abu; Hung, Chris; Leung, Daniel T; Baker, Stephen; Ludwig, Albrecht; Harris, Jason B; Larocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Felgner, Philip L; Ryan, Edward T

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that an assay based on detection of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibodies in supernatant of lymphocytes harvested from patients presenting with typhoid fever (antibody in lymphocyte supernatant [ALS] assay) can identify 100% of patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Bangladesh. In order to define immunodominant proteins within the S. Typhi membrane preparation used as antigen in these prior studies and to identify potential biomarkers unique to S. Typhi bacteremic patients, we probed microarrays containing 2,724 S. Typhi proteins with ALS collected at the time of clinical presentation from 10 Bangladeshis with acute typhoid fever. We identified 62 immunoreactive antigens when evaluating both the IgG and IgA responses. Immune responses to 10 of these antigens discriminated between individuals with acute typhoid infection and healthy control individuals from areas where typhoid infection is endemic, as well as Bangladeshi patients presenting with fever who were subsequently confirmed to have a nontyphoid illness. Using an ALS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format and purified antigen, we then confirmed that immune responses against the antigen with the highest immunoreactivity (hemolysin E [HlyE]) correctly identified individuals with acute typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. These observations suggest that purified antigens could be used with ALS and corresponding acute-phase activated B lymphocytes in diagnostic platforms to identify acutely infected patients, even in areas where enteric fever is endemic.

  15. Flow Cytometry Sorting to Separate Viable Giant Viruses from Amoeba Co-culture Supernatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Jacques Y. B.; Langlois, Thierry; Andreani, Julien; Sorraing, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Camoin, Laurence; La Scola, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry has contributed to virology but has faced many drawbacks concerning detection limits, due to the small size of viral particles. Nonetheless, giant viruses changed many concepts in the world of viruses, as a result of their size and hence opened up the possibility of using flow cytometry to study them. Recently, we developed a high throughput isolation of viruses using flow cytometry and protozoa co-culture. Consequently, isolating a viral mixture in the same sample became more common. Nevertheless, when one virus multiplies faster than others in the mixture, it is impossible to obtain a pure culture of the minority population. Here, we describe a robust sorting system, which can separate viable giant virus mixtures from supernatants. We tested three flow cytometry sorters by sorting artificial mixtures. Purity control was assessed by electron microscopy and molecular biology. As proof of concept, we applied the sorting system to a co-culture supernatant taken from a sample containing a viral mixture that we couldn't separate using end point dilution. In addition to isolating the quick-growing Mimivirus, we sorted and re-cultured a new, slow-growing virus, which we named “Cedratvirus.” The sorting assay presented in this paper is a powerful and versatile tool for separating viral populations from amoeba co-cultures and adding value to the new field of flow virometry. PMID:28111619

  16. Bioleaching of metals from steel slag by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocheng, Hong; Su, Cheer; Jadhav, Umesh U

    2014-12-01

    The generation of 300–500 kg of slag per ton of the steel produced is a formidable amount of solid waste available for treatment. They usually contain considerable quantities of valuable metals. In this sense, they may become either important secondary resource if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals or potential pollutants, if not treated properly. It is possible to recover metals from steel slag by applying bioleaching process. Electric arc furnace (EAF) slag sample was used for bioleaching of metals. In the present study, before bioleaching experiment water washing of an EAF slag was carried out. This reduced slag pH from 11.2 to 8.3. Culture supernatants of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (At. thiooxidans), Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (At. ferrooxidans), and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) were used for metal solubilization. At. thiooxidans culture supernatant containing 0.016 M sulfuric acid was found most effective for bioleaching of metals from an EAF slag. Maximum metal extraction was found for Mg (28%), while it was least for Mo (0.1%) in six days. Repeated bioleaching cycles increased metal recovery from 28% to 75%, from 14% to 60% and from 11% to 27%, for Mg, Zn and Cu respectively.

  17. Evolution of composition of dairy manure supernatant in a controlled dung pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, C; García, H; Rico, J L; Fernández, J; Renedo, J

    2009-12-01

    Anaerobic conversion of dairy manure into biogas is an attractive way of managing this waste. It is well known that the hydrolysis of large molecules into small, directly biodegradable ones is the rate limiting step of the overall anaerobic process. The present work studies the development of the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages of dairy manure with different solid concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g VS/L) at ambient temperature (20 degrees C). The purpose was to determine the operational conditions that provide a liquid fraction with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a high volatile fatty acids (VFA) content in manure before the methanogenic stage starts up. At 20 degrees C, the evolution of the studied parameters showed that, in a controlled plug-flow dung pit, the hydrolytic and acidogenic stages progressed moderately in a continuous way during the 25 days that the experimentation lasted, whereas no methanization was observed. Supernatant COD and VFA concentrations increased 30% and 107%, respectively, for the 60 g VS/L samples. Manure was also operated at 35 degrees C with a similar increase in supernatant COD but a higher increase in VFA, 154%. For both operational temperatures, the predominant VFAs were, in this order, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. During the operation at 35 degrees C, the methanogenic stage started between days 20 and 25 for the samples with lower solids content, i.e. 40 and 60 g VS/L.

  18. Analysis of IL-2-like factor in lymphocyte culture supernatant of olive flounder, Paralichthys oliveaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Riqin; ZHANG Peijun; LI Jun; XU Yongli

    2005-01-01

    To study immune mechanism of fish lymphocyte we performed a proliferation assay and ELISA using monoclonal antibody against human IL-2. The result showed that an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-like factor was detected in the supernatant of plant haemoglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte culture from peripheral blood,spleen and head kidney of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The quantities of IL-2-1ike factor in the supematant from different lymphoid tissues were quite different. The IL-2 like factor in the supernatant from cultured head kidney lymphocytes was much higher than those of peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes (P<0.01). The IL-2 activity was found in either mouse thymocyte proliferation assay or flounder head kidney lymphocyte proliferation assay and shown to have obvious enhancing effect on proliferation of the above two types of cell. The recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) was able to stimulate flounder thymocyte proliferation and used to detect the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) on the surface of flounder lymphocyte. The cross-reaction between the lymphocytes of flounder peripheral blood and CD25(IL-2R) was detected with flow cytometry and shown that the percentage of CD25-positive cell in peripheral blood was 7.74± 0.67%.

  19. Ferric Iron and Cobalt (III) compounds to safely decrease hydrogen sulfide in the body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Louw, Andry; Haouzi, Philippe

    2013-08-10

    To sort out the putative roles of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in clinical conditions wherein systemic inflammation or hypoxia is present, it becomes crucial to develop approaches capable of affecting H2S concentration that can be safely applied in humans. We have investigated a paradigm, which could achieve such a goal, using vitamin B12 (vit.B12), at the dose recommended in cyanide poisoning, and very low levels of methemoglobin (MetHb). Hydroxocobalamin in the plasma, supernatant of kidney, and heart tissue homogenates of rats that had received vit.B12 (140 mg.kg(-1) intravenous) was found in the μM range. Exogenous H2S (100 μM) added to the plasma or supernatants of these rats decreased at a significantly higher rate than in control rats. In the latter however a spontaneous oxidation of exogenous H2S occurred. In vitro, hydroxocobalamin solution (100 μM) decreased, within <2 min, an equimolar concentration of H2S by 80%. Three to five percent MetHb prevented H2S induced hyperventilation in vivo and decreased exogenous H2S in vitro by 25-40 μM within 30 s. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that innocuous levels of MetHb and vit.B12 could be a used as an effective and safe way to test the role of endogenous H2S in vivo.

  20. Comparison among three anion exchange chromatographic supports to capture erythropoietin from cell culture supernatant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lourdes HERNNDEZ; Diobel STEWART; Lourdes ZUMALACRREGUI; Daniel AMARO

    2015-01-01

    Affinity and ion exchange conventional chromatography have been used to capture erythropoietin ( EPO)from mammalian cell culture supernatant. Currently,chromatographic adsorbent perfusion is available, however a limited number of applications have been found in the literature. In this work,three anion exchange chromatographic supports( gel,membrane and monolithic)were evaluated in the capture step of the recombi-nant erythropoietin purification process. The influences of load and flow rate on each support performance were analyzed. Also the purity of the EPO molecules was determined. A productivity analysis,as a decision tool for larger scale implementation,was done. As a conclusion,the evaluated supports are technically suitable to cap-ture EPO with adequate recovery and good purity. However,the monolithic column admits high operating velocity,showing the highest adsorption capacity and productivity.

  1. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  2. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  3. [Effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi'er; Lyu, Lu; Xin, Haiming; Luo, Liang; Tong, Yalin; Mo, Yongliang; Yue, Yigang

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs-CS) on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts. (1) hAMSCs were isolated from deprecated human fresh amnion tissue of placenta and then sub-cultured. The morphology of hAMSCs on culture day 3 and hAMSCs of the third passage were observed with inverted phase contrast microscope. (2) Two batches of hAMSCs of the third passage were obtained, then the expression of vimentin of cells was observed with immunofluorescence method, and the expression of cell surface marker CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD45 was detected by flow cytometer. (3) hAMSCs-CS of the third passage at culture hour 72 were collected, and the content of insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (4) Human fibroblasts were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision and then sub-cultured. Human fibroblasts of the third passage were used in the following experiments. Cells were divided into blank control group and 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% hAMSCs-CS groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 48 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while cells in the latter 4 groups were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS and 2% FBS. The proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader at culture hour 12, 24, 48, and 72, respectively, and corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS which causing the best proliferation activity of human fibroblasts was used in the following experiments. (5) Human fibroblasts were divided into blank control group and 50% hAMSCs-CS group and treated as in (4), with 4 wells in each group, at post

  4. High-efficient n-butanol production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Zeng, Qingwei; Han, Shuo; Wang, Zhaoyu; Dong, Qing; Bi, Yanhong; Zhao, Yuping

    2017-04-01

    Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated. Subsequently, we found that adding certain amino acids could effectively enhance butyrate re-assimilation, butanol tolerance and titer (from 11.1 to 14.8 g/L). Additionally, in order to decrease the raw material cost, butyrate fermentative supernatant produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was applied to butanol production in the Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culture system, instead of adding synthetic butyrate. Final butanol and total ABE concentrations reached higher levels of 16.3 and 24.8 g/L with increments of 46.8 and 37.8%, respectively. These results show that the proposed fermentation strategy has great potential for efficiently butanol production with an economic approach.

  5. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.

    1981-03-01

    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  6. Supernatant from a cloned helper T cell stimulates resting B cells to express transferrin and IL-2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Leclercq, L; Dautry-Varsat, A; Theze, J

    1987-07-01

    We describe the properties of the supernatant from a murine cloned helper T cell (clone 52.3) which is able to polyclonally activate most resting B cells in the absence of any additional stimulus. We hypothesize that an activity which we call BCAF (B-cell-activating factor(s] exists in our supernatant which can activate resting B cells alone or in conjunction with other lymphokines. In the present report, we investigate changes in the surface antigen pattern induced on resting B cells by BCAF-containing supernatant. Analysis of the cells by flow cytometry shows that transferrin receptor and IL-2 receptor expression increase on a large fraction of B cells after 2 days of activation by the T-helper-cell clone supernatant. Monoclonal anti-transferrin receptor antibody inhibits cell division but does not affect blastogenesis, while IL-2 has no effect in our experimental system. Our present results confirm that BCAF-containing supernatants can act on most resting B cells and replace helper T cells in inducing B-cell activation and proliferation.

  7. Disinfection effects of ultraviolet on supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farm%猪场沼液絮凝上清液的紫外线杀菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同; 董红敏; 陶秀萍

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of microorganisms in the liquid digestate from a swine farm. The liquid digestate should be disinfected prior to discharge or utilization for sanitary and environmental safety, but there is a lack of literature on the disinfection of liquid digestate from animal feeding operations. In view of the high turbidity and chromaticity, the transmittance (T254) of liquid digestate from swine farm is nearly zero, and liquid digestate must be treated prior to ultraviolet disinfection. Flocculation was applied to pre-treat liquid digestate in this study in order to obtain supernatants with different transmittances (T254) for the following disinfecting trials. In terms of total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, experiments were conducted to investigate the disinfecting feasibility and the effectiveness of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate under 60 experimental conditions, which were formed by 4×3×5 factorial combinations of transmittances (T254) (0.01%, 0.69%, 3.78%and 8.54%), water depth (WD) (1, 2 and 3 cm), and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). Results showed that T254, WD, and HRT all significantly affected (P<0.01) the disinfection effects of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate, and significant interactions (P<0.01) were also detected among the experimental factors. The disinfection rates of ultraviolet on total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were (99.99±1.20)%, (99.99±1.43)%, and (100.00±0.01)%respectively, under the condition of 0.69%T254, 2 cm WD, and 15 min HRT. In such cases, the fecal coliforms in the supernatant of flocculated digestate decreased from 3.9×106 count/L to less than 3 count/L. Therefore, ultraviolet could be applied for the disinfection of the supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farms, and the disinfected effluent could meet the sanitary requirements of the current national standards. It is

  8. Quantitative analysis of particles, genomes and infectious particles in supernatants of haemorrhagic fever virus cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedlund Kjell-Olof

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on the replication of viral haemorrhagic fever viruses is not readily available and has never been analysed in a comparative approach. Here, we compared the cell culture growth characteristics of haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV, of the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flavivridae virus families by performing quantitative analysis of cell culture supernatants by (i electron microscopy for the quantification of virus particles, (ii quantitative real time PCR for the quantification of genomes, and (iii determination of focus forming units by coating fluorescent antibodies to infected cell monolayers for the quantification of virus infectivity. The comparative analysis revealed that filovirus and RVFV replication results in a surplus of genomes but varying degrees of packaging efficiency and infectious particles. More efficient replication and packaging was observed for Lassa virus, and Dengue virus resulting in a better yield of infectious particles while, YFV turned out to be most efficient with only 4 particles inducing one FFU. For Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV a surplus of empty shells was observed with only one in 24 particles equipped with a genome. The complete particles turned out to be extraordinarily infectious.

  9. Protein A is released into the Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatant with an unprocessed sorting signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Dara P; Wynne, Kieran; Geoghegan, Joan A

    2015-04-01

    The immunoglobulin binding protein A (SpA) of Staphylococcus aureus is synthesized as a precursor with a C-terminal sorting signal. The sortase A enzyme mediates covalent attachment to peptidoglycan so that SpA is displayed on the surface of the bacterium. Protein A is also found in the extracellular medium, but the processes involved in its release are not fully understood. Here, we show that a portion of SpA is released into the supernatant with an intact sorting signal, indicating that it has not been processed by sortase A. Release of SpA was reduced when the native sorting signal of SpA was replaced with the corresponding region of another sortase-anchored protein (SdrE). Similarly, a reporter protein fused to the sorting signal of SpA was released to a greater extent than the same polypeptide fused to the SdrE sorting signal. Released SpA protected bacteria from killing in human blood, indicating that it contributes to immune evasion.

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from culture supernatant of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Qian, Peng-Zhi; Kopparapu, Narasimha-Kumar; Deng, Yong-Ping; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2014-02-28

    A fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by an edible mushroom of Pleurotus ostreatus using submerged culture fermentation. The enzyme was purified from the culture supernatant by applying a combination of freeze-thaw treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatographies. The enzyme was purified by a 147-fold, with a yield of 7.54%. The molecular masses of the enzyme an determined by gel filtration and SDSPAGE were 13.6 and 18.2 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.52. It hydrolyzed fibrinogen by cleaving the α and β chains of fibrinogen followed by the γ chains, and also activated plasminogen into plasmin. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 7.4. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by EDTA, whereas protease inhibitors of TPCK, SBTI, PMSF, aprotinin and pepstatin showed no inhibition on its activity. The partial amino acid sequences of the enzyme as determined by Q-TOF2 were ATFVGCSATR, GGTLIHESSHFTR, and YTTWFGTFVTSR. These sequences showed a high degree of homology with those of metallo-endopeptidases from P. ostreatus and Armillaria mellea. The purified enzyme can also be applied as a natural agent for oral fibrinolytic therapy or prevention of thrombosis.

  11. Multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of a monoclonal antibody from cell supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muendges, Jan; Zalesko, Alexej; Górak, Andrzej; Zeiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of continuous multistage aqueous two-phase extraction of an immunoglobulin G1 from cell supernatant in a mixer-settler unit. An aqueous two-phase system consisting of polyethylene glycol 2000, phosphate salt, and water was applied without and with sodium chloride (NaCl). Influences of different parameters such as throughput, phase ratio, and stage number on the extraction performance were analyzed. For systems without NaCl, the extraction was carried out as a washing step. An increase of stage number from one to five stages enabled to increase the immunoglobulin G1 purity from 11.8 to 32.6% at a yield of nearly 90%. Furthermore, a reduction of product phase volume due to a higher phase ratio led to an increase of purity from 20.8 to 29.6% in a three-stage countercurrent extraction. For experiments with NaCl moderate partitioning conditions were adjusted by adding 8 wt% NaCl. In that case, the extraction was carried out as a stripping step.

  12. Culture supernatants of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 treated with parthenolide inhibit the proliferation, migration, and lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cai-juan; GUO Su-fen; SHI Tie-mei

    2012-01-01

    Background Parthenolide has been tested for anti-tumor activities,such as anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis in recent studies.However,little is known about its role in the process of tumor angiogenesis.This study aims to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of parthenolide on the proliferation,migration and lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.Methods Different concentrations of parthenolide were applied to the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cells.After 24-hour incubation,the culture supematants were harvested and used to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells for 24 hours.Then an inverted fluorescence phase contrast microscope was used to evaluate the human umbilical vein endothelial cells.The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),interleukin (IL)-8 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in the culture supernatant of the MDA-MB-231 cells was then measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays.Results Suppression of proliferation,migration,and the lumen formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was observed in the presence of the culture supernatants from the breast cancer cell line treated with different concentrations of parthenolide.Parthenolide decreased the levels of the angiogenic factors MMP-9,VEGF,and IL-8secreted by the MDA-MB-231 cells.Conclusions Parthenolide may suppress angiogenesis through decreasing angiogenic factors secreted by breast cancer cells to interfere with the proliferation,migration and lumen-like structure formation of endothelial cells,thereby inhibiting tumor growth.It is a promising potential anti-angiogenic drug.

  13. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy detection of p-coumaric acid from cell supernatant using gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia; Jendresen, Christian Bille; Burger, Robert;

    HCA spiked in culture medium, in the same concentration range (10-4 – 10-5 M) commonly found in cell supernatant. For supernatant analysis, triplicate cultures of FjTAL modified (P strains) and control (C strains) E.coli strains were carried out according to the methods described by[5] and shown in Fig.1....... Samples of cell supernatant were extracted from each culture at 0, 3, 24 and 48 h post seeding and their pHCA content was measured with HPLC[5]. For SERS analysis, aliquots of supernatant were diluted 10-fold with MilliQ water, and 1 μL droplets were dried on the SERS substrates. A MatLab analysis......A standard protocol for analysis of microbial factories requires the screening of several populations in order to find the best performing ones. This is done with standard analytical methods (e.g. HPLC) with an expensive and time-consuming process. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS...

  14. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  15. Understanding ForteBio's Sensors for High-Throughput Kinetic and Epitope Screening for Purified Antibodies and Yeast Culture Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yao; Mitchell, Scott; Lynaugh, Heather; Brown, Michael; Nobrega, R Paul; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Sun, Tingwan; Caffry, Isabelle; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Rong; Burnina, Irina; Xu, Yingda; Estep, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Real-time and label-free antibody screening systems are becoming more popular because of the increasing output of purified antibodies and antibody supernatant from many antibody discovery platforms. However, the properties of the biosensor can greatly affect the kinetic and epitope binning results generated by these label-free screening systems. ForteBio human-specific ProA, anti-human IgG quantitation (AHQ), anti-human Fc capture (AHC) sensors, and custom biotinylated-anti-human Fc capture (b-AHFc) sensors were evaluated in terms of loading ability, regeneration, kinetic characterization, and epitope binning with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. AHC sensors proved unreliable for kinetic or binning assays at times, whereas AHQ sensors showed poor loading and regeneration abilities. ProA sensors worked well with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant. However, the interaction between ProA sensors and the Fab region of the IgG with VH3 germline limited the application of ProA sensors, especially in the epitope binning experiment. In an attempt to generate a biosensor type that would be compatible with a variety of germlines and sample types, we found that the custom b-AHFc sensors appeared to be robust working with both purified IgG and IgG supernatant, with little evidence of sensor-related artifacts.

  16. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  17. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) treatment of supernatant of cow manure by thermal pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Y; Nishii, A; Nishimoto, M; Yamada, N; Suzuki, T

    2006-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) methane fermentation treatment of cow manure that was subjected to screw pressing, thermal treatment and subsequent solid-liquid separation was studied. Conducting batch scale tests at temperatures between 140 and 180 degrees C, the optimal temperature for sludge settling and the color suppression was found to be between 160-170 degrees C. UASB treatment was carried out with a supernatant obtained from the thermal treatment at the optimal conditions (170 degrees C for 30 minutes) and polymer-dosed solid-liquid separation. In the UASB treatment with a COD(Cr) loading of 11.7 kg/m3/d and water temperature of 32.2 degrees C, the COD(Cr) level dropped from 16,360 mg/L in raw water to 3,940 mg/L in treated water (COD(Cr), removal rate of 75.9%), and the methane production rate per COD(Cr) was 0.187 Nm3/kg. Using wastewater thermal-treated at the optimal conditions, also a methane fermentation treatment with a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was conducted (COD(Cr) in raw water: 38,000 mg/L, hydraulic retention time (HRT): 20 days, 35 degrees C). At the COD(Cr) loading of 1.9 kg/m3/d, the methane production rate per COD(Cr), was 0.153 Nm3/kg. This result shows that UASB treatment using thermal pre-treatment provides a COD(Cr), loading of four times or more and a methane production rate of 1.3 times higher than the CSTR treatment.

  18. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling antagonic effect of lactic acid eacteria supernatants on some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustus Caeser Franke Portella

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a statistical model of survival analysis for three pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, when treated with neutralized and non-neutralized filtered supernatants broth from cultures of Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake. Survival analysis is a method employed to determine the period of time from an initial stage up to the occurrence of a particular event of interest, as death or a particular culture growth failure. In order to evaluate the potential efficacy of the ahead mentioned lactic acid bacteria when used as bioprotective starters in foods, experimental data were statistically treated and expressed by simple representative curves. Following the methodology of Cox and Kaplan-Meier, it was possible to make the selection of the best bioprotective lactic starter, as a predictive tool for evaluation of shelf life and prevention of eventual risks in fresh sausages and other similar food products.Este trabalho apresenta um modelo estatístico de análise de sobrevivência para três bactérias patogénicas (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus, quando tratados com sobrenadantes filtrados neutralizado e não neutralizado provenientes de culturas de Lactobacillus acidhophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus e Lactobacillus sake. A Análise de sobrevivência é um método utilizado para determinar o período de tempo a partir de uma fase inicial até a ocorrência de um determinado evento de interesse, como a morte ou a inibição de uma particular cultura, a fim de avaliar a eficácia potencial das referidas bactérias lácticas quando usadas como bioproteção em alimentos. Os dados experimentais foram tratados estatisticamente, seguindo a metodologia de Cox e Kaplan-Meier e foi possível fazer a seleção dos melhores fermentos láticos bioprotectivos, como uma ferramenta para avaliação preditiva, vida de

  20. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  1. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-05

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol.

  2. Oral Platelet Gel Supernatant Plus Supportive Medical Treatment Versus Supportive Medical Treatment in the Management of Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis: A Matched Explorative Active Control Trial by Propensity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni L; Marampon, Francesco; Rughetti, Anna; Di Staso, Mario; Dell'Orso, Luigi; Vittorini, Francesca; Moro, Roberto; La Verghetta, Maria E; Parente, Silvia; Reale, Marilisa; Ruggieri, Valeria; Franzese, Pietro; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Masciocchi, Carlo; Di Cesare, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    In this active control trial, the rate of radio-induced WHO grade 3/4 oral mucositis and the change in quality of life, assessed by OMWQ-HN, were measured in subjects with head and neck cancer treated by platelet gel supernatant (PGS) and supportive medical treatment versus subjects treated by supportive medical treatment alone. Eighty patients with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer underwent curative or adjuvant radiotherapy. All patients underwent supportive medical treatment and/or PGS at the beginning and during radiotherapy. Sixteen patients received PGS in association with supportive medical treatment. To obtain 2 groups virtually randomized for important clinical characteristics subjects were matched, by propensity analysis, with a group of subjects (64 patients) treated with supportive medical treatment alone. Subjects treated with standard supportive treatment experienced significant higher WHO grade 3/4 toxicity (55%; 35/64) than subjects treated by PGS (13%; 3/16). The reduced toxicity found in PGS group paralleled with the evidence that they developed later symptoms with respect to controls. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that patients treated with standard supportive medical treatment experienced 2.7-fold increase (hazard ratio=2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.7) in the occurrence of WHO grade 3/4 toxicity. PGS group significantly experienced higher quality of life than control groups as measured by OMWQ-HN. A significant decrease in the opioid analgesics usage was found in the PGS group. These preliminary data should be interpreted with caution and could serve as a framework around which to design future trials.

  3. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  4. Improving the performance of a biofuel cell cathode with laccase-containing culture supernatant from Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Winandy, Lex; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases that can be used in biofuel cells to improve cathode performance by cathodic oxygen reduction. Here we present a laccase from the ligninolytic white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus that, in contrast to the Trametes versicolor laccase, can be produced in the absence of inducers in a standard culture medium. After 7days of cultivation the activity of this laccase in culture supernatant reached 2.5U/ml, which is high enough for direct application of the supernatant in biofuel cells. The highest current density of 115.0±3.5μA/cm(2) at 400mV vs. SCE was obtained at pH 5 with a buckypaper cathode with a laccase-containing culture supernatant. The enzyme also showed electrocatalytic activity at pH 6 and 7. These results not only present a new cost-efficient laccase for improving cathode performance, but also show that new laccases with different catalytic properties can be suitable for biofuel cells.

  5. Performance of multiplex commercial kits to quantify cytokine and chemokine responses in culture supernatants from Plasmodium falciparum stimulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Moncunill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines are relevant biomarkers of pathology and immunity to infectious diseases such as malaria. Several commercially available kits based on quantitative suspension array technologies allow the profiling of multiple cytokines and chemokines in small volumes of sample. However, kits are being continuously improved and information on their performance is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Different cytokine/chemokine kits, two flow cytometry-based (eBioscience® FlowCytomix™ and BD™ Cytometric Bead Array Human Enhanced Sensitivity and four Luminex®-based (Invitrogen™ Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel, Invitrogen™ Human Cytokine Magnetic 30-Plex Panel, Bio-Rad® Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Cytokine Plex Assay and Millipore™ MILLIPLEX® MAP Plex Kit were compared. Samples tested were supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of malaria-exposed children stimulated with Plasmodium falciparum parasite lysates. Number of responses in range that could be detected was determined and reproducibility of duplicates was evaluated by the Bland-Altman test. Luminex® kits performed better than flow cytometry kits in number of responses in range and reproducibility. Luminex® kits were more reproducible when magnetic beads were used. However, within each methodology overall performance depended on the analyte tested in each kit. Within the Luminex® kits, the Invitrogen™ with polystyrene beads had the poorer performance, whereas Invitrogen™ with magnetic beads had the higher percentage of cytokines/chemokines with both readings in range (40%, followed by Bio-Rad® with magnetic beads (35%. Regarding reproducibility, the Millipore™ kit had the highest percentage (60% of cytokines/chemokines with acceptable limits of agreement (<30%, followed by the Invitrogen™ with magnetic beads (40% that had tighter limits of agreement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Currently available kits for cytokine and chemokine

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp(2)), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  8. Near infra-red photoimmunotherapy with anti-CEA-IR700 results in extensive tumor lysis and a significant decrease in tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Maawy

    Full Text Available Photoimmunotherapy (PIT of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1 treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2 treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg was administered to group (1 via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice.

  9. 钙结合蛋白在前列腺癌中的下调表达及其临床意义%The clinical significance of decreased expression of calcium binding protein 39 in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建国; 陈卫红; 徐述雄; 王元林; 孙兆林; 何慧婵; 钟惟德

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨钙结合蛋白(CAB39)在前列腺癌中的作用及其临床意义.方法 应用蛋白组学二维荧光差异凝胶电泳(2D-DIGE)技术筛选出在局限性前列腺癌与癌旁组织差异性表达的CAB39蛋白,质谱分析(MS)鉴定、免疫组织化学技术检测CAB39蛋白在24例前列腺癌与癌旁组织中的表达,结合CAB39免疫组织化学评分和前列腺癌患者的临床病理参数进行分析.结果 CAB39蛋白在癌旁组织中的免疫组织化学染色阳性率高于前列腺癌组织(70.8%比33.3%,P<0.01),CAB39蛋白表达在前列腺癌患者年龄、血清前列腺特异抗原(PSA)水平、Gleason评分和肿瘤TNM分期各不同分组中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CAB39蛋白在前列腺癌患者中下调表达,它可能是前列腺癌抑制因子.%Objective To explore the role and clinical significance of calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39) protein in prostate cancer (PCa).Methods Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen CAB39 protein in PCa and adjacent tissues,and mass spectrometry analysis verification,to analyze the differentially expressed degree of CAB39 protein in 24 cases of PCa and adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) technology,the combination of CAB39 IHC score and clinicopathological parameters of PCa patients were analyzed.Results Using the method of IHC,we found that the expression of CAB39 protein in adjacent tissues was significantly higher than that in PCa tissues (70.8% vs 33.3%,P <0.01).The expression of CAB39 protein in different age stages of PCa patients,serum PSA levels,Gleason score and TNM stage in tumor group had no significant difference(P >0.05).Conclusion CAB39 protein is down-regulated expression in PCa,it may be prostate tumor suppressor.

  10. Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes cross the blood-brain barrier and significantly decrease PrP on neuronal cells and PrP in infected cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Pulford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances toward an effective therapy for prion diseases employ RNA interference to suppress PrP(C expression and subsequent prion neuropathology, exploiting the phenomenon that disease severity and progression correlate with host PrP(C expression levels. However, delivery of lentivirus encoding PrP shRNA has demonstrated only modest efficacy in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a new siRNA delivery system incorporating a small peptide that binds siRNA and acetylcholine receptors (AchRs, acting as a molecular messenger for delivery to neurons, and cationic liposomes that protect siRNA-peptide complexes from serum degradation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposome-siRNA-peptide complexes (LSPCs delivered PrP siRNA specifically to AchR-expressing cells, suppressed PrP(C expression and eliminated PrP(RES formation in vitro. LSPCs injected intravenously into mice resisted serum degradation and delivered PrP siRNA throughout the brain to AchR and PrP(C-expressing neurons. These data promote LSPCs as effective vehicles for delivery of PrP and other siRNAs specifically to neurons to treat prion and other neuropathological diseases.

