WorldWideScience

Sample records for supermolecular layer structure

  1. Supermolecular layered dou- ble hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Research progresses in the layered double hydroxides ·mH2O intercalated with metal coordinate ions or oxometalates in the last ten years are reviewed. These layered double hydroxides are mainly intercalated with polyoxometalate (POM) ions, a LiAl-LDH photochemical assembly containing TiO2 and CH3(CH2)12COO- anions, together with Zn(TPPC) (porphy-rin derivate) and macrocyclic ligand-containing porphyrin derivate anions. Emphasis is put on the synthesis methods for intercalation of the anions into the interlayer regions, the characterization techniques and structures for the layered compounds and the newest research progress in the fields such as catalysis. The review also forecasts the prospects of the field.

  2. Molecular and Supermolecular Structure of Commercial Pyrodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Thanh-Blicharz, Joanna; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Szwengiel, Artur; Paukszta, Dominik; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Size exclusion chromatography with triple detection as well as infrared spectroscopy studies of commercially available pyrodextrins proved that these molecules are characterized not only by significantly lower molecular mass, in comparison to that of native starch, but also by increased branching. Therefore, pyrodextrins adopt a very compact structure in solution and show Newtonian behavior under shear in spite of their molecular masses of tens of thousands Daltons. The results also indicate that 50% reduction of digestibility of pyrodextrins is, to a minor extent, caused by formation of low-molecular color compounds containing carbonyl functional groups. The main reason is, as postulated in the literature, transglycosidation that leads to decreased occurrence of α-1,4-glycoside bonds in the molecular structure. In the process of dextrinization starch also undergoes changes in supermolecular structure, which, however, have no influence on digestibility. Likewise, the effect of formation of low-molecular colorful compounds containing carbonyl groups is not crucial.

  3. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Clement Marmorat; Arkadii Arinstein; Naama Koifman; Yeshayahu Talmon; Eyal Zussman; Miriam Rafailovich

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the...

  4. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed. PMID:27147410

  5. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed.

  6. Observations and morphological analysis of supermolecular structure of natural bitumens by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny A. Golubev; Olga V. Kovaleva; Nikolay P. Yushkin [Institute of Geology of RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The supermolecular structures of natural bitumens of the thermal consequent row asphaltites lower kerites (albertites), higher kerites (impsonites), anthraxolites from the Timan-Pechora petroleum province and Karelian shungite rocks, Russia, were studied in details. The experimental technique used was atomic force microscopy (AFM), following fracture preparation. The element distribution of the sample surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray microanalyser 'Link ISIS', combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this work, we characterized the supermolecular evolution of natural solid bitumens in the carbonization sequence by quantitative parameters. We showed that supermolecular structure can be important in defining to which classification group solid bitumens belong. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-09-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  8. Influence of Anthesis Date and Boll Branch Position on Qualities and Super-molecular Structure of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shi-hua; SHI Pei; SUN Xue-zhen; ZHOU Zhi-guo; BIAN Dong-cai

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the anthesis date and the fruiting branch positions on parameters of cotton fiber quality and super-molecular structure were studied. Fiber quality parameters, such as cotton fiber length, micronair, maturity and fiber strength deteriorated with postponing the anthesis date and decreasing temperature. When anthesis happened on the same date, the fruiting branch positions affected the fiber quality parameters, and the fiber quality parameters of the lower portion turned out to be higher than that of the upper portion, although the difference was insignificant. The super-molecular structure of the lower portion turned out to be superior to that of the upper portion at the early anthesis date and high temperature, which is in accordance with what was mentioned above, but the fruiting branch positions did not affect the impact of the anthesis date on the super-molecular structure.

  9. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: The eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2015-01-01

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal-organic frameworks (1-5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores with nitrogen donor moieties offers potential to evaluate/elucidate the structure-adsorption property relationship. Two MOF platforms, eea-MOF and rtl-MOF, based on pillaring of kgm-a or sql-a layers with heterofunctional 3-connected organic building blocks were targeted and constructed to purposely introduce and expose the desired amide or amine functionalities. Interestingly, gas adsorption properties of eea-MOF-4 (1) and eea-MOF-5 (2) showed that by simply altering the nitrogen donor position within the ligand, it is possible to relatively reduce the pore size of the related eea-MOF material and subsequently increase the associated CO2 uptake. The slightly confined pore space in 2, relative to 1, has enabled an enhancement of the pore local charge density and thus the observed relative increase in the CO2 and H2 isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst). In addition, light hydrocarbon adsorption studies revealed that 2 is more selective toward C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 than 1, as exemplified for C2H6:CH4 (5:95) or C3H8:CH4 (5:95) binary gas mixtures. This journal is

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Supermolecular Structure of Isoliquiritigenin and 6-O-α-D-Maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoliquiritigenin (ILTG possesses many pharmacological properties. However, its poor solubility and stability in water hinders its wide applications. The solubility of bioactive compounds can often be enhanced through preparation and delivery of various cyclodextrin (CD inclusion complexes. The 6-O-α-D-maltosyl-β-CD (G2-β-CD, as one of the newest developments of CDs, has high aqueous solubility and low toxicity, especially stable inclusion characteristics with bioactive compounds. In this work, we for the first time construct and characterize the supermolecular structure of ILTG/G2-β-CD by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The solubility of ILTG in water at 25 °C rises from 0.003 to 0.717 mg/mL by the encapsulation with G2-β-CD. Our experimental observations on the presence of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion complex are further supported by the ONIOM(our Own N-layer Integrated Orbital molecular Mechanics-based QM/MM (Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations, typically substantiating these supermolecular characteristics, such as detailed structural assignments, preferred binding orientations, selectivity, solvent effects, interaction energies and forces of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion complex. Our results have elucidated how ILTG interacts with G2-β-CD, demonstrating the primary host-guest interactions between ILTG and G2-β-CD, characterized by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic forces, and conformational effects, are favored for the formation of the ILTG/G2-β-CD inclusion.

  11. SHG from centrosymmetric supermolecular crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文生; 郭放; 魏春生; 刘祁涛; 周广勇; 王东; 邵宗书

    2002-01-01

    Supermolecular crystal composed of p-nitrophenol, hexamethylenetetramine, phosphoric acid and water was obtained by supermolecular assembly. The crystal has a centrosymmetric structure with space group P21/c. The relative intensity and integral value of green frequency doubling of light from the crystal powder compared with that from KDP powder measured by pico-second Nd:YAG laser are 757.3 (KDP: 183.4) and 1771.7 (KDP: 423.98), respectively. In supermolecular crystal, due to the arrangement of centrosymmetric p-nitrophenol molecules in the inorganic-organic host framework formed by hexamethylenetetramine, phosphoric acid and water, the distances between the p-nitrophenol molecules with centrosymmetry are changed (N1A-O1A: 0.8158 nm, N1B′-O1B: 1.4450 nm, N1A-N1A′: 0.5837 nm, N1B′-N1B: 0.6898 nm), and the interaction between the dipoles becomes weak, which is easy for the ground state to turn into the excited state charge separated form, and generate the stable asymmetrical distribution of (-electron cloud density of quinonal structure, thus exhibiting SHG effect.

  12. SHG from centrosymmetric supermolecular crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文生; 刘祁涛; 邵宗书; 郭放; 周广勇; 魏春生; 王东

    2002-01-01

    Supermolecular crystal composed of p-nitrophenol, hexamethylenetetramine, phosphoric acid and water was obtained by supermolecular assembly. The crystal has a centrosymmetric structure with space group P21/c. The relative intensity and integral value of green frequency doubling of light from the crystal powder compared with that from KDP powder measured by pico-second Nd:YAG laser are 757.3 (KDP: 183.4) and 1771.7 (KDP: 423.98), respectively. In supermolecular crystal, due to the arrangement of centrosymmetric p-nitrophenol molecules in the inorganic-organic host framework formed by hexamethylenetetramine, phosphoric acid and water, the distances between the p-nitrophenol molecules with centrosymmetry are changed (N1A-O1A: 0.8158 nm, N1B’-O1B: 1.4450 nm, N1A-N1A’: 0.5837 nm, N1B’-N1B: 0.6898 nm), and the interaction between the dipoles becomes weak, which is easy for the ground state to turn into the excited state charge separated form, and generate the stable asymmetrical distribution of π-electron clo

  13. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2015-02-11

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores with nitrogen donor moieties offers potential to evaluate/elucidate the structure–adsorption property relationship. Two MOF platforms, eea-MOF and rtl-MOF, based on pillaring of kgm-a or sql-a layers with heterofunctional 3-connected organic building blocks were targeted and constructed to purposely introduce and expose the desired amide or amine functionalities. Interestingly, gas adsorption properties of eea-MOF-4 (1) and eea-MOF-5 (2) showed that by simply altering the nitrogen donor position within the ligand, it is possible to relatively reduce the pore size of the related eea-MOF material and subsequently increase the associated CO2 uptake. The slightly confined pore space in 2, relative to 1, has enabled an enhancement of the pore local charge density and thus the observed relative increase in the CO2 and H2 isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst). In addition, light hydrocarbon adsorption studies revealed that 2 is more selective toward C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 than 1, as exemplified for C2H6 : CH4 (5 : 95) or C3H8 : CH4 (5 : 95) binary gas mixtures.

  14. The Dynamic Reinforcement of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) as a Result of Non-equilibrium State of Polymer Supermolecular Structures and their Confinement in Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Eyal; Shaked, Emil; Arinstein, Arkadi

    2009-03-01

    The results of mechanical testing of PVA -based electrospun nanofibers and bulk in static and dynamic modes are presented. An increase in the elastic moduli resulting from sample deformation was observed in both the bulk and as-spun fibers. This increase occurs when the deformation rate exceeds a critical value and can be attributed to the non-equilibrium dynamics of the supermolecular structures of the polymer matrix. That is, the evolution of these supermolecular structures results in an observably extended relaxation time. It is noted that the rate of the modulus increase of the nanofibers is nearly double that of the bulk fibers' rate. This difference can be explained by confinement influence on the polymer matrix of the nanofibers. In addition, the tests revealed that the, Tg, of the nanofiber is noticeably higher than that of bulk specimen. Reinforcing the nanofibrs by cellulose whiskers showing that the dependence of the effective modulus on the whisker concentration has an initial increase that changes to a decrease when the whisker concentration exceeds 2 %. Such behavior can be explained in the framework of an aggregation concept -- when the cluster size reaches that of the fiber diameter (cluster confinement), the whisker distribution becomes inhomogeneous and results in a measurable weakening of the composite.

  15. Supermolecular nanostructurization in natural colloids: scanning probe microscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, Y. A.

    2005-02-01

    In this work, features of research of the supermolecular structures of native metacolloids by STM and AFM are presented. The features associated with metastable structures and the polyphasal nature of colloidal products of geological processes are considered. As a result of the researches carried out local and global of characteristics of their supermolecular structures are established. We show qualitative and quantitative superstructural data obtained using a combination of microscopic researches with diffractional and the structural-morphological analysis of received images. From the structural-transformation row of dependence of superstructural features obtained from findings of geological conditions, PT-parameters of processes of formation were established. The multilevel structure of shungite carbon (where supermolecular structure is formed by multilayered fullerene-like globules) is considered. Both chains and compact aggregates were determined in shungites. Possible mechanisms of aggregations of shungites globules were analyzed.

  16. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhai, Yuanming [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  17. Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, S.A.; Clark, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a collection of papers from the International Symposium on Complex and Supermolecular Fluids presents tutorials and minireviews focusing on the physical properties of complex fluids using the concepts and techniques of condensed matter physics. The book stresses the unifying principles, rather than chemical details, behind the physics of diverse materials. Principal topics include colloids, microemulsions, ferrofluids, and micellar systems. It characterizes supermolecular and complex fluids by exploiting their analogies to atomic systems.