  11. Pentosan polysulfate decreases prostate smooth muscle proliferation and extracellular matrix turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S J; Zorn, B H; McLeod, D G; Moul, J W; Nyberg, L; Striker, L J; Striker, G E

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) involves proliferation of smooth muscle cells and increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). We recently found that pentosan polysulfate (PPS) has marked effects on growth and ECM of smooth muscle cells derived from vascular tissues. We examined smooth muscle cells cultured from human prostates and the effects of PPS on their growth and ECM production. Fragments of surgical prostatectomy specimens were diced, digested with collagenase (0.01%), and placed in culture medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. Outgrowths of elongated cells were characterized by light microscopic examination and immunohistochemical techniques by the presence of F-actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and myosin, which is a characteristic of smooth muscle cells. Two independent isolates were propagated, and growth curves and ECM production were assessed in the presence and absence of PPS (10 or 100 microg/ml). PPS decreased cell number beginning at day 1 and throughout the incubation period, up to 4 days. The amount of the ECM degradative enzymes, metallo-proteinases MMP-9 and MMP-2, was examined by zymography. PPS did not alter the amount of MMP-2 in the supernatants but MMP-9 was increased 234.4 +/- 17.23-fold over control cells. Tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMPS), examined by reverse zymography, increased 200% over control. The amount of alpha I type (IV) and alpha I type (I) collagen released in the supernatant, measured by ELISA, significantly decreased in PPS-treated cultures. In conclusion, we found that the administration of PPS decreased proliferation as well as ECM production in prostate smooth muscle. Since smooth muscle proliferation and ECM are involved in the pathophysiology of BPH, PPS may have therapeutic potential.

  12. Impaired immune tolerance to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide promotes neutrophil migration and decreased apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Svetislav; Shelburne, Charles; Darveau, Richard; Quinn, Derek J; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C; Coulter, Wilson A

    2010-10-01

    Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the tissues supporting the teeth, is characterized by an exaggerated host immune and inflammatory response to periopathogenic bacteria. Toll-like receptor activation, cytokine network induction, and accumulation of neutrophils at the site of inflammation are important in the host defense against infection. At the same time, induction of immune tolerance and the clearance of neutrophils from the site of infection are essential in the control of the immune response, resolution of inflammation, and prevention of tissue destruction. Using a human monocytic cell line, we demonstrate that Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a major etiological factor in periodontal disease, induces only partial immune tolerance, with continued high production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but diminished secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after repeated challenge. This cytokine response has functional consequences for other immune cells involved in the response to infection. Primary human neutrophils incubated with P. gingivalis LPS-treated naïve monocyte supernatant displayed a high migration index and increased apoptosis. In contrast, neutrophils treated with P. gingivalis LPS-tolerized monocyte supernatant showed a high migration index but significantly decreased apoptosis. Overall, these findings suggest that induction of an imbalanced immune tolerance in monocytes by P. gingivalis LPS, which favors continued secretion of IL-8 but decreased TNF-α production, may be associated with enhanced migration of neutrophils to the site of infection but also with decreased apoptosis and may play a role in the chronic inflammatory state seen in periodontal disease.

  13. Diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis using the Sysmex XT-2000iV based on frozen supernatants from cavitary effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Angelica; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2017-02-01

    The delta total nucleated cells (ΔTNC) measurement with the Sysmex XT-2000iV (Sysmex Europe, Norderstedt, Germany) has high diagnostic accuracy on effusions in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases, but the test can be performed only on fresh samples. We evaluated whether supernatants from effusions retain the ability to induce cell clumping and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of this modified ΔTNC method. Effusions were collected from FIP cats ( n = 19) and from cats with other diseases ( n = 15). ΔTNC was measured on fresh samples and on frozen-thawed supernatants after the addition of feline blood at 1:10 dilution. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed at the cutoffs of suggestive of FIP (ΔTNC = 1.7) and consistent with FIP (ΔTNC = 3.4). The influence of the protein content, number of added cells, and magnitude of dilution were also investigated. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100% for both the methods. Sensitivity and negative predictive value were higher for the modified ΔTNC (84.2% and 83.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 78.9% and 78.9%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4) than for the ΔTNC on fresh samples (78.6% and 81.3%, respectively, at the cutoff of 1.7; 57.1% and 68.4%, respectively, at the cutoff of 3.4). Protein content, total cell count of the added blood, and magnitude of dilutions did not influence the results. Supernatants of frozen effusions from FIP cats retain the ability to induce cell clumping, thus the modified ΔTNC measurement is a reliable tool to diagnose FIP on samples that cannot be analyzed immediately.

  14. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  15. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  16. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect b

  17. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  18. Vip3A is responsible for the potency of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C culture supernatant against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xiao, Liang; Yan, Bing; Bin, Guan; Chen, Yuehua; Ren, Gaixin

    2006-04-01

    Culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C had high toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. However, it lost insecticidal activities after being bathed in boiling water for 5 min. Acrystalliferous mutants of Bt9816C (Bt9816C-NP1 and Bt9816C-NP2) cured of its endogenous plasmids no longer possessed vip3A gene and toxicity. The 89 kD protein which existed in Bt9816C supernatant disappeared in the two mutants' supernatant; nevertheless, the two mutants still exhibited hemolytic and phospholipase C activity as Bt9816C did. The vip3A gene of Bt9816C, vip3Aa18, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Bioassay demonstrated that the recombinant E. coli had high toxicity against S. exigua. Taken together, it suggested that Vip3A protein was responsible for the toxicity of Bt9816C culture supernatants.

  19. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  20. Effects of glucose, insulin, and supernatant from pancreatic beta-cells on brain-pancreas relative protein in rat hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yan-Hua; Westenbroek, Christel; Tie, Lu; Liu, Ai-Hua; Yu, He-Ming; Ter Horst, Gert J.; Li, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiang-yi

    2006-01-01

    Brain-pancreas relative protein (BPRP) is a novel protein that mainly expresses in brain and pancreas. In our previous study, we found that various stressors significantly decreased the expression of BPRP in pancreas in vivo, accompanied by changes in insulin and glucose levels, and that expression

  1. Analysis of metal Bioleaching from thermal power plant fly ash by Aspergillus niger 34770 culture supernatant and reduction of phytotoxicity during the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus niger culture supernatant is used for bioleaching process. Before starting bioleaching process, fly ash was washed with distilled water. This removed 100 % sodium, 47 % (±0.45) boron, 38.07 % (±0.12) calcium, 29.89 % (±0.78) magnesium, and 11.8 % (±0.05) potassium. The pH was reduced from 10.5 to 8.5 after water washing. During bioleaching process, around 100 % metal removal was achieved in 4 h for all metals except chromium 93 % (±1.18), nickel 83 % (±0.32), arsenic 78 % (±0.52), and lead 70 % (±0.20). The process parameters including temperature, shaking speed, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized for bioleaching process. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effect of fly ash on growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). At 20 g/100 ml fly ash concentration no germination of V. radiata seeds was observed. With an increasing concentration of untreated fly ash, a gradual decrease in root/shoot length was observed. After bioleaching process 78 % (±0.19) germination of V. radiata was observed with 20 g/100 ml fly ash. This study will help to develop an efficient process to remove the toxic metals from fly ash.

  2. Platelet-Rich Gel Supernatants Stimulate the Release of Anti-Inflammatory Proteins on Culture Media of Normal Equine Synovial Membrane Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Diana L; López, Catalina; Carmona, Jorge U

    2015-01-01

    The aims were as follows: (1) to evaluate the effects at 48 and 96 h of two concentrations (25 and 50%) of leukocyte and platelet-rich gel (L-PRG) and pure PRG (P-PRG) supernatants on the production/degradation in normal equine synovial membrane explants (SME) of platelet derived growth factor isoform BB, transforming growth factor beta-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-) 4 (IL-4), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and (2) to correlate these molecules with their respective PRG supernatant treatments. SME from 6 horses were cultured for 96 h with L-PRG and P-PRG supernatants at 25 and 50% concentrations, respectively. SME culture media were changed each 48 h and used for determination by ELISA of the molecules, which were also determined in synovial fluid. 25% L-PRG supernatant produced a sustained release over time of IL-1ra and a gradual release of HA, whereas 50% L-PRG supernatant produced a sustained increase over time of IL-4 and HA. 50% P-PRG supernatant produced an increased and sustained production of IL-1ra and IL-4. The cellular composition and the articular concentration (volume) of a platelet-rich plasma preparation could affect the anti-inflammatory and anabolic joint responses in horses with osteoarthritis.

  3. Global Profiling of Metabolite and Lipid Soluble Microbial Products in Anaerobic Wastewater Reactor Supernatant Using UPLC-MS(E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Soh, Yan Ni Annie; Wong, Stephen C C; Pin, Ng Sean; Stuckey, David C; Boehm, Bernhard O

    2017-02-03

    Identification of soluble microbial products (SMPs) released during bacterial metabolism in mixed cultures in bioreactors is essential to understanding fundamental mechanisms of their biological production. SMPs constitute one of the main foulants (together with colloids and bacterial flocs) in membrane bioreactors widely used to treat and ultimately recycle wastewater. More importantly, the composition and origin of potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic SMPs in renewable/reused water supplies must be determined and controlled. Certain classes of SMPs have previously been studied by GC-MS, LC-MS, and MALDI-ToF MS; however, a more comprehensive LC-MS-based method for SMP identification is currently lacking. Here we develop a UPLC-MS approach to profile and identify metabolite SMPs in the supernatant of an anaerobic batch bioreactor. The small biomolecules were extracted into two fractions based on their polarity, and separate methods were then used for the polar and nonpolar metabolites in the aqueous and lipid fractions, respectively. SMPs that increased in the supernatant after feed addition were identified primarily as phospholipids, ceramides, with cardiolipins in the highest relative abundance, and these lipids have not been previously reported in wastewater effluent.

  4. Effect of Physical and Chemical Changes on the Antimicrobial Activity of Culture Supernatant Fluid of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Goudarzi (MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, nonsporulating, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that have beneficial effects on their hosts by producing antimicrobial substances such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins and biosurfactants. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by bacteria and can inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, bacteriocin production by Lactobacilli as known probiotic strains was evaluated in different physicochemical conditions. Antagonistic activity was evaluated using quantitative method of Microscale Optical Density Assay (MODA. After neutralization of acid and treatment with various enzymes, temperature, pH and NaCl conditions, the antimicrobial activity of culture supernatant fluid of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum was investigated against pathogenic Proteus. Results: The culture supernatant fluid of Lactobacilli was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes with relatively good stability to temperature. The antimicrobial activity was also present due to production of bacteriocin under different NaCl conditions (1 to 4% NaCl and pH range of 5 to 8. Conclusion: It seems that the antimicrobial liquid of Lactobacillus strains contains bacteriocin, which shows antimicrobial effects against pathogenic strains of Proteus. To investigate further this effect, some complementary studies should be performed.

  5. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for controlling and comparing culture supernatants of mammalian cell culture productions systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, K; Harant, H; Reiter, M; Blüml, G; Gaida, T; Katinger, H

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, producing human erythropoietin, was cultivated in a continuous mode in a stirred tank reactor applying different dilution rates. In order to monitor the stability of this expression system, product and non-product proteins of the cell culture supernatant were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The consistency of the isoforms of the recombinant product was determined by western blot combined with specific staining. The same cell line was propagated in a high cell density cultivation system based on macro-cell-aggregates. The patterns of secreted proteins of the cell line cultivated in the different systems were compared in order to detect modifications in protein expression of the product and of non product proteins relevant for cell culture supernatant. Hardly any alterations in two-dimensional pattern were detectable. The isoforms of erythropoietin, as well as the overall pattern of secreted proteins, detectable with the two-dimensional electrophoresis method were remarkably stable under different cultivation conditions.

  6. The effect of moderately halophilic bacteria supernatant on proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, S; Seyedjafari, E; Amoozgar, M A; Bakhshandeh, B

    2015-06-10

    Many drug discoveries and developing of their applications has originated from microbial metabolites. The most efforts in development of new drugs are concerned with anti—cancer agents that cause better treatment results, less side effects, and more economical production. Several anti—tumor drugs have been recently extracted from natural microbial products. Among these various microbial diversity, Marin bacteria and Archaea have been considered as important and efficient organisms to serve as manufacturers of diverse bioactive compounds. Moderately halophilic microorganisms isolated from saline ponds and lakes of Iran show high capability for production of bioactive compounds like enzymes, dyes and anti—cancer agents. In this research, nine moderately halophilic bacteria isolates were screened to evaluate their anti—cancer agent productivity. After five days of culture on suitable mediums, supernatant samples were tested for in vitro anti—proliferative activity against Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) while same concentrations of supernatants were examined for evaluating of proliferative activity against Adipose—derived Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Both assessments were carried out by MTT assay and double PI and DAPI staining. GASX17, GBWy6 and GBPX3 isolates just induced HUVEC cell deaths and exhibited anti—proliferative activity while R2S12 not only reduced HUVEC cell proliferation but also enhanced proliferation of MSCs. R2S12 , GASX17, GBWy6 and GBPX3 isolates were characterized biochemically and six hydrophilic components were detected. This research established new bioactive compounds that could be used as an effective treatment in chemotherapy.

  7. A combination turbidity and supernatant microplate assay to rank-order the supersaturation limits of early drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John S; Nophsker, Michelle J; Haskell, Roy J

    2014-10-01

    A unique opportunity exists at the drug discovery stage to overcome inherently poor solubility by selecting drug candidates with superior supersaturation propensity. Existing supersaturation assays compare either precipitation-resistant or precipitation-inhibiting excipients, or higher-energy polymorphic forms, but not multiple compounds or multiple concentrations. Furthermore, these assays lack sufficient throughput and compound conservation necessary for implementation in the discovery environment. A microplate-based combination turbidity and supernatant concentration assay was therefore developed to determine the extent to which different compounds remain in solution as a function of applied concentration in biorelevant media over a specific period of time. Dimethyl sulfoxide stock solutions at multiple concentrations of four poorly soluble, weak base compounds (Dipyridamole, Ketoconazole, Albendazole, and Cinnarizine) were diluted with pH 6.5 buffer as well as FaSSIF. All samples were monitored for precipitation by turbidity at 600 nm over 1 h and the final supernatant concentrations were measured. The maximum supersaturation ratio was calculated from the supersaturation limit and the equilibrium solubility in each media. Compounds were rank-ordered by supersaturation ratio: Ketoconazole > Dipyridamole > Cinnarizine ∼ Albendazole. These in vitro results correlated well with oral AUC ratios from published in vivo pH effect studies, thereby confirming the validity of this approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Continuous precipitation of process related impurities from clarified cell culture supernatant using a novel coiled flow inversion reactor (CFIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateja, Nikhil; Agarwal, Harshit; Saraswat, Aditya; Bhat, Manish; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    Coiled Flow Inverter Reactor (CFIR) has recently been explored for facilitating continuous operation of several unit operations involved in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals such as viral inactivation and protein refolding. The application of CFIR for continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant has been explored. The pH based precipitation is optimized in the batch mode and then in the continuous mode in CFIR using a design of experiments (DOE) study. Improved clearance of host cell DNA (52× vs. 39× in batch), improved clearance of host cell proteins (HCP) (7× vs. 6× in batch) and comparable recovery (90 vs. 91.5 % in batch) are observed along with six times higher productivity. To further demonstrate wider applicability of CFIR in performing continuous precipitation, two more case studies involving use of two different precipitation protocols (CaCl2 based and caprylic acid based) are also performed. In both cases, clearance of host cell DNA, HCP, and product recovery are found to be comparable or better in CFIR than in batch operations. Moreover, increase in productivity of 16 times (CaCl2 based) and eight times (caprylic acid based) is obtained for the two precipitation protocols, respectively. The data clearly demonstrate that CFIR can be seamlessly integrated into a continuous bioprocess train for performing continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant. To our knowledge this is the first report of such use. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Analysis of tank 7 surface supernatant sample (FTF-7-15-26) in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 7 surface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Corrosion Control Program (CCP). The measured nitrate, nitrite and free-hydroxide concentrations for the Tank 7 surface sample averaged, 3.74E-01 ± 1.88E-03, 4.17E-01 ± 9.01E-03 and 0.602 ± 0.005 M, respectively. The Tank 7 surface cesium-137, sodium and silicon concentrations were, respectively, 3.99E+08, ± 3.25E+06 dpm/mL, 2.78 M and <3.10 mg/L. The measured aluminum concentration in the Tank 7 surface sample averaged 0.11 M.

  10. Mescaline-induced changes of brain-cortex ribosomes. Mescaline demethylase activity of brain-cortex soluble supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R K; Ghosh, J J

    1977-02-01

    Brain-cortex slices demethylate mescaline and p-methoxyacetanilide, a reference O-demethylating substrate, though the rate of demethylation of mescaline is about one third that of the reference substrate. The demethylase activity is localized mostly in the soluble supernatant (105 000 x g). It is purified 47-fold with respect to the demethylation of mescaline by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography. The partially purified demethylase, which is stable for 3-5 days at -5 degrees C in the presence of dithiothreitol and glutathione and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, has maximal activity at pH between 7.2 and 8.0. It demethylates mescaline into 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenethylamine and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine and some unidentified derivatives.

  11. Anti-adherence potential of Enterococcus durans cells and its cell-free supernatant on plastic and stainless steel against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Ait Meddour; Farida, Bendali; Djamila, Sadoun

    2015-07-01

    It is demonstrated that numerous bacteria are able to attach to surfaces of equipment used for food handling or processing. In this study, a strain of Enterococcus durans, originally isolated from a milking machine surface, was firstly studied for its biofilm formation potential on plastic and stainless steel supports. The strain was found to be a biofilm producer either at 25, 30 or 37 °C on polystyrene microtitre plates, with a best adherence level observed at 25 °C. En. durans showed a strong adhesion to stainless steel AISI-304. Antibacterial and anti-adherence activities of En. durans were tested against four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915) which were shown as biofilm producers on both plastic and stainless steel. En. durans cells and cell-free culture supernatant showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition potential of the pathogens either on solid media or in broth co-cultures. Characterization of the antibacterial substances indicated their proteinaceous nature which assigned them most probably to bacteriocins group.

  12. Isolation of monoclonal antibody from a Chinese hamster ovary supernatant. II: dynamics of the integrated separation on ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Wojciech; Muca, Renata; Woś, Sylwia; Piątkowski, Wojciech; Antos, Dorota

    2013-08-30

    Dynamics of the purification process of a CHO derived monoclonal antibody by ion exchange chromatography (IEC), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and their integration has been investigated. To quantify the adsorption behavior of the target protein (IgG1) and impurities contained in the supernatant, their elution course on IEC and HIC columns has been analyzed versus pH and/or the salt concentration in the mobile phase. A short-cut method has been proposed for mathematical modeling and determining underlying kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The accuracy of the model predictions has been verified by comparing the simulated and experimental band profiles recorded in both chromatographic processes. After verification, the model was used to optimize operating conditions for the column loading and chromatographic elution in the integrated process IEC/HIC. Two alternative loading techniques based on the upstream and downstream feed dilution were taken into account in the optimization routine. In the first one the feed stream was diluted with the loading buffer prior to the column loading, while in the latter one the feed dilution was realized inside the column using the multiple-injection technique. It was shown that the downstream dilution allowed significant reduction of the contact time between the protein and the loading buffer.

  13. Modulation of the Culture Supernatant of Decidual Cells with Exogenous Cytokines on Killing Activity of Natural Killer Cells in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the important function of cytokines in early pregnancy and to provide basic and experimental evidence for understanding the mechanism of their action. Methods Add interferon-γ (IFN-γ) , interleukin- 2(IL- 2) , interleukin- 6(IL-6) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the confluent culturing decidual cells with three different concentrations and harvest the culture supernatant after 12, 24 and 48 h separately. Observe the effect of the supernatant on killing activity of NK cells with radioimmunological assay of 51Cr immersion. Results The culture supernatant of decidual cells can promote the killing activity of NK cells in various degrees, and the effect is independent of the type, concentration and acting time of cytokines. Conclusion In normal pregnancy, decidual cytokine network is in a dynamic equilibri um. Exogenous cytokines would be harm to normal pregnancy by interfering the equi librium state, but the exact mechanism needs further study.

  14. Modulation of the Culture Supernatant of Decidual Cells with Exogenous Cytokines on Killing Activity of Natural Killer Cells in Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡冬梅; 王丽莉; 何援利

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the important function of cytohines in early pregnancy and to provide basic and experimental evidence for understanding the mechanism of their action.Methods Add interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ,interleuhin-2(IL-2) , interleuhin-6(IL-6) andepidermal growth factor(EGF) to the confluent culturing decidual cells with three different concentrations and harvest the culture supernatant after 12, 24 and 48 h separately. Observe the effect of the supernatant on killing activity of NK cells with radioimmunological assay of 51Cr immersion.Results The culture supernatant of decidual cells can promote the killing activity of NK cells in various degrees, and the effect is independent of the type, concentration and acting time of cytokines.Conclusion In normal pregnancy, decidual cytokine network is in a dynamic equilibri-um. Exogenous cytokines would be harm to normal pregnancy by interfering the equi-librium state, but the exact mechanism needs further study.

  15. Putative new heat-stable cytotoxic and enterotoxic factors in culture supernatant of Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by the ingestion of contaminated water, especially by Escherichia coli, are important to define the virulence properties of these bacteria. Due to frequent infantile diarrhea in the city of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, the phenotypic and genotypic diarrheagenic properties of E. coli isolated from drinking water were studied. The culture supernatants of 39 (40% among a total of 97 E. coli isolates from drinking water were positive by suckling mouse assay and induced cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities were present in the fraction with less than 10 kDa and were not lost when heated up to 60°C and 100°C for 30 minutes. PCR assays showed that among these 39 Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli, four (10.2% were positive for ST II (estB and two (5% positive for αHly (hlyA. Gene amplification of SLT (stx 1, stx 2, ST I (estA, LT (eltI, eltII, EAST1 (astA, EHly (enhly and plasmid-encoded enterotoxin (pet were not observed. This heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin of E. coli is probably a new putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, as a toxin presenting these characteristics has not yet been described.

  16. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xing

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS, reducing power (RP, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP. Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs.

  17. Platelet-released supernatant induces osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich preparations have recently gained popularity in maxillofacial and dental surgery, but their beneficial effect is still under debate. Furthermore, very little is known about the effect of platelet preparations at the cellular level, and the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we tested the effect of platelet-released supernatant (PRS on human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC differentiation towards an osteoblastic phenotype in vitro. Cultures of MSC were supplemented with PRS and typical osteoblastic markers were assessed at up to 28 days post-confluence. PRS showed an osteoinductive effect on MSC, as shown by an increased expression of typical osteoblastic marker genes such as collagen Ialpha1, bone sialoprotein II, BMP-2 and MMP-13, as well as by increased 45Ca2+ incorporation. Our results suggest that the effect of PRS on human MSC could be at least partially mediated by BMP-2.Activated autologous PRS could therefore provide an alternative to agents like recombinant bone growth factors by increasing osteoblastic differentiation of bone precursor cells at bone repair sites, although further studies are needed to fully support our observations.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Lethal Toxin Proteins in Culture Supernatant of Human Live Anthrax Vaccine Bacillus anthracis A16R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ju; Liu, Jie; Li, Liangliang; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-25

    Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) is the etiological agent of anthrax affecting both humans and animals. Anthrax toxin (AT) plays a major role in pathogenesis. It includes lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are formed by the combination of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), respectively. The currently used human anthrax vaccine in China utilizes live-attenuated B. anthracis spores (A16R; pXO1+, pXO2-) that produce anthrax toxin but cannot produce the capsule. Anthrax toxins, especially LT, have key effects on both the immunogenicity and toxicity of human anthrax vaccines. Thus, determining quantities and biological activities of LT proteins expressed by the A16R strain is meaningful. Here, we explored LT expression patterns of the A16R strain in culture conditions using another vaccine strain Sterne as a control. We developed a sandwich ELISA and cytotoxicity-based method for quantitative detection of PA and LF. Expression and degradation of LT proteins were observed in culture supernatants over time. Additionally, LT proteins expressed by the A16R and Sterne strains were found to be monomeric and showed cytotoxic activity, which may be the main reason for side effects of live anthrax vaccines. Our work facilitates the characterization of anthrax vaccines components and establishment of a quality control standard for vaccine production which may ultimately help to ensure the efficacy and safety of the human anthrax vaccine A16R.

  19. MicroRNA Expression in Salivary Supernatant of Patients with Pancreatic Cancer and Its Relationship with ZHENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, diagnosis and prescriptions are based on the signs and symptoms which are recognized as ZHENG. The cornerstone of TCM is to differentially treat one ZHENG from others, which is also known as syndrome differentiation, and this relies on the gathering of clinical information through inspection, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. However, the biomolecular basis of the ZHENG remains unclear. In this study, the expressions of 384 cancer-related miRNAs in salivary supernatant of patients with pancreatic cancer were assessed by miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR array, and the different expression patterns of miRNA in three different groups of ZHENG were studied with use of real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR. Some miRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in some ZHENGs, for instance, miR-17, miR-21, and miR-181b in Shi-Re ZHENG and miR-196a in Pi-Xu ZHENG. This indicates that these miRNAs may play important roles in different ZHENG condition. Therefore, this study to some extent revealed the molecular basis of TCM ZHENG in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Distinct galactofuranose antigens in the cell wall and culture supernatants as a means to differentiate Fusarium from Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Annegret; Kakoschke, Tamara Katharina; Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Ensinger, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Ebel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Detection of carbohydrate antigens is an important means for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. For diagnosis of systemic Aspergillus infections, galactomannan is commonly used, the core antigenic structure of which consists of chains of several galactofuranose moieties. In this study, we provide evidence that Fusarium produces at least two distinct galactofuranose antigens: Smaller amounts of galactomannan and larger quantities of a novel antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody AB135-8. In A. fumigatus, only minor amounts of the AB135-8 antigen are found in supernatants and in the apical regions of hyphae. A galactofuranose-deficient A. fumigatus mutant lacks the AB135-8 antigen, which strongly suggests that galactofuranose is an essential constituent of this antigen. Using a combination of AB135-8 and a galactomannan-specific antibody, we were able to unambiguously differentiate A. fumigatus and Fusarium hyphae in immunohistology. Moreover, since Fusarium releases the AB135-8 antigen, it appears to be a promising target antigen for a serological detection of Fusarium infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-19

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239.

  2. Acaricidal activities of whole cell suspension, cell-free supernatant,and crude cell extract of Xenorhabdus stokiae against mushroom mite (Luciaphorus sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prapassom BUSSAMAN; Chirayu SA-UTH; Paweena RATTANAS ENA; Angsumarn CHANDRAPATYA

    2012-01-01

    Xenorhabdus bacterium has been used as a biological control agent against Luciaphorus sp.,a mushroom mite endemic in Thailand.To develop an effective formulation of Xenorhabdus stokiae,treatments using different parts of X.stokiae isolate PB09 culture,including whole cell suspension,cell-free supernatant,and crude cell extract,were performed.The results show that different parts ofX.stokiae isolate PB09 culture could induce variable effects on mite mortality and fecundity.Application with cell-free supernatant of X.stokiae culture resulted in both the highest mite mortality rate [(89.00+3.60)%] and the lowest mite fecundity [(41.33+23.69) eggs/gravid female].Whole cell suspension of X.stokiae isolate PB09 culture was found to be slightly less effective than its cell-free supernatant,suggesting that X.stokiae was more likely to release its metabolites with acaricidal activities to the surrounding culture media.Crude cell extract of X.stokiae was not effective against mites.Cell-free supernatant of X.stokiae isolate PB09 was the most effective biological control agent and it could be conveniently used in future formulations instead of live bacteria.

  3. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  4. [The comparative characteristics of antibacterial properties of the peptides of the active site of GM-CSF, and substances delivered from supernatants of hematopoietic progenitor CD34+45- cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurochka, A V; Zurochka, V A; Kostolomova, E G; Dobrynina, M A; Sykhoveĭ, Iu G; Gritsenko, V A

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides of the active site of GM-CSF and supernatants of CD34+45- hematopoietic progenitor cells has been investigated GM-CSF peptides and cell supernatants were found to possess pronounced antibacterial activity, at that a combination of these substances has a more pronounced activity in comparison with the single substances. Possible mechanisms of the identified effects of synthetic peptides and substances from the supernatants of CD34+5- cells are discussed.

  5. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Costa Argôlo-Filho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in culture supernatants (SN have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1, whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins, as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01 was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  6. Requirement of simultaneous assessment of crystal- and supernatant-related entomotoxic activities of Bacillus thuringiensis strains for biocontrol-product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-05-20

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 10(7) endospores mL(-1) caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  7. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Costa, Robson Luz; Pinheiro, Daniele Heloisa; Corrêa, Fábio Mathias; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems. PMID:24854738

  8. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  9. A novel toxin homologous to large clostridial cytotoxins found in culture supernatant of Clostridium perfringens type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amimoto, Katsuhiko; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsugu

    2007-04-01

    An unknown cytotoxin was identified in the culture supernatant of Clostridium perfringens type C. The cytotoxin, named TpeL, which was purified using mAb-based affinity chromatography, had a lethal activity of 62 minimum lethal dose (MLD) mg(-1) in mice and a cytotoxic activity of 6.2x10(5) cytotoxic units (CU) mg(-1) in Vero cells. The nucleotide sequence of TpeL was determined. The entire ORF had a length of 4953 bases, and the same nucleotide sequence was not recorded in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases. The molecular mass calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence was 191 kDa, and a signal peptide region was not found within the ORF. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 30-39 % homology to Clostridium difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin (TcnA). The amino acid sequence of TpeL is shorter than these toxins, and the homologous region was located at the N-terminal site. Eighteen strains of C. perfringens types A, B and C were surveyed for the presence of the tpeL gene by PCR. The tpeL gene was detected in all type B (one strain) and C strains (five strains), but not in any type A strains (12 strains). TpeL was detected in culture filtrates of the five type C strains by dot-blot analysis, but not in the type B strain. It was concluded that TpeL is a novel toxin similar to the known large clostridial cytotoxins. Furthermore, the data indicated that TpeL is produced by many C. perfringens type C strains.

  10. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  11. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  12. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus sp. isolates supernatant on Escherichia coli O157:H7 enhances the role of organic acids production as a factor for pathogen control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Poppi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to establish the control of foodborne pathogens through Lactobacillus isolates and their metabolism products with success being obtained in several situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonistic effect of eight Lactobacillus isolates, including L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. plantarum, L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, on the pathogenic Escherichia colistrain O157:H7. The inhibitory effect of pure cultures and two pooled cultures supernatants of Lactobacillus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated by the spot agar method and by monitoring turbidity. Antimicrobial activity was confirmed for L. reuteri and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and for a pool of lactic acid bacteria. The neutralized supernatant of the pool exerted a higher antimicrobial activity than that of the individual strains. Furthermore, D-lactic acid and acetic acid were produced during growth of the Lactobacillus isolates studied.

  14. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies by a fast and easy liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time-of-flight analysis on culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninot, Antoine; Terrier, Aurelie; Charton, Julie; Urbain, Rémi; Fontayne, Alexandre; Deprez, Benoit; Beghyn, Terence

    2015-12-15

    Rapid and efficient structural analysis is key to the development of new monoclonal antibodies. We have developed a fast and easy process to obtain mass spectrometry profiles of antibodies from culture supernatant. Treatment of the supernatant with IdeS generates three fragments of 25 kDa that can be analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time-of-flight (LC-MS TOF) in one run: LC, Fd, and Fc/2. This process gives rapid access to isoform and glycoform profiles. To specifically measure the fucosylation yield, we included a one-pot treatment with EndoS that removes the distal glycan heterogeneity. Our process was successfully compared with high-performance capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPCE-LIF), currently considered as the "gold standard" method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of tank 51H (HTF-51-15-77) subsurface supernatant sample in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-18

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tank 51H subsurface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP). The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 51H in early June was to determine if the later decants would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  16. Analysis of tank 51H (HTF-51-15-77) subsurface supernatant sample in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-18

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tank 51H subsurface supernatant liquid sample in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP).The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 51H in early June was to determine if the later decants would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  17. Activation of resting human B cells by helper T-cell clone supernatant: characterization of a human B-cell-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Gougeon, M L; Moreau, J L; Reinherz, E L; Thèze, J

    1987-12-01

    The effects of helper T-cell clone supernatants on resting human B cells were investigated. Four different helper T-cell clones (two T4+ and two T8+) were stimulated by anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies on Sepharose beads or anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies. The supernatants from these activated clones induced the proliferation of highly purified resting B lymphocytes from the peripheral blood. The B cells exhibited a cell size and a surface-antigen pattern (4F2 antigen and transferrin receptor) of phase G0 B cells, and they were functionally resting. In response to T-cell supernatants a large fraction of the B cells enlarged and expressed 4F2 antigens and transferrin receptors. In gel filtration, the corresponding activity migrated with an apparent Mr of 12,000-15,000. Our findings strongly support the existence of a human B-cell-activating factor acting on resting B cells and causing them to enter phase G1 of the cell cycle.

  18. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  19. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  20. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  1. Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmitz, Tim G; Besier, Tanja; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase associated with significant somatic and psychosocial changes. So far there are few studies on developmental aspects of life satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examines the effects of age and gender on adolescent's life satisfaction. 1,274 German adolescents (aged 11-16 years) participated in a school-based survey study. They completed the adolescent version of the Questions on Life Satisfaction (FLZ(M) - Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit), a multidimensional instrument measuring the subjective importance and satisfaction with eight domains of general and eight domains of health-related life satisfaction. Effects of gender and age were analysed using ANOVAs. Girls reported significantly lower general (F = 5.0; p = .025) and health-related life satisfaction (F = 25.3; p life domains, there was a significant decrease in general (F = 14.8; p life satisfaction (F = 8.0; p Satisfaction with friends remained on a high level, whereas satisfaction with family relations decreased. Only satisfaction with partnership/sexuality increased slightly, however this effect cannot compensate the general loss of satisfaction. Decreasing life satisfaction has to be considered as a developmental phenomenon. Associations with the increasing prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation during adolescence are discussed. Life satisfaction should be considered a relevant aspect of adolescent's well-being and functioning.

  2. Determination of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137} and absolute beta activities in First Cycle Supernatent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmholz, H.R.

    1954-03-15

    This report discusses procedures have been established for determining the absolute activities of Sr{sup 90}, Sb{sup 125}, Cs{sup 137}, and gross beta in First Cycle Supernatant. These procedures are also valid for other samples such as scavenged Radioactive Waste (RAW), the primary restriction being that the age of the material be at least 250 days so that any Sr{sup 89} activity (53 day half-life) is negligible. With the exception of the gross beta analysis the results are believed to be accurate to within 10%.

  3. Comparison of excretory-secretory antigen and positive faecal supernatant antigen in the detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by CIEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Prathiush

    Full Text Available Coproantigen detection of Echinococcosis in dogs by counter immunoelectrophoresis was standardized. Adult Echinococcus granulosus worms were obtained from intestine of a necropsied positive dog. Excretory-secretory antigen was prepared by culturing adult worms in Medium 199 (pH 7.4. Faeces of positive dog were collected and fecal supernatant was prepared and used for coproantigen detection. CIEP was carried out using tris-borate buffer (pH 8.0 at a constant current of 8mA/slide for 60 minutes. CIEP detected infection with both the antigens. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 421-422

  4. Arctigenin improves vascular tone and decreases inflammation in human saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daci, Armond; Neziri, Burim; Krasniqi, Shaip; Cavolli, Raif; Alaj, Rame; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Beretta, Giangiacomo

    2017-09-05

    The goal of this study was to test the effects of bioactive phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin (ATG) in vascular tone. Human bypass graft vessel, from a saphenous vein (SV), were set up in organ bath system and contracted with potassium chloride (KCl, 40mM). Two concentration-response curves of noradrenaline (NE) (10nM-100μM) separated with an incubation period of 30min without (Control) or with ATG (3-100μM) were established. Inhibitors of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, K(+) related channels or calcium influx were used to delineate the molecular mechanisms beyond ATG effects. To investigate anti-inflammatory actions, SV were treated with 10μM or 100μM ATG and incubated for 18h in the absence or presence of both interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the physiological or inflamed tissue conditions. Proatherogenic and inflammatory mediators İnterleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteine-1 (MCP-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α), İnterleukine-6 (IL-6), Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and İnterleukine-8 (IL-8) in the supernatant were measured. ATG significantly decreased vascular contractile response to NE. Moreover, it reduced contractions induced by KCl and cumulative addition of CaCl2. The mediators were significantly increased in inflammatory conditions compared to normal conditions, an effect which was inhibited by ATG (10 and 100µM). ATG reduces contractions in SV and decreases the production of proinflammatory-proatherogenic mediators, setting the stage for further evaluating the effect of ATG in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-47, 49) and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-51, 53) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment and corrosion control programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-30

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP) and the Corrosion Control Program (CCP).

  6. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-150, 151) and Tank 43H (HTF- 43-14-152, 53) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-14

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator.

  7. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  8. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst prevents apoptotic cell death in a human astrocytoma cell line incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno Carlo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress has shown to contribute in the mechanisms underlying apoptotic cell death occuring in AIDS-dementia complex. Here we investigated the role of peroxynitrite in apoptosis occurring in astroglial cells incubated with supernatants of HIV-infected human primary macrophages (M/M. Results Flow cytometric analysis (FACS of human cultured astrocytes shortly incubated with HIV-1-infected M/M supernatants showed apoptotic cell death, an effect accompanied by pronounced staining for nitrotyrosine (footprint of peroxynitrite and by abnormal formation of malondialdehyde (MDA. Pretreatment of astrocytes with the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTMPS antagonized HIV-related astrocytic apoptosis, MDA formation and nitrotyrosine staining. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that inibition of peroxynitrite leads to protection against peroxidative stress accompanying HIV-related apoptosis of astrocytes. Overall results support the role of peroxynitrite in HIV-related programmed death of astrocytes and suggest the use of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst to counteract HIV-1-related neurological disorders.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreases inflammatory responses induced by F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, François; Berri, Mustapha; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri

    2011-05-15

    Probiotic yeasts may provide protection against intestinal inflammation induced by enteric pathogens. In piglets, infection with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) leads to inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage. In this study, we investigated whether the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc, strain CNCM I-3856) and S. cerevisiae variety boulardii (Sb, strain CNCM I-3799) decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in intestinal epithelial IPI-2I cells cultured with F4+ ETEC. Results showed that viable Sc inhibited the ETEC-induced TNF-α gene expression whereas Sb did not. In contrast, killed Sc failed to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. This inhibition was dependent on secreted soluble factors. Sc culture supernatant decreased the TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2 and CCL20 ETEC-induced mRNA. Furthermore, Sc culture supernatant filtrated fraction yeast strains onto inflammation.

  10. Human intestinal dendritic cells decrease cytokine release against Salmonella infection in the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei upon TLR activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bermudez-Brito

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, little is known about the signalling pathways that are engaged by probiotics. Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen-presenting cells that are involved in immunity and tolerance. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs and murine DCs are different from human gut DCs; therefore, in this study, we used human DCs generated from CD34+ progenitor cells (hematopoietic stem cells harvested from umbilical cord blood; those DCs exhibited surface antigens of dendritic Langerhans cells, similar to the lamina propria DCs in the gut. We report that both a novel probiotic strain isolated from faeces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with Salmonella. Interestingly, the supernatant was as effective as the bacteria in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In contrast, the bacterium was a potent inducer of TGF-β2 secretion, whereas the supernatant increased the secretion of TGF-β1 in response to Salmonella. We also showed that both the bacteria and its supernatant enhanced innate immunity through the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR signalling. These treatments strongly induced the transcription of the TLR9 gene. In addition, upregulation of the CASP8 and TOLLIP genes was observed. This work demonstrates that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 enhanced innate immune responses, as evidenced by the activation of TLR signalling and the downregulation of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The use of supernatants like the one described in this paper could be an effective and safe alternative to using live bacteria in functional foods.

  11. Detection of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β1 in the culture supernatant of CD4+CD25+ T cells from patients with alopecia areata%斑秃患者外周血CD4+CD25+T细胞培养上清液白介素10和转化生长因子β1检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新华; 邵文俊; 金宛宛; 高宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential association of CD4+CD25+ T cells with alopecia areata.Methods Totally,this study enrolled 23 patients with progressive alopecia areata,25 patients with stable alopecia areata,and 25 healthy controls.Peripheral blood was isolated from these subjects followed by isolation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells,which were then cuhured with the presence of anti-CD3 and-CD28 monoclonal antibodies for four days.Subsequently,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure the levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in the culture supematant of these T cells.Results The levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were (31.68 ± 6.78) pg/ml and (32.29 ± 6.8) pg/ml respectively in the culture supernatant of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells from patients with progressive alopecia areata,significantly lower than those from the healthy controls ((57.34 ± 14.15) pg/ml and (57.43 ± 15.16) pg/ml,both P < 0.05) and patients with stable alopecia areata ((52.56 ± 13.02) pg/ml and (61.75 ± 14.10) pg/ml,both P < 0.05).However,no significant difference was observed in the supernatant levels of IL-10 or TGF-β1 between the healthy controls and patients with stable alopecia areata.Conclusions The secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β1 by CD4+CD25+ T cells is decreased in patients with progressive alopecia areata,which may contribute to the pathogenesis of alopecia areata.%目的 探讨CD4+CD25+T细胞与斑秃发病之间的关系.方法 收集了3组研究对象,其中健康对照组25例、稳定期斑秃患者25例、进展期斑秃患者23例.抽取所有对象外周血,提取CD4+CD25+T细胞,培养4d,收集培养上清液,ELISA法检测上清液IL-10和TGF-β1水平.结果 进展期斑秃患者外周血CD4+CD25+T细胞培养的IL-10和TGF-β1分别为(31.68±6.78) pg/ml和(32.29±6.80) pg/ml,明显低于健康对照组(57.34±14.15) pg/ml、(57.43±15.16) pg/ml和稳定期斑秃患者(52.56±13.02) pg/ml和(61.75±14.10) pg

  12. Significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection%包皮上皮角质层厚度对包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金天; 李森恺; 梁浩; 高云周; 李强; 谢林海; 丁健; 周传德; 李峰永; 周宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨包皮内板、外板上皮角质层的厚度及对成年人包皮环切术降低HIV感染率的指导意义.方法 共取19例包皮标本,分为纵向(7例)、横向(12例),分别测量包皮内板、外板上皮角质层厚度.并以1例变性手术切取的包皮内板、阴茎头及阴茎皮肤的上皮角质层作为比较.结果 包皮内板的角质层比外板薄,靠近冠状沟的远端包皮内板角质层比近端的包皮内板角质层薄.远端及近端的包皮外板上皮角质层无统计学意义.1例阴茎标本的包皮内板角质层比阴茎皮肤角质层薄.结论 为了减少HIV感染率,包皮环切术中应保留较少的包皮内板,包皮外板可以适当多保留.%Objective To investigate the significance of thickness of epithelial corneum layer of prepuce in circumcision and decreasing HIV infection. Methods Nineteen preputial specimen were harvested and divided into 7 cases (longitudinal) and 12 cases (horizontal). The corneum layer thickness of epithelial inner plate and epithelial outer plate was measured respectively. The epithelial corneum layer of foreskin from the case who underwent the transsexual operation was as the control sample. Results The corneum layer of the inner plate was thinner than that of the outer plate. The corneum layer of the inner plate of distal prepuce was thinner than that of the proximal prepuce. Conclusion To reduce HIV infection, less inner plate of prepuce should be reserved, whde more outer plate of prepuce should be retained during the circumcision.

  13. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  14. Reverse transcriptase activity in chicken embryo fibroblast culture supernatants is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus EAV-0 RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Weissmahr, R N; Schüpbach, J; Böni, J

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that live attenuated virus vaccines produced on chicken-derived cells contain low levels of particle-associated reverse transcriptase (RT). In both virus and corresponding control harvests produced on chicken embryo fibroblasts, these activities were present at significantly higher concentrations than in the vaccines. In order to identify the putative retrovirus sequence responsible for this activity, a novel method for the selective PCR amplification of particle-associ...

  15. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other...... preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious...... advantages using this assay, are that it can be performed directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production, and also works for antigens with repetitive epitopes. Moreover, the bonus effect, i.e., a signal in excess of the reference signal when sets of monoclonal...

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant differentially modulate inflammatory biomarkers in Escherichia coli-challenged human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2014-05-28

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance to the commensal microbiota and food antigens. Different strains of probiotics possess the ability to finely regulate the activation of dendritic cells (DC), polarising the subsequent activity of T-cells. Nevertheless, information about their underlying mechanisms of action is scarce. In the present study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a potentially probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) on human DC challenged with Escherichia coli. The results showed that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12p70 were higher in the cells treated with live L. rhamnosus than in the cells treated with the CFS. In the presence of E. coli, the supernatant was more effective than the probiotic bacteria in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, live L. rhamnosus potently induced the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β2, whereas the CFS increased the secretion of TGF-β1. However, in the presence of E. coli, both treatments restored the levels of TGF-β. The probiotic strain L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 and its CFS were able to activate the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, enhancing innate immunity. The two treatments induced gene transcription of TLR-9. Live L. rhamnosus activated the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 genes, whereas the CFS increased the expression of TLR-1 and TLR-5 genes. In response to the stimulation with probiotic/CFS and E. coli, the expression of each gene tested was notably increased, with the exception of TNF-α and NFKBIA. In conclusion, the CFS exhibited an extraordinary ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by DC, and may be used as an effective and safer alternative to live bacteria.

  17. Purification of monoclonal antibodies, IgG1, from cell culture supernatant by use of metal chelate convective interaction media monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Poonam; Vijayalakshmi, M A; Jayaprakash, N S

    2012-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have diverse applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. The recent advancement in hybridoma technology for large-scale production of MAbs in bioreactors demands rapid and efficient purification methods. Conventional affinity purification systems have drawbacks of low flow rates and denaturation of antibodies owing to harsh elution conditions. Here, we attempted purification of MAbs by use of a high-throughput metal-chelate methacrylate monolithic system. Monolithic macroporous convective interaction media-iminodiacetate (CIM-IDA) disks immobilized with four different metal ions (Cu²⁺, Ni²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺) were used and evaluated for purification of anti-human serum albumin IgG1 mouse MAbs from cell culture supernatant after precipitation with 50% ammonium sulfate. Elution with 10 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer (25 mM MMA = MOPS (Morpholino propane sulfonic acid) + MES (Morpholino ethane sulfonic acid) + Acetate + 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.4) resulted in a purification of 25.7 ± 2.9-fold and 32.5 ± 2.6-fold in experiments done using Zn²⁺ and Co²⁺ metal ions, respectively. The highest recovery of 85.4 ± 1.0% was obtained with a CIM-IDA-Zn(II) column. SDS-PAGE, ELISA and immuno-blot showed that the antibodies recovered were pure, with high antigen-binding efficiency. Thus, metal chelate CIM monoliths could be a potential alternative to conventional systems for fast and efficient purification of MAbs from the complex cell culture supernatant.

  18. [Level of histamine in supernatants from the basophil activation test: applications to hymenoptera allergy and drug allergy--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamim, S; Lauret, M G; Drouet, M; Sabbah, A

    1999-02-01

    Histamine Release technic consists in calculating histamine liberated by blood cells in touch with an allergen. To this day, this method is only used in Hymenoptera venom allergy diagnosis. The principle of this study is to measure histamine released by activated basophils in surnageons of Basophil Activation Test (BAT) for different allergens: Hymenoptera venoms: Bee, White Faced Hornet, Vespula Wasp. Drugs: Cefaperos, Clamoxyl, Alfatil, Rapifen, Diprivan, Nesdonal, Mivacron. A threshold of positivity (amplification factor in comparison with the control) is determined for these two classes of allergens: 45 for Hymenoptera venoms and 9 for drugs. These results, compared to the other diagnosis technics (Histamine Release, Basophil Activation Test, Prick Tests) discloses very high correlation rates in each case. This method seems to be a reliable method for Hymenoptera venom allergy diagnosis and for drugs allergy diagnosis too. However, this study is based on a few number of patients, so a significant statistic conclusion can't be expressed but it opens an interesting way of research.

  19. Discovery of novel secreted virulence factors from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by proteomic analysis of culture supernatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, George S; Brown, Roslyn N; Gustin, Jean K; Stufkens, Afke; Shaikh-Kidwai, Afshan S; Li, Jie; McDermott, Jason E; Brewer, Heather M; Schepmoes, Athena; Smith, Richard D; Adkins, Joshua N; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis throughout the world. This pathogen has two type III secretion systems (TTSS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that deliver virulence factors (effectors) to the host cell cytoplasm and are required for virulence. While many effectors have been identified and at least partially characterized, the full repertoire of effectors has not been catalogued. In this proteomic study, we identified effector proteins secreted into defined minimal medium designed to induce expression of the SPI-2 TTSS and its effectors. We compared the secretomes of the parent strain to those of strains missing essential (ssaK::cat) or regulatory (ΔssaL) components of the SPI-2 TTSS. We identified 20 known SPI-2 effectors. Excluding the translocon components SseBCD, all SPI-2 effectors were biased for identification in the ΔssaL mutant, substantiating the regulatory role of SsaL in TTS. To identify novel effector proteins, we coupled our secretome data with a machine learning algorithm (SIEVE, SVM-based identification and evaluation of virulence effectors) and selected 12 candidate proteins for further characterization. Using CyaA' reporter fusions, we identified six novel type III effectors and two additional proteins that were secreted into J774 macrophages independently of a TTSS. To assess their roles in virulence, we constructed nonpolar deletions and performed a competitive index analysis from intraperitoneally infected 129/SvJ mice. Six mutants were significantly attenuated for spleen colonization. Our results also suggest that non-type III secretion mechanisms are required for full Salmonella virulence.

  20. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  1. Differentiation efficiency of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocytes under two kinds of liver homogenate supernatants: a comparative study%两种肝组织匀浆上清液诱导人脐带间充质干细胞向肝细胞分化的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫成; 薛改; 吴丽颖; 刘建芳; 侯艳宁

    2015-01-01

    the two liver homogenate supernatants groups could express CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, TPH2. Compared with the standard control group, the expression level of CYP2E1 in the two liver homogenate supernatants groups increased significantly (P 0.05). At the same time, compared with the standard control group, the concentration of albumin in the two liver homogenate supernatants groups markedly increased (P 0.05). Experimental findings demonstrated that both of normal liver tissue and fibrotic liver tissue microenvironments could induce human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cels to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cels. To achieve the same effect, compared with normal liver tissue, fibrotic liver tissue required lower concentrations, suggesting that fibrotic liver tissue microenvironment may be more conducive to differentiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cels into hepatocytes.%背景:前期研究证明正常大鼠肝组织匀浆上清液可诱导人脐带间充质干细胞定向分化为具有部分肝细胞功能的肝样细胞,而肝纤维化大鼠肝组织匀浆上清液的诱导可行性及与前者诱导效果的比较尚不明确.目的:比较正常肝组织及纤维化肝组织微环境诱导人脐带间充质干细胞向肝细胞分化的能力.方法:采用腹腔注射3%硫代乙酰胺生理盐水溶液(200 mg/kg,2次/周,共4周)的方法制备SD大鼠肝纤维化模型,取肝纤维化大鼠及正常大鼠肝脏制备肝组织匀浆上清.将第 3 代人脐带间充质干细胞进行分组诱导培养:①标准对照组:加入含体积分数为 10%胎牛血清的 DMEM/F12 培养基.②纤维化肝组织匀浆组:加入含体积分数为10%胎牛血清及50 g/L纤维化肝组织匀浆的DMEM/F12培养基.③正常肝组织匀浆组:加入含体积分数为10%胎牛血清及100 g/L正常肝组织匀浆的DMEM/F12培养基.诱导开始后于倒置显微镜下观察各组细胞形态学变化;取标准对照组及诱导7 d的匀浆组细胞采用Western Blot

  2. Decreased bacterial diversity characterizes the altered gut microbiota in patients with psoriatic arthritis, resembling dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U; Ubeda, Carles; Artacho, Alejandro; Attur, Mukundan; Isaac, Sandrine; Reddy, Soumya M; Marmon, Shoshana; Neimann, Andrea; Brusca, Samuel; Patel, Tejas; Manasson, Julia; Pamer, Eric G; Littman, Dan R; Abramson, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the diversity and taxonomic relative abundance of the gut microbiota in patients with never-treated, recent-onset psoriatic arthritis (PsA). High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing was utilized to compare the community composition of gut microbiota in patients with PsA (n = 16), patients with psoriasis of the skin (n = 15), and healthy, matched control subjects (n = 17). Samples were further assessed for the presence and levels of fecal and serum secretory IgA (sIgA), proinflammatory proteins, and fatty acids. The gut microbiota observed in patients with PsA and patients with skin psoriasis was less diverse when compared to that in healthy controls. This could be attributed to the reduced presence of several taxa. Samples from both patient groups showed a relative decrease in abundance of Coprococcus species, while samples from PsA patients were also characterized by a significant reduction in Akkermansia, Ruminococcus, and Pseudobutyrivibrio. Supernatants of fecal samples from PsA patients revealed an increase in sIgA levels and decrease in RANKL levels. Analysis of fatty acids revealed low fecal quantities of hexanoate and heptanoate in both patients with PsA and patients with psoriasis. Patients with PsA and patients with skin psoriasis had a lower relative abundance of multiple intestinal bacteria. Although some genera were concomitantly decreased in both conditions, PsA samples had a lower abundance of reportedly beneficial taxa. This gut microbiota profile in PsA was similar to that previously described in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and was associated with changes in specific inflammatory proteins unique to this group, and distinct from that in patients with skin psoriasis and healthy controls. Thus, the role of the gut microbiome in the continuum of psoriasis-PsA pathogenesis and the associated immune response merits further study. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Decreased Bacterial Diversity Characterizes an Altered Gut Microbiota in Psoriatic Arthritis and Resembles Dysbiosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U.; Ubeda, Carles; Artacho, Alejandro; Attur, Mukundan; Isaac, Sandrine; Reddy, Soumya M.; Marmon, Shoshana; Neimann, Andrea; Brusca, Samuel; Patel, Tejas; Manasson, Julia; Pamer, Eric G.; Littman, Dan R.; Abramson, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the diversity and taxonomic relative abundance of the gut microbiota in patients with never-treated, recent-onset psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods High-throughput 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was utilized to compare community composition of gut microbiota in PsA patients (n=16), subjects with psoriasis of the skin (Ps) (n=15) and healthy, matched-controls (n=17). Samples were further assessed for the presence and levels of fecal and serum secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), pro-inflammatory proteins and fatty-acids. Results The gut microbiota observed in PsA and Ps patients was less diverse when compared to healthy controls. These could be attributed to the reduced presence of several taxa. While both groups showed a relative decrease in Coprococcus spp., PsA samples were characterized by a significant reduction in Akkermansia, Ruminococcus, and Pseudobutyrivibrio. Supernatants of fecal samples from PsA patients revealed an increase in sIgA and a decrease in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) levels. Fatty acid analysis revealed low levels of hexanoate and heptanoate in PsA and Ps patients. Conclusion PsA and Ps patients had a lower relative abundance of multiple intestinal bacteria. Although some genera were concomitantly decreased in both conditions, PsA samples had lower abundance of reportedly beneficial taxa. This gut microbiota profile in PsA was similar to that published for patients with IBD and was associated with changes in specific inflammatory proteins unique to this group, and distinct from Ps and controls. Thus, the role of gut microbiota in the continuum of Ps-PsA pathogenesis and the associated immune response merits further study. PMID:25319745

  4. Detoxification of azo dyes mediated by cell-free supernatant culture with manganese-dependent peroxidase activity: effect of Mn2+ concentration and H2O2 dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Elsa; Urra, Johana; Vásquez, Carlos; Palma, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    White-rot fungi (WRF) are capable of degrading complex organic compounds such as lignin, and the enzymes that enable these processes can be used for the detoxification of recalcitrant organopollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate a system based on the use of an in vitro ligninolytic enzyme for the detoxification of recalcitrant dye pollutants. The dyes selected for investigation were the anionic and cationic commercial azo dyes, basic blue 41 (BB41), acid black 1 (AB1), and reactive black 5 (RB5). A supernatant, cell-free culture of WRF with manganese peroxidase activity was used to investigate its degradative capacity under various conditions, and concentrations of cofactors, H(2)O(2) and Mn(2+). The assays were carried out using a 2(2) experimental designs whose variables were concentration of Mn(2+) (33 and 1,000 μM) and semicontinuous dosage of the H(2)O(2) (0.02 and 0.10 μmol) added at a frequency of 0.2 min(-1). The response variables analyzed were the efficiency and the initial rate of the decolorization process. The dye concentrations considered ranged from 10 to 200 mg L(-1). AB1 and RB5 were decolorized over the entire interval of concentrations studied; reaching efficiencies between 15 and 95%. Decolorization of up to 100 mg L(-1), BB41 had less than 30% efficiency. The decay of the concentration of AB1 was interpreted by two-stage kinetics model, with the exception of the condition of 33 μM Mn(2+)-0.02 μmol of H(2)O(2) in which only one stage was observed. For all assays performed with 33 μM Mn(2+), the initial rate of the decolorization process was found to be dependent on the dosage of H(2)O(2). The results of this study can be applied to the development bioreactors for the degradation of recalcitrant pollutants from the textile industry and may be used as a model for expanding the use of extracellular enzyme supernatants in bioremediation. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  5. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239. The measured sodium concentration averaged, respectively, 4.28E+00 ± 9.30E-02 M and 4.32E+00 ± 1.076E-01 M in the Tank 39H surface sample and Tank 39H subsurface sample. In general, the nitrate, nitrite, free-OH and specific gravity of the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were all about the same in magnitude, respectively, averaging 1.98 M, 0.314 M, 1.26 M and 1.24. The measured silicon concentration for the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were, respectively, 3.84E+01± 5.51E+00 and 4.14E+01± 1.17E+00 mg/L. Based on the uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239 concentrations, the calculated U-235 equivalent is 21.41 wt% for the surface sample and 21.32 wt% for the subsurface sample.

  6. Bio-chemical process for nitrogen and phosphorus removal by draining out anaerobic rich phosphate supernatant in ERP-SBR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIFangying; XUXiaoyi; LUOGuyuan

    2003-01-01

    The method of fixed phosphate coming from anaerobic reactor by the auxiliary chemical process is applied in External Recycle Process-SBR (ERP-SBR). This process changes the model of draining out activated sludge in the traditional biological phosphorus removal system to discharge anaerobic poly-phosphate supernatant. This process eliminates the contradiction of control for Solid Removal Time (SRT) in process of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. It can obtain high removal efficiency of nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P) in longer SRT. Experiment results show that: when SRT=50 ~ 80 d, TN=28.6~ 58.3 mg/L, TP=5.5~ 13.5 mg/L in influent, COD≤ 34mg/L, TN≤ 6.02 mg/L, PO43-≤0.23 mg/L in effluent. The amount of lime is only 5% of traditional methods. The phosphorus content in the chemical sludge is 12 %~15 % and the recycle of phosphorus can be realized easily.