  18. 层间水分子含量对铜铁水滑石超分子作用力的影响%Influence of Interlayer Water Content on Supermolecular Interaction of Copper-Iron Layered Double Hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施炜; 胡军; 倪哲明; 李远; 刘娇

    2012-01-01

    A periodic interaction model was proposed for the copper-iron layered double hydroxides, CusFe-LDHs-yHzO (y=0-2). Based on density functional theory, the geometry of Cu3Fe-LDHs-yH2O was optimized using the CASTEP program. The distribution of NOi and H3O in the interlayer and the supermolecular interaction between host and guest was investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, hydrogen-bonding, charge populations and stepwise hydration energy. Results indicated that when NO3 and H;O were inserted into the layers of the Cu3Fe-LDHs, there was a strong supramolecular interaction between the host layer and the guest, including hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interaction. Hydrogen-bonding was superior to the electrostatic interaction in the hydration process. The strength of hydrogen bonding was ordered as Layer-Anion (L-A) > Anion-Water (A-W) > Layer-Water (L-W) > Water -Water (W-W). In Cu3Fe-LDHs-yH;O, the interlayer distance decreased slightly and then increased significantly with an increase in the number of interlayer water molecules. The Cu - O octahedral forms were stretched gradually because of the increased Jahn - Teller effect of Cu2'. The absolute value of the hydration energy decreased gradually with an increase in the number of water molecules. This suggested that the hydration of CujFe-LDHs reached a saturation state. The geometry of Cu3Fe-LDHs-1H2O is close to hexagonal where the metal distortion of the layer is weakest and the stability is strongest; the interlayer distance agrees the experimental value, therefore CujFe-LDHs-IH2O is a stable configuration.%构建铜铁水滑石[Cu3Fe-LDHs-yH2O(y=0-2)]周期性计算模型,采用密度泛函理论(DFT),选取CASTEP程序模块,对体系进行几何全优化.从结构参数、氢键、Mulliken电荷布居、逐级水合能等角度研究了层间NO3-和H2O的分布形态及其与水滑石(LDHs)层板的超分子作用,探究了水分子数目对体系姜-泰勒效应的影响.结果表明:Cu3Fe

  19. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  20. A supermolecular building approach for the design and construction of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, Vincent; Kim, Dongwook; Eubank, Jarrod F; Luebke, Ryan; Liu, Xinfang; Adil, Karim; Lah, Myoung Soo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-08-21

    In this review, we describe two recently implemented conceptual approaches facilitating the design and deliberate construction of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), namely supermolecular building block (SBB) and supermolecular building layer (SBL) approaches. Our main objective is to offer an appropriate means to assist/aid chemists and material designers alike to rationally construct desired functional MOF materials, made-to-order MOFs. We introduce the concept of net-coded building units (net-cBUs), where precise embedded geometrical information codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, as a compelling route for the rational design of MOFs. This concept is based on employing pre-selected 0-periodic metal–organic polyhedra or 2-periodic metal–organic layers, SBBs or SBLs respectively, as a pathway to access the requisite net-cBUs. In this review, inspired by our success with the original rht-MOF, we extrapolated our strategy to other known MOFs via their deconstruction into more elaborate building units (namely polyhedra or layers) to (i) elucidate the unique relationship between edge-transitive polyhedra or layers and minimal edge-transitive 3-periodic nets, and (ii) illustrate the potential of the SBB and SBL approaches as a rational pathway for the design and construction of 3-periodic MOFs. Using this design strategy, we have also identified several new hypothetical MOFs which are synthetically targetable.

  1. A supermolecular building approach for the design and construction of metal–organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent

    2014-07-10

    In this review, we describe two recently implemented conceptual approaches facilitating the design and deliberate construction of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), namely supermolecular building block (SBB) and supermolecular building layer (SBL) approaches. Our main objective is to offer an appropriate means to assist/aid chemists and material designers alike to rationally construct desired functional MOF materials, made-to-order MOFs. We introduce the concept of net-coded building units (net-cBUs), where precise embedded geometrical information codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, as a compelling route for the rational design of MOFs. This concept is based on employing pre-selected 0-periodic metal–organic polyhedra or 2-periodic metal–organic layers, SBBs or SBLs respectively, as a pathway to access the requisite net-cBUs. In this review, inspired by our success with the original rht-MOF, we extrapolated our strategy to other known MOFs via their deconstruction into more elaborate building units (namely polyhedra or layers) to (i) elucidate the unique relationship between edge-transitive polyhedra or layers and minimal edge-transitive 3-periodic nets, and (ii) illustrate the potential of the SBB and SBL approaches as a rational pathway for the design and construction of 3-periodic MOFs. Using this design strategy, we have also identified several new hypothetical MOFs which are synthetically targetable.

  2. A supermolecular curcumin for enhanced antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities: molecular characteristics, computer modeling and in vivo pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qunyou; Wu, Jianyong; Li, Yi; Mei, Hu; Zhao, Chunjing; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    The supermolecular curcumin (SMCCM) exhibiting remarkably improved solubility and release characteristics was fabricated to increase the oral bioavailability in rat as well as the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of curcumin (CCM) against human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549. SMCCM was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, morphology and structure, aqueous solubility, and release behavior in vitro. Computer modeling of the supermolecular structure was performed. The pharmacokinetics, antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of SMCCM were evaluated. The mechanisms by which SMCCM inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis were identified. The formation of SMCCM was testified and the supermolecular structure was studied by a computer modeling technique. Compared to free CCM, SMCCM with much higher aqueous solubility exhibited obviously enhanced release and more favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, and, furthermore, SMCCM showed higher anticancer efficacy, enhanced induction of G2/M-phase arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells, which might be involved with the increases in reactive oxygen species production and intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. SMCCM remarkably enhanced not only the oral bioavailability but also the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of CCM along with improved solubility and release characteristics of CCM.

  3. Magnetic microscopy of layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuch, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter; Hillebrecht, Franz Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the important analytical technique of magnetic microscopy. This method is applied to analyze layered structures with high resolution. This book presents a number of layer-resolving magnetic imaging techniques that have evolved recently. Many exciting new developments in magnetism rely on the ability to independently control the magnetization in two or more magnetic layers in micro- or nanostructures. This in turn requires techniques with the appropriate spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity. The book begins with an introductory overview, explains then the principles of the various techniques and gives guidance to their use. Selected examples demonstrate the specific strengths of each method. Thus the book is a valuable resource for all scientists and practitioners investigating and applying magnetic layered structures.

  4. Entanglement in the supermolecular dimer [Mn4]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-Tan; Chen Gang; He Ming-Ming; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the entanglement in the supermolecular dimer [Mn4]2 consisting of a pair of single molecular magnets with antiferromagnetic exchange-coupling J. The conventional von Neumann entropy as a function of the exchange-coupling is calculated explicitly for all eigenstates with the quantum number range from M = M1 + M2 = -9to 0. It is shown that the yon Neumann entropy is not a monotonic function of the coupling strength. However, it is significant that the entropy of entanglement has the maximum values and the minimum values for most eigenstates,which is extremely useful in the quantum computing. It also presents the time-evolution of entanglement from various initial states. The results are useful in the design of devices based on the entanglement of two molecular magnets.

  5. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  6. A Stimuli-Responsive Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework Based on Supermolecular Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Stoeck, Ulrich; Senkovska, Irena; Többens, Daniel M; Wallacher, Dirk; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-08-28

    A flexible, yet very stable metal-organic framework (DUT-98, Zr6 O4 (OH)4 (CPCDC)4 (H2 O)4 , CPCDC=9-(4-carboxyphenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylate) was synthesized using a rational supermolecular building block approach based on molecular modelling of metal-organic chains and subsequent virtual interlinking into a 3D MOF. Structural characterization via synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) revealed the one-dimensional pore architecture of DUT-98, envisioned in silico. After supercritical solvent extraction, distinctive responses towards various gases stimulated reversible structural transformations, as detected using coupled synchrotron diffraction and physisorption techniques. DUT-98 shows a surprisingly low water uptake but a high selectivity for pore opening towards specific gases and vapors (N2 , CO2 , n-butane, alcohols) at characteristic pressure resulting in multiple steps in the adsorption isotherm and hysteretic behavior upon desorption. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A computer generator for randomly layered structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jia-shun; HE Zhen-hua

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm is introduced in this paper for the synthesis of randomly layered earth models. Under the assumption that the layering and the physical parameters for a layer are random variables with truncated normal distributions, random numbers sampled from the distributions can be used to construct the layered structure and determine physical parameters for the layers. To demonstrate its application, random models were synthesized for the modelling of seismic ground motion amplification of a site with uncertainties in its model parameters.

  8. Optical and electroemission properties of thin films of supermolecular anthracene-based rotaxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadret, G.; Ruani, G.; Cavallini, M.; Biscarini, F.; Murgia, M.; Zamboni, R.; Giro, G.; Cocchi, M.; Fattori, V.; Loontjens, T.; Thies, J.; Leigh, D.A.; Morales, A.F.; Mahrt, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Rotaxanes are a new class of functional materials. They consist of mechanically interlocked supermolecular systems where a central linear thread passes through the cavity of a macrocyclic ring. The ring is constrained within the two extremities of the thread by two bulky stoppers. In this work, we r

  9. Visualizing Evaluation Structures using Layered Graph Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Yosuke; Kukimoto, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naohisa; Misue, Kazuo; Koyamada, Koji

    2016-03-18

    We propose a method for visualizing evaluation structures that is based on layered graph drawing techniques. An evaluation structure is a hierarchical structure of human cognition extracted from interviews based on the evaluation grid method. An evaluation structure can be defined as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The Sugiyama framework is a popular method for constructing DAGs. A new layer assignment method that is a part of the Sugiyama framework is proposed to satisfy the requirements for drawing evaluation structures. We formulate a layer assignment problem by considering the sum of squares of arc lengths to be an integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem. Moreover, we transform the IQP problem into an equivalent integer linear programming (ILP) problem for computational efficiency. Evaluations demonstrate that the layered graph drawing with the proposed layer assignment method is preferred by users and aids in the understanding of evaluation structures.

  10. Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh

    2014-11-01

    Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed.

  11. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  12. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  13. Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Antibacterial Activity of Supermolecular Compounds of Organotitanium Substituted Heteropolytungstates Containing 8-Quinolinol%Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Antibacterial Activity of Supermolecular Compounds of Organotitanium Substituted Heteropolytungstates Containing8-Quinolinol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Chang-gen; XIONG Yu-di; LIU Xia

    2011-01-01

    Parent compounds of cyclopentadienyltitanium substituted heteropolytungstates with Keggin structure, An[(CpTi)XW11O39]· xH2O (A=Me4N, K; X=P, Si, Co; Cp=η5-C5H5) were synthesized in aqueous phase. By allowing parent heteropoly compounds to react with protonated 8-quinolinol, the title supermolecular compounds (C9H8NO)mAn[(CpTi)XW11O39]· xH2O (A=Me4N, H; X=P, Si, Co) were synthesized. The title compounds were characterized by means of elementary analysis, IR, UV, 1 H NMR,XRD and TC-DSC. The results indicate that the title compounds are new heteropoly compounds, and there is a charge transfer interaction between the organic cation and heteropoly anion. The results obtained from thermal analysis show that QCpTiPW, QCpTiSiW and QCpTiCoW begin to decompose at 212.4, 194. 2 and 171.2℃, respectively. The results obtained from antibacterial test reveal that QCpTiSiW has the best antibacterial activity, and the MIC values of QCpTiSiW against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aurous are 64. 0 and 0. 500 μg · mL-1 , respectively.

  14. Identifying layers in random multiphase structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Kevin; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray microscopic methods, benefiting from the large penetration depth of X-rays in many materials, enable 3D investigation of a wide variety of samples. This allows for a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological structures to be seen and explored, in some cases even in real time. Such measurements have lead to insights into paleontology, vulcanology, genetics, and material science. The ability to see and visualize complex systems can provide otherwise unobtainable information on structure, interactions, mechanical behavior, and evolution. The field has, however, led to a massive amount of new, heterogenous, difficult to process data. We present a general, model-free approach for characterizing multiphase 3D systems and show how the method can be applied to experimental X-ray microscopy data to better understand and quantify layer structure in two typical systems: investigation of layered fibers and clay samples.

  15. Layered graphene structure of a hexagonal carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin, E-mail: beenchang@nuaa.edu.cn

    2013-06-01

    Experiments show that there is a novel hexagonal carbon polymorph restricted to the space group of P-62c, but the detailed atomic structure is not determined. Here we set carbon atoms occupying P-62c 4f or P-62c 2c and 2d Wyckoff positions, and calculate the total energy of the different cell structures changing the internal parameter by first-principles calculations, which demonstrates that the stable structures in energy (at local minima) are hexagonal carbon (P-62c 2c and 2d) and hexagonal diamond (P-62c 4f, z=1/16). The calculated bulk modulus 437±16 GPa and interlayer distance 2.062 Å of the layered graphene structure P-62c 2c and 2d are in good agreement with those of the proposed new carbon, which indicates that P-62c 2c and 2d is a possible precursor or intermediate hard phase during the structural transformation of carbon.