  7. Obesity Decreases Perioperative Tissue Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabon, Barbara; Nagele, Angelika; Reddy, Dayakar; Eagon, Chris; Fleshman, James W.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kurz, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for surgical site infections. The incidence of surgical wound infections is directly related to tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Fat tissue mass expands without a concomitant increase in blood flow per cell, which might result in a relative hypoperfusion with decreased tissue oxygenation. Consequently, we tested the hypotheses that perioperative tissue oxygen tension is reduced in obese surgical patients. Furthermore, we compared the effect of supplemental oxygen administration on tissue oxygenation in obese and non-obese patients. Methods: Forty-six patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were assigned to one of two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): BMI < 30 kg/m2 (non-obese) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (obese). Intraoperative oxygen administration was adjusted to arterial oxygen tensions of ≈150 mmHg and ≈300 mmHg in random order. Anesthesia technique and perioperative fluid management were standardized. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with a polarographic electrode positioned within a subcutaneous tonometer in the lateral upper arm during surgery, in the recovery room, and on the first postoperative day. Postoperative tissue oxygen was also measured adjacent to the wound. Data were compared with unpaired two tailed t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Intraoperative subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was significantly less in the obese patients at baseline (36 vs. 57 mmHg, P = 0.002) and with supplemental oxygen administration (47 vs. 76 mmHg, P = 0.014). Immediate postoperative tissue oxygen tension was also significantly less in subcutaneous tissue of the upper arm (43 vs. 54 mmHg, P = 0.011) as well as near the incision (42 vs. 62 mmHg, P = 0.012) in obese patients. In contrast, tissue oxygen tension was comparable in each group on the first postoperative morning. Conclusion: Wound and tissue hypoxia were common in obese

  8. An In-Vitro Investigation of the Antibacterial Effects of the Methanol and Aqueous Extracts and the Supernatant of the Algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM 210-1 on Multiantibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senobar Asadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae contain compounds, some of which have antibacterial properties. For example, the antibiotic Chlorellin can be mentioned, which is extracted from Chlorella species. The methanol and aqueous extracts, and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 were used in this study. After culturing the Algae and preparing the supernatant and extracts, the antibacterial effects of the extracts and supernatant of this algae against multidrugresistant (MDR Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing urinary tract infections were determined using the microdilution and checkerboard titration methods. In the microdilution method, first, the aqueous extract of this algae at a concentration of 0.72 ± 0.22 mg/ml could inhibit the growth of the bacteria being tested. Then, the methanol extract and the supernatant of this algae at concentrations of 0.98 ± 0.68 and 1 ± 0.26 mg/ml, respectively, inhibited the growth of the bacteria being studied. The sum of the FIC of the methanol and aqueous extracts of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM 210-1 in this study, showed the indifference of these two extracts towards each other.

  9. An In-Vitro Investigation of the Antibacterial Effects of the Acetone and Ethanol Extracts and the Supernatant of the Algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 on Some of the Gram-Negative Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Asadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Algae are rich sources of amino acids, terpenoids, florentines, alkanes, halogenated ketones, steroidal compounds, fatty acids, and phenols that can be used in the pharmaceutical industry. The acetone and ethanol extracts, and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1, were used in this study. After culturing the Algae, and preparing the supernatant and extracts, the antibacterial effects of the extracts and supernatant of this algae against some of the gram-negative bacterial foodborne pathogens were determined using the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. According to the study conducted, the acetone and ethanol extracts and the supernatant of the algae Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 showed acceptable antibacterial properties against some of the bacteria being studied, at concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/ml in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods. The maximum inhibition zone diameters in the well plate and agar disk diffusion methods, were 36.8 and 35.4 mm, respectively, which were related to the bacterium Proteus mirabilis PTCC 1776 and were observed at a 10 mg/ml concentration of the acetone extract. By comparing the mean inhibition zone diameters among the acetone and ethanol extracts and a mixture of the two extracts using the well plate method, it can be concluded that the acetone and ethanol extracts of Chlorella vulgaris CCATM- 210-1 are indifferent to each other. This analysis was also true of the agar disk diffusion method.

  10. Correlation and clinical significance of the decreased cervical mobility in ankylosing spondylitis patient with thoracolumbar kyphosis%强直性脊柱炎胸腰椎后凸畸形患者颈椎活动受限的相关因素及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯帆; 钱邦平; 邱勇; 王斌; 俞杨; 朱泽章; 季明亮; 胡俊; 史本龙

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the risk factors and its clinical significance of limited cervical range of motion in ankylosing spondylitis(AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis.Methods:From May 2012 to Octobcr 2012,38 AS patients (with complete medical records) from the 51 consecutive AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis in our hospital werc cnrolled.There were 36 males and 2 females,with an average age of 32.6 years(range,17-53 years).The clinical data consisted of age,discase course,erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR),C-reaction protein(CRP).The radiographic parameters were composed by global kyphosis(GK),cervical mSASSS(the modified Stokes ankylosing spondylitis spinal score),cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA.The quality of life questionnaires consisted of bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI),bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index(BASFI) and Oswestry disability index(ODI).According to the value of cervical range of motion(CROM),the subjects were divided into two groups:group A,CROM >40°; group B,CROM <20°.The independent t-test was used to compare the parameters between the two groups.Furthermore,the Pearson correlation test was performed to investigate the risk factors correlated with CROM.Results:In group A,there were 16 patients with an average CROM of 65.8°±14.3°(41°-92°),while 17 patients in group B with an average CROM of 9.2°±6.6°(1°-19°).With respect to the disease course,BASFI,GK,mSASSS,cervical curve and C2-C7 SVA,significant differences were found between two groups(P<0.05).However,the age,ODI,BASDAI,ESR or CRP showed no significant difference between group A and B(P>0.05).There were remarkable correlations between CROM and disease course,mSASSS,cervical curve,C2-C7 SVA and BASFI(r=-0.524,-0.895,0.494,-0.813,and-0.501 respectively,P<0.05).Especially,there was no significant correlation between GK and CROM(r=-0.275,P=0.122).Conclusions:Longer disease course and cervical structural damage are high risk

  11. Expression of Cyt C and Caspase-3 of bone marrow supernatant in patients with chronic mountain sickness%慢性高原病患者骨髓CytC和Caspase-3表达及意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴昕; 李建平; 李文倩; 冯建明

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨细胞凋亡在慢性高原病(CMS)发生发展过程中的作用,从而寻求新的诊断和治疗途径。方法选取 CMS 患者20例为研究对象,健康人群14例为对照组,采用固相双抗体夹心 ELISA 方法测定 CMS 组及对照组骨髓上清液 Cyt C 和 Caspase-3水平。结果 CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 水平[(21.43±8.92)ng/ml]水平与对照组[(10.36±3.55)ng/ml]比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Caspase-3水平[(15.45±4.73)ng/ml]水平与对照组[(7.14±1.93)ng/ml]比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 与 Caspase-3水平呈正相关(r=0.706,P<0.01);CMS 患者骨髓上清液中 Cyt C 和 Caspase-3表达水平均与血红蛋白(Hb)浓度呈正相关(r=0.524,P<0.01;r=0.577,P<0.01),与血氧饱和度(SaO2)呈负相关(r=-0.505,P<0.05;r=-0.554,P<0.01)。结论推测细胞凋亡可能在 CMS 病理生理过程中发挥着重要作用。%Objective To investigate the apoptosis occurred during the development of function in CMS, so as to seek a new means of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The bone marrow supernatant levels of Cyt C and Caspase-3 in 20 CMS pa-tients and 14 healthy people were determined by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results The bone marrow su-pernatant levels of Cyt C[(21.43±8.92)ng/ml] and Caspase-3[(10.36±3.55)ng/ml] in CMS were significantly higher than those in control group [(15.45±4.73)ng/ml] and [(7.14±1.93)ng/ml] respectively. And there were positive relationship between the levels of Cyt C and Caspase-3 (r=0.706,P<0.01),and between the levels of Cyt C and Hb (r=0.524,P<0.01),and also between the levels of Caspase-3 and Hb (r=0.577,P<0.01). There were negative relationship between the levels of Cyt C and SaO2(r=-0.554, P<0.05),and between the levels of Caspase-3 and SaO2 (r=-0.505,P<0.05). Conclusion Speculate that apoptosis may play an

  12. Effects of LPS-stimulated monocyte culture supernatant on the osteogenic function of osteoblastic cells in vitro%脂多糖刺激单核巨噬细胞培养上清液对成骨细胞成骨特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 邓辉; 徐春燕; 叶洁; 胡荣党

    2011-01-01

    cells significantly deceased, both in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions These results indicated that the inflammatory cytokine secretion of Pg-LPS stimulated RAW264.7 culture supernatant was similar to the change in vivo with inflammation. The inflammatory supernatant could inhibit the proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblastic cells.

  13. 热损伤角质形成细胞培养上清液对成纤维细胞生物学行为的影响%Effect of heat injured keratinocytes supernatant on biological behavior of fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓智; 胡大海; 张万福; 张战凤; 石继红; 蔡维霞; 朱华宇; 朱雄翔; 汤朝武

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of the supernatant of heat injured keratinocytes (KC) on biological behavior of the dermal fibroblasts ( Fb). Methods Human dermal Fb were isolated and cultured. A model of heat injured KC ( HaCaT) was reproduced in vitro. Supernatant of normal KC and the supernatant of KC culture 12 hours after heat injury were collected and diluted with non-serum DMEM in 1:1 volume ratio to make normal KC conditioned medium ( NKCM ) and heat injury KC conditioned medium ( HKCM) respectively. Fb was respectively treated with non-serum DMEM and 2 kinds of conditioned medium. (1) The proliferation of Fb was detected with MTT method at post culture hour (PCH) 12, 24, 36, 48. (2) The apoptosis of Fb was determined by flow cytometry at PCH 12 ( Fb were heat injured in advance; Fb without heat treatment was used as control). (3) At PCH 24, expression of a-SMA in Fb cytoplasm was determined with immunofluorescence method; expression of a-SMA mRNA in Fb was determined with real-time quantified PCR. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, and pairwise comparison among groups with LSD-t test. Results (1) The proliferation of Fb: the absorbance value of Fb cultured with HKCM at PCH 12, 24, 36, 48 wa9 respectively higher than that of Fb cultured with non-serum DMEM ( with t value respectively 1. 89, 2. 35 , 2.02, 1.94, and P values all below 0. 01). There were significant statistical differences between the absorbance values of Fb cultured with HKCM and those of Fb cultured with 1MKCM at PCH 12, 24, and 48 (at PCH 12, t = 1. 83, P <0. 01; at PCH 24,t =2.91, P < 0. 05 ; at PCH 48 , t = 1. 83 , P < 0.05). (2 ) Apoptosis of Fb cultured with HKCM was diminished as compared with that of Fb cultured with NKCM and of Fb without treatment ( t =3.31 , P <0.05; t = 1.47, P < 0.01). (3) The expression of α-SMA (red fluorescence) in Fb cultured with non-serum DMEM or NKCM was less as seen under fluorescence scope, and it was obviously increased in Fb

  14. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  15. Intensity of HLA-A2 Expression Significantly Decreased in Occult Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    ASKARI, Azam; Hassanshahi, Gholam Hossein; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi; Jafarzadeh,Abdollah; Mohit, Maryam; Hajghani, Masomeh; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infected (OBI) patients cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA from their liver and peripheral blood, completely. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the rate of HLA-A2 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with OBI. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, intensity of HLA-A2 was measured on the PBMCs of 57 OBI patients and 100 HBsAg-/anti-HBc+/HBV-DNA samples were enrolled as controls; measur...

  16. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  17. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

  18. BIHOURLY DIAGRAMS OF FORBUSH DECREASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihourly diagrams were made of Forbush decreases of cosmic ray intensity as observed at Uppsala from 31 Aug 56 to 31 Dec 59, at Kiruna from Nov 56 to 31 Dec 59, and at Murchison Bay from 26 Aug 57 to 30 Apr 59. (Author)

  19. Human cerebrospinal fluid fatty acid levels differ between supernatant fluid and brain-derived nanoparticle fractions, and are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Although saturated (SAFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are important structural components of neuronal membranes and precursors of signaling molecules, knowledge of their metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD is limited. Based on recent discovery that lipids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are distributed in both brain-derived nanoparticles (NP and supernatant fluid (SF, we hypothesized that fatty acid (FA abundance and distribution into these compartments is altered in early AD pathology.We assayed the FA composition and abundance in CSF fractions from cognitively healthy (CH, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and AD study participants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the SF fraction, concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, (C22:6n-3] was less in AD compared with CH, while alpha linolenic acid [α-LNA, (C18:3n-3] was lower in MCI compared with CH. In the NP fraction, levels of SAFAs (C15:0, C16:0 and a MUFA (C15:1 differentiated CH from MCI, while two MUFAs (C15:1, C19:1 and four PUFAs (C20:2n-6, C20:3n-3, C22:4n-6, C22:5n-3 were higher in AD compared with CH. Levels of even-chain free SAFA and total free FA levels were higher in AD, levels of odd-chain free SAFAs, MUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, and total PUFA, were lower in AD compared with CH. Free n-6 PUFA levels were similar in all three groups.FA metabolism is compartmentalized differently in NP versus SF fractions of CSF, and altered FA levels reflect the importance of abnormal metabolism and oxidative pathways in AD. Depleted DHA in CSF fractions in AD is consistent with the importance of n-3 PUFAs in cognitive function, and suggests that disturbed PUFA metabolism contributes to AD pathology. This study of FA levels in CSF fractions from different cognitive stages shows potential AD biomarkers, and provides further insight into cell membrane dysfunctions, including mechanisms leading to amyloid production.

  20. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  1. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  2. Combined Analysis of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT Supernatant Is Useful for Distinguishing Active Tuberculosis from Latent Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Suzukawa

    Full Text Available The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT, an interferon-γ release assay, is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its inaccuracy in distinguishing active tuberculosis from latent infection is a major concern. There is thus a need for an easy and accurate tool for achieving that goal in daily clinical settings. This study aimed to identify candidate cytokines for specifically differentiating active tuberculosis from latent infection. Our study population consisted of 31 active TB (tuberculosis patients, 29 LTBI (latent tuberculosis infection patients and 10 healthy control subjects. We assayed for 27 cytokines in QFT supernatants of both specific antigen-stimulated blood samples (TBAg and negative-control samples (Nil. We analyzed their specificities and sensitivities by creating receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and measuring the area under those curves (AUCs. In TBAg-Nil supernatants, IL-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-1RA showed high AUCs of 0.8120, 0.7842, 0.7419 and 0.7375, respectively. Compared with each cytokine alone, combined assay for these top four cytokines showed positive rates in diagnosing active TB, and GDA analysis revealed that MCP-1 and IL-5 are potent in distinguishing active TB from LTBI, with Wilk's lambda = 0.718 (p < 0.001. Furthermore, utilizing the unique characteristic of IL-2 that its TBAg-Nil supernatant levels are higher in LTBI compared to active TB, the difference between IFN-γ and IL-2 showed a large AUC of 0.8910. In summary, besides IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1RA and MCP-1 in QFT supernatants may be useful for distinguishing active TB from LTBI. Those cytokines may also help us understand the difference in pathogenesis between active TB and LTBI.

  3. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  4. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  5. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sánchez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated and M2 (alternatively activated. Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages.

  6. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei

    2006-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  7. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  9. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  10. Decreased frequencies of circulating follicular helper T cell counterparts and plasmablasts in ankylosing spondylitis patients Naive for TNF blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Belén Bautista-Caro

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh, localized in lymphoid organs, promote B cell differentiation and function. Circulating CD4 T cells expressing CXCR5, ICOS and/or PD-1 are counterparts of Tfh. Three subpopulations of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ cells have been described: CXCR3+CCR6- (Tfh-Th1, CXCR3-CCR6+ (Tfh-Th17, and CXCR3-CCR6- (Tfh-Th2. Only Tfh-Th17 and Tfh-Th2 function as B cell helpers. Our objective was to study the frequencies of circulating Tfh (cTfh, cTfh subsets and plasmablasts (CD19+CD20-CD27+CD38high cells, and the function of cTfh cells, in patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS. To this end, peripheral blood was drawn from healthy controls (HC (n = 50, AS patients naïve for TNF blockers (AS/nb (n = 25 and AS patients treated with TNF blockers (AS/b (n = 25. The frequencies of cTfh and plasmablasts were determined by flow cytometry. Cocultures of magnetically sorted CD4+CXCR5+ T cells with autologous CD19+CD27- naïve B cells were established from 3 AS/nb patients and 3 HC, and concentrations of IgG, A and M were measured in supernatants. We obseved that AS/nb but not AS/b patients, demonstrated decreased frequencies of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+PD-1+ cells and plasmablasts, together with a decreased (Tfh-Th17+Tfh-Th2/Tfh-Th1 ratio. The amounts of IgG and IgA produced in cocultures of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells with CD19+CD27- B cells of AS/nb patients were significantly lower than observed in cocultures established from HC. In summary, AS/nb but not AS/b patients, demonstrate a decreased frequency of cTfh and plasmablasts, and an underrepresentation of cTfh subsets bearing a B helper phenotype. In addition, peripheral blood CD4+CXCR5+ T cells of AS/nb patients showed a decreased capacity to help B cells ex vivo.

  11. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  12. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  13. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  14. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  15. Keratinocyte Apoptosis is Decreased in Psoriatic Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskioğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes are the hallmarks of psoriasis vulgaris. Although psoriasis vulgaris is generally accepted as a disease of decreased keratinocyte apoptosis, the results are contradictory. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether decreased keratinocyte apoptosis contributes to the formation of a thickened epidermis as increased keratinocyte proliferation. Material and Method: Forty-three untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients and 20 healthy control subjects were included into the study. Biopsy specimens taken from the enrollee were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 expressions to show the proliferation of keratinocytes and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL method to show the apoptotic keratinocytes. Results: Apoptotic index (percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was significantly lower in psoriatic epidermis (0.33±0.64 than in normal epidermis (0.75±0.85; whereas Ki-67 index (percentage of positively staining cells for Ki-67 was significantly higher in psoriatic epidermis (30.86±10.49 than in normal epidermis (11.65±2.98, (p=0.021 and p=0.00; respectively. Conclusion: Decreased keratinocyte apoptosis also contribute to increased epidermal thickness in psoriasis as well as increased keratinocyte proliferation.

  16. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  17. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  18. Happy mood decreases self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey D; Sedikides, Constantine; Saltzberg, Judith A; Wood, Joanne V; Forzano, Lori-Ann B

    2003-03-01

    Research addressing the influence of happy mood on self-focused attention has yielded inconsistent results. Some studies found that happy mood decreased self-focus relative to sad mood. Other studies did not detect a significant difference between happy and neutral mood, and still other studies found that happy mood, relative to neutral mood, increased self-focus. These investigations have potential shortcomings, such as an insufficiently powerful happy mood induction and a confound between visualization mood inductions and self-focus itself. The present experiment addressed these shortcomings by inducing mood via musical selections, equalizing the approximate potency between happy and sad moods, and using a within-participants design. Relative to neutral mood, happy mood decreased self-focused attention.

  19. Moderate systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Julie A; Burgess, Pamela; Cartie, Richard J; Prasad, Balakrishna M

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been proposed to be beneficial in an array of human pathologies including cardiac arrest, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and hemorrhagic shock. Burn depth progression is multifactorial but inflammation plays a large role. Because hypothermia is known to reduce inflammation, we hypothesized that moderate hypothermia will decrease burn depth progression. We used a second-degree 15% total body surface area thermal injury model in rats. Burn depth was assessed by histology of biopsy sections. Moderate hypothermia in the range of 31-33°C was applied for 4h immediately after burn and in a delayed fashion, starting 2h after burn. In order to gain insight into the beneficial effects of hypothermia, we analyzed global gene expression in the burned skin. Immediate hypothermia decreased burn depth progression at 6h post injury, and this protective effect was sustained for at least 24h. Burn depth was 18% lower in rats subjected to immediate hypothermia compared to control rats at both 6 and 24h post injury. Rats in the delayed hypothermia group did not show any significant decrease in burn depth at 6h, but had 23% lower burn depth than controls at 24h. Increased expression of several skin-protective genes such as CCL4, CCL6 and CXCL13 and decreased expression of tissue remodeling genes such as matrix metalloprotease-9 were discovered in the skin biopsy samples of rats subjected to immediate hypothermia. Systemic hypothermia decreases burn depth progression in a rodent model and up-regulation of skin-protective genes and down-regulation of detrimental tissue remodeling genes by hypothermia may contribute to its beneficial effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Solanum paniculatum L. decreases levels of inflammatory cytokines by reducing NFKB, TBET and GATA3 gene expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Raimon; Silva, Hugo Bernardino Ferreira da; Carneiro, Norma Vilany Queiroz; Pires, Anaque de Oliveira; Carneiro, Tamires Cana Brasil; Costa, Ryan Dos Santos; Marques, Cintia Rodrigues; Machado, Marta Santos Serafim; Velozo, Eudes da Silva; Silva, Telma M G da; Silva, Tania M S da; Conceição, Adilva de Souza; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2017-09-14

    Solanum paniculatum L., popularly known as jurubeba, is a common subtropical plant from Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Argentina, that is used in folk medicine for the treatment of anemia, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions in general. In addition to that, an ethnobotanical survey in "Todos os Santos" Bay have pointed out S. paniculatum as an herb to treat asthma. Previous publications have shown that S. paniculatum possesses antibiotic, antioxidant and modulatory effects on gastric acid secretion; however, its anti-inflammatory potential remains unexplored. Herein, we analyzed the S. paniculatum fruits hexane extract (SpE) for the presence of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol and investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of SpE in vitro. SpE was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for standardization and quantification of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Spleen cells from BALB/c mice were cultivated and stimulated with pokeweed mitogen and also exposed to 15, 30 and 60µg/mL of SpE. Following treatment, levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in the culture supernatants were assessed by ELISA. We also evaluated nitric oxide (NO) production by murine LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages using the Griess technique. In addition, the ability of SpE to stabilize membranes was assessed using a model of hemolysis induced by heat on murine erythrocytes. Gene expression of Th1-cell-specific Tbx21 transcription factor (TBET), zinc-finger transcription factor-3 (GATA3), and nuclear factor-κB (NFKB) in murine spleen cells were assessed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). SpE at 15, 30 and 60µg/mL significantly attenuated cell proliferation, decreased IL-4 release, reduced NO production and improved erythrocyte membrane stabilization in a concentration-dependent manner. SpE was also able to decrease the release of IFN-γ without altering IL-10 levels. The mechanism whereby SpE decreased inflammatory markers may be related to

  1. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  2. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.

  3. 饲料中添加两株乳酸菌及其发酵上清液对凡纳滨对虾消化酶活性的影响%Effects of two lactic acid bacteria species and the corre-sponding supernatants on the activities of digestive enzymes in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙玉杰; 王雷; 孙国琼; 刘梅; 王宝杰

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of probiotics and the corresponding supernatants on the activities of digestive enzymes in Litopenaeus vannamei, several groups of L. vannamei (approximately 3.5 g) were reared at a tempera-ture of 30 ± 2°C in an aquaria for 4 weeks. The following four trials (three treated and one control) were conducted:T1, shrimp fed with a commercial diet + strain Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (1×107CFU/g feed); T2, shrimp fed with a commercial diet + strain Enterococcus faecium NRW-2 (1×107-CFU/g feed); T3, shrimp fed with a commer-cial diet + the supernatant of strain L. pentosus HC-2 (the corresponding supernatant of 1×107CFU/g feed of L. pentosus HC-2); and T4, shrimp fed with a commercial diet alone as a control. The results demonstrated that the protease activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the intestines of three treatment groups compared with those in the control group, but they were not significantly increased in the hepatopancreas. The amylase and lipase activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the intestines and hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with E. faecium NRW-2 compared with those in the control group. The amylase and lipase activities were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the hepatopancreas and intestines, respectively, in the group of shrimp fed with L. pentosus HC-2, whereas the protease and amylase activities were just increased significantly in the intestines of shrimp fed with the supernatant of L. pentosus HC-2. This study suggested that the activities of digestive enzymes in L. vannamei can increase by NRW-2, HC-2, and the corresponding supernatant but vary in different tissues. These results provide a solid foundation for the application of probiotics in aquaculture.%为了探讨前期实验获得的益生菌及其发酵上清液对凡纳滨对虾消化功能的影响,将初始体质量3.5 g ±0.06 g 的凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)在30℃±2℃环境下于水族箱中养殖4周。以基

  4. Differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben-Zhou Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance. Methods:Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected and GPR30 expression levels were detected;human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and processed with GRP30 inhibitor and GRP30 agonist combined with hypoxia-reoxygenation respectively, and cell apoptosis as well as pro-angiogenesis molecule and apoptosis molecule contents were detected. Results:mRNA content and protein content of GRP30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue were significantly lower than those in normal placenta tissue;apoptosis rate of G15 group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of H/R group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of G1 group was significantly lower than that of H/R group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly higher than those of H/R group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly lower than those of H/R group. Conclusions:Low expression of GPR30 in placenta tissue is closely associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia, enhancing GPR function can reduce endothelial cell apoptosis and increase the contents of pro-angiogenesis factors, and it has endothelial protection effect.

  5. Forbush Decrease: A New Perspective with Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Anil; Shaikh, Zubair; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Vichare, Geeta

    2017-08-01

    Sudden short-duration decreases in cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush decreases (FDs), are mainly caused by interplanetary disturbances. A generally accepted view is that the first step of an FD is caused by a shock sheath and the second step is due to the magnetic cloud (MC) of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). This simplistic picture does not consider several physical aspects, such as whether the complete shock sheath or MC (or only part of these) contributes to the decrease or the effect of internal structure within the shock-sheath region or MC. We present an analysis of 16 large ({≥} 8 %) FD events and the associated ICMEs, a majority of which show multiple steps in the FD profile. We propose a reclassification of FD events according to the number of steps observed in their respective profiles and according to the physical origin of these steps. This study determines that 13 out of 16 major events ({˜} 81%) can be explained completely or partially on the basis of the classic FD model. However, it cannot explain all the steps observed in these events. Our analysis clearly indicates that not only broad regions (shock sheath and MC), but also localized structures within the shock sheath and MC have a significant role in influencing the FD profile. The detailed analysis in the present work is expected to contribute toward a better understanding of the relationship between FD and ICME parameters.

  6. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P HSL activity were significantly lower (P HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  7. Impaired Functions of Macrophage from Cystic Fibrosis Patients: CD11b, TLR-5 Decrease and sCD14, Inflammatory Cytokines Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin-Le Jeune, Karin; Le Jeune, André; Jouneau, Stéphane; Belleguic, Chantal; Roux, Pierre-François; Jaguin, Marie; Dimanche-Boitre, Marie-Thérèse; Lecureur, Valérie; Leclercq, Caroline; Desrues, Benoît; Brinchault, Graziella; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chouly, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Background Early in life, cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are infected with microorganisms. The role of macrophages has largely been underestimated in literature, whereas the focus being mostly on neutrophils and epithelial cells. Macrophages may however play a significant role in the initiating stages of this disease, via an inability to act as a suppressor cell. Yet macrophage dysfunction may be the first step in cascade of events leading to chronic inflammation/infection in CF. Moreover, reports have suggested that CFTR contribute to altered inflammatory response in CF by modification of normal macrophage functions. Objectives In order to highlight possible intrinsic macrophage defects due to impaired CFTR, we have studied inflammatory cytokines secretions, recognition of pathogens and phagocytosis in peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from stable adult CF patients and healthy subjects (non-CF). Results In CF macrophage supernatants, concentrations of sCD14, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were strongly raised. Furthermore expression of CD11b and TLR-5 were sorely decreased on CF macrophages. Beside, no difference was observed for mCD14, CD16, CD64, TLR-4 and TLR1/TLR-2 expressions. Moreover, a strong inhibition of phagocytosis was observed for CF macrophages. Elsewhere CFTR inhibition in non-CF macrophages also led to alterations of phagocytosis function as well as CD11b expression. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrate excessive inflammation in CF macrophages, characterized by overproduction of sCD14 and inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of CD11b and TLR-5, and impaired phagocytosis. This leads to altered clearance of pathogens and non-resolution of infection by CF macrophages, thereby inducing an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. PMID:24098711

  8. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  9. Decreased Neuronal Autophagy in HIV Dementia: A Mechanism of Indirect Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaei, Mehrdad; Kiosses, William B.; Fox, Howard S.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent studies indicate that dysregulation of autophagy is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. The HIV-1-associated neurological disorder is an acquired cognitive and motor disease that includes a severe neurodegenerative dementia. We find that the neurodegeneration seen in the brain in HIV-1 infection is associated with an inhibition of neuronal autophagy, leading to neuronal demise. Neurons treated with supernatants from SIV-infected microglia develop a decrease in autophagy-inducing proteins, a decrease in neuronal autophagy vesicles, and an increase in sequestosome-1/p62. Examination of brains from HIV-infected individuals and SIV-infected monkeys reveals signs of autophagy dysregulation, associated, respectively, with dementia and encephalitis. Excitotoxic and inflammatory factors could inhibit neuronal autophagy, and stimulation of autophagy with rapamycin prevents such effects. Here we amplify on these findings, and propose that in the setting of HIV-infection, the decreased neuronal autophagy sensitizes cells to pro-apoptotic and other damaging mechanisms, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. Hence, new therapeutic approaches aimed at boosting neuronal autophagy are conceivable to treat those suffering from the neurological complications of HIV. PMID:18772620

  10. The Immunostimulation of F4ac ETEC-Culture Supernatant to Porcine Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells%F4ac型产肠毒素大肠杆菌菌液上清对仔猪小肠上皮细胞的免疫刺激作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传丽; 刘铮铸; 俞英; 张勤

    2014-01-01

    RNA expression profiles of IL8、TNF-α, CXCL2, IL6, IL1A, TLR4, SLPI, PLAU and MUC13 between the stimulated and control IPEC-J2 cell groups were tested by amplification using documented and self-designed primers in the presence of SYBR Green. [Result] Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of three important cytokines IL8, TNF-α and CXCL2 were up-regulated in the stimulated treatment group with the fold-change of IL8 being 3.24 (P<0.05), the fold-change of TNF-αalso being 3.24 (P<0.01) and that of CXCL2 being 1.65 (P<0.001). For the rest six genes (IL6, IL1A, TLR4, SLPI, PLAU and MUC13), no statistically significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels between the two groups. [Conclusion] In this study, the IPEC-J2 cells were challenged with the supernatant of F4ac ETEC-culture for 3 hours, and it was found that this stimulation increased the mRNA expression levels of three key pro-inflammatory genes IL8, TNF-α and CXCL2, which proved that the supernatant of F4ac ETEC-culture showed immunostimulation to the IPEC-J2 cells. The discovery in this study provided insights into the immunostimulation of enterotoxin and/or adhesion of F4ac ETEC to porcine intestinal epithelial cells.%【目的】猪源产肠毒素大肠杆菌(enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, ETEC)是一类世界范围内流行的致仔猪腹泻的病原菌。依据养猪业生产实践中对致仔猪腹泻病原菌血清学鉴定结果可知,F4ac型ETEC的流行性最为广泛。到目前为止,对ETEC导致仔猪腹泻的机理已经有了比较透彻的阐释。但对ETEC培养液的免疫原性尚未有研究和描述。论文以F4ac型ETEC为研究对象,探索其菌液上清(即培养液)对仔猪小肠上皮细胞(IPEC-J2)的免疫刺激作用。【方法】首先收集F4ac型ETEC菌株200培养12h后的培养液,后经4℃,4000 r/min,离心15 min收集培养液上清,将该上清液经0.22µm滤器过滤,并与DMEM/F12培养基以1﹕1的比例混

  11. Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Allen, Rosemary A; Pammer, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates how auditory attention affects inattentional blindness (IB), a failure of conscious awareness in which an observer does not notice an unexpected event because their attention is engaged elsewhere. Previous research using the attentional blink paradigm has indicated that listening to music can reduce failures of conscious awareness. It was proposed that listening to music would decrease IB by reducing observers' frequency of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Observers completed an IB task that varied both visual and auditory demands. Listening to music was associated with significantly lower IB, but only when observers actively attended to the music. Follow-up experiments suggest this was due to the distracting qualities of the audio task. The results also suggest a complex relationship between IB and TUTs: during demanding tasks, as predicted, noticers of the unexpected stimulus reported fewer TUTs than non-noticers. During less demanding tasks, however, noticers reported more TUTs than non-noticers.

  12. Assortativity Decreases the Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...

  13. Measuring the expression of exogenous BDNF of NSCs after infection of supernatant from recombi-nant retrovirus pLXSN-BDNF%pLXSN-BDNF体外转染神经干细胞及其外源基因的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪美; 原慧萍; 吴东来; 王雅; 王卓

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立体外稳定表达脑源性神经生长因子(BDNF)的神经干细胞(NSCs).方法 采用有限稀释法纯化体外培养的NSCs.用重组和空白逆转录病毒感染NSCs,分别采用荧光定量PCR法和ELISA法检测3组(pLXSN-BDNF病毒感染组、pLXSN病毒感染组、空白对照组)NSCs中外源基因的表达水平.结果 荧光定量PCR法测定pLXSN-BDNF组BDNF原始模板拷贝数为(19.57±0.65)×10~3copies/μl,与其余两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);ELISA法测定pLXSN-BDNF组NSCs细胞上清中BDNF含量最高,与其余两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 用携带BDNF的重组逆转录病毒能成功地将外源基因导入NSCs中,为NSCs眼内移植研究,也为基因治疗视神经损伤的量化研究提供实验依据.%Objective To develop neural stem cells(NSCs) which can stably express exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in vitro. Methods NSCs from the subependymal zone of embry-onic day 14.5(E14.5) rat brain were purified by limiting dilution assay and then infected with supernatant of recombinant retrovirus pLXSN-BDNF and retrovirus pLXSN. The original copy numbers of exogenous gene templates from three groups NSCs(pLXSN-BDNF viral infection group, pLXSN viral infection group, control group) were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR). ELISA assay was used for determining the protein contents of BDNF of supernatant from three groups NSCs for six days continually after seeded in 24-well plates in the same cell density. Results NSCs were purified successfully by limiting dilution assay.The original copy numbers of exogenous BDNF gene templates from pLXSN-BDNF viral infection group by FQ-PCR were (19.57±0.65) × 10~3 copies/μl, higher than those of another two groups(P < 0.05). The protein contents of BDNF of supernatant from NSCs of pLXSN-BDNF viral infection group was highest among three groups and compared with another two groups had statistical significance (P <0

  14. Content research on antibody titer and plasma protein of plasma and red blood cell suspension supernatant fluid%血浆与红细胞悬液上清液中抗体效价及血浆蛋白的含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏

    2012-01-01

      目的分析红细胞悬浮液与血浆对应的抗体效价及其蛋白含量.方法随机收集无偿献血者261名.针对各全血制备对应的血浆和红细胞悬浮液,检测各血上清的抗A、抗B效价及其对应的血浆蛋白含量并比较分析.结果 A型血浆抗B效价的效价为31.05±20.29,A型红细胞悬液抗B的抗体效价为5.86±3.60;B型血浆抗A的效价为21.69±18.34,B型红细胞悬液抗A的抗体效价为3.08±1.99;O型血浆抗A的效价为34.02±20.76,血浆抗B的抗体效价为31.98±19.32;O型红细胞悬液的抗体抗A效价为5.96±2.86,抗B抗体效价为5.32±2.45.A型血的血浆蛋白与红细胞悬液上清液存在显著差异,且血浆抗体的效价是红细胞上清效价均数的7倍;血浆蛋白则为红细胞悬液的5-8倍.结论与血浆比较,各血型红细胞悬浮液的抗体效价明显低,含有较少蛋白,可只用主侧配血.%  Objective To analyse the antibody titer and its protein content of red blood cell suspension and plasma corresponding. Methods Random collect voluntary blood donors 261. On the whole blood preparation corresponding plasma and erythrocytes suspension, detecting the blood supernatant of A resistance, resistance to B valence and the corresponding plasma protein content and comparative analysis. Results The results showed that the type A plasma resistance to B titer of valence was 31.05±20.29, type A red blood cell suspension resistance to B antibody titer was5.86±3.60; Type B plasma resistance to A titer was 21.69±18.34, type B cell suspension resistance to A antibody titer was 3.08±1.99; Type O blood plasma resistance to A titer was 34.02±20.76, plasma resistance to B antibody titer was 31.98±19.32; Type O red blood cell suspension antibody resistance to A titer was 5.96±2.86, resistance to B antibody titer was 5.32±2.45. Type A blood plasma protein and red blood cell suspension supernatant fluid exists significant difference, and plasma antibody

  15. [Intraocular pressure decrease after manual small incision cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M

    2017-05-01

    We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, Pdecrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the supernatant from ankylosing spondylitis synovial cells culture on the osteogenic differentiation of ligament fibroblasts%强直性脊柱炎滑膜细胞培养上清液对韧带成纤维细胞成骨分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐卫东; 梁志民; 袁恒锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of synovial cells culture fluid on the differentiation of ligament fibroblasts into osteoblasts. Methods Specimens of ligament and synovium were obtained from the hip joints with ankylosing spondylitis respectively. The primary cell culture of ligament fibroblasts and synovial cells were processed and then the supernatant of synovial cells in the first passage was collected and used to induce ligament cells. Osteogenic phenotype and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were determined at the days of 0, 5,10,15 and 20 respectively. Calcium deposit was detected by Von Kossa staining at the 25th day. Results With time extending, the expression of ALP and osteocalcin increased significantly at day 10 and reached a peak at day 15. Calcium deposit could be detected at day 25. Conclusions The supernatant of synovial cells cuture plays a certain role on the differentiation of ligament fibroblasts into osteoblasts.%目的 探讨强直性脊柱炎(AS)滑膜细胞培养上清液对韧带成纤维细胞成骨分化的影响.方法 分别进行AS患者滑膜和韧带成纤维细胞原代培养,收集第1代的滑膜细胞培养液上清液,应用此上清液对韧带成纤维细胞进行诱导,分别于0、5、10、15、20 d检测碱性磷酸酶和骨钙素表达水平,并于25 d时进行钙结节染色.结果 在应用AS滑膜细胞培养上清液对韧带成纤维细胞进行诱导的第10天,碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和骨钙素(OC)表达水平明显升高,并在第15天达到高峰.第25天时进行钙结节Von Kossa染色,发现有钙结节形成.结论 AS滑膜细胞培养上清液对韧带成纤维细胞具有成骨诱导分化的能力.

  17. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  18. Tetracycline and Glutathione Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity: An In Vitro Study Using Culture Supernatants of L929 and Dalton Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Kendre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracycline and glutathione inhibited the protease activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and Dalton lymphoma cells, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the tetracycline may be due to its ability to chelate metal ions such as calcium and zinc. Gelatin-zymography technique was used to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of both tetracycline and glutathione. The intensity of the bands corresponding to metalloproteinase activity in zymography gel was reduced in the presence of 50–100 μg/mL of tetracycline. The presence of 10–100 μg/mL of tetracycline in the medium increased the adherence of L929 cancer cells. These results clearly indicate the antimetastatic property of tetracycline. Reduced glutathione, a compound which is produced endogenously by the cells to maintain the redox status, was shown to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinase activity (in vitro. Therefore, it is assumed that decreased glutathione levels in synovial fluids or plasma might increase the activity of MMP. Reduced glutathione at 100 μg/mL inhibited the metalloproteinase activity in gelatin-zymographic gel. As both tetracycline and glutathione exhibited an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase activity, it was of great interest to check their clinical effects on various MMP associated pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and arthritis. Here we report that tetracycline and reduced glutathione inhibited the activity of MMP2 completely and activity of MMP9 partly.

  19. Decreases in CD31 and CD47 levels on the cell surface during etoposide-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yutaro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Dote, Kanae; Higai, Koji; Matsumoto, Kojiro

    2011-01-01

    Engulfment of apoptotic cells is regulated by 'eat me' and 'don't eat me' signals on the cell surface. Alterations to the 'eat me' signals have been well described; however, very little is known about the 'don't eat me' signals on the cell surface during apoptosis. In the present study, apoptosis of Jurkat cells was induced by treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide, and then the CD31 and CD47 levels on the apoptotic cell surface and in microparticles were estimated by flow cytometry and immunoblotting methods in the presence of caspase, metalloproteinase, and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibitors. The CD31 and CD47 levels on the cell surface of apoptotic Jurkat cells had decreased after treatment with etoposide. These decreases in CD31 and CD47 levels on the apoptotic cell surface were almost completely suppressed by the caspase 3 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO, and partially suppressed by caspase 8 (Ac-IETD-CHO) and caspase 9 (Ac-LEHE-CHO) inhibitors but not by the metalloproteinase inhibitors GM6001 and TAPI-0. Microparticle counts in culture supernatants were higher during etoposide-induced apoptosis. The ROCK1 inhibitor, Y27632, suppressed blebbing formation and microparticle release. Moreover, flow cytometry and immunoblotting revealed CD31 and CD47 in the microparticles. These results indicate that CD31 and CD47 were released by the apoptotic Jurkat cells into the culture supernatant in microparticles, but not in soluble forms, resulting in decreased levels on the apoptotic cell surface.

  20. Usefulness of whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant glucose concentrations obtained by a veterinary point-of-care glucometer to identify septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie; Verlander, Lindsey Lane

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a veterinary point-of-care glucometer for identification of septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion (PE). Prospective clinical evaluation. 39 dogs with PE. Blood and peritoneal fluid convenience samples were collected concurrently in all dogs at the time of initial evaluation. A veterinary point-of-care glucometer was used to measure glucose concentration in heparinized whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant samples. Seventeen dogs had confirmed septic peritonitis, and 22 dogs had nonseptic PE. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of identification of dogs with septic peritonitis were calculated for glucose concentration differences for whole blood versus peritoneal fluid (WB-PF), plasma versus peritoneal fluid (P-PF), and plasma versus peritoneal fluid supernatant (P-PFS). With a cutoff of > 20 mg/dL, the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF was an insensitive indicator of septic peritonitis (sensitivity, 41.2%; specificity, 100%). In comparison, the glucose concentration differences for P-PF and P-PFS had a higher sensitivity for septic peritonitis (88.2% and 82.4%, respectively) but a lower specificity (80% and 77.8%, respectively). With a glucose concentration difference cutoff of ≥ 38 mg/dL, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of P-PF and P-PFS improved. Determination of the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF with the veterinary point-of-care glucometer was not useful in identifying all dogs with septic peritonitis. A glucose concentration difference of ≥ 38 mg/dL for P-PF or P-PFS, however, supported an accurate diagnosis of septic peritonitis in dogs with PE.

  1. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  2. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  3. Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Rosemary M; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows globally are disappearing at a rapid rate with physical disturbances being one of the major drivers of this habitat loss. Disturbance of seagrass can lead to fragmentation, a reduction in shoot density, canopy height and coverage, and potentially permanent loss of habitat. Despite being such a widespread issue, knowledge of how such small scale change affects the spatial distribution and abundances of motile fauna remains limited. The present study investigated fish and macro faunal community response patterns to a range of habitat variables (shoot length, cover and density), including individual species habitat preferences within a disturbed and patchy intertidal seagrass meadow. Multivariate analysis showed a measurable effect of variable seagrass cover on the abundance and distribution of the fauna, with species specific preferences to both high and low seagrass cover seagrass. The faunal community composition varied significantly with increasing/decreasing cover. The faunal species composition of low cover seagrass was more similar to sandy control plots than to higher cover seagrass. Shannon Wiener Diversity (H') and species richness was significantly higher in high cover seagrass than in low cover seagrass, indicating increasing habitat value as density increases. The results of this study underline how the impacts of small scale disturbances from factors such as anchor damage, boat moorings and intertidal vehicle use on seagrass meadows that reduce shoot density and cover can impact upon associated fauna. These impacts have negative consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services such as the provision of nursery habitat.

  4. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used ...

  5. Decrease of epidermal histidase activity by tumor-promoting phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, N H; Lau, S; Head, R

    1975-11-01

    The potent skin tumor promoter (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulates epidermal macromolecular synthesis as well as proliferation, but little is known of specific functional aberrations produced by TPA. This report presents results of a study on the effects of TPA on epidermal histidase (L-histidine ammonia lyase), an enzyme found in normal epidermis but not in dermis or in mouse squamous cell carcinomas. Histidase activity was assayed on postmitochondrial supernatants obtained from hairless mouse epidermis after removal by keratotome. Topical TPA treatment at doses active in tumor promotion (1.7 to 17.0 nmoles/application) produced dose-dependent decreases in epidermal histidase specific activity at 19 hr posttreatment. The onset of the decrease occurred at 12 hr with recovery to control level specific activity by 5 days, showing kinetics similar to those obtained for stimulation of DNA synthesis. This decrease in histidase could not be attributed to a general inhibition of soluble protein synthesis or to the appearance of an inhibitor of histidase activity. The strong promoter TPA produced a greater histidase decrease than did the moderate promoter and mitogen 12,13-didecanoyl phorbol at equimolar dose, while phorbol, a nonpromoter and nonmitogen, produced no effects on histidase. The relationship of this histidase depression to tumor promotion and not initiation is further indicated by the finding that (a) Tween 60, a structurally unrelated tumor promotor, also produced a decrease in histidase; and (b) the tumor initiator urethan and an initiating dose of 9,10-dimethybenz(a)anthracene showed no effects on histadase activity.

  6. G protein-coupled receptor120 (GPR120) transcription in intestinal epithelial cells is significantly affected by bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredborg, M; Theil, P K; Jensen, B B; Purup, S

    2012-12-01

    Free fatty acids (FFA) are produced in the intestine by microbial fermentation. Recently, a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPR) acting as FFA transporters has been reported including GPR120, which is expressed by intestinal epithelial cells. The GPR120 has been reported to affect the expression of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 as well as function as a control point for anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether 12 selected intestinal bacteria, representing the 4 major phyla present in the intestine, affect intestinal epithelial cell GPR120 and GLP-1 mRNA abundance. Supernatants of the 12 bacteria were added to differentiated Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells cultured on filter inserts in concentrations corresponding to a cell:bacteria ratio of 1:200. After 4 h of incubation, changes in cellular mRNA of GLP-1 and GPR120 by bacterial supernatant were examined using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The abundance of GLP-1 mRNA decreased when cells were exposed to 4 of the 12 supernatants (P ≤ 0.05) compared with cells without bacteria added. Supernatants from 8 of the 12 bacteria analyzed increased the mRNA level of GPR120 (P ≤ 0.05) compared with cells without bacteria added. The alteration in cellular GPR120 mRNA was observed with bacteria categorized as either probiotics or bacteria capable of inducing an anti-inflammatory effect. The beneficial effect of these bacteria may very well be mediated by regulation of GPR120. The regulation of GPR120 by intestinal microbiota represents a direct signaling pathway for gut bacteria to affect host health and metabolism.

  7. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-09-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria.

  8. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  9. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  10. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  11. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  12. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Philbeck, John W; Wirtz, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  13. Ceruloplasmin decreases respiratory burst reaction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, Elena Y; Semenova, Elena V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Aplin, Kirill D; Timofeeva, Kseniya E; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Filatov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Testing of pregnant women reveals weakening of neutrophil-mediated effector functions, such as reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides data confirming the phenomenon, gained through application of the flow cytometry technique. Key factors influencing neutrophil functional activity in blood plasma of pregnant women have not been detected so far. At the same time, concentration of ceruloplasmin - a copper-containing glycoprotein - is known to increase in blood significantly during pregnancy. We observed the negative correlation between ceruloplasmin concentration in blood plasma of pregnant women and the intensity of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Fractionation of plasma using gel-filtration revealed that ceruloplasmin-containing fraction demonstrated suppression of the respiratory burst reaction. Partial elimination of ceruloplasmin from the blood of pregnant women, performed with the help of specific antibodies and followed by immunoprecipitation, leads to an increased respiratory burst reaction. On the contrary, addition of ceruloplasmin to blood samples of healthy donors noticeably decreases the respiratory burst reaction. The results presented prove that change in ceruloplasmin level in plasma is necessary and sufficient for modulating the ability of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species during pregnancy.

  14. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  15. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  16. Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NUMBER Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F • 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3-10 AUG 05. 14. ABSTRACT Forbush decreases (FDs) in neutron monitor (NM) counting rates are caused by enhanced magnetic fields in interplanetary...VS-HA-TR-2007-1044 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 2, 267-270 Imaging Interplanetary Disturbances Causing Forbush Decreases S.W

  17. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after the...... ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds....

  18. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  19. Selective crystallization of tank supernatant liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of selectively removing sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford Site tank waste by a large-scale fractional crystallization process. Two thirds of all the nuclear waste stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks is sodium nitrate (mass basis, excluding water). Fractional crystallization can remove essentially nonradioactive NaNO{sub 3} and other sodium salts from the waste, thereby reducing the volume of low-level waste glass by as much as 90%.

  20. Cell culture supernatants for detection perforin ELISA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Najwa

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... suggested by Whitaker (1972), the resin was packaged gently in glass column, the .... crystals and incubated in shaker at room temperature for 30 min. ... a well used test for the medical statistics; P value <0.01 is considered.

  1. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  2. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.;

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response...

  3. Comparison of procedures for the extraction of supernatants and cytotoxicity tests in Vero cells, applied to assess the toxigenic potential of Bacillus spp. and Lactobacillus spp., intended for use as probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Anicet R; Méndez, Javier; Castel, Susana; Reina, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Interest in using Bacillus strains as probiotic components of animal feeds has grown in recent years. However, some of these strains, especially those taxonomically related to the Bacillus cereus group, may have enterotoxigenic activity. Assessment of their toxigenic potential by well-established and robust protocols is required before authorizing their use in animal nutrition. Three methods of extraction and concentration of supernatants of Bacillus and Lactobacillus strains (methanol extraction, ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration concentration) and three cytotoxic tests in Vero cells (WST-1, LDH and protein synthesis inhibition assays) for the assessment of the cytotoxicity activity of Lactobacillus strains (as probiotic strains in human and animal nutrition) and Bacillus toyonensis BCT-7112(T) (as animal probiotic strain in animal nutrition-Toyocerin®-) were evaluated in this study. Methanol extraction was not useful under any circumstances. The other two concentration methods (ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration) were feasible, with slightly greater sensitivity achieved by ultrafiltration. The probiotic strain B. toyonensis BCT-7112(T) proved to be a non-cytotoxic strain in all the protocols tested. However, some Lactobacillus strains showed cytotoxicity activity, regardless of the protocols applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreasing activated sludge thermal hydrolysis temperature reduces product colour, without decreasing degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jason; Starrenburg, Daniel; Tait, Stephan; Barr, Keith; Batstone, Damien J; Lant, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Activated sludges are becoming more difficult to degrade in anaerobic digesters, due to the implementation of stricter nitrogen limits, longer sludge ages, and removal of primary sedimentation units. Thermal hydrolysis is a popular method to enhance degradability of long-age activated sludge, and involves pressure and heat treatment of the process fluid (150-160 degrees C saturated steam). However, as documented in this study, in a full-scale system, the use of thermal hydrolysis produces coloured, recalcitrant compounds that can have downstream impacts (e.g., failure of UV disinfection, and increased effluent nitrogen). The coloured compound formed during thermal hydrolysis was found to be melanoidins. These are coloured recalcitrant compounds produced by polymerisation of low molecular weight intermediates, such as carbohydrates and amino compounds at elevated temperature (Maillard reaction). By decreasing the THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C, THP effluent colour decreased from 12,677 mg-PtCo L(-1) to 3837 mg-PtCo L(-1). The change in THP operating temperature from 165 degrees C to 140 degrees C was shown to have no significant impact on anaerobic biodegradability of the sludge. The rate and extent of COD biodegradation remained largely unaffected by the temperature change with an average first order hydrolysis rate of 0.19 d(-1) and conversion extent of 0.43 g-COD(CH4)g-COD(-1).

  5. Cyclosporin A Decreases Human Macrophage Interleukin-6 Synthesis at Post-Transcriptional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Losa García

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its well-established effect on T cells, cyclosporin A (CsA also inhibits inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of CsA on macrophage cytokine production. We measured the effect of CsA on basal and phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA-stimulated production of interleukin-6 using the human monocyte cell line U937 differentiated with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. Interleukin-6 levels were measured in supernatant and cell lysates using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that CsA decreases not only IL-6 release but also cytokine synthesis. The concentration of CsA used did not affect either cell viability or proliferation. Three possibilities may be advanced to explain the CsA-due decrease in IL-6 production by macrophages: (a inhibition of the synthesis of an early common regulatory protein, (b inhibition of cytokine gene transcription, or (c modulation of post-transcriptional events. The first possibility was tested by measuring the effect of cycloheximide on the experimental system during the first 3 hours of culture. Although cycloheximide decreased total cytokine synthesis, the pattern of cytokine modulation by CsA persisted. These data suggest that CsA-mediated macrophage cytokine inhibition is not mediated by an early common regulatory protein. To further explore the inhibition mechanism, we measured IL-6 mRNA levels by Northern blot. IL-6 mRNA levels were unaffected by CsA both in resting and PMA-stimulated cells. We conclude that in human macrophages CsA diminishes IL-6 production at post-transcriptional level.

  6. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  7. The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The Forbush decrease of November 17, 1966, takes place in two steps, a predecrease is followed by the main decrease. SSCs are observed on both occasions. The decrease is modest, short-lived, and is preceded and followed by an exceptionally steady level of the cosmic ray intensity. Preliminary results from a phenomenological study are presented. The observed changes in the cosmic ray intensity are correlated with interplanetary magnetic field direction at the onset of the predecrease and during part of the recovery phase. A simple explanation is given for the fact that the predecrease is not observed at the stations in the European-zone. It appears that a preferential recovery takes place from some directions in space, during the recovery phase of the Forbush decrease. Off-ecliptic scattering of lower energy cosmic rays is probably responsible for this. The same phenomena is probably also responsible for the difference between the amplitudes of the predecrease observed at different stations.

  8. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  9. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  10. Fluoxetine causes decrease in intestinal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study has indicated that fluoxetine on isolated ileal intestinal smooth muscle decrease the motility and this decrease in motility is possibly due to the inability of fluoxetine in vitro to enhance the serotonergic transmission and also because of the interaction of these agents with some of the other receptors, present in the intestinal smooth muscles. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 265-268

  11. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  12. Phytoliths indicate significant arboreal cover at Sahelanthropus type locality TM266 in northern Chad and a decrease in later sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Alice; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Paillès, Christine; Bourlès, Didier L; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples. The phytolith assemblages indicate an opening of the vegetation and a general trend toward an expansion of grass-dominated environments during the time spanning the two hominin occurrences in Chad. The phytoliths suggest the presence of a mosaic environment, including closed forest patches, palm groves, and mixed/grassland formations, between 7.5 and 7 Ma, the replacement by palm grove-like vegetation at approximately 6.5-5 Ma, and the presence of exclusive grass-dominated formations after 4.5 Ma. The type-locality of S. tchadensis (TM266) was likely similar to modern palm grove formations with an arboreal cover percentage ≥40%. The type locality of A. bahrelghazali (KT12) was a grass-dominated ecosystem (likely savanna) with an unrated percentage of arboreal cover. Furthermore, the grass phytolith data support the existence of a (recurrent) Sahelian-like dry climate in northern Chad since at least 8 Ma. Therefore the local closed vegetation formations in the Djurab region at 7.5-7 Ma were sustained by aquatic systems (such as lakes or related rivers, marshes) rather than by extensive annual precipitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangxu Zou; Hui Zhang; Jie Zuo; Penghe Wang; Dehua Zhao; Shuqing An

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5??C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which ha...

  14. Low Resolution Limits and Inaccurate Algorithms Decrease Significantly the Value of Late Loss in Current Drug-Eluting Stent Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B. Dahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative coronary and vascular angiography (QCA resp., QVA remains the current gold standard for evaluation of restenosis. Late loss as one of the most commonly accepted parameters to highlight efficacy of the various devices has shown high correlation to clinical parameters but, surprisingly, has no impact on the evaluation of the remaining amount of restenostic tissue. The current clinical practice leads to unrealistic late loss calculations. Smaller late loss differences are usually not greater than the inherited resolution limits of QCA, which is especially the case in small differences between the various stents in the drug-eluting stent era. Late loss include additional systematic and random errors, due to the fact that measurements were taken at two different time points including the inherited resolution and calibration limits of QCA on two occasions. Due to the limited value of late loss in discriminating the small differences between the one and other DES, late lumen area loss and clearly defined calculation algorithms (e.g., MLD-relocation should be used in future DES studies also to fulfill the more stringent regulatory requirements.

  15. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  16. Amyloid-beta peptide decreases expression and function of glutamate transporters in nervous system cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huichun; Zhang, Xiuping; Meng, Xingjun; Xu, Pingyi; Zou, Xiaoming; Qu, Shaogang

    2017-02-08

    Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates brain functions, and its activity is tightly regulated by glutamate transporters. Excess glutamate in the synaptic cleft and dysfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in development of Alzheimer's disease, but the precise regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. Using a D-[(3)H]-aspartic acid uptake assay, we found that Aβ1-42 oligomers impaired glutamate uptake in astrocytes and neurons. In astrocytes, this process was accompanied by reduced expression of GLT-1 and GLAST as detected by Western blot and immunocytofluorescence. However, mRNA levels of EAATs detected by qPCR in astrocytes and neurons were not altered, which suggests that this process is post-translational. Co-localization analysis using immunocytofluorescence showed that ubiquitylation of GLT-1 significantly increased. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced endocytosis of astrocytic GLT-1 may be involved in ubiquitylation. In addition, Aβ1-42 oligomers enhanced secretion of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 into culture supernatant, which may be correlated with an inflammatory response and altered EAATs expression or function in Alzheimer's disease. These findings support the idea that dysregulation of the glutamatergic system may play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, enhancing expression or function of EAATs in astrocytes and neurons might be a new therapeutic approach in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  18. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  19. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  20. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Sarris, E. T.; Dodopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented.

  1. Analysis of Tank 13H (HTF-13-14-156, 157) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Advanced Characterization and Processing

    2015-02-18

    The 2H Evaporator system includes mainly Tank 43H (feed tank) and Tank 38H (drop tank) with Tank 22H acting as the DWPF recycle receipt tank. The Tank 13H is being characterized to ensure that it can be transferred to the 2H evaporator. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 13H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples to ensure compliance with the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator. The U-235 mass divided by the total uranium averaged 0.00799 (0.799 % uranium enrichment) for both the surface and subsurface Tank 13H samples. This enrichment is slightly above the enrichment for Tanks 38H and 43H, where the enrichment normally ranges from 0.59 to 0.7 wt%. The U-235 concentration in Tank 13H samples ranged from 2.01E-02 to 2.63E-02 mg/L, while the U-238 concentration in Tank 13H ranged from 2.47E+00 to 3.21E+00 mg/L. Thus, the U-235/total uranium ratio is in line with the prior 2H-evaporator ECP samples. Measured sodium and silicon concentrations averaged, respectively, 2.46 M and 1.42E-04 M (3.98 mg/L) in the Tank 13H subsurface sample. The measured aluminum concentration in Tanks 13H subsurface samples averaged 2.01E-01 M.

  2. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P levels were also decreased after quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  4. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  5. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  6. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  7. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  8. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-10-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  9. In vitro differentiation of MSCs into retina-like cells by the supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina%光损伤鼠视网膜片培养上清液诱导 MSCs 分化为视网膜样细胞的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白月; 徐国兴

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of inducing rat mesenchymal stem cells ( MSCs) into retina-like cells by the supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina in vitro. METHODS: MSCs were isolated and attached to the wall of culture dishes by their specific adherent ability. Then the cells were characterized by flow cytometry.The neurosensory retina was isolated from retina of SD rat and it was tested by hematoxylin-eosin ( HE ) staining.The pathological changes of light-injured neurosensory retina was observed under transmission electron microscope. Three kinds of supernatant fluid of light -injured neurosensory retina of SD rats were prepared.The third passage of MSCs were cultured with these mixed medium for 7-8d, we used RT-PCR to see whether they could express rhodopsin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) , and positive cells were counted and analyzed. RESULTS: HE staining showed the retinal sheets included full-thickness neural retina.Neurosensory retina developed ultrastructural destructions by light injury.RT-PCR showed that the medium of mixed I expressed higher positive rate of rhodopsin (0.3915±0.00644), NSE (0.2019± 0.00682), GFAP (0.1972 ±0.00211) than the medium of mixed Ⅱ rhodopsin (0.0983 ±0.00319), NSE (0.1048 ± 0.00323), GFAP (0.1040±0.00254) and medium of mixedⅢrhodopsin(0.0044±0.00126), NSE (0.0498±0.00149), GFAP (0.0467±0.00333).The difference of intergroup has statistical significance. CONCLUTION:The supernatant fluid of light-injured neurosensory retina of SD rats can induce MSCs to differentiate into retina-like cells and provide new insights of stem cell therapy for retinopathy.%目的:应用大鼠视网膜片光损伤后的培养上清液,在体外诱导大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞( mesenchymal stem cells , MSCs)成为视网膜样细胞的可能性。  方法:贴壁筛选法分离、培养大鼠MSCs ,流式细胞仪对其细胞纯度鉴定。取材大鼠视网

  10. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  11. A theoretical interpretation of Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, R.; Thomas, B. T.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the intensity variations of relativistic cosmic rays, at 1 AU, which are associated with the passage of a flare shock wave. The magnitude and time profile obtained is similar to that observed in flare-induced Forbush decreases, and the principal cause of the energy reduction is an increase in adiabatic cooling of the arriving particles due to prolonged containment behind the compressed field of the flare shock wave. The large decreases calculated for the smaller diffusion coefficients are inconsistent with observation, implying larger mean free paths than those traditionally assumed at these rigidities. The method presented may be used to study intensity variations associated with other large-scale structures of the interplanetary field, such as corotating interaction regions.