  16. Hydrophobic and high adhesive polyaniline layer of rectangular microtubes fabricated by a modified interfacial polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Qu, Yun; Han, Jie

    2016-08-01

    A modified interfacial polymerization of aniline is developed to fabricate hydrophobic and adhesive polyaniline (PANI) layer of rectangular microtubes on the glass substrate. The modified method uses pentanol as an organic medium to dissolve aniline monomer, with the water film of oxidant and surfactant on the glass substrate as water phase. The effects of some synthetic parameters (such as monomer concentration, alcohol molecular structure and surfactant type) on the morphology of PANI layer are studied for better understanding the fabrication of PANI nanostructures on the film. The alcohol molecular structure plays key role for the supermolecular assembly of PANI chains into nanostructures, while the surfactant may direct the array and deposition of these nanostructures on the glass substrate. The formation reason of PANI rectangular sub-microtubes is roughly interpreted according to our previous works. Wettability experiment indicates that the as-prepared PANI layer exhibits excellent hydrophobicity and high adhesive properties to water drop.

  17. Bloch oscillations in chirped layered structures with metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the Bloch oscillations of electromagnetic waves in chirped layered structures with alternating layers of negative-index metamaterial and conventional dielectric under the condition of the zero average refractive index. We consider the case when the chirp is introduced by varying the thickness of the layers linearly across the structure. We demonstrate that such structures can support three different types of the Bloch oscillations for electromagnetic waves associated with either propagating or evanescent guided modes. In particular, we predict a novel type of the Bloch oscillations associated with coupling between surface waves excited at the interfaces separating the layers of negative-index metamaterial and the layers of the conventional dielectric.

  18. Hydrogen in magnesium palladium thin layer structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijtzer, G. L.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the study of hydrogen storage, absorption and desorption in magnesium layers is described. The magnesium layers have a thickness of 50-500 nm and are covered by a palladium layer which acts as a hydrogen dissociation/association catalyst. The study was preformed under ultra high vacuum conditions to avoid oxygen contamination. The main analysis techniques were RBS, ERD and TDS.

  19. On the meridional structure of the equatorial mixed layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, P; Ross, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors compare three two-dimensional models of the meridional structure of the mixed layer near the equator: a 1 1/2-layer linear reduced gravity model and two bulk mixed layer models, one with meridional advection and one with an atmospheric feedback. The reduced gravity model is a purely dynamic model; the two bulk mixed layer models include the thermodynamic processes of mixing and heating. The differences between the models become most pronounced when their response to changes in the...

  20. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-25

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer "ghosts" during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  1. Preservation of Archaeal Surface Layer Structure During Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Adrienne; Miot, Jennyfer; Lombard, Carine; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Sylvain; Zirah, Séverine; Guyot, François

    2016-05-01

    Proteinaceous surface layers (S-layers) are highly ordered, crystalline structures commonly found in prokaryotic cell envelopes that augment their structural stability and modify interactions with metals in the environment. While mineral formation associated with S-layers has previously been noted, the mechanisms were unconstrained. Using Sulfolobus acidocaldarius a hyperthermophilic archaeon native to metal-enriched environments and possessing a cell envelope composed only of a S-layer and a lipid cell membrane, we describe a passive process of iron phosphate nucleation and growth within the S-layer of cells and cell-free S-layer “ghosts” during incubation in a Fe-rich medium, independently of metabolic activity. This process followed five steps: (1) initial formation of mineral patches associated with S-layer; (2) patch expansion; (3) patch connection; (4) formation of a continuous mineral encrusted layer at the cell surface; (5) early stages of S-layer fossilization via growth of the extracellular mineralized layer and the mineralization of cytosolic face of the cell membrane. At more advanced stages of encrustation, encrusted outer membrane vesicles are formed, likely in an attempt to remove damaged S-layer proteins. The S-layer structure remains strikingly well preserved even upon the final step of encrustation, offering potential biosignatures to be looked for in the fossil record.

  2. Shear-layer structures in near-wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A. V.; Alfredsson, P. H.; Kim, J.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of internal shear layer observed in the near-wall region of turbulent flows is investigated by analyzing flow fields obtained from numerical simulations of channel and boundary-layer flows. It is found that the shear layer is an important contributor to the turbulence production. The conditionally averaged production at the center of the structure was almost twice as large as the long-time mean value. The shear-layer structure is also found to retain its coherence over streamwise distances on the order of a thousand viscous length units, and propagates with a constant velocity of about 10.6 u sub rho throughout the near wall region.

  3. Triple-layer Absorptive Structures for Shock Wave Blast Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triple-layer absorptive structure is designed to reinforce a missile silo against shock wave blasts. An energy-absorbing layer and a cushion layer overlay the circular silo cover made of reinforced concrete. The dynamic stress analysis is performed by ABAQUS/Explicit. The mesoscopic structure of the energy absorbing layer is designed as an assembly of ductile tubes containing crushable cellular ceramics. Combined mesoscopic and macroscopic simulations indicate that the structure can enhance the survivability of a missile silo against blast waves.

  4. Turbulence Structure of the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer and Transition to the Outer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, K. G.

    We present a new model of the structure of turbulence in the unstable atmospheric surface layer, and of the structural transition between this and the outer layer. The archetypal element of wall-bounded shear turbulence is the Theodorsen ejection amplifier (TEA) structure, in which an initial ejection of air from near the ground into an ideal laminar and logarithmic flow induces vortical motion about a hairpin-shaped core, which then creates a second ejection that is similar to, but larger than, the first. A series of TEA structures form a TEA cascade. In real turbulent flows TEA structures occur in distorted forms as TEA-like (TEAL) structures. Distortion terminates many TEAL cascades and only the best-formed TEAL structures initiate new cycles. In an extended log layer the resulting shear turbulence is a complex, self-organizing, dissipative system exhibiting self-similar behaviour under inner scaling. Spectral results show that this structure is insensitive to instability. This is contrary to the fundamental hypothesis of Monin--Obukhov similarity theory. All TEAL cascades terminate at the top of the surface layer where they encounter, and are severely distorted by, powerful eddies of similar size from the outer layer. These eddies are products of the breakdown of the large eddies produced by buoyancy in the outer layer. When the outer layer is much deeper than the surface layer the interacting eddies are from the inertial subrange of the outer Richardson cascade. The scale height of the surface layer, zs, is then found by matching the powers delivered to the creation of emerging TEAL structures to the power passing down the Richardson cascade in the outer layer. It is zs = u* 3ks, where u*s friction velocity, k is the von Káán constant and s is the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy in the outer layer immediately above the surface layer. This height is comparable to the Obukhov length in the fully convective boundary layer. Aircraft and tower

  5. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  6. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  7. Thin layer structure of dissipation rate of scalar turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Haibing; (周海兵); CUI; Guixiang; (崔桂香); XU; Chunxiao; (许春晓); ZHANG; Zhaoshun; (张兆顺)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of scalar turbulence dissipation is studied by means of direct numerical simulation. It has been discovered that the scalar turbulence dissipation exhibits thin layer structure. Based on the analysis of transportation equation of scalar turbulence dissipation, we have investigated the effect of turbulent strains on the generation of scalar turbulence dissipation and found that fluctuating scalar gradients trend to the third principal direction of turbulent strains. Therefore the generation of the thin layer structure of scalar turbulence dissipation is well interpreted.

  8. Structure and physical properties of layered ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghominezhad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully synthesised and studied the bilayer ferrofluids with sodium oleate C18H33O2-Na+ as the first layer and sodium dodecyle sulfate C12H25Na+SO-4 (SDS as the second layer surfactants. The solid phase of the ferromagnetic colloidal system was formed based on quick chemical growth. The adsorption of oleate molecule on the surface of the solid solution has been investigated by IR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis of the oxides and titration by KMnO4 show that the closest stoichiometry of Fe3O4 is achieved by the increase of Fe3+/Fe2+ molar ratio up to 2/3 with extra acidifying for prevention of uncontrolled Fe2+ excitation. The X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements by VSM were employed for determining the particle magnetic and crystal sizes. The particle size was determined to be 9-13 nm. The magnetisation measurement of the ferrofluid indicate a saturation magnetisation of about 1.5 emu/g and reduced initial susceptibility of 6 10-3 Oe-1, which are the proper values for a superparamagnet. However, the saturation magnetisation shows a local maxima at SDS concentration about 0.07M, which is different from the behaviour presented by the mono-layer ferrofuids.

  9. Magnetism in structures with ferromagnetic and superconducting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaketov, V. D.; Nikitenko, Yu. V., E-mail: nikiten@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialen un Energie (Germany); Petrenko, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Csik, A. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research (Hungary); Borisov, M. M.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Aksenov, V. L. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The influence of superconductivity on ferromagnetism in the layered Ta/V/Fe{sub 1–x}V{sub x}/V/Fe{sub 1–x}V{sub x}/Nb/Si structures consisting of ferromagnetic and superconducting layers is studied using polarized neutron reflection and scattering. It is experimentally shown that magnetic structures with linear sizes from 5 nm to 30 μm are formed in these layered structures at low temperatures. The magnetization of the magnetic structures is suppressed by superconductivity at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperatures in the V and Nb layers. The magnetic states of the structures are shown to undergo relaxation over a wide magnetic-field range, which is caused by changes in the states of clusters, domains, and Abrikosov vortices.

  10. The structure of bacterial S-layer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Howorka, Stefan; Keller, Walter

    2011-01-01

    S-layers are self-assembled paracrystalline protein lattices that cover many bacteria and almost all archaea. As an important component of the bacterial cell envelope, S-layers can fulfill various biological functions and are usually the most abundantly expressed protein species in a cell. Here we review the structures of the best characterized S-layer proteins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as methods to determine their molecular architecture.

  11. Formation of multilayered structures in the layer by layer deposition of colloid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Weroński, Paweł; Barbasz, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of particle film formation in the layer by layer (LbL) self-assembling processes have been performed according to the generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) scheme. The first (precursor) layer was generated using the standard RSA scheme pertinent to homogeneous surface. Formation of the consecutive layers (up to twenty) was simulated for two kinds of particles of equal size. The interaction of two particles of different kind resulted in irreversible and localized adsorption upon contact, whereas particles of the same kind were assumed to interact via the hard potential (no adsorption possible). Using this algorithm particle coverage (2D density) and volume fraction (3D density) were calculated as well as the film thickness as a function of the number of layers. Additionally, the structure of the film was quantitatively characterized in terms of the 2D and 3D pair correlation functions. The simulations revealed that particle concentration distribution in the film was more uniform for low precursor layer density than for higher density, where well-defined layers of closely packed particles appeared. It was also predicted theoretically that the averaged value of particle volume fraction in the uniform film region was rho(LbL)=0.42, which is very close to the maximum packing density equal to 0.382 predicted from the 3D RSA model. On the other hand, the roughness of the film was the lowest at the highest precursor layer density. It was shown that for low precursor layer density the film thickness increased with the number of layers in a nonlinear way. However, for high precursor layer density, the film thickness increased linearly with the number of layers and the average layer thickness was close to the hexagonal layer thickness equal to 1.73a p. It was concluded that our theoretical results can be effectively exploited for interpretation of the LbL processes involving colloid particles and polyelectrolytes.

  12. Polymer-Dependent Layer Structures in Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Strankowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied structural differences among tetrahedral and octahedral sodium Montmorillonite layer arrangements in naturally occurring and synthetic montmorillonite clay minerals, as well as their poly(ethylene oxide and poly(ε-coprolatone polymer nanocomposites.

  13. Microprobe of structure of crystal/liquid interface boundary layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular structures and its evolutive regularities within the boundary layers in the crystal growth of KDP and DKDP have been studied in real time by using holography and Raman microprobe. The experiments show that the molecular structure of mother solution within the boundary layers is distinctly different from that of the solutions alone. In this paper, the effects of cations within the boundary layers on the structure of solution are considered. Within the characteristic boundary layers, the effects of cations cause the changes in O-P-O bond angle, electronic density redistribution of the phosphate groups, and significant changes in the bond intensity, thus leading to the breaking of partial hydrogen bonds of the phosphate associations, the readjustment of geometry of anionic phosphate groups and desolvation, and the forming of the smectic ordering structure of the anions_cations. Finally, the crystallization unit of anion_cation should be formed at the proximate interface.

  14. Fracture resistance enhancement of layered structures by multiple cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to test if the fracture resistance of a layered structure can be increased by introducing weak layers changing the cracking mechanism. An analytical model, based on the J integral, predicts a linear dependency between the number of cracks and the steady state...... fracture resistance. A finite element cohesive zone model, containing two cracking planes for simplicity, is used to check the theoretical model and its predictions. It is shown that for a wide range of cohesive law parameters, the numerical predictions agree well quantitatively with the theoretical model....... Thus, it is possible to enhance considerably the fracture resistance of a structure by adding weak layers....

  15. Layered Structures in Deformed Metals and Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2014-01-01

    by the way of examples of different processing routes: friction, wire drawing, shot peening, high pressure torsion and rolling. The interlamellar spacing reaches from 5-10 nanometers to about one micrometer and the analysis will cover structural evolution, strengthening parameters and strength...