  12. Modeling prediction and experimental verification of enhancing bio-phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation of anaerobic digester supernatant%侧流化学磷回收强化生物除磷的模拟预测与试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓地; 张璐平; 胡沅胜; 王克巍

    2009-01-01

    By means of modeling prediction and a lab-scale experiment, we tested bio-P removal by chemical-P precipitation in the side-stream of anaerobic digester supernatant. Both the modeling prediction and the experimental results indicate that TP in the effluent could be decreased to ≤1.0 mg· L~(-1) from > 6.0 mg· L~(-1)(in terms of P) at COD/P = 37. 5 by chemical-P precipitation with the side-stream ratio at 30% . At the same time, 64% of the influent P load could be recovered. The verified and calibrated TUD model predicted almost the same results as those obtained from the experiment. Therefore, modeling technology is fully capable of replacing pilot-scale experiments in the scale-up of biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes.%为了强化污水中生物除磷作用,本研究通过模拟预测与实验室试验验证了厌氧上清液侧流化学磷沉淀与回收对强化生物除磷的促进作用.模拟预测与试验结果表明,在进水COD/P=37.5工况下.当侧流比增加至30%时,通过化学磷沉淀(调节pH>9.0)可使出水中TP浓度从碳源抑制时的<6.0 mg·L~(-1)(以P计)下降至≤1.0 mg·L~(-1)(以P计),同时可回收进水中P负荷的64%.经验证与校正后的TUD数学模型模拟预测有着与试验结果近乎一致的效果.因此,数学模拟技术完全有可能取代中间试验过程而直接将小试结果放大至工程应用.

  13. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers.

  14. Decreasing luminescence lifetime of evaporating phosphorescent droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Dam, N. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Water, W.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence has been used extensively to study spray dynamics. It is important to understand the influence of droplet evaporation in the interpretation of such measurements, as it increases luminescence quenching. By suspending a single evaporating n-heptane droplet in an acoustic levitator, the properties of lanthanide-complex europium-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-trioctylphosphine oxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) phosphorescence are determined through high-speed imaging. A decrease was found in the measured phosphorescence decay coefficient (780 → 200 μs) with decreasing droplet volumes (10-9 → 10-11 m3) corresponding to increasing concentrations (10-4 → 10-2 M). This decrease continues up to the point of shell-formation at supersaturated concentrations. The diminished luminescence is shown not to be attributable to triplet-triplet annihilation, quenching between excited triplet-state molecules. Instead, the pure exponential decays found in the measurements show that a non-phosphorescent quencher, such as free TTA/TOPO, can be attributable to this decay. The concentration dependence of the phosphorescence lifetime can therefore be used as a diagnostic of evaporation in sprays.

  15. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  16. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  17. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  18. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  20. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  1. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  2. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  3. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Shaviv, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physi......A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response....../I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively...

  4. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  5. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could medi

  6. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could

  7. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  8. Decreasing the stigma burden of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Diane B

    2013-10-01

    To describe stigmatizing experiences in a group of Mexican-American women with chronic pain and provide clinical implications for decreasing stigma. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semistructured interviews, participant observations, and fieldwork. Participants provided detailed descriptions of communicating about chronic pain symptoms, treatment, and management. The sample consisted of 15 English-speaking Mexican-American women 21-65 years old (average age = 45.6 years) who had nonmalignant chronic pain symptoms for 1 year or more. The cultural and social norm in the United States is the expectation for objective evidence (such as an injury) to be present if a pain condition exists. In this study, this norm created suspicion and subsequent stigmatization on the part of family, co-workers, and even those with the pain syndromes, that the painful condition was imagined instead of real. To decrease stigmatization of chronic pain, providers must understand their own misconceptions about chronic pain, possess the skills and resources to access and use the highest level of practice evidence available, and become an advocate for improved pain care at local, state, and national levels. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  10. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  11. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  12. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Svensmark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (<2 sigma. The magnitude of the signals agree with derived values, based on simple equations for atmospheric parameters. Furthermore principal components analysis gives a total significance of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray ionization. These results support the suggestion that ions play a significant role in the life-cycle of clouds.

  13. Dynamic arterial elastance predicts mean arterial pressure decrease associated with decreasing norepinephrine dosage in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Pierre-Grégoire; Bernard, Eugénie; Levrard, Mélanie; Dupont, Hervé; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2015-01-19

    Gradual reduction of the dosage of norepinephrine (NE) in patients with septic shock is usually left to the physician's discretion. No hemodynamic indicator predictive of the possibility of decreasing the NE dosage is currently available at the bedside. The respiratory pulse pressure variation/respiratory stroke volume variation (dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn)) ratio has been proposed as an indicator of vascular tone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Eadyn can be used to predict the decrease in arterial pressure when decreasing the NE dosage in resuscitated sepsis patients. A prospective study was carried out in a university hospital intensive care unit. All consecutive patients with septic shock monitored by PICCO2 for whom the intensive care physician planned to decrease the NE dosage were enrolled. Measurements of hemodynamic and PICCO2 variables were obtained before/after decreasing the NE dosage. Responders were defined by a >15% decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP). In total, 35 patients were included. MAP decreased by >15% after decreasing the NE dosage in 37% of patients (n = 13). Clinical characteristics appeared to be similar between responders and nonresponders. Eadyn was lower in responders than in nonresponders (0.75 (0.69 to 0.85) versus 1 (0. 83 to 1.22), P decrease in arterial pressure, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.72 to 0.96; P decrease in arterial pressure in response to NE dose reduction. Eadyn may constitute an easy-to-use functional approach to arterial-tone assessment, which may be helpful to identify patients likely to benefit from NE dose reduction.

  14. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    ) in the endothelia of Apoe(-/-) mice (Irs1/Apoe(-/-)) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE(-/-) mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin's enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  15. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-06-17

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants.

  18. Discriminately Decreasing Discriminability with Learned Image Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehill, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In machine learning and computer vision, input images are often filtered to increase data discriminability. In some situations, however, one may wish to purposely decrease discriminability of one classification task (a "distractor" task), while simultaneously preserving information relevant to another (the task-of-interest): For example, it may be important to mask the identity of persons contained in face images before submitting them to a crowdsourcing site (e.g., Mechanical Turk) when labeling them for certain facial attributes. Another example is inter-dataset generalization: when training on a dataset with a particular covariance structure among multiple attributes, it may be useful to suppress one attribute while preserving another so that a trained classifier does not learn spurious correlations between attributes. In this paper we present an algorithm that finds optimal filters to give high discriminability to one task while simultaneously giving low discriminability to a distractor task. We present r...

  19. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  1. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, H.V. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1993-03-01

    A study has been made of energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3% in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the postshock region, although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower-energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Is dieting behaviour decreasing in young adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Claire R; Yarnell, John W G; Stevenson, Mike; McCay, Naomi; Gaffney, Brian P; Shields, Michael D; Woodside, Jayne V

    2013-05-01

    To report trends in underweight, overweight and obesity in 12-15-year-old adolescents and examine changes in dieting behaviour, which have been less well documented. Comparison of two independent representative cross-sectional surveys. Northern Ireland. Weight and height were objectively measured in 1324 boys and 1160 girls in 1996 and 1274 boys and 1374 girls in 2007. Participants reported whether they were following any particular diet including a self-proposed or prescribed weight-reduction diet. Overweight and obesity increased in girls from 15 % to 23 % and 2 % to 6 %, respectively. Increases were more modest in boys with overweight increasing from 13 % to 18 % and obesity from 3 % to 6 %. The proportion of underweight adolescents decreased from 9 % to 6 % in girls and 8 % to 5 % in boys. Evidence of social disparity was observed in girls from a manual socio-economic background, with overweight/obesity prevalence rates increasing from 21 % to 36 % compared with 15 % to 26 % in girls from a non-manual background. Despite these trends fewer adolescents, in particular girls, reported following weight-reduction diets (14 % of overweight/obese girls in 2007 v. 21 % in 1996; 8 % of boys in 2007 v. 13 % in 1996). Of these girls, the proportion from a manual background following weight-reduction diets decreased from 25 % to 11 %. Overweight and obesity are continuing to increase in adolescents despite government and media awareness strategies. There also appears to be reduced dieting behaviour, despite increasing body weight, particularly in girls from manual socio-economic backgrounds.

  3. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tanks upernate solutions - FY 1997 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-09-16

    ). Solubilities of all the organic salts, except for glycolate, decrease with increasing sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate concentration because of the common ion effect of Na+. Sodium glycolate solubility increased with increasing hydroxide concentration. The complex waste solutions had sodium ion concentrations 3.4 to 7. 0 molar higher than unsaturated solutions. This caused a significant lowering of the solubilities of the organic sodium salts due to the common ion effect of sodium. Results of EDTA adsorption measurements show that EDTA or EDTA-metal complexes can be adsorbed onto hydrous metal oxides (that make up the sludge layers in the tanks) under conditions simulating the high-level waste tanks. The extent of adsorption is not large and depends on the concentration of hydroxide in the waste solutions. Higher hydroxide concentrations lower adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption also depends on the type of metal hydrous oxide present. Adsorption data for Fe(III), Cr(III), and NI(IV) hydrous oxides show that chromium(III) hydrous oxide adsorbs EDTA most effectively.

  4. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  5. Shear-induced Volume Decrease in MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm2 resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ~ 20 – 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (~ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 μM Hg2+ significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 μM DIDS, or 100 μM Gd3+ suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K+ and Cl− channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca2+ independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca2+ level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model. PMID:22759987

  6. Bladder sensory desensitization decreases urinary urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino António

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder desensitization has been investigated as an alternative treatment for refractory detrusor overactivity. Most open and controlled clinical trials conducted with intravesical RTX showed that desensitization delays the appearance of involuntary detrusor contractions during bladder filling and decreases the number of episodes of urgency incontinence. Urgency is being recognised as the fundamental symptom of overactive bladder (OAB, a symptomatic complex which recent epidemiological studies have shown to affect more than 10% of the Western population. As anti-muscarinic drugs, the first line treatment for OAB, are far from being able to fully control urgency, the opportunity to test other therapeutic approaches is created. The present work was, therefore, designed as an exploratory investigation to evaluate the effect of bladder desensitization on urinary urgency. Methods Twenty-three OAB patients with refractory urgency entered, after given informed consent, a 30 days run-in period in which medications influencing the bladder function were interrupted. At the end of this period patients filled a seven-day voiding chart where they scored, using a 0–4 scale, the bladder sensations felt before each voiding. Then, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 10% ethanol in saline (vehicle solution and 30 days later a second seven-day voiding chart was collected. Finally, patients were instilled with 100 ml of 50 nM RTX in 10% ethanol in saline. At 1 and 3 months additional voiding charts were collected. At the end of the vehicle and 3 months period patients were asked to give their subjective impression about the outcome of the treatment and about the willingness to repeat the previous instillation. Results At the end of the run-in period the mean number of episodes of urgency per week was 71 ± 12 (mean ± SEM. After vehicle instillation, the mean number of episodes of urgency was 56 ± 11, but only 4 patients (17% considered

  7. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  8. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  9. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Zák, A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  10. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

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    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  11. Does bariatric surgery decrease gastric cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Pablo; Padilla, David; Villarejo, Pedro; Menéndez, Jose M; Lora, David

    2012-01-01

    In the attempt to establish the different incidence between cancer in anatomically whole stomachs and cancer in patients who have undergone a surgical procedure for morbid obesity, a review on the epidemiology of bariatric surgery and stomach cancer and a correlation with the global incidence of stomach cancer (comparing it with the median age of patients who developed neoplasms after bariatric surgery) have been conducted. This was a descriptive study of the gastric neoplasms located at the gastric pouch, bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction, following bariatric surgery described in the medical literature. Twenty-one cases of gastric neoplasm located at the gastric pouch, in the bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction were described after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery seems to produce a decrease in the incidence of cancer when comparing obese patients who were operated and obese patients who have not, so additional studies are needed to compare the cancer incidence between the general population and patients undergoing bariatric surgery. New studies will determine if it is necessary to focus on the early detection of pathological processes at the excluded digestive tract.

  12. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

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    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  13. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  14. Do proton pump inhibitors decrease calcium absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen E; Jones, Andrea N; Lindstrom, Mary J; Davis, Lisa A; Ziegler, Toni E; Penniston, Kristina L; Alvig, Amy L; Shafer, Martin M

    2010-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase osteoporotic fracture risk presumably via hypochlorhydria and consequent reduced fractional calcium absorption (FCA). Existing studies provide conflicting information regarding the direct effects of PPIs on FCA. We evaluated the effect of PPI therapy on FCA. We recruited women at least 5 years past menopause who were not taking acid suppressants. Participants underwent three 24-hour inpatient FCA studies using the dual stable isotope method. Two FCA studies were performed 1 month apart to establish baseline calcium absorption. The third study occurred after taking omeprazole (40 mg/day) for 30 days. Each participant consumed the same foods during all FCA studies; study meals replicated subjects' dietary habits based on 7-day diet diaries. Twenty-one postmenopausal women ages 58 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed all study visits. Seventeen women were white, and 2 each were black and Hispanic. FCA (mean ± SD) was 20% ± 10% at visit 1, 18% ± 10% at visit 2, and 23% ± 10% following 30 ± 3 days of daily omeprazole (p = .07, ANOVA). Multiple linear regression revealed that age, gastric pH, serum omeprazole levels, adherence to omeprazole, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were unrelated to changes in FCA between study visits 2 and 3. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) level at visit 2 was the only variable (p = .049) associated with the change in FCA between visits 2 and 3. PPI-associated hypochlorhydria does not decrease FCA following 30 days of continuous use. Future studies should focus on identifying mechanisms by which PPIs increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  15. Forbush decreases observed by Daejeon neutron monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongsoo; Oh, Suyeon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Yongkyun

    2016-02-01

    The neutron monitor (NM) is a ground-based detector designed to estimate the cosmic ray intensity by measuring secondary particles. In October 2011, an NM64-type NM with a vertical cutoff rigidity of 11.2 GV was installed at Daejeon in Korea. It has produced reliable cosmic ray data after detector stabilization. In order to examine the reliability of cosmic ray data collected by the Daejeon NM, we select Forbush decreases (FDs) that occurred during the three years of 2012-2014. We also analyze the FDs at the Oulu NM in Finland in order to identify and compare them. We identify 37 FDs at both Daejeon and Oulu NMs. Student t-test analysis reveals that FDs at Daejeon have smaller intensity variation of main phase and shorter duration of main phase than those at the Oulu NM. Of the 37 FDs, 17 are simultaneous and 20 are non-simultaneous. The intensity variation of simultaneous FDs is larger than that of non-simultaneous FDs at both NMs with high confidence levels in the Student t-test. Most of the non-simultaneous FDs that have an onset time in the dayside hold typical properties of non-simultaneous FDs. Our study results demonstrate that the Daejeon NM can provide cosmic ray data of reliability comparable to that of the Oulu NM. As one of only a few NMs worldwide with a high vertical cutoff rigidity exceeding 10.0 GV, the Daejeon NM will continue to provide important information on higher-energy cosmic ray spectra.

  16. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

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    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  17. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  18. Does machine perfusion decrease ischemia reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, D; Delpech, P-O; Chatauret, N; Hauet, T; Badet, L; Barrou, B

    2014-06-01

    In 1990's, use of machine perfusion for organ preservation has been abandoned because of improvement of preservation solutions, efficient without perfusion, easy to use and cheaper. Since the last 15 years, a renewed interest for machine perfusion emerged based on studies performed on preclinical model and seems to make consensus in case of expanded criteria donors or deceased after cardiac death donations. We present relevant studies highlighted the efficiency of preservation with hypothermic machine perfusion compared to static cold storage. Machines for organ preservation being in constant evolution, we also summarized recent developments included direct oxygenation of the perfusat. Machine perfusion technology also enables organ reconditioning during the last hours of preservation through a short period of perfusion on hypothermia, subnormothermia or normothermia. We present significant or low advantages for machine perfusion against ischemia reperfusion injuries regarding at least one primary parameter: risk of DFG, organ function or graft survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Fu, Chih-Lung; Woart, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines

  20. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

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    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  1. Decreasing the cutoff for elevated blood lead (EBL) can decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura J; Bordash, Frank R; Ubben, Kathy J; Landmark, James D; Stickle, Douglas F

    2013-03-01

    Change in the definition of elevated blood lead (EBL) from greater than or equal to 10 μg/dL (cutoff A) to greater than or equal to 5 μg/dL (cutoff B) was recently endorsed in the United States. A potential effect of this change is to decrease the screening sensitivity for EBL detection. We demonstrate this effect by simulated sampling of an example patient distribution for lead. Using lead-dependent assay imprecision, simulated sampling of the patient distribution tracked individual misclassifications relative to the EBL cutoff. Decreasing the EBL cutoff from A to B reduced screening sensitivity for EBL detection in this population to less than 90%, a decrease of 4%. The result was due to the fact that, for B, a greater fraction of the EBL population was near the EBL cutoff and therefore subject to misclassification due to assay imprecision. The effect of the decreased EBL cutoff to reduce EBL screening sensitivity is likely to apply to EBL screening programs generally.

  2. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

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    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  3. Can evaluative conditioning decrease soft drink consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Espel, Hallie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Herbert, James D; Lowe, Michael R; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of a picture-picture evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure on soft drink (soda) outcomes, including negative implicit attitudes, consumption during a taste test, and real-world consumption reported during the week after the intervention. In the EC condition (n = 43), soda images were paired with disgust images and water images were paired with pleasant images, whereas in the control condition (n = 41), the same images were viewed without pairing. The EC condition showed a larger reduction in real-world soda consumption across the week following the intervention. However, individuals in the EC condition did not consume less soda during a taste test immediately following the intervention. EC only significantly increased negative implicit attitudes towards soda among individuals who already had relatively higher baseline negative attitudes. These findings generally favored the potential for EC to impact soda drinking habits, but suggest that a brief EC intervention may not be strong enough to change attitudes towards a well-known brand unless negative attitudes are already present.

  4. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

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    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  5. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

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    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  6. Decreased range of motion following arthroscopic remplissage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Allen A; Kroll, Derek G

    2008-05-01

    The Hill-Sachs lesion is an impression fracture of the posterolateral margin of the humeral head that commonly results from impaction with the anterior glenoid rim during subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder. This bony defect has been implicated as an etiology of recurrent instability of the shoulder. The "remplissage" technique described by Wolf is an arthroscopic method of filling the Hill-Sachs defect via infraspinatus tenodesis and posterior capsulodesis. The purpose of this technique is to prevent recurrent instability by making the Hill-Sachs lesion extra-articular thereby eliminating engagement of the defect with the anterior glenoid rim. In addition, the infraspinatus tenodesis acts as a checkrein by preventing anterior translation of the humeral head. We report a complication of this recently described technique. A 28-year-old man who failed conservative management underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair with a concomitant remplissage procedure. Two years postoperatively, the patient continued to struggle with the loss of external rotation. Conservative management with physical therapy and range of motion exercises failed. The patient was treated with an arthroscopic release of the tenodesed infraspinatus, which improved external rotation by 202 in circle intraoperatively. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient has maintained a significant increase external rotation. We hypothesize that the loss in external rotation occurred as a result of the tenodesis of the infraspinatus and posterior capsule into the Hill-Sachs defect. The tenodesed cuff and capsular tissue acted as a mechanical block to external rotation of the shoulder.

  7. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

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    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  9. The effect of decreased interletter spacing on orthographic processing.

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    Montani, Veronica; Facoetti, Andrea; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in how perceptual factors such as the spacing between letters within words modulate performance in visual word recognition and reading aloud. Extra-large letter spacing can strongly improve the reading performance of dyslexic children, and a small increase with respect to the standard spacing seems beneficial even for skilled word recognition in adult readers. In the present study we examined the effect of decreased letter spacing on perceptual identification and lexical decision tasks. Identification in the decreased spacing condition was slower than identification of normally spaced strings, thereby confirming that the reciprocal interference among letters located in close proximity (crowding) poses critical constraints on visual word processing. Importantly, the effect of spacing was not modulated by string length, suggesting that the locus of the spacing effect is at the level of letter detectors. Moreover, the processing of crowded letters was facilitated by top-down support from orthographic lexical representation as indicated by the fact that decreased spacing affected pseudowords significantly more than words. Conversely, in the lexical decision task only word responses were affected by the spacing manipulation. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that increased crowding is particularly harmful for phonological decoding, thereby adversely affecting reading development in dyslexic children.

  10. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide), a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone), middle third of the arena (transition zone) and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object), the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1%) which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish. PMID:28229024

  11. Modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish

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    Adrian Johnson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethylsulfinylacetamide, a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone, middle third of the arena (transition zone and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly alter the time spent in the center zone (near the novel object, the distance moved, meandering, or the duration of time spent immobile. We also validated this test as a measure of anxiety with the administration of ethanol (1% which decreased time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone. These results suggest that modafinil decreases anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish.

  12. The Decreasing Age at Menarche in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, M Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Alcalá-Herrera, Verónica; Callejo, Diana Del

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the current age at menarche in 2 urban areas from Mexico and to analyze secular trends in the age at menarche in Mexico City. Cross-sectional survey and secondary data analyses. (1) Samples of female students from Mexico City and from the city of Xalapa; and (2) national health surveys. (1) Pre- and postmenarcheal students, aged 8-17 years; and (2) data for women born between 1904 and 1999 who grew up in Mexico City were obtained from 3 relevant national health surveys. (1) Students were asked if they had had their first period and when it occurred; (2) information on year of birth and age at menarche for the remaining women was obtained from the national surveys; data were divided in groups according to the decade in which the women were born. (1) The estimated mean age at menarche was 11.40 and 11.34 years in Mexico City and Xalapa respectively. (2) There were significant differences in age at menarche among women who were born in the different decades analyzed. Women who were born in the 1990s or later reported an earlier age at menarche than those who were born from the 1940s to 1980s (P < .0001). These results could be helpful to health and education professionals who should take into account that because there is currently a widening gap between the physical and psychosocial maturity of girls, they might need special support. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

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    Stefan Hoerzer

    Full Text Available Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy. Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation was significantly lower (p = 0.041 than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5. This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  14. Decreased expression of DICER1 in gastric cancer

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    ZHENG Zhi-hong; SUN Xiu-ju; FU Wei-neng; GUAN Yi; GAO Feng; WANG Ying; SUN Kai-lai

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of epigenetics in gene expression regulation and development significantly enhances our understanding of carcinogenesis.All the tumor related genes may be the target of epigenetical or genetic regulation.We selected some epigenetically regulated genes for cDNA array analysis and observed variability in the expression of the DICER1 gene in distinct stages of gastric cancer.The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the expression of DICER1,an epigenetically regulated gene,and gastric cancer.Methods To detect the expression of 506 tumor-associated genes,including DICER1,in the matched cancerous mucosa,pre-malignant lesion (adjacent mucosa),non-cancerous gastric mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesion in 3 cases of gastric cancers using cDNA array.DICER1 mRNA expression and DICER1 protein expression were further analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot in 32 cases of progressive gastric cancer.DICER1 protein expression was also detected in 33 early and 30 progressive gastric cancers by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) method.Results In 3 cases of gastric cancer cDNA array showed dramatically decreased expression of DICER1 in pre-malignant Iesion,cancerous mucosa and distant lymphocyte metastatic lesions compared with matched noncancerous gastric mucosa,pre-malignant lesion and cancerous mucosa.Real-time PCR results showed that the expression level of DICER1 mRNA in gastric cancer was significantly down-regulated compared to normal gastric tissue (P<0.05).The IHC assay also showed that the expression of DICER1 was significantly decreased in progressive gastric cancer.Among the 63 cases of gastric cancers,13/33 early(39.4%)and 19/30(63.3%)progressive cancers showed negative expression of DICER1(50.8%).The difference in expression of DICER1 between early and progressive gastric cancers was significant(P<0.01).The result of Western blotting showed that DICER1 protein was down-regulated significantly in advanced gastric cancer

  15. F3MB(PANDER decreases mice hepatic triglyceride and is associated with decreased DGAT1 expression.

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    Xiaoqing Mo

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER, also named as FAM3B is secreted by pancreatic α and β cells. Increasing evidence suggests that it may serve a hormonal function related to glycemic and lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of PANDER overexpression on hepatic and adipose triglyceride metabolism in high-fat diet-fed male C57BL/6 mice.PANDER overexpression was achieved by tail-vein injection of recombinant Ad-PANDER and Ad-GFP injected mice served as a control. The TG metabolism in both groups were compared.Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PANDER did not affect body weight, food consumption, or liver enzymes. The triglyceride (TG content of both liver and adipose tissue was significantly decreased in Ad-PANDER mice (liver: 6.16±1.89 mg/g vs. control 14.95±2.27 mg/g, P<0.05; adipose: 39.31±1.99 mg/100mg vs. 47.22±2.21 mg/100mg, P<0.05. The free fatty acid (FFA content of adipose tissue in Ad-PANDER mice was also decreased (1.38±0.18 mg/g vs. 2.77±0.31 mg/g, P<0.01. The investigation of key enzymes of triglyceride hydrolysis and FFA oxidation in liver and adipose tissue showed that p-HSL/HSL was significantly increased and that DGAT1 gene and protein expression were significantly reduced in the liver of PANDER-overexpressing mice. PKA phosphorylation was also significantly increased in the livers of Ad-PANDER mice. No differences in ATGL, CPT1, ACOX1, or DGAT2 expression were observed.Overexpression of PANDER is associated with observable decreases in TG, increases in PKA phosphorylation, and decreased DGAT1 expression, suggesting a possible interrelationship. The mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be elucidated.

  16. The Association between Soy Nut Consumption and Decreased Menopausal Symptoms

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    Welty, Francine K.; Lee, Karen S.; Lew, Natalie S.; Nasca, Melita; Zhou, Jin-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a low incidence of hot flashes in populations that consume dietary soy. The present study examined the effect of soy nuts on hot flashes and menopausal symptoms. Methods Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were randomized in a crossover design to a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet alone and a TLC diet of similar energy, fat, and protein content in which one-half cup soy nuts divided into three or four portions spaced throughout the day (containing 25 g soy protein and 101 mg aglycone isoflavones) replaced 25 g of nonsoy protein. During each 8-week diet period, subjects recorded the number of hot flashes and amount of exercise daily. At the end of each 8-week diet period, subjects filled out the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire. Results Compared to the TLC diet alone, the TLC diet plus soy nuts was associated with a 45% decrease in hot flashes (7.5 ± 3.6 vs. 4.1 ± 2.6 hot flashes day, respectively, p 4.5 hot flashes/day at baseline and 41% in those with ≤4.5 hot flashes/day (2.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.3 ± 1.1, respectively, p < 0.001). Soy nut intake was also associated with significant improvement in scores on the menopausal symptom quality of life questionnaire: 19% decrease in vasomotor score (p = 0.004), 12.9% reduction in psychosocial score (p = 0.01), 9.7% decrease in physical score (p = 0.045), and a trend toward improvement in the sexual score, with a 17.7% reduction in symptoms (p = 0.129). The amount of exercise had no effect on hot flash reduction. Conclusions Substituting soy nuts for nonsoy protein in a TLC diet and consumed three or four times throughout the day is associated with a decrease in hot flashes and improvement in menopausal symptoms. PMID:17439381

  17. Typhonium flagelliforme decreases protein expression in murine breast cancer

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    Chodidjah Chodidjah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Breast cancer treatment is still ineffective, having also various side effects. Breast cancer growth is affected by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 expression. In vitro studies on continuous culture of continuous culture of human lymphoblasts (CEMs showed that Typhonium flagelliforme (TF increases apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether TF syrup (TFS could decrease HER2/ neu and BCL2 expression as well as breast cancer volume (BCV in mice. METHODS An experimental post-test only control group design was conducted on 18 C3H mice with breast cancers, randomly allocated to 3 groups of 6. Group 1 received 0.2 ml of distilled water. Group 2 and 3 animals were each given 0.2 ml of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml TFS, respectively. The treatment was given orally once daily for 25 days. Assessment of HER2/neu and BCL2 expression was by immunohistochemistry, whereas BCV was measured by caliper. Anova and LSD were used for data analysis. RESULTS There was a significant difference in HER2/neu and BCL2 expression as well as in BCV among the treatment groups. LSD analysis showed that HER2/neu and BCL2 expression in group 3 (51.60%; 24.60% was significantly lower than in group 1 (245.40%; 114.40% as well as group 2 (235.50%; 54.20% (p=0.000. BCV in group 3 (4392.33 mm3 was significantly greater than BCV in group 1 (253.87 mm3 (p=0.002, but was not significantly different from BCV in group 2 (3667.16 mm3 (p=0.306. CONCLUSION Suplementation with TFS decreases HER2/neu and BCL2 expression. TF appears to be a promising plant demonstarting anti cancer activity.