  16. Magnetic polaritons in metamagnet layered structures: Spectra and localization properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, C.A.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: eudenilson@dfte.ufrn.br; Anselmo, D.H.A.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao, 65025-001 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil)

    2008-02-11

    The magnetic polariton propagation in metamagnet layered structures is theoretically studied by using a transfer matrix approach. The layered structures considered here are made up by the stacking of two different layers (also known as building blocks, named A and B), where one of them is a metamagnetic thin film (A), while the other is a non-magnetic insulator thin layer (B). We take into account both the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) phases of the metamagnetic material. For the periodic arrangement, the bulk modes are characterized by two large symmetric bands, with non-reciprocal surface modes between them. The quasiperiodic metamagnetic structure is then built up by following the Fibonacci sequence, whose long-range order effect is then investigated, giving rise to an interesting self-similar spectra and a power-law profile.

  17. Framework structures of interconnected layers in calcium iron arsenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzer, Tobias; Hieke, Christine; Löhnert, Catrin; Nitsche, Fabian; Stahl, Juliane; Maak, Christian; Pobel, Roman; Johrendt, Dirk

    2014-06-16

    The new calcium iron arsenide compounds Ca(n(n+1)/2)(Fe(1-x)M(x))(2+3n)M'(n(n-1)/2)As((n+1)(n+2)/2) (n = 1-3; M = Nb, Pd, Pt; M' = □, Pd, Pt) were synthesized and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The series demonstrates the structural flexibility of iron arsenide materials, which otherwise prefer layered structures, as is known from the family of iron-based superconductors. In the new compounds, iron arsenide tetrahedral layers are bridged by iron-centered pyramids, giving rise to so far unknown frameworks of interconnected FeAs layers. Channels within the structures are occupied with calcium and palladium or platinum, respectively. Common basic building blocks are identified that lead to a better understanding of the building principles of these structures and their relation to CaFe4As3.

  18. Impedance of a coil near an imperfectly layered metal structure: The layer approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satveli, Radhika; Moulder, John C.; Wang, Bing; Rose, James H.

    1996-03-01

    Changes in the impedance of a coil next to a one-dimensional layered conductor due to three-dimensional changes in the conductivity are studied. Eddy current probes are often used to inspect layered one-dimensional, nonmagnetic metal structures whose electrical conductivity varies primarily with depth beneath the surface. We present a perturbation method, the ``layer approximation,'' which yields simple and readily evaluated formulas for changes in the impedance of a small coil due to localized three-dimensional variations in the conductivity. The layer approximation is constructed to be accurate when the conductivity change due to the defect is small or the defect is nearly one-dimensional. The impedance is calculated and reported for a variety of defects in layered metal structures: voids, inclusions, interfacial roughness, and fasteners. We test the ``robustness'' of the layer approximation using an extreme case, a flat-bottom hole in an aluminum plate, as a ``benchmark.'' Both experimental measurements and more exact theoretical calculations are reported. Impedance measurements were made with a Hewlett-Packard 4194A impedance analyzer for a right-cylindrical flat-bottom hole in a 1-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plate; the hole was on the side opposite to the coil. Frequencies were varied from 2.5 to 50 kHz. We also calculated the change in the impedance for this benchmark problem using the numerically exact volume integral method. For this benchmark problem, the layer approximation is in good agreement with experiment and more exact theory.

  19. Layer Structured Materials for Advanced Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpeng; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-09-13

    Owing to the strong in-plane chemical bonds and weak van der Waals force between adjacent layers, investigations of layer structured materials have long been the hotspots in energy-related fields. The intrinsic large interlayer space endows them capabilities of guest ion intercalation, fast ion diffusion, and swift charge transfer along the channels. Meanwhile, the well-maintained in-plane integrity contributes to exceptional mechanical properties. This anisotropic structural feature is also conducive to effective chemical combination, exfoliation, or self-assembly into various nanoarchitectures, accompanied by the introduction of defects, lattice strains, and phase transformation. This review starts with a brief introduction of typical layered materials and their crystal structures, then the structural characteristics and structure oriented unique applications in batteries, capacitors, catalysis, flexible devices, etc., are highlighted. It is surprising to observe that layered materials possess: (1) high reactivity, high reversibility, and enhanced performance via forming additional chemical bonds in alkali-metal ion batteries; (2) facile phase modulation, great feasibility for in-plane/sandwich device design, and cation intercalation enabled high capacitance in supercapacitors; (3) promoted structural diversity, effective strain engineering, and capabilities to function as ideal supporting materials/templates in electrocatalysis field. Finally, the future prospects and challenges faced by layered materials are also outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cold cathodes based on carbonic nanostructured layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyanin A. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes formation conditions for and the structure of diamond-like materials films used in the manufacture of layered cold cathodes of emission electronics devices. The authors study the structure and field emission properties of layered structures with polycluster diamond and diamond-like carbon films (DCF formed by various methods. It has been found that the best emission properties are characteristic of DCFs obtained by cathode sputtering. Emission from the surface of such films occurs on the boundaries of the globules.

  1. Two Phases of Coherent Structure Motions in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Hua; JIANG Nan

    2007-01-01

    Two phases of coherent structure motion are acquired after obtaining conditional phase-averaged waveforms for longitudinal velocity of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer based on Harr wavelet transfer. The correspondences of the two phases to the two processes (i.e. ejection and sweep) during a burst are determined.

  2. Spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry to determine the structure of layered samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Ernst-Heiner; Hinrichs, Karsten; Roeseler, Arnulf

    2002-10-15

    This contribution outlines investigations in our laboratory in the course of developing spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry into an analytical tool for structure elucidation of a given solid sample with one single experimental technique. The term 'structure' is meant here to comprise the layer or stack geometry of a sample along with the thicknesses, as well as the optical properties of the individual layers. The latter ones--expressed as optical constants--serve as a basis to characterize the layer material, from the identity of the compound to specific molecular interactions and order. There are no general restrictions as to the physical properties of the materials; the individual layers or films should advantageously be thin enough to transmit infrared radiation at least within spectral windows. The sensitivity of infrared ellipsometry to films as thin as a few nanometers or less is illustrated by experimental examples.

  3. Magnetic Structure of the Magnetopause Boundary Layer for Open Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghui; Shen, Chao; Zeng, Gang

    2017-04-01

    Using Cluster and Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft 4 point magnetic field measurements, we analyzed the magnetic structure of magnetopause boundary layer of the open magnetosphere. It is indicated that the magnetopause boundary layer is very thin under strong magnetic shear and the thickness is usually 0.1 Re. We found that the Rotational Discontinuity (RD) is very important structure at magnetopause when the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is southward. Within the boundary layer, the magnetic field has a large rotation. Using curvature calculation method, we got that the minimum curvature radius of magnetic field of RD is 0.02 - 0.1Re, implying that the magnetosphere is open when the IMF is southward. Advanced research showed that the field-aligned currents are common in the magnetopause boundary layer.

  4. Love wave propagation in piezoelectric layered structure with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianke; Xian, Kai; Wang, Ji; Yong, Yook-Kong

    2009-02-01

    We investigate analytically the effect of the viscous dissipation of piezoelectric material on the dispersive and attenuated characteristics of Love wave propagation in a layered structure, which involves a thin piezoelectric layer bonded perfectly to an unbounded elastic substrate. The effects of the viscous coefficient on the phase velocity of Love waves and attenuation are presented and discussed in detail. The analytical method and the results can be useful for the design of the resonators and sensors.

  5. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...

  6. Prediction of Silicon-Based Layered Structures for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Ma, Yanming; Gong, Xingao; Xiang, Hongjun; CCMG Team

    2015-03-01

    A method based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to design quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) materials. With this development, various single-layer and bi-layer materials in C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb were predicted. A new Si bi-layer structure is found to have a much-favored energy than the previously widely accepted configuration. Both single-layer and bi-layer Si materials have small band gaps, limiting their usages in optoelectronic applications. Hydrogenation has therefore been used to tune the electronic and optical properties of Si layers. We discover two hydrogenated materials of layered Si8H2andSi6H2 possessing quasi-direct band gaps of 0.75 eV and 1.59 eV, respectively. Their potential applications for light emitting diode and photovoltaics are proposed and discussed. Our study opened up the possibility of hydrogenated Si layered materials as next-generation optoelectronic devices.

  7. S-layers as patterning structures and supporting layers for biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pum, Dietmar; Wetzer, Barbara; Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B.

    1997-03-01

    A new approach in nanostructure technology particularly in the functionalization of surfaces has been developed on the basis of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S- layers). S-layers are composed of monomolecular arrays of identical (glyco)proteins showing high molecular order, defined mass distribution and isoporosity, and a high binding capacity for functional macromolecules. The possibility for recrystallizing isolated S-layer subunits into large isoporous, coherent lattices at solid supports, at the air/water interface or on lipid films and for handling such layers by standard Langmuir-Blodgett techniques opens a broad spectrum of applications in basic and applied membrane research. S-layer supported functional phospholipid bilayers or tetraether lipid films mimic the molecular architecture of those archaebacterial cell envelopes that are exclusively composed of an S-layer and a plasma membrane. This novel concept could lead to new techniques for exploiting large scale structural and functional principles of membrane associated and integrated molecules (e.g. ion channels, proton pumps, receptors).

  8. Instability of Vertical Current Transport in Layered Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiannong

    2000-03-01

    Many interesting phenomena related to interface electronic structure of layered structures have been found, including stable sawtooth-like current-voltage characteristic, unstable current self-oscillations, and chaos in the vertical electron transport. While many studies of current self-oscillation have been focused on the effect of changing the carrier concentration, we show that a transverse magnetic field and the sample temperature can also control the transition from stable to unstable current transport. We show that the unstable current self-oscillation is due to the generation of a limit cycle around an unstable steady state solution which, in turn, is due to the negative differential resistance (NDR) existed at layer interfaces. This new insight both generalizes and unifies our understanding of the instability in current transport through layer structures. We also show that a dynamic dc voltage band emerges in the transition from stable to unstable current transport.

  9. Lamb waves dispersion curves for diamond based piezoelectric layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, B. P.; Kvashnin, G. M.; Telichko, A. V.; Novoselov, A. S.; Burkov, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    The presence of spurious peaks in the amplitude-frequency response of diamond based piezoelectric layered structure was shown. Excitation of such peaks results in deterioration of an useful acoustical signal. It was shown that such spurious peaks should be associated with Lamb waves in a layered structure. By means of FEM analysis, the propagation of acoustic waves of different types in the piezoelectric layered structure "Al/AlN/Mo/(100) diamond" has been investigated in detail. By analyzing the elastic displacement patterns at frequencies from 0 up to 250 MHz, a set of all the possible acoustic waves, especially Lamb modes, have been studied, and dispersive curves of phase velocity have been plotted. A revised classification of Lamb modes has been introduced.

  10. Electromagnetic normal modes and Casimir effects in layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2014-01-01

    We derive a general procedure for finding the electromagnetic normal modes in layered structures. We apply this procedure to planar, spherical and cylindrical structures. These normal modes are important in a variety of applications. They are the only input needed in calculations of Casimir interactions. We present explicit expression for the condition for modes and Casimir energy for a large number of specific geometries. The layers are allowed to be two-dimensional so graphene and graphene-like sheets as well as two-dimensional electron gases can be handled within the formalism. Also forces on atoms in layered structures are obtained. One side-result is the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction between two atoms.

  11. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  12. Wave localization in randomly disordered periodic layered piezoelectric structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Chao Hu; Wenhu Huang

    2006-01-01

    Considering the mechnoelectrical coupling,the localization of SH-waves in disordered periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied.The waves propagating in directions normal and tangential to the layers are considered.The transfer matrices between two consecutive unit cells are obtained according to the continuity conditions.The expressions of localization factor and localization length in the disordered periodic structures are presented.For the disordered periodic piezoelectric structures,the numerical results of localization factor and localization length are presented and discussed.It can be seen from the results that the fequency passbands and stopbands appear for the ordered periodic structures and the wave localization phenomenon occurs in the disordered periodic ones,and the larger the coefficient of variation is,the greater the degree of wave localization is.The widths of stopbands in the ordered periodic structures are very narrow when the properties of the consecutive piezoelectric materials are similar and the intervals of stopbands become broader when a certain material parameter has large changes.For the wave propagating in the direction normal to the layers the localization length has less dependence on the frequency,but for the wave propagating in the direction tangential to the layers the localization length is strongly dependent on the frequency.