  18. Effects of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cel supernatant on differetiation of mononulear cel s from human umbilical cord blood%急性早幼粒白血病细胞培养上清液对人脐带血单个核细胞分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 方宁; 陈代雄

    2013-01-01

    目的白血病细胞能够通过自分泌方式分泌细胞因子而作用于自身,使细胞大量的增殖而不分化;白血病细胞所分泌的细胞因子也能作用于人脐带血(UCB)单个核细胞(MNCs)中的CD34+/CD133+细胞亚群使之增殖而抑制其分化。关于急性早幼粒白血病细胞(HL-60细胞)培养上清液能否使UCB- MNCs分化尚未见报道,本实验主要目的是观察HL-60细胞培养上清液对人UCB-MNCs分化的影响。方法实验分为①有HL-60细胞培养上清液+StemSpan® SFEM组;②StemSpan® SFEM组;③HL-60细胞培养上清液+高糖(HG)-DMEM组;④HG-DMEM组;⑤HL-60细胞培养上清液+低糖(LG)-DMEM组;⑥LG-DMEM组。收分离的人UCB-MNCs按2.5×106/瓶分别接种于6组培养液中,37℃,5%CO2,饱和湿度培养,于培养前和培养12天用流式细胞仪(FCM)分析表型CD34,CD90和CD166的变化。结果各实验组CD34,CD34/CD90和CD166阳性细胞百分比均较培养前升高。结论%Objective:Leukemic cel s can excrete cytokines by an autocrine way, which contribute to its large-scale proliferation, and the cytokines may also contribute to the proliferations of CD34+/CD133+ subpopulation of UCB-MNCs too. To the effect of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cel supernatant on the differentiation of UCB-MNCs, there is not related report so far. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of HL-60 cel supernatant on differentiations of mononuclear cel s from human umbilical cord blood. Methods:Six various cultural system are listed as fol ows: ① HL-60 cel supernatant+ StemSpan–SFEM; ② StemSpan–SFEM; ③ HL-60 cel supernatant+ HG-DMEM; ④ HG-DMEM; ⑤HL-60 cel supernatant LG-DMEM; ⑥ LG-DMEM. 2.50×106 of UCB-MNCs per bottle with the above each cultural system is incubated at 37℃ in a 5%CO2, saturation humidity of incubator, the changes of phenotype of CD34,CD90 and CD166 analyzed by FCM after 12 days. Results: Positive cel s with CD34+, CD166+ and CD34+/CD

  19. Morphine decreases enteric neuron excitability via inhibition of sodium channels.

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    Tricia H Smith

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal peristalsis is significantly dependent on the enteric nervous system. Constipation due to reduced peristalsis is a major side-effect of morphine, which limits the chronic usefulness of this excellent pain reliever in man. The ionic basis for the inhibition of enteric neuron excitability by morphine is not well characterized as previous studies have mainly utilized microelectrode recordings from whole mount myenteric plexus preparations in guinea pigs. Here we have developed a Swiss-Webster mouse myenteric neuron culture and examined their electrophysiological properties by patch-clamp techniques and determined the mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability. Isolated neurons in culture were confirmed by immunostaining with pan-neuronal marker, β-III tubulin and two populations were identified by calbindin and calretinin staining. Distinct neuronal populations were further identified based on the presence and absence of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP. Cells with AHP expressed greater density of sodium currents. Morphine (3 µM significantly reduced the amplitude of the action potential, increased the threshold for spike generation but did not alter the resting membrane potential. The decrease in excitability resulted from inhibition of sodium currents. In the presence of morphine, the steady-state voltage dependence of Na channels was shifted to the left with almost 50% of channels unavailable for activation from hyperpolarized potentials. During prolonged exposure to morphine (two hours, action potentials recovered, indicative of the development of tolerance in single enteric neurons. These results demonstrate the feasibility of isolating mouse myenteric neurons and establish sodium channel inhibition as a mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability.

  20. Decreased magnesium level and membrane potential of glaucoma patients

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    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2016-08-01

    The result probably suggests, that decrease in magnesium aggravates glaucoma while decrease in membrane potential could cause poor energy transmission and hence affect ocular blood flow. Hence, decreased magnesium and membrane potential levels contributes greatly to glaucoma.

  1. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  2. Decreased serum prohepcidin concentration in patients with polycythemia vera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justyna KWAPISZ; Ewa ZEKANOWSKA; Joanna JASINIEWSKA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is a common complication in patients with polycythemia vera (PV). Hepcidin is a principal regulator of iron homeostasis. The aim of our study was to assess prohepcidin, a hepcidin precursor, and other iron status pa-rameters in the serum of PV patients. Methods: The study was performed in 60 patients (F/M 26/34) aged 38~84 (66±10) years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers, age and sex matched. The following parameters were determined in blood serum samples: prohepcidin concentration, iron content, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (TfS), and concentrations of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTIR). Results: All PV patients showed significantly lower levels of prohepcidin, higher levels of sTIR and TIBC compared to the control group. 40% of the patients from the study group showed concentrations of ferritin below the normal range and significantly lower levels of serum iron and TfS, and significantly higher levels of sTfR, UIBC and TIBC in comparison with the rest of the study group. In this group of patients, prohepcidin concentrations were significantly lower than those in other patients. Conclusion: The results indicate that PV patients suffer from iron metabolism disorders. The decreased serum level ofprohepcidin in PV patients may be a result of iron deficiency.

  3. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  4. Intralipid decreases apolipoprotein M levels and insulin sensitivity in rats.

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    Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM is a constituent of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. It plays a crucial role in HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Insulin resistance is associated with decreased ApoM levels. AIMS: To assess the effects of increased free fatty acids (FFAs levels after short-term Intralipid infusion on insulin sensitivity and hepatic ApoM gene expression. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats infused with 20% Intralipid solution for 6 h. Glucose infusion rates (GIR were determined by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp during Intralipid infusion and plasma FFA levels were measured by colorimetry. Rats were sacrificed after Intralipid treatment and livers were sampled. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with a lentivirus mediated human apoM overexpression system. Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats were injected with the lentiviral vector and insulin tolerance was assessed. Gene expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and PCR array. RESULTS: Intralipid increased FFAs by 17.6 folds and GIR was decreased by 27.1% compared to the control group. ApoM gene expression was decreased by 40.4% after Intralipid infusion. PPARβ/δ expression was not changed by Intralipid. Whereas the mRNA levels of Acaca, Acox1, Akt1, V-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog, G6pc, Irs2, Ldlr, Map2k1, pyruvate kinase and RBC were significantly increased in rat liver after Intralipid infusion. The Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8 was significantly down-regulated in 293T cells overexpressing ApoM. Overexpression of human ApoM in GK rats could enhance the glucose-lowering effect of exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Intralipid could decrease hepatic ApoM levels. ApoM overexpression may have a potential role in improving insulin resistance in vivo and modulating apoM expression might be a future therapeutic strategy against insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Increasing Physical Activity Decreases Hepatic Fat and Metabolic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I; Davis, Jaimie N

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed the changes in time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammation. Longitudinal data were generated from 66 Hispanic adolescents (15.6±1.1 yr; BMI percentile 97.1±3.0) who participated in a 16-wk nutrition or nutrition+exercise intervention. There were no effects of the intervention on PA, but there were inter-individual changes in PA. For purposes of this analysis, all intervention groups were combined to assess how changes in PA during 16 wk affected changes in adiposity, insulin action, and markers of inflammation. MVPA was assessed by 7-day accelerometry, total body fat via DXA, liver fat by MRI, and insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR via a fasting blood draw. A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of MVPA on fat depots, insulin action, and inflammatory markers. Sixty-two percent of participants increased MVPA (mean increase, 19.7±16.5 min/day) and 38% decreased MVPA (mean decrease, 10.7±10.1 min/day). Those who increased MVPA by as little as 20 min per day over 16 wk, compared to those who decreased MVPA, had significant reductions in liver fat (-13% vs. +3%; P=0.01), leptin levels (-18% vs. +4%; P=0.02), and fasting insulin (-23% vs. +5%; P=0.05). These findings indicate that a modest increase in MVPA can improve metabolic health in sedentary overweight Hispanic adolescents.

  6. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

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    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  7. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams

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    Talia Franco-Avila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ham is a product highly consumed by society; however it contains some elements that make it a non-recommended food. Thus, it has been attempted to eliminate or reduce those components.Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W and Simple Cooking (SC in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. Furthermore, sensory acceptance of thesamples through an acceptance test of five points was evaluated. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni were used to assess the mean difference between groups. The value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Both processes reduced the amount of sodium in both types of ham in statistically significant way (p≤0.001. The major percentage of reduction was presented with SC: 73.4% for turkey ham and 63.5% for pork ham. Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05. Peroxide index decreased with both techniques in both hams without statistical significance. Total coliforms count was kept constant in all samples. Higher sensory acceptance of W concerning SC in all sensory characteristics was observed.Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. Furthermore, W is accepted in all sensory categories. We recommend using W technique before consumption of the product.

  8. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

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    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2, and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  9. Decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Hiroyuki; Kono, Nozomu; Matsuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    Various kinds of fatty acids are distributed in membrane phospholipids in mammalian cells and tissues. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation in membrane phospholipids affects many membrane-associated functions and can be influenced by diet and by altered activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes such as fatty acid desaturases. However, little is known about how mammalian cells respond to changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition. In this study we showed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockdown increased the amount of saturated fatty acids and decreased that of monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids without affecting the amount or the composition of free fatty acid and induced unfolded protein response (UPR), evidenced by increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) mRNAs and splicing of Xbox-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA. SCD1 knockdown-induced UPR was rescued by various unsaturated fatty acids and was enhanced by saturated fatty acid. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), which incorporates preferentially polyunsaturated fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine, was up-regulated in SCD1 knockdown cells. Knockdown of LPCAT3 synergistically enhanced UPR with SCD1 knockdown. Finally we showed that palmitic acid-induced UPR was significantly enhanced by LPCAT3 knockdown as well as SCD1 knockdown. These results suggest that a decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces UPR.

  10. Intracellular water motion decreases in apoptotic macrophages after caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, S; García-Martín, M L; Cerdán, S; Castrillo, A; Alvarez, A M; Boscá, L

    2001-10-01

    Triggering of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma promoted apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of type 2 nitric oxide synthase or caspase. Using (1)H NMR analysis, we have investigated the changes of the intracellular transverse relaxation time (T(2)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as parameters reflecting the rotational and translational motions of water in apoptotic macrophages. T(2) values decreased significantly from 287 to 182 ms in cells treated for 18 h with NO-donors. These changes of T(2) were prevented by caspase inhibitors and were not due to mitochondrial depolarization or microtubule depolymerization. The decrease of the intracellular values of T(2) and ADC in apoptotic macrophages was observed after caspase activation, but preceded phosphatidylserine exposure and nucleosomal DNA cleavage. The changes of water motion were accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobic properties of the intracellular milieu, as detected by fluorescent probes. These results indicate the occurrence of an alteration in the physicochemical properties of intracellular water during the course of apoptosis.

  11. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  12. Great tit response to decreasing industrial heavy metal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Gomes, T; Eira, C; Vaqueiro, J; Vingada, J V

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental pollution on decreasing great tit (Parus major) breeding parameters in an industrial area in the west coast of Portugal. Several great tit breeding parameters were monitored in the industrial area, as well as in a rural area not affected by industrial emissions. Low levels of air pollution in both industrial and rural areas were confirmed by assessing trace element concentrations in pine needles. Concentrations of Cd and Hg in pine needles from the industrial area (Cd = 0.05 ppm; Hg = 0.005 ppm) were significantly lower than those found in needles collected from the reference area (Cd = 0.07 ppm; Hg = 0.007 ppm). Additionally, the breeding success of great tits increased in the industrial area in comparison to the reference area (0.93 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.22, respectively). The changes on great tit breeding parameters were probably related with changes in the breeding density of other competitive species, together with a decreasing frass-fall biomass. Further long-term ecological studies in industrial areas are necessary to understand the changing breeding performance and strategies used by great tits in response to pollution shifts in the environment.

  13. Neonatal injections of methoxychlor decrease adult rat female reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolasio, Jennifer; Fyfe, Susanne; Snyder, Ben W; Davis, Aline M

    2011-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a commonly used pesticide, has been labeled as an endocrine disruptor. To evaluate the impact of neonatal exposure to MXC on female reproduction, female Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections on postnatal days 1, 3, and 5. The injections contained 1.0mg MXC, 2.0mg MXC, 10 μg 17β-estradiol benzoate (positive control), or sesame oil (vehicle). The injections of MXC had no effect on anogenital distance or day of vaginal opening. Treatment with either 2.0mg MXC or estradiol significantly increased the total number of days with vaginal keratinization. Treatment with MXC had no effect on ability to exhibit a mating response as an adult female, although the high dose MXC (2.0) and the positive control (estradiol) animals demonstrated a decrease in degree of receptivity, a decrease in proceptive behavior and an increase in rejection behavior. These data suggest that higher doses of MXC given directly to pups during the neonatal period can act as an estrogen and alter aspects of the nervous system, impacting adult reproductive characteristics.

  14. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O;

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven...... patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P sweat electrolyte concentrations (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  15. Contrast Adaptation Decreases Complexity in Retinal Ganglion Cell Spike Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guang-Li; HUANG Shi-Yong; ZHANG Ying-Ying; LIANG Pei-Ji

    2007-01-01

    @@ The difference in temporal structures of retinal ganglion cell spike trains between spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation is investigated. The Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis reveals that the complexity of the neural spike train decreases after contrast adaptation. This implies that the behaviour of the neuron becomes ordered, which may carry relevant information about the external stimulus. Thus, during the neuron activity after contrast adaptation, external information could be encoded in forms of some certain patterns in the temporal structure of spike train that is significantly different, compared to that of the spike train during spontaneous activity, although the firing rates in spontaneous activity and firing activity after contrast adaptation are sometime similar.

  16. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels.

  17. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  18. Novel Cloud Architecture to Decrease Problems Related to Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entesar Althagafy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available IT companies are facing many difficulties and challenges when dealing with big data. These difficulties have surfaced due to the ever-expanding amount of data generated via personal computer, mobile devices, and social network sites. The significant increase in big data has created challenges for IT companies that need to extract necessary information and knowledge. Cloud computing, with its virtualized resources usage and dynamic scalability, is broadly used in organizations to address challenges related to big data and has an important influence on business in organizations. Furthermore, big data is changing the way organizations do business. This paper proposes novel cloud architecture to decrease problems related to big data. The proposed architecture is a combination of many big data infrastructures in the creation of a service. This architecture minimizes problems related to big data by improving performance and quality of service.

  19. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Sperm Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between cigarette smoking and sperm densityin men of reproductive age. Methods We enrolled 224 male employees of a modern petrochemicalplant in Nanjing,China. These men had no prior history of infertility or other reproductive diseases.Epidemiologic data, including information on smoking and other occupational and lifestyle exposures wereobtained by a questionnaire interview. Semen specimens were collected from each participant and analyzedaccording to the WHO guidelines. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of smokingon sperm density. Results Approximately 67% of the subjects had ever smoked cigarettes. Differ-ent measurements of smoking behavior were each associated with decrensed sperm density. There was asignificant dose-response trend between the tertiles of total smoking amount in pack-years and sperm den-sity. As compared to men who never smoked, current smokers had a significant reduction in sperm densi-ty (-13.3×106/ml; 95% CI,-24. 1,-2.5) ,while ex-snokers had only a small decrement inspern density (-2.6× 106/al; 95 % CI,-18. 7 ,13. 5). Starting smoking at less than 20 yearsof age was associated with significant reduction in sperm density (-14.8×106/md; 95% CI ,- 27. 4, - 2.2). Starting smoking at 20 years or older was associated with a slightly snaller de-crease (-10.1×106/ml; 95% CI,-21.7,1.4). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associ-ated with decreased sperm density ,showing an evident dose-response trend in this population.

  20. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  1. Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhou, Chun; He, Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Guang; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown. Manipulating the lead content in the diet of Drosophila melanogaster, we found that lead consumption had no different effects on developmental time between Wolbachia-infected (Dmel wMel) and -uninfected (Dmel T) flies. While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies. Lead infusion in diet resulted in significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in Dmel T flies (P<0.05), but not in Dmel wMel flies. Correspondingly, lead cultures induced a 10.8 fold increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in Dmel T larvae (P<0.05). While in Dmel wMel larvae, it resulted in only a 1.3 fold increase. By quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01). Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage. This represents a novel Wolbachia-host interaction and provides information that researchers working on Drosophila toxicology should take in consideration the presence of Wolbachia in the stocks they are analyzing.

  2. The effect of music on decreasing arousal due to stress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Cori L

    2004-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of research articles using music to decrease arousal due to stress was conducted on 22 quantitative studies. Results demonstrated that music alone and music assisted relaxation techniques significantly decreased arousal (d = +.67). Further analysis of each study revealed that the amount of stress reduction was significantly different when considering age, type of stress, music assisted relaxation technique, musical preference, previous music experience, and type of intervention. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM COPPER AND ZINC LEVEL IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of trace elements especially copper and zinc in carcinogenesis in relation to disease activity have shown useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumor in the digestive organ. Keeping this in consideration, the study was conducted on 140 subjects either sex out of which 35 normal adults and 105 gastrointestinal (GI cancer patients. The follow up study was further undertaken and values of serum Cu and Zn of the same patients before and after surgery were recorded. The study showed that there was significant elevation (p<0.01 of serum copper levels before surgery and serum copper levels were deceased significantly (p<0.05 after surgery. Serum Zn level was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in GI cancer patients while the Zn level was increased significantly (p<0.01 after surgery. There was significant increase (p<0.01 in Cu/ Zn ratio of GI cancer patients before surgery in contrast to the control. The serum copper level in patients of GI cancer decreased significantly after surgery resulting normalization of metabolic process. A significant increase in serum Zn levels have been observed after treatment of the patients. The Cu/ Zn ratio decreased significantly after the surgery. These observations clearly indicate that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/ Zn ratio are useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumors in digestive organs

  4. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  5. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  6. Anemia decreases quality of life of the elderly in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a very common disorder both in clinical practice and in the community. The recent rise in the population of the elderly has become the focus of attention in developing countries, because of the increasing longevity of the elderly, whilst the prevalence of anemia increases with age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and its association with the quality of life in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008, located in the Mampang Prapatan district, South Jakarta. A total of 298 elderly persons participated in this study, comprising 109 (36.6% males and 189 (63.4% females. Anemia was measured by the parameters of hemoglobin and quality of life was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, a short version of the WHOQOL-100 instrument. The results of the study showed the prevalence of anemia to be 26.2%, with a higher prevalence rate in females compared with males. The quality of life in the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains differed significantly with decreasing hemoglobin levels, whereas the physical and mental quality of life declined significantly with age. Anemia is thus indicative of a reduction in the quality of life of the elderly.

  7. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  8. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  9. Decreased health care quality associated with emergency department overcrowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Antonio, M T; Jiménez, S; De Dios, A; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of overcrowding on health care quality provided by emergency departments (ED). The study was carried out in an urban, university tertiary care hospital. All patients seen at the internal medicine unit (IMU) of the ED who returned during the following 72 hours, and those who died in the ED rooms were included in the study. During a consecutive period of 2 years (104 weeks), we prospectively quantified the number of weekly visits, revisits and deaths. We calculated revisit and mortality rates (in respect of percentage of all visited patients) for each week. Correlation between the number of weekly visits, and revisit and mortality rates was assessed using a simple linear regression model. We consigned 81,301 visits, 1137 revisits and 648 deaths; mean (+/- SD) number of weekly visits, revisits and deaths were 782 (68), 10.93 (3.97) and 6.23 (3.04) respectively; weekly revisit rate was 1.40% (0.48%) and weekly mortality rate was 0.79% (0.36%). We observed a significant, positive correlation between mortality rates and weekly number of visits (p = 0.01). Although a similar trend was also found for revisit rates, such an increase did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). It is concluded that since revisit and mortality rates constitute good health care quality markers, present data demonstrate that ED overcrowding implies a decrease in the health care quality provided by it.

  10. The Magnitude and Time Course of Muscle Cross-section Decrease in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Dianne; Hemmen, Bea; van de Meent, Henk; BovendʼEerdt, Thamar J H

    2017-09-01

    Bedriddenness and immobilization of patients at an intensive care unit may result in muscle atrophy and devaluation in quality of life. The exact effect of immobilization on intensive care unit patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of muscle cross-section decrease in acute critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. An observational pilot study was performed in intensive care unit patients. Data of bilateral ultrasound muscle cross-section measurements of the knee extensors and the elbow flexors were collected. Thirty-four intensive care unit patients were included in this study; data are presented from 14 patients who were measured at least three times. Repeated measures analysis of variance shows a significant decrease in muscle cross-section over time (F1,13 = 80.40, P ≤ 0.001).The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms was significantly higher (F1,13 = 5.38, P = 0.037) than the decrease of the legs. Four weeks after intensive care unit admission, the muscle cross-section decrease had not reached an asymptote yet. The muscle cross-section decrease in bedridden intensive care unit patients is significant for a time of 2 to 4 weeks. The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms is greater than the decrease of the legs.

  11. Decreased plasma iron in Alzheimer's disease is due to transferrin desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; Doecke, James D; Faux, Noel G; Rembach, Alan; Volitakis, Irene; Fowler, Christopher J; Grimm, Rudolf; Doble, Philip A; Cherny, Robert A; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Roberts, Blaine R

    2015-03-18

    Plasma iron levels are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and associated with an idiopathic anemia. We examined iron-binding plasma proteins from AD patients and healthy controls from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing using size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Peak area corresponding to transferrin (Tf) saturation was directly compared to routine pathological testing. We found a significant decrease in transferrin-associated iron in AD that was missed by routine pathological tests of transferrin saturation, and that was able to discriminate between AD and controls. The AD cases showed no significant difference in transferrin concentration, only a decrease in total transferrin-bound iron. These findings support that a previously identified decrease in plasma iron levels in AD patients within the AIBL study is attributable to decreased loading of iron into transferrin, and that this subtle but discriminatory change is not observed through routine pathological testing.

  12. Expanded HIV Screening Projected to Decrease Spread of the Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Virus Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus Email Facebook Twitter April ... 2014, April 3). Expanded HIV Screening Projected To Decrease Spread of the Virus. Retrieved from https://www. ...

  13. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  14. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment. PMID:27658244

  15. Olfactory deficits decrease the time resolution for trigeminal lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, A; Meusel, T; Güpfert, M; Westermann, B; Hummel, T; Welge-Lüssen, A

    2017-09-15

    To date the temporal resolution of the detection of almost simultaneously applied intranasal trigeminal stimuli is unknown. The aim of our study was to examine this temporal resolution in an/hyposmic subjects, who are known to have reduced trigeminal sensitivity and compare it with healthy controls. Participants were 20 posttraumatic an/hyposmic patients, and 23 healthy controls (matched with regard to sex and age). Olfactory function was tested psychophysically using the Sniffin´ Sticks test battery. Bilateral trigeminal stimulation was carried out using a birhinal high-precision olfactometer. The trigeminal stimulus used was CO₂ 60% v/v, the interstimulus interval ranged from 28 to 32s, stimulus duration was 200ms. Time-lags tested between right and left side of stimulation were at 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200ms. Subjects raised their left or right hand to indicate the side on which the stimulus had been perceived first. In both groups the accuracy in the trigeminal lateralization task increased with the time-lag but normosmic subjects significantly outperformed an/hyposmics in the 200ms time-lag condition. Normosmics significantly exceeded 50% chance level at the time-lag of 80ms, whereas an/hyposmics were only able to score above chance starting from 120ms time-lag. Lateralization scores significantly decreased with age. At a time lag of 200ms intranasal trigeminal stimuli can be lateralized. The reduced trigeminal sensitivity in patients with anosmia or hyposmia leads to an increased time lag required for correct perception of intranasal, almost simultaneously, applied stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Foam Rolling of Quadriceps Decreases Biceps Femoris Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Hodgson, Daniel; Behm, David George

    2016-09-06

    Foam rolling has been shown to increase range of motion without subsequent performance impairments of the rolled muscle, however, there are no studies examining rolling effects on antagonist muscles. The objective of this study was to determine whether foam rolling the hamstrings and/or quadriceps would affect hamstrings and quadriceps activation in men and women. Recreationally active men (n=10, 25 ± 4.6 years, 180.1 ± 4.4 cm, 86.5 ± 15.7 kg) and women (n=8, 21.75 ± 3.2 years, 166.4 ± 8.8 cm, 58.9 ± 7.9 kg) had surface electromyographic activity analyzed in the dominant vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles upon a single leg landing from a hurdle jump under four conditions. Conditions included rolling of the hamstrings, quadriceps, both muscle groups and a control session. BF activation significantly decreased following quadriceps foam rolling (F(1,16) = 7.45, p = 0.015, -8.9%). There were no significant changes in quadriceps activation following hamstrings foam rolling. This might be attributed to the significantly greater levels of perceived pain with quadriceps rolling applications (F(1,18) = 39.067, p foam rolling for VL (F(6,30) = 1.31, p = 0.283) VM (F(6,30) = 1.203, p = 0.332) or BF (F(6,36) = 1.703, p = 0.199). Antagonist muscle activation may be altered following agonist foam rolling, however, it can be suggested that any changes in activation are likely a result of reciprocal inhibition due to increased agonist pain perception.

  17. Knockdown of phosphoethanolamine transmethylation enzymes decreases viability of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Cooks-Fagbodun, Sheritta; Ordonez, Adriana Reyes; Matthews, Kwame; Abugri, Daniel A; McHugh, Mark

    2016-06-15

    The phosphobase methylation pathway, in which phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) successively catalyze the methylation of phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine, is essential in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two PMT-encoding genes (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2) cloned from Haemonchus contortus have been shown, by in vitro assays, to possess enzymatic characteristics similar to those of C. elegans PMTs, but their physiological significance in H. contortus is yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we endeavored to determine the importance of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the survival of H. contortus by adapting the use of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) antisense approach to block the translation of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 in the worms. We found that PPMOs targeting HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 down-regulated the expression of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 proteins in adult H. contortus. Analysis of the effect of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 knockdown showed that it significantly decreased worm motility and viability, thus validating HcPMT1 and HcPMT2 as essential enzymes for survival of H. contortus. Studies of gene function in H. contortus have been constrained by limited forward and reverse genetic technologies for use in H. contortus. Thus, our success in adaptation of use of PPMO antisense approach in H. contortus provides an important reverse genetic technological advance for studying this parasitic nematode of veterinary significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagosa, Anna; Allerson, Matt; Gramer, Marie; Joo, Han Soo; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2011-12-20

    Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R) of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual) using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i) non-vaccinated (NV), (ii) vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE), and (iii) vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO). The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p transmission was observed in the vaccinated groups where R (95%CI) was 1 (0.39-2.09) and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46) in NV pigs (p Transmission in the HE group was delayed and variable when compared to the NV group and transmission could not be detected in the HO group. Results from this study indicate that influenza vaccines can be used to decrease susceptibility to influenza infection and decrease influenza transmission.

  19. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  20. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Shaviv, N. J.; Svensmark, H.

    2016-09-01

    A method is developed to rank Forbush decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap-based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physical and microphysical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground-based and three satellite-based data sets. Responses (>95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed data sets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM/I: liquid water content, International Satellite Cloud Climate Project (ISCCP): total, high, and middle, IR-detected clouds over the oceans, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, and liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively with the strength of the FDs, and the signs and magnitudes of the responses agree with model-based expectations. The effect is mainly seen in liquid clouds. An impact through changes in UV-driven photo chemistry is shown to be negligible and an impact via UV absorption in the stratosphere is found to have no effect on clouds. The total solar irradiance has a relative decrease in connection with FDs of the order of 10-3, which is too small to have a thermodynamic impact on timescales of a few days. The results demonstrate that there is a real influence of FDs on clouds probably through ions.

  1. Decreased prostacyclin production in the infant of the diabetic mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.J.; Sunderji, S.G.; Allen, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is recognized to be a predisposing factor to thrombosis in the neonate. In the adult with diabetes, abnormalities in the metabolism of AA by the platelet and vessel wall occur, which result in an increase in proaggregatory platelet thromboxane A2. A decrease in antiaggregatory vascular PGI2 has been demonstrated in the diabetic rat, although conclusive proof of a similar abnormality is lacking in humans. We evaluated vascular AA metabolism in 10 IDM (groups II and III comparison to 20 control neonates of gestational ages 32 to 40 weeks (group I). Mean uptakes of labeled AA into vascular tissue of both controls and IDM were similar. The conversion of (14C) AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was not dependent on gestational age (r . 0.223) in the control neonates, with a mean value of 5.2% +- 1.3 (1 S.D.). A marked decrease (p less than 0.001) in 6-keto-PGF1 alpha formation to 1.7% +- 0.3 was found in the group II IDM of mothers with poor diabetic control (HbA1c . 9.3% +- 0.5). In the group III neonates whose mothers had normal HBA1c levels (6.1% +- 0.9), 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production was normal at 4.9% +- 0.8. Although no correlation between maternal fasting blood glucose and neonatal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was demonstrable, a significant inverse correlation (r . 0.872; p less than 0.02) was observed between maternal HbA1c levels and the conversion of AA to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in the vascular tissues of the IDM. It appear possible that abnormalities in platelet-vascular AA metabolism may play an etiologic role in the vascular complications present in some IDM.

  2. Decreased levels of nerve growth factor in organs of mice as a consequence of sub-lethal injection of cobra venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, B V

    2001-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is endogenously present in salivary glands of mice and sex organs of various animals. This research reports the presence of NGF in almost all major organs of mice at varying concentrations. The research further reports that intramuscular injection of a sub-lethal dose of Naja kaouthia venom lowered the levels of NGF in the organs of mice. Adult Balb/C male mice were injected with a half lethal dose of cobra venom. The mice were sacrificed for organs at 2, 8, and 24 hours post injection. Organs were homogenized, centrifuged, and the supernatants were assayed for NGF using anti-NGF by immunological tests enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The organs of the mice injected with PBS served as controls. Major decrease in the levels of NGF was observed 2 hours after venom injection, and tremendous decrease of NGF was observed in organs of mice 24 hours post injection. The most lowering for NGF was observed in brain, heart, liver, salivary gland, and testis. This is a first-hand investigation showing the pharmacokinetics of NGF in organs of mice as an effect of envenomation.

  3. Model Sensitivity Studies of the Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Liang, Qing; Rigby, Matt; Hossaini, Ryan; Montzka, Stephen A.; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; Prinn, Ronald G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    observational datasets. For example, surface observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) network are larger than from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network but have shown a steeper decreasing trend over the past 2 decades. These differences imply a difference in emissions which is significant relative to uncertainties in the magnitudes of the CCl4 sinks.