  13. Velocity-vorticity correlation structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Shi-Yao; She, Zhen-Su

    2016-11-01

    A velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) analysis is applied to analyze data of 3-dimensional (3-D) direct numerical simulations (DNS), to investigate the quantitative properties of the most correlated vortex structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer (CTBL) at Mach numbers, Ma = 2 . 25 and 6 . 0 . It is found that the geometry variation of the VVCS closely reflects the streamwise development of CTBL. In laminar region, the VVCS captures the instability wave number of the boundary layer. The transition region displays a distinct scaling change of the dimensions of VVCS. The developed turbulence region is characterized by a constant spatial extension of the VVCS. For various Mach numbers, the maximum correlation coefficient of the VVCS presents a clear multi-layer structure with the same scaling laws as a recent symmetry analysis proposed to quantifying the sublayer, the log-layer, and the wake flow. A surprising discovery is that the wall friction coefficient, Cf, holds a "-1"-power law of the wall normal distance of the VVCS, ys. This validates the speculation that the wall friction is determined by the near-wall coherent structure, which clarifies the correlation between statistical structures and the near-wall dynamics. Project 11452002 and 11172006 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  14. Ternary metal-rich sulfide with a layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Hugo F.; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    1993-08-17

    A ternary Nb-Ta-S compound is provided having the atomic formula, Nb.sub.1.72 Ta.sub.3.28 S.sub.2, and exhibiting a layered structure in the sequence S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S wherein S represents sulfur layers and M1, M2, and M3 represent Nb/Ta mixed metal layers. This sequence generates seven sheets stacked along the [001] direction of an approximate body centered cubic crystal structure with relatively weak sulfur-to-sulfur van der Waals type interactions between adjacent sulfur sheets and metal-to-metal bonding within and between adjacent mixed metal sheets.

  15. Design of elliptic cylindrical thermal cloak with layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuebo; Lin, Guochang; Wang, Youshan

    2017-01-01

    Thermal cloak has potential applications in thermal protection and sensing. Based on the theories of spatial transformation and effective medium, layered structure of elliptic cylindrical thermal cloak was designed. According to theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the layered structure has typical characteristics of perfect thermal cloak. The external temperature field remains unchanged, while the internal temperature gradient decreases obviously. Meanwhile, the cloaking effect is stable in any direction. The cloaking effect can be improved by increasing the number of discretization layers or reducing the cloak thickness. The elliptic cylindrical cloak can be considered as cylindrical cloak when the focal distance is close to zero. This study has provided an effective way for realizing thermal cloak with more complex shapes.

  16. Love wave propagation in layered magneto- electro-elastic structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An analytical approach was taken to investigate Love wave propagation in a layered magneto-electro-elastic structure, where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) mate-rial thin layer was bonded to a semi-infinite piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) sub-strate. Both piezoelectric and piezomagnetic ceramics were polarized in the anti-plane (z-axis) direction. The analytical solution of dispersion relations was obtained for magneto-electrically open and short boundary conditions. The phase velocity, group velocity, magneto-electromechanical coupling factor, electric po-tential, and magnetic potential were calculated and discussed in detail. The nu-merical results show that the piezomagnetic effects have remarkable effect on the propagation of Love waves in the layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structures.

  17. Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU JianKe; JIN XiaoYing; WANG Ji

    2008-01-01

    An analytical approach was taken to investigate Love wave propagation in a layered magneto-electro-elastic structure,where a piezomagnetic (or piezoelectric) mate-rial thin layer was bonded to a semi-infinite piezoelectric (or piezomagnetic) sub-strate.Both piezoelectric and piezomagnetic ceramics were polarized in the anti-plane (z-axis) direction.The analytical solution of dispersion relations was obtained for magneto-electrically open and short boundary conditions.The phase velocity,group velocity,magneto-electromechanical coupling factor,electric po-tential,and magnetic potential were calculated and discussed in detail.The nu-merical results show that the piezomagnetic effects have remarkable effect on the propagation of Love waves in the layered piezomagnetic/piezoelectric structures.

  18. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  19. Scattering properties of PT- symmetric layered periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-10-01

    The optical properties of PT-symmetric periodic stacks of the layers with balanced loss and gain are examined. We demonstrate that the tunnelling phenomenon in periodic structures is connected with excitation of surface waves at the boundaries separating gain and loss regions within each unit cell and tunnelling conditions for periodic stacks can be reduced to the conditions for one period. Alternatively, it is shown that coherent perfect absorber laser states are mediated by excitation of surface modes localised at all internal boundaries of the structure. The effects of structure parameters, angles, direction of incidence on the resonant phenomena and spontaneous symmetry breaking transition are determined. It is shown that structural periodicity significantly increases the number of resonant phenomena, especially in stacks with high real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity of the layers.

  20. Stable single-layer structure of group-V elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, F.; Aktürk, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2016-12-01

    In addition to stable single-layer buckled honeycomb and washboard structures of group-V elements (or pnictogens P, As, Sb, and Bi) we show that these elements can also form two-dimensional, single-layer structures consisting of buckled square and octagon rings. An extensive analysis comprising the calculation of mechanical properties, vibration frequencies, and finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics confirms that these structures are dynamically and thermally stable and suitable for applications at room temperature and above. All these structures are semiconductors with a fundamental band gap, which is wide for P but decreases with increasing row number. The effect of the spin-orbit coupling decreases the band gap and is found to be crucial for Sb and Bi. These results are obtained from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory.

  1. Coherent structures in compressible free-shear-layer flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeschliman, D.P.; Baty, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Kennedy, C.A.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion and Physical Sciences Center

    1997-08-01

    Large scale coherent structures are intrinsic fluid mechanical characteristics of all free-shear flows, from incompressible to compressible, and laminar to fully turbulent. These quasi-periodic fluid structures, eddies of size comparable to the thickness of the shear layer, dominate the mixing process at the free-shear interface. As a result, large scale coherent structures greatly influence the operation and efficiency of many important commercial and defense technologies. Large scale coherent structures have been studied here in a research program that combines a synergistic blend of experiment, direct numerical simulation, and analysis. This report summarizes the work completed for this Sandia Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project.

  2. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of open-shell supermolecular systems composed of acetylene linked phenalenyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Kishi, Ryohei; Yoneda, Kyohei; Inoue, Yudai; Inui, Tomoya; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Kubo, Takashi; Champagne, Benoît

    2011-08-11

    The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, at the molecular level, the static second hyperpolarizabilities, γ, of supermolecular systems composed of phenalenyl and pyrene rings linked by acetylene units are investigated by employing the long-range corrected spin-unrestricted density functional theory, LC-UBLYP, method. The phenalenyl based superethylene, superallyl, and superbutadiene in their lowest spin states have intermediate diradical characters and exhibit larger γ values than the closed-shell pyrene based superpolyene systems. The introduction of a positive charge into the phenalenyl based superallyl radical changes the sign of γ and enhances its amplitude by a factor of 35. Although such sign inversion is also observed in the allyl radical and cation systems in their ground state equilibrium geometries, the relative amplitude of γ is much different, that is, |γ(regular allyl cation)/γ(regular allyl radical)| = 0.61 versus |γ(phenalenyl based superallyl cation)/γ(phenalenyl based superallyl radical)| = 35. In contrast, the model ethylene, allyl radical/cation, and butadiene systems with stretched carbon-carbon bond lengths (2.0 Å), having intermediate diradical characters, exhibit similar γ features to those of the phenalenyl based superpolyene systems. This exemplifies that the size dependence of γ as well as its sign change by introducing a positive charge on the phenalenyl based superpolyene systems originate from their intermediate diradical characters. In addition, the change from the lowest to the highest π-electron spin states significantly reduces the γ amplitudes of the neutral phenalenyl based superpolyene systems. For phenalenyl based superallyl cation, the sign inversion of γ (from negative to positive) is observed upon switching between the singlet and triplet states, which is predicted to be associated with a modification of the balance between the positive and negative contributions to γ. The present study paves the way

  3. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-18

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene.

  4. Interfacial Atomic Structure of Twisted Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lugg, Nathan R.; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Taniguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    A twist in bi- or few-layer graphene breaks the local symmetry, introducing a number of intriguing physical properties such as opening new bandgaps. Therefore, determining the twisted atomic structure is critical to understanding and controlling the functional properties of graphene. Combining low-angle annular dark-field electron microscopy with image simulations, we directly determine the atomic structure of twisted few-layer graphene in terms of a moiré superstructure which is parameterized by a single twist angle and lattice constant. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for accurately determining the atomic structure of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, even in the presence of experimental errors. Using coincidence-site-lattice and displacement-shift-complete theories, we show that the in-plane translation state between layers is not a significant structure parameter, explaining why the present method is adequate not only for bilayer graphene but also a few-layered twisted graphene.

  5. Exploring New RF Circuit Structures with Embedded Patterned Substrate Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    spaced microstrip lines are common in T/R module packages and other high density circuit packages. The work involved creating a method to reduce the...Jan-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Exploring New RF Circuit Structures with Embedded Patterned Substrate...Report: Exploring New RF Circuit Structures with Embedded Patterned Substrate Layers Report Title This report presents the findings made under the ARO

  6. Consolidation of flaw-tolerant layered structures by the insertion of reactive layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudín, C.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The processing parameters to obtain a laminate consisting of very thin alumina-aluminium titanate crack deflecting layered structures sandwiched between relatively thick load bearing alumina layers are described. The optimum processing conditions for the insertion of reactive layers to improve joining during sintering have been established. Pre-sintered alumina tapes were used as the load bearing components while the internal structures were shaped by a combination of electrophoretic deposition (EPD and dipping. The dipped layers acted as reactive layers during sintering. The thickness of the dipped layers has to be controlled in order to avoid the disappearance of the EPD structure during sintering as well as the cracking of the coating during drying or handling. The specimens were mechanically tested in three points bending with the applied load perpendicular to the layers and the fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained structure presents crack deflection at the microstructural scale during fracture which confers it flaw tolerance.

    Se describen los parámetros de procesamiento mas adecuados para obtener laminados constituidos por capas finas de alúmina-titanato de aluminio deflectoras de grietas alternadas con capas gruesas de alúmina resistentes a las cargas. Estas últimas se han fabricado a partir de láminas obtenidas por colaje en cinta y presintetizadas. Las estructuras con capacidad para la deflexión de las grietas se conformaron mediante una combinación de deposición electroforética e inmersión. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas para que las capas obtenidas por inmersión actúen como capas reactivas durante la sinterización, sin que desaparezca la estructura EPD durante la sinterización ni se produzca el agrietamiento durante el secado y la manipulación de la estructura. El comportamiento mecánico de las estructuras laminadas obtenidas se analizó mediante

  7. Shear deformation plate continua of large double layered space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefzy, Mohamed Samir; Nayfeh, Adnan H.

    1986-01-01

    A simple method is presented to model large rigid-jointed lattice structures as continuous elastic media with couple stresses using energy equivalence. In the analysis, the transition from the discrete system to the continuous media is achieved by expanding the displacements and the rotations of the nodal points in a Taylor series about a suitable chosen origin. The strain energy of the continuous media with couple stresses is then specialized to obtain shear deformation plate continua. Equivalent continua for single layered grids, double layered grids, and three-dimensional lattices are then obtained.

  8. Optimization of SMA layers in composite structures to enhance damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoust, P.; Cinquemani, S.; Lecis, N.; Bassani, P.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of lightweight structures can be severely affected by vibration. New design concepts leading to lightweight, slender structural components can increase the vulnerability of the components to failure due to excessive vibration. The intelligent approach to address the problem would be the use of materials which are more capable in dissipating the energy due to their high value of loss factor. Among the different materials available to achieve damping, much attention has been attached to the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) because of their unique microstructure, leading to good damping capacity. This work describes the design and optimization of a hybrid layered composite structure for the passive suppression of flexural vibrations in slender and light structures. Embedding the SMA layers in composite structure allows to combine different properties: the lightness of the base composite (e.g. fiber glass), the mechanical strength of the insert of metallic material and the relevant damping properties of SMA, in the martensitic phase. In particular, we put our attention on embedding the CuZnAl in the form of thin sheet in a layered composite made by glass fiber reinforced epoxy. By appropriately positioning of the SMA sheets so that they are subjected to the maximum curvature, the damping of the hybrid system can be considerably enhanced. Accordingly analytical method for evaluating the energy dissipation of the thin sheets with different shapes and patterns is developed and is followed by a shape optimization based on genetic algorithm. Eventually different configurations of the hybrid beam structure with different patterns of SMA layer are proposed and compared in the term of damping capacity.