  4. 恩度对肿瘤上清液诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及其机制的初步研究%Effects and preliminary study on the mechanism of endostar on proliferation and apoptosis of the HUVECs induced by tumor supernatant fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爽; 杨向红; 范一博; 曲秀娟; 刘云鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨恩度对肾癌ACHN细胞系上清液诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)增殖和凋亡的影响及其机制.方法:应用MTT法检测恩度对HUVECs增殖的抑制作用;应用Annexin-V/PI双染法流式细胞仪检测恩度对HUVECs凋亡的影响;Western blot检测恩度对Cbl-b,c-Cbl,磷酸化Akt(p-Akt)和磷酸化ERK(p-ERK)蛋白表达的影响.结果:恩度抑制肿瘤上清液诱导的HUVEC细胞增殖;促进HUVECs凋亡;恩度下调HUVEC中Cbl-b、c-Cbl、p-Akt及p-ERK的表达,且上述效应均呈浓度依赖性.结论:恩度对肿瘤上清液诱导的HUVECs的增殖具有抑制作用,对其凋亡具有促进作用.泛素连接酶、p-Akt及p-ERK通路可能是恩度作用的分子机制之一.%Objective: To explore the effects and the mechanism of endostar on proliferation and apoptosis of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells ( HUVECs ) induced by renal cell carcinoma ( ACHN cell lines ) supernatant fluid. Methods: To detect the effects of endostar on the proliferation of the HUVECs by MTT; detect the effects of endostar on the apoptosis of the HUVECs by Annexin V - FITC binding assay;detect the effects of endostar on the expression of Cbl - b, c - Cbl, p - Akt and p - ERK by western blot. Results: Endostar inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs induced by renal cell carcinoma supernatant fluid, promoteed the apoptosis of HUVECs reduced the expression of Cbl - b , c - Cbl, p - Akt and p - ERK in HUVECs, and the effects were depended on the concentration of endostar. Conclusion: Endostar inhibits the proliferation, promotes the apoptosis of HUVECs induced by renal cell carcinoma supernatant fluid, and ubiquitin ligases pathway, p - Akt pathway or p - ERK pathway may be the molecular mechanism of endostar.

  5. Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passafiume Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of benefits from meditation have been claimed by those who practice various traditions, but few have been well tested in scientifically controlled studies. Among these claims are improved performance and decreased sleep need. Therefore, in these studies we assess whether meditation leads to an immediate performance improvement on a well validated psychomotor vigilance task (PVT, and second, whether longer bouts of meditation may alter sleep need. Methods The primary study assessed PVT reaction times before and after 40 minute periods of mediation, nap, or a control activity using a within subject cross-over design. This study utilized novice meditators who were current university students (n = 10. Novice meditators completed 40 minutes of meditation, nap, or control activities on six different days (two separate days for each condition, plus one night of total sleep deprivation on a different night, followed by 40 minutes of meditation. A second study examined sleep times in long term experienced meditators (n = 7 vs. non-meditators (n = 23. Experienced meditators and controls were age and sex matched and living in the Delhi region of India at the time of the study. Both groups continued their normal activities while monitoring their sleep and meditation times. Results Novice meditators were tested on the PVT before each activity, 10 minutes after each activity and one hour later. All ten novice meditators improved their PVT reaction times immediately following periods of meditation, and all but one got worse immediately following naps. Sleep deprivation produced a slower baseline reaction time (RT on the PVT that still improved significantly following a period of meditation. In experiments with long-term experienced meditators, sleep duration was measured using both sleep journals and actigraphy. Sleep duration in these subjects was lower than control non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent

  6. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-119, 127) Surface, Subsurface and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-116, 117 and 118) Surface, Feed Pump Suction and Jet Suction Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment, Corrosion Control and Salt Batch Planning Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-17

    Compositional feed limits have been established to ensure that a nuclear criticality event for the 2H and 3H Evaporators is not possible. The Enrichment Control Program (ECP) requires feed sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium content prior to transfer of waste other than recycle transfers (requires sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium at two locations in Tanks 38H and 43H every 26 weeks) The Corrosion Control Program (CCP) establishes concentration and temperature limits for key constituents and periodic sampling and analysis to confirm that waste supernate is within these limits. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the ECP, the CCP, and the Salt Batch 10 Planning Program.

  7. 亚硫酸镁清液法脱硫技术在金隆环集烟气处理中的应用%Application of desulphurization supernatant in treatment of flue gas technology using magnesium sulphite collected from fugitive emission in Jiniong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晏; 梁海卫

    2012-01-01

    Application of a desulphurization technology using magnesium sulphite supernatant in treatment of flue gas collected from fugitive emission in Jinlong is described. The technology has features of low investment low energy consumption, low operating costs, moderate plot space and reasonable block layout according to actual situation. The application of this technology opened up a new avenue for high flow flue gas desulphurization.%介绍了金隆铜业环集烟气脱硫装置所使用的亚硫酸镁清液法脱硫技术,该技术具有投资省,能耗低,运行成本低,占地面积适中等特点,并能根据实际情况合理分块布局。该技术的应用为行业大烟气量脱硫开辟了新的途径。

  8. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    -exposed ligaments had significantly lower (P = 0.036 failure force, 149.4 vs. 186.0 N, and a trend (P = 0.078 towards less energy absorption capacity, 308.6 vs. 397.0 J, as compared to the control data. Conclusion The present decreases in neck ligament strength due to whiplash provide support for the ligament-injury hypothesis of whiplash syndrome.

  9. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  10. Ozone decreases soybean productivity and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzelberger, A. M.; VanLoocke, A. D.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of population growth and climate change will increase pressure on agricultural and water resources throughout this century. An additional consequence of this growth is an increase in anthropogenic emissions that lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), which in concert with climate change, poses a significant threat to human health and nutrition. In addition to being an important greenhouse gas, O3 reduces plant productivity, an effect that has been particularly pronounced in soybean, which provides over half of the world's oilseed production. Plant productivity is linked to feedbacks in the climate system, indirectly through the carbon cycle, as well as directly through the partitioning of radiation into heat and moisture fluxes. Soybean, along with maize, comprises the largest ecosystem in the contiguous U.S. Therefore, changes in productivity and water use under increasing O3 could impact human nutrition as well as the regional climate. Soybean response to increasing O3 concentrations was tested under open-air agricultural conditions at the SoyFACE research site. During the 2009 growing season, eight 20 m diameter FACE plots were exposed to different O3 concentrations, ranging from 40 to 200 ppb. Canopy growth (leaf area index) and physiological measurements of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were taken regularly throughout the growing season. Canopy fluxes of heat and moisture were measured using the residual energy balance micrometeorological technique. Our results indicate that as O3 increased from 40 to 200 ppb, rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased significantly. Further, the seed yield decreased by over 60%, while water use decreased by 30% and the water-use-efficiency (yield/water-use) declined by 50%. The growing season average canopy temperatures increased by 1°C and midday temperatures increased by 2°C compared to the control. Warmer and drier canopies may result in a positive feedback on O3

  11. Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Sawatzky, P; Liu, G; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Hoang, L; Drews, S; Horsman, G; Wylie, J; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Ratnam, S; Wong, T; Archibald, C; Mulvey, M R

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Canada during 2010-2014. The proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins declined significantly between 2011 and 2014, whereas azithromycin resistance increased significantly during that period. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial drug susceptibilities is imperative to inform treatment guidelines.

  12. Dysregulated but not decreased salience network activity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWhite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective estimation of the salience of environmental stimuli underlies adaptive behaviour, while related aberrance is believed to undermine rational thought processes in schizophrenia. A network including bilateral frontoinsular cortex (FIC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been observed to respond to salient stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. To test the hypothesis that activity in this salience network (SN is less discriminately modulated by contextually-relevant stimuli in schizophrenia than in healthy individuals, fMRI data were collected in 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 13 matched controls during performance of a modified monetary incentive delay task. After quantitatively identifying spatial components representative of the FIC and dACC features of the SN, two principal analyses were conducted. In the first, modulation of SN activity by salience was assessed by measuring response to trial outcome. First-level general linear models were applied to individual-specific time-courses of SN activity identified using spatial independent component analysis. This analysis revealed a significant salience-by-performance-by-group interaction on the best-fit FIC component’s activity at reward outcome, whereby healthy individuals but not individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significantly greater distinction between the response to hits and misses in high salience trials than in low salience trials. The second analysis aimed to ascertain whether SN component amplitude differed between the study groups over the duration of the experiment. Independent-samples T-tests on back-projected, percent-signal-change scaled SN component images importantly showed that the groups did not differ in the overall amplitude of SN expression over the entire dataset. These findings of dysregulated but not decreased SN activity in schizophrenia provide physiological support for mechanistic conceptual frameworks of delusional

  13. Intraperitoneal administration of thioredoxin decreases brain damage from ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tian, Shilai; Wang, Jiayi; Han, Feng; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Rencong; Ning, Weidong; Chen, Wei; Qu, Yan

    2015-07-30

    Recent studies demonstrate that Thioredixin (Trx) possesses a neuronal protective effect and closely relates to oxidative stress and apoptosis of cerebral ischemia injury. The present study was conducted to validate the neuroprotective effect of recombinant human Trx-1 (rhTrx-1) and its potential mechanisms against ischemia injury at middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. rhTrx-1 was administrated intraperitoneally at a dose of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg 30 min before MCAO in mice, and its neuronal protective effect was evaluated by neurological deficit score, brain dry-wet weight, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The protein carbonyl content and HO-1 were detected to investigate its potential anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory property, and the anti-apoptotic ability of rhTrx-1 was assessed by casepase-3 and TUNEL staining. The results demonstrated that rhTrx-1 significantly improved neurological functions and reduced cerebral infarction and apoptotic cell death at 24h after MCAO. Moreover, rhTrx-1 resulted in a significant decrease in carbonyl contents and HO-1 against oxidative stress, which turned to be fast reduction during the first 24h and tended to be stable from 24h to 72h after MCAO. The study shows that rhTrx-1 exerts an neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia injury. The anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of rhTrx-1 are more likely to succeed as a therapeutic approach to diminish oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptotic cell death in acute ischemic stroke.

  14. Wnt inhibitory factor 1 decreases tumorigenesis and metastasis in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Elyssa M; Guo, Yi; Tu, Khoa; Xie, Jun; Zi, Xiaolin; Hoang, Bang H

    2010-03-01

    It has been reported that the progression of osteosarcoma was closely associated with the aberrant activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted Wnt inhibitor whose role in human osteosarcoma remains unknown. In this study, WIF-1 expression in NHOst and osteosarcoma cell lines was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and Western blotting analysis. In addition, tissue array from patient samples was examined for WIF-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared with normal human osteoblasts, WIF-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly downregulated in several osteosarcoma cell lines. The downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA expression is associated with its promoter hypermethylation in these tested cell lines. Importantly, WIF-1 expression was also downregulated in 76% of examined osteosarcoma cases. These results suggest that the downregulation of WIF-1 expression plays a role in osteosarcoma progression. To further study the potential tumor suppressor function of WIF-1 in osteosarcoma, we established stable 143B cell lines overexpressing WIF-1. WIF-1 overexpression significantly decreased tumor growth rate in nude mice as examined by the s.c. injection of 143B cells stably transfected with WIF-1 and vector control. WIF-1 overexpression also markedly reduced the number of lung metastasis in vivo in an orthotopic mouse model of osteosarcoma. Together, these data suggest that WIF-1 exerts potent antiosteosarcoma effect in vivo in mouse models. Therefore, the reexpression of WIF-1 in WIF-1-deficient osteosarcoma represents a potential novel treatment and preventive strategy.

  15. Surgeon commitment to trauma care decreases missed injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Chia-Ju; Chan, Hon-Man; Lee, Wei-Che; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Cheng, Yuan-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Missed injuries sustain an important issue concerning patient safety and quality of care. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of surgeon commitment to trauma care on missed injuries. We hypothesised that surgeons committed to the trauma service has less missed injuries than surgeons not committed to the trauma service would have. By retrospective analysis of 976 adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at an urban, university-based trauma centre. Missed injuries were compared between two groups; in group 1 the patients were evaluated and treated by the surgeons who were committed to the trauma service and in group 2 the patients were evaluated and treated by surgeons practicing mainly in other specialties. Patients had significantly lower rates of missed major or life-threatening injuries when treated by group 1 surgeons. Logistic regression model revealed significant factors associated with missed major or life-threatening injuries including ISS and groups in which patients were treated by different group surgeons. Physicians will perform better when they are trained and interested in a specific area than those not trained, or even not having any particular interest in that specific area. Surgeons committed to the trauma service had less missed injuries in severely injured patients, and it is vital to improve patient safety and quality of care for trauma patients. Staff training and education for assessing severely injured patients and creating an open culture with detection and reduction of the potential for error are important and effective strategies in decreasing missed injuries and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fiber purified extracts of carob fruit decrease carbohydrate absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-González, A; Garcimartín, A; López-Oliva, M E; Bertocco, G; Naes, F; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Benedí, J

    2017-06-21

    The postprandial state plays a central role in the development and setting of chronic diseases. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenols with a known ability to modify carbohydrate digestion and absorption. The high concentration of CT in the pulp of carob fruit suggests a potential antidiabetic effect. The aim of this work was to analyze the in vitro and in vivo effects of carob fruit extract (CFE) on the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. α-Glucosidase activity and glucose diffusion were tested in vitro using 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg mL(-1) CFE concentrations. Two in vivo absorption studies, acute and subchronic, were carried out in four groups of 6 two-month-old male Wistar rats (control and CFE 25, 50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.), administering 1 mL of olive oil and 0.5 g per kg b.w. of glucose solution by oral gavage. CFE significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity, through a competitive mechanism, from 1 mg mL(-1), and also reduced glucose diffusion in a dose-dependent manner. In the acute study, CFE (50 and 150 mg per kg b.w.) significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of blood glucose. Subchronic CFE administration induced further AUC decreases; and CFE at 150 mg per kg b.w. reduced sodium-glucose-linked transporter-1 (SGLT1) levels in the duodenum. This study demonstrates the hypoglycemic properties of CFE, highlighting its potential role as a suitable nutritional strategy in diabetic patients.

  17. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  18. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  19. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. METHODS: Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. RESULTS: Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex. Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

  20. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Souza Lima de Souza; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo; Oba, Eunice; Kronka, Sergio do Nascimento; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria

    2006-06-01

    Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

  1. Does oral clonidine premedication decrease bleeding during open rhinoplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Pourdanesh, Freydoun; Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saleh

    2014-05-01

    This uni-blind randomized clinical trial study investigated the effect of clonidine premedication on preoperative blood loss during open rhinoplasty. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. The members of the first group received oral clonidine as a single dose (0.2 mg) 2 hours before the induction of general anesthesia, whereas the members of the second group received a placebo. All subjects underwent open rhinoplasty without septoplasty. One anesthetic protocol was followed for all subjects. Variable factors include the subjects' weight, age, sex, and blood pressure during the surgery as well as blood loss during rhinoplasty. Group 1 consisted of 22 women and 11 men, whereas group 2 was composed of 16 women and 17 men. The mean for blood loss amounted to 68.03 ± 22.49 mL for group 1 and 132.12 ± 78.53 mL for group 2. An assessment demonstrated a significant difference in blood loss between the 2 groups (P clonidine premedication thus may decrease preoperative bleeding during open rhinoplasty.

  2. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  3. Gynostemma pentaphyllum decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Li, Ming-Liang; Yang, Rong-Chi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Shen, Jiann-Jong

    2008-01-01

    The increasing incidence of asthma in developing countries emphasizes the importance of identifying more effective treatments that have low cost. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (Cucurbitaceae), a common herbal tea in China, has been used to treat lung inflammation. Since the Th2 cytokines are the major mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma, Th1-biased immune responses caused by G. pentaphyllum might have the potential to relieve asthmatic symptoms. We hypothesized that oral administration of G. pentaphyllum extracts might suppress Th2 cytokine-induced airway inflammation responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitive mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection and challenged 3 times with OVA inhalation (IH) (the IH3 model). G. pentaphyllum was orally administered for 7 consecutive days before the end of the OVA challenge. In the IH5 model, 2 more OVA challenges were administered to mimic the encounter with an allergen after drug treatment. G. pentaphyllum extracts significantly attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inhibited eosinophil infiltration in mice in both models. Serum OVA-specific antibodies were also reduced with the treatment. Decreased Th2-type cytokines and increased IFN-gamma were detected in the cultures of OVA-activated splenocytes from treated mice. Our results suggest that G. pentaphyllum extracts might be beneficial for asthma airway inflammation through the suppression of Th2 activity.

  4. Does Limiting Oral Contrast Decrease Emergency Department Length of Stay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Barton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact on emergency department (EDlength of stay (LOS of a new protocol for intravenous (IV-contrast only abdominal/pelvic computedtomography (ABCT compared to historical controls.Methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled study performed at a single academic medicalcenter. Patients ≥ 18 undergoing ABCT imaging for non-traumatic abdominal pain were included inthe study. We compared ED LOS between historical controls undergoing ABCT imaging with PO/IVcontrast and study patients undergoing an IV-contrast-only protocol. Imaging indications were thesame for both groups and included patients with clinical suspicion for appendicitis, diverticulitis, smallbowel obstruction, or perforation. We identified all patients from the hospital’s electronic storehouse(imaging code, ordering department, imaging times, and we abstracted ED LOS and dispositionfrom electronic medical records.Results: Two hundred and eleven patients who underwent PO/IV ABCT prep were compared to 184patients undergoing IV-contrast only ABCT prep. ED LOS was shorter for patients imaged with theIV-contrast only protocol (4:35 hrs vs. 6:39 hrs, p < 0.0001.Conclusion: Implementation of an IV-contrast only ABCT prep for select ED patients presentingfor evaluation of acute abdominal pain significantly decreased ED LOS.

  5. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some of the more prominent recent wildland fires and were associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations. The biological impacts of peat biomass emissions and the specific mechanisms driving these responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of peat biomass smoke exposure in rats. We hypothesized that PM exposure would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 µg (Lo PM) or 300 µg (Hi PM) of peat biomass smoke PM extracts suspended in 200 µL of saline, or saline vehicle alone by oropharyngeal aspiration (OA). Immediately following OA rats were placed in a whole-body plethysmograph and ventilatory data were recorded for 12 minutes. One day following OA, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane for ultrasound assessment of cardiovascular function. Hi PM caused decreases in expiratory timing as early as 4-6 minutes after exposure relative to Lo PM (p = 0.02) and Vehicle (p= 0.06), which resolved shortly thereafter. One day after OA, ultrasounds revealed that Hi PM exposure increased end diastolic volume (EDV) by 16% (p = 0.03) over Vehicle and 13% (p = 0.06) over Lo PM. In addition,

  6. Role of Cyperus rotundus oil in decreasing hair growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHADA FAROUK ABD EL-KAREAM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack on the value of Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in the treatment of Androgenic hair. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of application Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil in comparison to 0.9% saline on androgenic hair. Patients and Methods: Ninety one female patients with Androgenic hair (hirsutism and axillary hair completed the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group I (active group (n=47 and group II (control group (n=44. Patients used topical Cyperus rotundus essential oil for six months and were evaluated at 6th month. Results: The topical Cyperus rotundus oil was significantly more effective (p<0.05 than placebo with out side effects. This result was proved by three assessment methods; difference in hair count, independent observer assessment and patients' self assessment. Conclusion: The topical Egyptian Cyperus rotundus essential oil is an effective method in treating moderate degrees of hirsutism and axillary hair. But without affecting serum testosterone. This study is the first report on using Cyperus rotundus essential oil for decreasing hair growth. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 111-118

  7. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  8. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  9. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnikov, N V

    2010-01-01

    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  10. Arterial wave reflection decreases gradually from supine to upright

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bogaard, Bas; Westerhof, Berend E; Best, Hendrik;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. An increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) usually increases arterial wave reflection. During passive head-up tilt (HUT), however, arterial wave reflection decreases with increasing TPR. This study addressed whether arterial wave reflection gradually decreases during HUT. METHODS...... was quantified as the augmentation index (AIx) and the reflection magnitude (RM). RESULTS. During HUT, heart rate increased (p TPR increased...... represented as AIx and RM gradually decreases in the presence of increasing TPR....

  11. Overexpression of DcR3 and Its Significance on Tumor Cell Differentiation and Proliferation in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suning Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overexpression of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3 have been reported in various classes of malignancies. However, its expression and clinicopathological contribution in gliomas has not been fully elucidated. Objective. To explore the expression and clinical significance of DcR3 protein in relation to tumor cell differentiation and proliferation in glioma cell lines and tissues. Methods. One hundred and twenty-five samples of glioma patients and 18 cases of normal brain tissues were recruited. The expression of DcR3 protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. Tumor differentiation was assessed by histologic characters and the status of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Tumor cell labeling indexes (LIs of Ki-67 and PCNA were also obtained. The relationship between the DcR3 level and clinicopathological features was investigated, including tumor differentiation, LIs, and survival. Meanwhile, the expression of DcR3 protein was also measured in the supernatants of 8 glioma cell lines and glioma cells freshly prepared from 8 human glioblastoma specimens by using western blot. Results. The level of DcR3 protein in gliomas was significantly higher than that in normal brain tissues (P<0.01. DcR3 expression showed positive correlations with tumor pathological grade (r=0.621, P<0.01 and negative with GFAP expression (r=-0.489, P<0.01. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between DcR3 expression and Ki-67, PCNA LIs (r=0.529, P<0.01; r=0.556, P<0.01. The survival in the DcR3 negative group was 50 ± 1.79 months, longer than that of the DcR3 positive group (48.36 ± 2.90, however, without significance (P=0.149. Different levels of DcR3 could also be detected in the culturing supernatants of all the 8 glioma cell lines and glioma cells freshly obtained from 8 human glioblastoma specimens. Conclusions. The overexpression of DcR3 might play a crucial role in the tumorigenesis, differentiation, and proliferation of glioma.

  12. Lecithin decreases human milk fat loss during enteral pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa M; Nohara, Masaru; Chan, Benjamin R; Curtis, Julie; Chan, Gary M

    2003-05-01

    The fat content of human milk provides the majority of calories for infants. However, large fat losses in human milk have been observed using enteral pump systems, causing poor growth in infants. The fat may adhere in the pump system. Lecithin, a phospholipid, has been used in the food industry as a lipophilic emulsifier of fats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lecithin on the delivery of human milk fat from an enteral pump. It is hypothesized that the addition of lecithin would decrease the fat loss during human milk delivery. Six mothers at a mature stage of lactation (>4 weeks of lactation) donated human milk. The human milk samples were stored separately at -20 degrees C before analysis and evaluated individually. The fat content of the milk samples was estimated by the creamatocrit method, in which the samples were centrifuged in a standard hematocrit tube and the fat layer read with vernier calipers and expressed as a percentage of the length of the milk column to the nearest 0.5%. The accuracy of this method is 92%. The Kangaroo 324 Feeding Pump (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO) was used as the continuous pump system. The human milk samples were divided into either control samples without lecithin or with lecithin (1 or 0.5 g soy lecithin dissolved in 50 mL milk). All samples were pumped at 10 to 50 mL/h for at least 4 hours. The pumped milk was collected in an iced container, and creamatocrits were determined in duplicate. There was significant fat loss in the control milk samples compared with the milk samples with added lecithin. The average fat loss was 58% +/- 13% for control samples and 55% +/- 26% for the milk with 0.5 g soy lecithin. Milk with 1 g soy lecithin averaged 2% +/- 2% fat loss. The pumping rate had no effect on fat loss. The greatest fat loss (70% +/- 6%)occurred during the first 4 hours of pumping. The addition of 1 g soy lecithin per 50 mL milk decreased the human milk fat loss during intermittent pumping and may

  13. Large Wood Storage Does Not Decrease Downstream Through a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M.; Pasternack, G. B.; Senter, A. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    The storage of large wood in streams at the watershed scale has long been characterized as decreasing downstream due to a transport limitation in headwater streams, and a supply limitation in larger rivers. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis through a field study in the Upper Yuba River watershed in Northern California, USA. While most studies surveyed within the wetted channel at selected reaches of different sizes, this study measured overbank deposits of large wood in addition to those in-channel to reflect the total storage within the active river corridor, and used a stratified random sampling scheme to see if relations held at the watershed scale. The watershed is large (2,874 km2), mountainous, mostly forested, and has been dramatically altered by human activities primarily related to gold mining. One hundred fourteen field sites of varied drainage area sizes were visited, inventoried for large wood (length > 1 m, diameter > 10 cm) storage within the active river corridor, and the volume storage per river length was calculated. Inclusion of floodplains in field surveys illuminates the fact that the distribution of large wood changes within the active river corridor, while the total storage does not decrease downstream. Among many watershed-scale control variables, such as drainage area, stream order, and upslope distance, the local amount of shrub cover and bankfull channel width were the only significant predictors of large wood storage in a multiple linear regression model, both with positive coefficients. A critical literature review was also conducted to investigate the evidence for the common conceptual model. Findings were that (1) the observed downstream trend of large wood storage is largely a function of the methods employed by each study, (2) the use of storage per channel area has confounded the commonly held conceptual model, due to its correlation with channel width, and (3) there is little evidence to support the hypothesis

  14. ELF alternating magnetic field decreases reproduction by DNA damage induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Karabarbounis, Andreas; Lioliousis, Constantinos

    2013-11-01

    In the present experiments, the effect of 50-Hz alternating magnetic field on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction was studied. Newly eclosed insects were separated into identical groups of ten males and ten females and exposed to three different intensities of the ELF magnetic field (1, 11, and 21 G) continuously during the first 5 days of their adult lives. The reproductive capacity was assessed by the number of F1 pupae according to a well-defined protocol of ours. The magnetic field was found to decrease reproduction by up to 4.3%. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The decline in reproductive capacity was found to be due to severe DNA damage (DNA fragmentation) and consequent cell death induction in the reproductive cells as determined by the TUNEL assay applied during early and mid-oogenesis (from germarium to stage 10) where physiological apoptosis does not occur. The increase in DNA damage was more significant than the corresponding decrease in reproductive capacity (up to ~7.5%). The TUNEL-positive signal denoting DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages of oogenesis: the early and mid-oogenesis checkpoints (i.e. region 2a/2b of the germarium and stages 7-8 just before the onset of vitellogenesis)-in contrast to exposure to microwave radiation of earlier work of ours in which the DNA fragmentation was induced at all developmental stages of early and mid-oogenesis. Moreover, the TUNEL-positive signal was observed in all three types of egg chamber cells, mainly in the nurse and follicle cells and also in the oocyte, in agreement with the microwave exposure of our earlier works. According to previous reports, cell death induction in the oocyte was observed only in the case of microwave exposure and not after exposure to other stress factors as toxic chemicals or food deprivation. Now it is also observed for the first time after ELF magnetic field exposure. Finally, in contrast to microwave

  15. Downregulation of Sp1 by Minnelide leads to decrease in HSP70 and decrease in tumor burden of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Nivedita; Alsaied, Osama; Dauer, Patricia; Majumder, Kaustav; Modi, Shrey; Giri, Bhuwan; Dudeja, Vikas; Banerjee, Sulagna; Von Hoff, Daniel; Saluja, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide with poor survival rates. Even though a number of chemotherapeutic compounds have been used against this disease, stomach cancer has not been particularly sensitive to these drugs. In this study we have evaluated the effect of triptolide, a naturally derived diterpene triepoxide and its water soluble pro-drug Minnelide on several gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines both as monotherapy and in combination with CPT-11. Methods Gastric cancer cell lines MKN28 and MKN45 were treated with varying doses of triptolide in vitro. Cell viability was measured using MTT based assay kit. Apoptotic cell death was assayed by measuring caspase activity. Effect of the triptolide pro-drug, Minnelide, was evaluated by implanting the gastric cancer cells subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Results Gastric cancer cell lines MKN28 and MKN45 cells exhibited decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis when treated with varying doses of triptolide in vitro. When implanted in athymic nude mice, treatment with Minnelide reduced tumor burden in both MKN28 derived tumors as well as MKN45 derived tumors. Additionally, we also evaluated Minnelide as a single agent and in combination with CPT-11 in the NCI-N87 human gastric tumor xenograft model. Conclusion Our results indicated that the combination of Minnelide with CPT-11 resulted in significantly smaller tumors compared to control. These studies are extremely encouraging as Minnelide is currently undergoing phase 1 clinical trials for gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:28192510

  16. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  17. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina

    2012-11-01

    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.

  18. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  19. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Consumers’ Increased vs. Decreased Online Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu; Bin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on online consumer purchases has focused on increased purchases and neglected decreased purchases. However, factors impacting these purchases are different. Drawing on the two-factor theory, in this paper, the authors compare factors affecting increase and decrease in Chinese consumers’ online purchases. The authors conducted separate group analyses with PLS. The results show that consumers’ perception of service quality significantly affects increases in their online pu...

  1. Statins decrease dendritic arborization in rat sympathetic neurons by blocking RhoA activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woo-Yang; Gonsiorek, Eugene A.; Barnhart, Chris; Davare, Monika A.; Engebose, Abby J.; Lauridsen, Holly; Bruun, Donald; Lesiak, Adam; Wayman, Gary; Bucelli, Robert; Higgins, Dennis; Lein, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins decrease sympathetic activity, but whether peripheral mechanisms involving direct actions on post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons contribute to this effect is not known. Because tonic activity of these neurons is directly correlated with the size of their dendritic arbor, we tested the hypothesis that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons. Oral administration of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day for 7 days) significantly...

  2. Energy Characteristics of Forbush Decreases for Different Types of Heliospheric Disturbances According to Muon Hodoscope URAGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. I.; Astapov, I. I.; Barbashina, N. S.; Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kovylyaeva, A. A.; Mishutina, Yu. N.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Sit'ko, O. A.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    Experimentally obtained energy characteristics of the muon flux during Forbush decreases registered by means of the muon hodoscope URAGAN at different phases of 23rd and 24th solar cycles are studied. To obtain the energy spectra of Forbush decrease amplitudes in the flux of the primary particles, coupling functions of the primary and the secondary cosmic ray fluxes for five zenith-angular intervals of the muon hodoscope URAGAN were used. It is shown that the energy characteristics of Forbush decreases, caused by heliospheric disturbances of different types, significantly differ on phases of maximum and minimum of the solar cycle.

  3. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  4. The Continuing Incidence of Natural Decrease in American Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, more American counties (985) experienced natural decrease than at any time in the nation's history. The incidence of natural decrease has diminished since then, but remains near record levels. It is most common in rural areas remote from metropolitan centers. Spatial concentrations exist in the Great Plains, Corn Belt, and East Texas,…

  5. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  6. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan A.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  7. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  8. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    , and secondly oceanic oil drift in ice affected conditions. Both investigations are made with the coupled ocean - sea ice model HYCOM-CICE at 10 km resolution, which is also used operationally at DMI and allows detailed studies of sea ice build-up, drift and melt. To investigate the sea ice decrease of the last......The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice...... decade, we have performed a reanalysis simulation of the years 1990-2011, forced with ERA Interim atmospheric data. Thus, the simulation includes both the period before the recent sea ice decrease and the full period of decrease up till today. We will present our model results of the thinning...

  9. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  10. Cisapride decreases gastric content aspiration in mechanically ventilated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumatikos, John; Koulouras, Basil; Frangides, Christ; Goe, Dian; Nakos, George

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of the prokinetic agent cisapride in the prevention of aspiration of gastric contents