  9. Structural characterisation of a layered double hydroxide nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Nicholas P.; Wang, Qiang; Connor, Leigh; Tucker, Matthew G.; O'Hare, Dermot; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2014-06-01

    We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves.We report the atomic-scale structure of a Zn2Al-borate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet, as determined by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of X-ray total scattering data. This study involves the extension of the RMC method to enable structural refinement of two-dimensional nanomaterials. The refined LDH models show the intra-layer geometry in this highly-exfoliated phase to be consistent with that observed in crystalline analogues, with the reciprocal-space scattering data suggesting a disordered arrangement of the Zn2+ and Al3+ cations within the nanosheet. The approach we develop is generalisable and so offers a method of characterising the structures of arbitrary nanosheet phases, including systems that support complex forms of disorder within the nanosheets themselves. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01265h

  10. Multi-functional layered structure having structural and radiation shielding attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor); Barghouty, Abdulnasser Fakhri (Inventor); Penn, Benjamin G. (Inventor); Hulcher, Anthony Bruce (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cosmic and solar radiation shielding structure that also has structural attributes is comprised of three layers. The first layer is 30-42 percent by volume of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene fibers, 18-30 percent by volume of graphite fibers, and a remaining percent by volume of an epoxy resin matrix. The second layer is approximately 68 percent by volume of UHMW polyethylene fibers and a remaining percent by volume of a polyethylene matrix. The third layer is a ceramic material.

  11. Research on Multi-Layer Distributed HF Radio Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Chun-Jiang Wang; Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    High frequency (HF) transmission is an important communication techniques. However, conventional point-to-point transmission can be easily destroyed, which limits its utilization in practice. HF networking communication has the capability against demolishment. The network structure is one of the key factors for HF networking communication. In this paper, a novel analysis method of the network connectedness based on the eigenvalue is derived, and a multi-layer distributed HF radio network structure is proposed. Both the theore tical analysis and the computer simulation results verify that the application of the proposed network structure in the HF radio communication can improve the anti demolishment ability of the HF network efficiently.

  12. Thermomagnetic writing in thin Co/Pt layered structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; Zeper, W. B.; den Broeder, F. J. A.; Godlieb, W. F.; Carcia, P. F.

    1989-06-01

    In this letter we demonstrate thermomagnetic writing in a Co/Pt thin-film layered structure or multilayer: 25×(4.1 Å Co+19 Å Pt). This film exhibits perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, 100% remanence, and a coercive field of 76 kA/m at room temperature. The coercive field is a strong function of temperature and decreases to zero at 250 °C. In this layered film regular domains can be written with low applied fields (below 50 kA/m) and the writing threshold is about 4 mW. Their good magnetic and magneto-optical properties together with their high corrosion resistance make these layers promising candidates for magneto-optical recording.

  13. Structural properties of produced CuO/NiO/glass thin layers Produced by chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramezani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel Oxide and Copper oxide on Nickel Oxide thin layers were produced by chemical bath deposition method. There nano structures were investigated by SEM and EDAX analysis. By producing CuO/NiO/glass sandwich layers nano structure of NiO/glass layer changed and fraction of voids decreases. In sandwich layer physical property of outer layer was dominant

  14. Boundary layer structure in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Nan; Schumacher, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We consider convection in a cylindrical cell at an aspect ratio one for Rayleigh numbers of Ra=3e+9 and 3e+10 at fixed Prandtl number Pr=0.7. Similar to the experimental results in the same setup and for the same Prandtl number, the structure of the laminar boundary layers of the velocity and temperature fields is found to deviate from the prediction of the Prandtl-Blasius-Pohlhausen theory. Deviations decrease when a dynamical rescaling of the data with an instantaneously defined boundary layer thickness is performed and the analysis plane is aligned with the instantaneous direction of the large-scale circulation in the closed cell. Our numerical results demonstrate that important assumptions which enter existing classical laminar boundary layer theories for forced and natural convection are violated, such as the strict two-dimensionality of the dynamics or the s...

  15. Boundary-Layer Wind Structure in a Landfalling Tropical Cyclone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of the radial component is greater in the offshoreflow side and the tangential component is greater over the sea, slightly offshore, therefore the greater total wind speed occurs in the offshore-flow side over the sea. The budget analysis suggests that: (1) a greater surface friction over land produces a greater inflow and the nonlinear effect advects the maximum inflow downstream, and (2) a smaller surface friction over the sea makes the decrease of the tangential wind component less than that over land. Moreover, the boundary layer wind structures in a tropical cyclone are related to the locations of the tropical cyclone relative to the coastline due to the different surface frictions. During tropical cyclone landfall, the impact of rough terrain on the cyclone increases, so the magnitude of the radial component of wind speed increases in the offshore-flow side and the tangential component outside the radius of maximum wind speed decreases gradually.

  16. Fabrication of curved micro structures on photoresist layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Sung YOON; Tae-Jin JE; Doo-Sun CHOI; Sung Hwan CHANG; Kyung-Hyun WHANG

    2011-01-01

    A novel fabrication process for micro patterns with curvature was introduced. The curved structures were made by compensating rectangular micro structures with liquid photoresist layer. Because of the surface tension of the liquid in micro scale,various shapes of meniscus can be made on the micro channels. The micro channels were made on the silicon substrate in advance,and then the liquid layer was coated on the micro channels. From the nature of liquid behavior, the curved patterns with smooth surface are obtained, which cannot be made easily with the conventional mechanical machining, as well as with the microfabrication processes, such as wet and dry etching. With this principle, it is expected that the smooth and curved surfaces can be made by simple processes and the results can be applied widely, such as optical patterns.

  17. Extracting multiple layers from data having graph structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ITOKAWA Yuko; UCHIDA Tomoyuki; NAKAMURA Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    Much data such as geometric image data and drawings have graph structures.Such data are called graph structured data. In order to manage efficiently such graph structured data, we need to analyze and abstract graph structures of such data. The purpose of this paper is to find knowledge representations which indicate plural abstractions of graph structured data. Firstly, we introduce a term graph as a graph pattern having structural variables, and a substitution over term graphs which is graph we also define a multiple layer for S as a pair (D,O) of a set D of term graphs and a list of substitutions. Secondly, for a graph G and a set S of graphs, we present effective algorithms for extracting minimal multiple layers of G and S which give us stratifying abstractions of G and S, respectively. Finally, we report experimental results obtained by applying our algorithms to both artificial data and drawings of power plants which are real world data.

  18. Structure of the magnetopause current layer at the subsolar point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, H.

    1991-12-01

    A one-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation model developed for the magnetopause current layer between the shocked solar wind and the dipole magnetic field at the subsolar point has been extended to include the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the solar wind. Interaction of the solar wind with the vacuum dipole field as well as the dipole field filled with a low density magnetospheric plasma are studied. It is found that the width and the structure of the magnetopause current layer differ markedly depending on the direction of the IMF. When the IMF is pointing southward, the current layer between the solar wind and the dipole field is narrow and the magnetic field has a single ramp structure caused by the reflection of the solar wind at that point. The current layer becomes several times wider and the magnetic field developes a multiple ramp structure when the IMF is northward. This broadening of the current layer is caused by the multiple reflection of the solar wind by the magnetic field. For the northward IMF, the magnetic field does not change its sign across the current layer so that the E {times} B drift of the solar wind electrons remains the same direction while for the southward IMF, it reverses the sign. This results in a single reflection of the solar wind for the southward IMF and multiple reflections for the northward IMF. When a low density mangetospheric plasma is present in the dipole magnetic field, a small fraction of the solar wind ions are found to penetrate into the dipole magnetic field beyond the reflection point of the solar wind electrons. The width of the ion current layer is of the order of the solar wind ion gyroradius, however, the current associated with the ions remains much smaller than the electron current so long as the density of the magnetospheric plasma is much smaller than the density of the solar wind. Comparisons of our simulation results with the magnetopause crossing near the subsolar point are provided.

  19. Thermal structure in the Venus middle cloud layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, V. M.; Lipatov, A. N.; Shurupov, A. A.; Ignatova, S. P.; Frank, G. A.; Seiff, A.; Ragent, B.; Young, R. E.; Elson, L. S.; Preston, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal structure measurements obtained by the two Vega balloons show the Venus atmosphere in the middle cloud layer to be near-adiabatic, on the whole; but discrete air masses are present that differ slightly from one another in potential temperature and entropy. The Vega 1 temperatures are 6.5 K warmer than measured by Vega 2 at given pressures. Measurements taken by the Vega 2 lander on descent through these levels agree with the Vega 2 balloon data.

  20. Electromagnetic wave propagation in alternating material-metamaterial layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera-Escobedo, V H

    2016-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we examine the parametric behavior of the transmittance of an electromagnetic plane wave propagating in the lossless regime through a periodic multilayered system as a function of the frequency and angle of incidence of the electromagnetic wave for the case in which the periodic structure comprises alternating material-metamaterial layers. A specific example of high transmittance at any angle of incidence in the visible region of the spectrum is identified

  1. Facile preparation, optical and electrochemical properties of layer-by-layer V2O5 quadrate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Jiqi; Wang, Qiushi; Hu, Tao; Tian, Fuping; Meng, Changgong

    2017-03-01

    Layer-by-layer V2O5 structures self-assembly by quadrate sheets like "multilayer cake" were successfully synthesized using NH4VO3 as the vanadium sources by a facile hydrothermal route and combination of the calcination. The structure and composition were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the as-obtained V2O5 layer-by-layer structures were investigated by the Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrum. The electrochemical properties of the as-obtained V2O5 layer-by-layer structures as electrodes in supercapacitor device were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) both in the aqueous and organic electrolyte. The specific capacitance is 347 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in organic electrolyte, which is improved by 46% compared with 238 F g-1 in aqueous electrolyte. During the cycle performance, the specific capacitances of V2O5 layer-by-layer structures after 100 cycles are 30% and 82% of the initial discharge capacity in the aqueous and organic electrolyte, respectively, indicating the cycle performance is significantly improved in organic electrolyte. Our results turn out that layer-by-layer V2O5 structures are an ideal material for supercapacitor electrode in the present work.

  2. Inter-Layer Energy Transfer through Wetting-Layer States in Bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Structures with Thick Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhang-Cheng; Zhang, Ya-Ting; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2009-01-01

    The inter-layer energy transfer in a bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure with a thick GaAs barrier is studied using temperature-dependent photoluminescence. The abnormal enhancement of the photoluminescence of the QDs in the layer with a larger amount of coverage at 110K is observed, which...

  3. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl phosphonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Murugavel; Nayanmoni Gogoi

    2009-06-01

    Two series of alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl phosphonates, M(C6H11PO3H)2(H2O) (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) (1–3) and M(C6H11PO3)(H2O) (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) (4–7) have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions. All new compounds have been characterized using elemental analysis, IR, TGA and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The molecular structure of compound 2 determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals a layered polymeric structure.

  4. A challenging interpretation of a hexagonally layered protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe the structure determination of a hexagonally layered protein structure that suffered from a complicated combination of translational non-crystallographic symmetry and hemihedral twinning. This case serves as a reminder that broken crystallographic symmetry resulting from doubling of a unit-cell axis often requires a new choice of origin. The carboxysome is a giant protein complex that acts as a metabolic organelle in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. Its outer structure is formed by the assembly of thousands of copies of hexameric shell protein subunits into a molecular layer. The structure determination of a CcmK1 shell protein mutant (L11K) from the β-carboxysome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 led to challenges in structure determination. Twinning, noncrystallographic symmetry and packing of hexameric units in a special arrangement led to initial difficulties in space-group assignment. The correct space group was clarified after initial model refinement revealed additional symmetry. This study provides an instructive example in which broken symmetry requires a new choice of unit-cell origin in order to identify the highest symmetry space group. An additional observation related to the packing arrangement of molecules in this crystal suggests that these hexameric shell proteins might have lower internal symmetry than previously believed.

  5. Magnetic and magnetoresistance studies of nanometric electrodeposited Co films and Co/Cu layered structures: Influence of magnetic layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsurzsa, S.; Péter, L.; Kiss, L. F.; Bakonyi, I.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties and the magnetoresistance behavior were investigated for electrodeposited nanoscale Co films, Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with individual Co layer thicknesses ranging from 1 nm to 20 nm. The measured saturation magnetization values confirmed that the nominal and actual layer thicknesses are in fairly good agreement. All three types of layered structure exhibited anisotropic magnetoresistance for thick magnetic layers whereas the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with thinner magnetic layers exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR), the GMR magnitude being the largest for the thinnest Co layers. The decreasing values of the relative remanence and the coercive field when reducing the Co layer thickness down to below about 3 nm indicated the presence of superparamagnetic (SPM) regions in the magnetic layers which could be more firmly evidenced for these samples by a decomposition of the magnetoresistance vs. field curves into a ferromagnetic and an SPM contribution. For thicker magnetic layers, the dependence of the coercivity (Hc) on magnetic layer thickness (d) could be described for each of the layered structure types by the usual equation Hc=Hco+a/dn with an exponent around n=1. The common value of n suggests a similar mechanism for the magnetization reversal by domain wall motion in all three structure types and hints also at the absence of coupling between magnetic layers in the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers.

  6. Nanoscale Structuring of Surfaces by Using Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Nicolas; Hess, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Controlled structuring of surfaces is interesting for a wide variety of areas, including microelectronic device fabrication, optical devices, bio(sensing), (electro-, photo)catalysis, batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, and sorption. A unique feature of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the possibility to form conformal uniform coatings on arbitrarily shaped materials with controlled atomic-scale thickness. In this Minireview, we discuss the potential of ALD for the nanoscale structuring of surfaces, highlighting its versatile application to structuring both planar substrates and powder materials. Recent progress in the application of ALD to porous substrates has even made the nanoscale structuring of high-surface-area materials now feasible, thereby enabling novel applications, such as those in the fields of catalysis and alternative energy.

  7. Structure and flow calculation of cake layer on microfiltration membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong Yu; Zhen Yang; Yuanyuan Duan

    2017-01-01

    Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBR) are widely used in wastewater treatment.The permeability of a membrane declines rapidly because of the formation of a cake layer on the membrane surface.In this paper,a multiple staining protocol was conducted to probe the four major foulants in the cake layer formed on a filtration membrane.Fluorescent images of the foulants were obtained using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM).The three dimensional structure of the cake layer was reconstructed,and the internal flow was calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data on the permeability of the cake layer during filtration and showed better accuracy than the calculation by Kozeny-Carman method.β-D-Glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins are the two main foulants with relatively large volume fractions,while α-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides and nucleic acids have relatively large specific surface areas.The fast growth of β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides in the volume fraction is mainly responsible for the increase in cake volume fraction and the decrease in permeability.The specific area,or the aggregation/dispersion of foulants,is less important to its permeability compared to its volume fraction.

  8. Inter-Layer Energy Transfer through Wetting-Layer States in Bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Structures with Thick Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhang-Cheng; ZHANG Ya-Ting; J(φ)rn M. Hvam; Yoshiji Horikoshi

    2009-01-01

    The inter-layer energy transfer in a bi-layer InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure with a thick GaAs barrier is studied using temperature-dependent photoluminescence. The abnormal enhancement of the photoluminescence of the QDs in the layer with a larger amount of coverage at 110K is observed, which can be explained by considering the resonant F(o)rster energy transfer between the wetting layer states at elevated temperatures.

  9. Structure-phase states of the nickel surface layers after electroexplosive carburizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Budovskikh; E.; A.; Bagautdinov; A.; Y.; Ivanov; Yu.; F.; Martusevich; E.; V.; Gromov; V.; E.

    2005-01-01

    The layer by layer study of the structure-phase states of the nickel surface layer carburizing with use the phenomena of the electrical explosion has conducted by the method TEM of the fine foils.……

  10. Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Impact of structural heterogeneity in solar absorber layers Michael F Toney SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Structural and morphological heterogeneity is common in thin film and emerging solar cell absorber layers, including organic photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions (OPV BHJs), hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIP), and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe), and has a significant impact on the (opto)electronic heterogeneity and hence absorber properties. In this talk I will use X-ray based methods, including scattering and spectroscopies, to characterize and quantify the heterogeneity in OPV BHJs and HOIP absorber layers. The BHJ films are blends of the small molecule X2 and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) where it has been established that there are three distinct region of the films - pure PC71BM, pure X2 and intimately mixed X2:PC71BM. This talk will show how the absolute concentration of the mixed phase can be used to explain the large PC71BM:X2 composition range where good performance is observed [1]. The talk will also show that spin cast CH3NH3PbI3 films consistent of both crystalline and amorphous regions, which can explain previous heterogeneity in the PL imaging [2]. [1] Huang et al., Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301886 (2014). [2] deQuilettes et al., Science 348, 683 (2015).

  11. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus;

    2013-01-01

    Shape distortions during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been modeled. Technologies like solid oxide fuel cells require co-firing thin layers with different green densities, which often exhibit differential shrinkage...... because of different sintering rates of the materials resulting in undesired distortions of the component. An analytical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been developed to describe the kinetics of densification and distortion in the sintering processes. A new approach is used...... to extract the material parameters controlling shape distortion through optimizing the model to experimental data of free shrinkage strains. The significant influence of weight of the sample (gravity) on the kinetics of distortion is taken in to consideration. The modeling predictions indicate good agreement...

  12. Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor- tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θ to the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of θ accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im- plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θ R of typical LCS. θ R first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of θ saturates at y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around y+=100. The ensem- ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla- tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(y) ac- cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down- stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond.

  13. Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chong; WANG JinJun; ZHANG Cao

    2009-01-01

    Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor-tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θto the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of # accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im-plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θR of typical LCS. θR first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of 8 saturates at Y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around Y+=100. The ensem-ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla-tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(Y) ac-cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down-stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond.

  14. Shielding and Radiation Characteristics of Cylindrical Layered Bianisotropic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toscano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an analytical study in the spectral domainof cylindrical layered structures filled with general bianisotropicmedia and fed by a 3D electric source. The integrated structure ischaracterized in terms of transmission matrices leading to anequivalent circuit representation of the whole multilayered structure.Within the framework of this two-port formalism, we present a newcontribution to the computation of the Green's function arising in theanalysis of multilayered conformal integrated antennas loaded withgeneral bianisotropic materials. We also propose an analytical study ofthe shielding effectiveness of general bianisotropic materials locatedin multilayered, cylindrical configuration. The expression of theshielded fields sustained both by plane wave and arbitrary sources isobtained in a closed analytical form. Numerical results are alsopresented showing effects of electromagnetic parameters on radiationpattern, matching properties and radar cross section of the integratedstructure.

  15. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Huang, Haoliang [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran, E-mail: pengrr@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhai, Xiaofang [Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lu, Yalin, E-mail: pengrr@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Laser and Optics Research Center, Department of Physics, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado 80840 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi{sub 5}Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 18} layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO{sub 2}, which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO{sub 2} at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO{sub 2}, the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties.

  16. Surface topology and electronic structure of layered strontium ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, Robert; Klinke, Melanie; Waelsch, Michael; Mietke, Sebastian; Matzdorf, Rene [Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Kassel (Germany); Peng, Jin; Mao, Zhiqiang [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In complex materials the interplay of properties like crystal structure, electronic structure and magnetism results in very interesting physical phenomena. The Ruddlesden-Popper series of layered Strontium Ruthenates Sr{sub n+1}Ru{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} describes one class of these materials. The double and triple layer systems behave like a Fermi liquid up to the transition temperature of 15 K and 24 K, respectively. In both compounds the local density of states (LDOS) shows a peak within the dip-like feature around the Fermi energy E{sub F}. Using low-temperature (LT) STM and STS we studied the temperature dependence of the LDOS in the range from 4.7 to 35 K. By increasing the temperature the peak within the dip in the LDOS at E{sub F} is only affected by thermal broadening. The surface unit cell of the Strontium Ruthenates exhibits a c(2 x 2) super structure, which is stable from 4.7 K up to room temperature as shown by our atomically resolved LT STM images and room temperature LEED experiments.

  17. The double-layered chemical structure in DB white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G

    2004-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of white dwarf stars with helium-rich atmospheres (DB) in a self-consistent way with the predictions of time-dependent element diffusion. Our treatment of diffusion includes gravitational settling and chemical and thermal diffusion. OPAL radiative opacities for arbitrary metallicity and carbon-and oxygen-rich compositions are employed. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the diffusion-modeled double-layered chemical structure. This structure, which is characterized by a pure helium envelope atop an intermediate remnant shell rich in helium, carbon and oxygen, is expected for pulsating DB white dwarfs, assuming that they are descendants of hydrogen-deficient PG1159 post-AGB stars. We find that, depending on the stellar mass, if DB white dwarf progenitors are formed with a helium content smaller than \\approx 10^-3 M_*, a single-layered configuration is expected to emerge during the DB pulsation instability strip. We also explore the consequences of diffusively evolving ch...

  18. A three-layer structure model for the effect of a soft middle layer on Love waves propagating in layered piezoelectric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Feng Jin; Tian-Jian Lu

    2012-01-01

    A three-layer structure model is proposed for investigating the effect of a soft elastic middle layer on the propagation behavior of Love waves in piezoelectric layered systems,with "soft" implying that the bulk-shear-wave velocity of the middle layer is smaller than that of the upper sensitive layer.Dispersion equations are obtained for unelectroded and traction-free upper surfaces which,in the limit,can be reduced to those for classical Love waves.Systematic parametric studies are subsequently carried out to quantify the effects of the soft middle layer upon Love wave propagation,including its thickness,mass density,dielectric constant and elastic coefficient.It is demonstrated that whilst the thickness and elastic coefficient of the middle layer affect significantly Love wave propagation,its mass density and dielectric constant have negligible influence.On condition that both the thickness and elastic coefficient of the middle layer are vanishingly small so that it degenerates into an imperfectly bonded interface,the three-layer model is also employed to investigate the influence of imperfect interfaces on Love waves propagating in piezoelectric layer/elastic substrate systems.Upon comparing with the predictions obtained by employing the traditional shear-lag model,the present three-layer structure model is found to be more accurate as it avoids the unrealistic displacement discontinuity across imperfectly bonded interfaces assumed by the shearlag model,especially for long waves when the piezoelectric layer is relatively thin.

  19. Plasma depletion layer: Magnetosheath flow structure and forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasma depletion layer (PDL is a layer on the sunward side of the magnetopause with lower plasma density and higher magnetic field compared to the corresponding upstream magnetosheath values. In a previous study, we have validated the UCLA global (MHD model in studying the formation of the PDL by comparing model results, using spacecraft solar wind observations as the driver, with in situ PDL observations. In this study, we extend our previous work and examine the detailed MHD forces responsible for the PDL formation. We argue that MHD models, instead of gasdynamic models, should be used to study the PDL, because gasdynamic models cannot produce the PDL on the sunward side of the magnetopause. For northward (IMF, flux tube depletion occurs in almost all the subsolar magnetosheath. However, the streamlines closest to the magnetopause and the stagnation line show the greatest depletion. The relative strength of the various MHD forces changes along these streamlines. Forces along a flux tube at different stages of its depletion in the magnetosheath are analyzed. We find that a strong plasma pressure gradient force along the magnetic field at the bow shock and a pressure gradient force along the flux tube within the magnetosheath usually exist pushing plasma away from the equatorial plane to deplete the flux tube. More complex force structures along the flux tube are found close to the magnetopause. This new, more detailed description of flux tube depletion is compared with the results of Zwan and Wolf (1976 and differences are found. Near the magnetopause, the pressure gradient force along the flux tube either drives plasma away from the equatorial plane or pushes plasma toward the equatorial plane. As a result, a slow mode structure is seen along the flux tube which might be responsible for the observed two-layered slow mode structures.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. Space

  20. Surface-plasmons lasing in double-graphene-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, A. A. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Aleshkin, V. Ya. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Electronics, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    We consider the concept of injection terahertz lasers based on double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures with metal surface-plasmon waveguide and study the conditions of their operation. The laser under consideration exploits the resonant radiative transitions between GLs. This enables the double-GL laser room temperature operation and the possibility of voltage tuning of the emission spectrum. We compare the characteristics of the double-GL lasers with the metal surface-plasmon waveguides with those of such laser with the metal-metal waveguides.

  1. Nanosized Ni–Al layered double hydroxides—Structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitianu, Mihaela, E-mail: jitianum@wpunj.edu [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 (United States); Gunness, Darren C. [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 (United States); Aboagye, Doreen E. [Lehman College – City University of New York, Department of Chemistry, Davis Hall, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Zaharescu, Maria [Institute of Physical Chemistry, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Jitianu, Andrei, E-mail: andrei.jitianu@lehman.cuny.edu [Lehman College – City University of New York, Department of Chemistry, Davis Hall, 250 Bedford Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The takovite anionic clays were obtained using the sol–gel method. ► The effect of samples’ composition on the structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. ► X-ray analysis. ► FTIR spectroscopy evidenced a disordered interlayer structure. ► FESEM and TEM analysis showed that the samples have high porosity. - Abstract: Takovite, a natural mineral with the formula Ni{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}CO{sub 3}·5H{sub 2}O belongs to the large class of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and contains positively charged Ni(II) and Al(III) layers alternating with layers containing carbonate ions and water molecules. Mesoporous takovite-type layered double hydroxides (LDH) of the general formula [Ni{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}]{sup x+}(CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}){sub x/2}·nH{sub 2}O with different Ni/Al molar ratios (1.9–2.8) have been successfully synthesized by the sol–gel method, followed by anionic exchange using nickel acetylacetonate and aluminum isopropylate as cation precursors. A single LDH phase and an anisotropic growth of very small crystallites (below 4 nm) have been evidenced by X-ray diffraction. The effect of samples’ composition on their structural and textural characteristics has been investigated. The BET surface area values are in the range of 100–122 m{sup 2}/g. BJH pore radius decreased with increase in the Al(III) content in the LDHs. FESEM micrographs show large aggregates of highly porous LDH particles, while TEM analysis reveals irregular agglomerates of crystallites, among which some of them displayed a developing hexagonal shape. The average particle size variation with the Al(III) content in the samples follows the same trend as the pore radius, the sample with the highest Ni/Al ratio displaying also the smallest particle size. This sample becomes even more interesting, since TEM analysis shows agglomerates with inside circular structures, feature not observed for the other Ni/Al ratios investigated.

  2. Thickness-induced structural phase transformation of layered gallium telluride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Wang, T; Miao, Y; Ma, F; Xie, Y; Ma, X; Gu, Y; Li, J; He, J; Chen, B; Xi, S; Xu, L; Zhen, H; Yin, Z; Li, J; Ren, J; Jie, W

    2016-07-28

    The thickness-dependent electronic states and physical properties of two-dimensional materials suggest great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the enhanced surface effect in ultra-thin materials might significantly influence the structural stability, as well as the device reliability. Here, we report a spontaneous phase transformation of gallium telluride (GaTe) that occurred when the bulk was exfoliated to a few layers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicate a structural variation from a monoclinic to a hexagonal structure. Raman spectra suggest a critical thickness for the structural transformation. First-principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis show that the surface energy and the interlayer interaction compete to dominate structural stability in the thinning process. A two-stage transformation process from monoclinic (m) to tetragonal (T) and then from tetragonal to hexagonal (h) is proposed to understand the phase transformation. The results demonstrate the crucial role of interlayer interactions in the structural stability, which provides a phase engineering strategy for device applications.

  3. Structure of polymer layers adsorbed from concentrated solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Loïc; Auroy, Philippe; Cruz, Margarida

    1992-06-01

    We study by neutron scattering the interfacial strucuture of poly(dimethylsiloxane) layers irreversibly adsorbed from concentrated solutions or melts. We first measure the thickness h of the layers swollen by a good solvent as a function of the chain polymerisation index N and of the polymer volume fraction in the initial solution Φ. The relation h ≈ N^{0.8}Φ^{0.3}, recently predicted from an analogy between irreversibly adsorbed layers and grafted polymer brushes, describes well our results. We can therefore deduce that there is at least one large loop of about N monomers per adsorbed chain. We also study the shape of the polymer concentration profile in the layers by measuring on two samples the polymer-solid partial structure factor, that is proportional to the Fourier transform of the profile. The model of pseudobrushes predicts a concentration decay varying with the distance of the wall z as z^{-2/5}. This power law profile accounts quantitatively for the angular variation of the polymer-solid cross structure factor but it is difficult to distinguish it without anbiguity from less singular profiles. It implies that the adsorption of PDMS onto silica is sufficiently strong and fast to quench completely the loop distribution in the initial layer. Nous étudions par diffusion de neutrons la structure interfaciale de couches de poly(diméthylsiloxane) irréversiblement adsorbées sur de la silice à partir de solutions semidiluées et de fondus. Nous mesurons d'abord l'épaisseur h des couches gonflées par un bon solvant en fonction du degré de polymérisation des chaînes N et de la fraction volumique dans la solution initiale Φ. La relation h≈ N^{0.8}Φ^{0.3} récemment prédite à partir de l'analogie entre couches irréversiblement adsorbées et brosses de polymères greffés décrit bien nos résultats. Nous en déduisons qu'il existe au moins une grande boucle d'environ N monomères par chaîne adsorbée. Nous étudions aussi la forme du profil de

  4. Excimer-like electroluminescence from thin films of switchable supermolecular anthracene-based rotaxanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giro, G.; Cocchi, M.; Fattori, V.; Gadret, G.; Ruani, G.; Murgia, M.; Cavallini, M.; Biscarini, F.; Zamboni, R.; Loontjens, T.; Thies, J.; Leigh, D.A.; Morales, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of 10-[3,5-di(terbutyl)phenoxy]decyl-2-({2-[(9-anthrylcarbonyl)amino]acetyl}amino) acetate (ANTPEP), the thread of an anthracene-based rotaxane, have been processed by the spin coating technique in a polycarbonate (PC) matrix. A single layer organic light emitting diode (OLED) has been de

  5. Ion exchange properties of titanic fiber of layered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori; Komatsu, Yu; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    1986-12-01

    Usually, titanic acid is produced by hydrolyzing titanium tetrachloride, titanium sulfate or titanium alkoxide and is obtained in the form of precipitate in an amorphous gel state. The present authors have synthesized two types of titanic fibers of a layered crystaline structure to provide new ion exchangers. Three synthetic techniques, namely, flux process, annealing baking process and melt process, have been developed. This report deals with the structure and properties of these materials. In the flux process, a mixture of TiO/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ (flux) is melted at 1150 deg C and annealed at about 950 deg C to provide a K/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 3/ fiber of a layered structure, which is subsequently converted into H/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/ center dot nH/sub 2/O fiber. In the melt process, a mixture of materials is heate up to 1100 deg C to produce molten K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which is quenched to form K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ fiber of a layered structure. Then it is converted into H/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ center dot nH/sub 2/O fiber. The annealing baking process provides K/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/, which is converted into K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ fiber. In this report, the crystal structure of H/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/ center dot nH/sub 2/O is discussed and the ion exchanging properties are analized. Examination is made on the ion exchanging reactions involving potassium, alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and divalent transition metal ions. Various ion exchangers, including the present ones, are compared in terms of the partition coefficient and separation factor. (Nogami, K.).

  6. Boron-Based Layered Structures for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory simulations, we have studied the boron-based graphite-like materials, i.e., LiBC and MgB2 for energy storage. First, when half of the Li-ions in the LiBC are removed, the BC layered structure is still preserved. The Li intercalation potential (equilibrium lithium-insertion voltage of 2.3-2.4 V relative to lithium metal) is significantly higher than that in graphite, allowing Li0.5BC to function as a cathode material. The reversible electrochemical reaction, LiBC = Li0.5BC + 0.5Li, enables a specific energy density of 1088 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 2463 Wh/L. Second, 75% of the Mg ions in MgB2 can be removed and reversibly inserted with the layered boron structures being preserved through an in-plane topological transformation between the hexagonal lattice domains and triangular domains. The mechanism of such a charge-driven transformation originates from the versatile valence state of boron in its planar form.

  7. Radial transmission line analysis of multi-layer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.

    2011-03-28

    The analysis of multi-layer beam tubes is a standard problem and involves axially propagating waves. This treatment is ill suited to a short multi-layer structure such as the present example of a ferrite covered ceramic break in the beam tube at the ERL photo-cathode electron gun. This paper demonstrates that such structure can better be treated by radial wave propagation. The theoretical method is presented and numerical results are compared with measured network analyser data and Microwave Studio generated simulations. The results confirm the concept of radial transmission lines as a valid analytical method. An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is being constructed at this laboratory for the purpose of research towards an envisioned Electron Ion Collider. One of the pertinent topics is damping of Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this ERL, the damping is provided by ferrite absorbers in the beam tube. A modified version thereof, a ceramic break surrounded by ferrite, is planed for the superconducting electron gun. The damper here is located at room temperature just outside of the gun. If used in a cavity chain, the ceramic break is in the vacuum tube at helium temperature whereas the ferrite is moved into the cryostat insulating vacuum allowing higher temperatures. The general properties of the ferrite HOM dampers have been published but are more detailed in this paper.

  8. The vertical structure of the boundary layer around compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-09-01

    Context. Mass transfer due to Roche lobe overflow leads to the formation of an accretion disk around a weakly magnetized white dwarf (WD) in cataclysmic variables. At the inner edge of the disk, the gas comes upon the surface of the WD and has to get rid of its excess kinetic energy in order to settle down on the more slowly rotating outer stellar layers. This region is known as the boundary layer (BL). Aims: In this work we investigate the vertical structure of the BL, which is still poorly understood. We shall provide details of the basic structure of the two-dimensional (2D) BL and how it depends on parameters such as stellar mass and rotation rate, as well as the mass-accretion rate. We further investigate the destination of the disk material and compare our results with previous one-dimensional (1D) simulations. Methods: We solve the 2D equations of radiation hydrodynamics in a spherical (r-ϑ) geometry using a parallel grid-based code that employs a Riemann solver. The radiation energy is considered in the two-temperature approach with a radiative flux given by the flux-limited diffusion approximation. Results: The BL around a non-rotating WD is characterized by a steep drop in angular velocity over a width of only 1% of the stellar radius, a heavy depletion of mass, and a high temperature ( 500 000 K) as a consequence of the strong shear. Variations in Ω∗,M∗, and Ṁ influence the extent of the changes of the variables in the BL but not the general structure. Depending on Ω∗, the disk material travels up to the poles or is halted at a certain latitude. The extent of mixing with the stellar material also depends on Ω∗. We find that the 1D approximation matches the 2D data well, apart from an underestimated temperature.

  9. Failure modes and materials design for biomechanical layer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan

    Ceramic materials are finding increasing usage in the area of biomechanical replacements---dental crowns, hip and bone implants, etc.---where strength, wear resistance, biocompatibility, chemical durability and even aesthetics are critical issues. Aesthetic ceramic crowns have been widely used in dentistry to replace damaged or missing teeth. However, the failure rates of ceramic crowns, especially all-ceramic crowns, can be 1%˜6% per year, which is not satisfactory to patients. The materials limitations and underlying fracture mechanisms of these prostheses are not well understood. In this thesis, fundamental fracture and damage mechanisms in model dental bilayer and trilayer structures are studied. Principle failure modes are identified from in situ experimentation and confirmed by fracture mechanics analysis. In bilayer structures of ceramic/polycarbonate (representative of ceramic crown/dentin structure), three major damage sources are identified: (i) top-surface cone cracks or (ii) quasiplasticity, dominating in thick ceramic bilayers; (iii) bottom-surface radial cracks, dominating in thin ceramic bilayers. Critical load P for each damage mode are measured in six dental ceramics: Y-TZP zirconia, glass-infiltrated zirconia and alumina (InCeram), glass-ceramic (Empress II), Porcelain (Mark II and Empress) bonded to polymer substrates, as a function of ceramic thickness d in the range of 100 mum to 10 mm. P is found independent of d for mode (i) and (ii), but has a d 2 relations for mode (iii)---bottom surface radial cracking. In trilayer structures of glass/core-ceramic/polycarbonate (representing veneer porcelain/core/dentin structures), three inner fracture origins are identified: radial cracks from the bottom surface in the (i) first and (ii) second layers; and (iii) quasiplasticity in core-ceramic layer. The role of relative veneer/core thickness, d1/d 2 and materials properties is investigated for three core materials with different modulus (114--270GPa

  10. “Pore-Like” Effects of Super-Molecular Self-Assembly on Molecular Diffusion of Poly(Ethylene Oxide-Poly(Propylene Oxide-Poly(Ethylene Oxide in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Ulrich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diffusion of triblock copolymers poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide in water was studied with the help of Pulsed Field Gradient NMR in the broad range of polymer weight fractions from 0.09 to 0.8. Owing to amphiphilic nature of the molecules, these block copolymers exhibit rich self-organization properties when mixed with water. In particular, at ambient temperatures they form micelles and three liquid crystalline mesophases: cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar. The corresponding super-molecular structure formations were studied with the same block copolymer and at the same temperature. Self-assembly of molecules was shown to produce “pore-like” effects on their self-diffusion properties by imposing severe constraints on the dimensionality of propagation. Diffusion in the hexagonal phase was shown to be quasi one-dimensional in the direction parallel to the long axis of the ordered molecular rods. In the lamellar phase, diffusion was found to be quasi two-dimensional, in the plane of the lamellar structures. The observed diffusion anisotropy was attributed to the effects of the specific molecular ordering on the mesoscopic length scale.

  11. Structure and Capacitance of Electrical Double Layers inside Micropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guang; Qiao, Rui; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Meunier, Vincent

    2010-03-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the specific capacitance of micropores (diameter less than 2nm) increases anomalously as the pore size decreases^[1]. To understand the physical origin of this discovery, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to study the electrical double layers (EDLs) in micropores with different shapes (tube vs slit) and pore sizes (0.668nm - 3.342nm). Several different aqueous electrolytes (K^+, Na^+, Cl^-, and F^- in water) were used in these micropores. We quantified the structure of EDLs inside the pores, and computed the capacitance of EDLs. The scaling of capacitance shows a qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. We attribute the anomalous enhancement of capacitance in micropores to the short-range ionelectrode and ionsolvent interactions.[1] J. Chmiola, G. Yushin, Y. Gogotsi, C. Portet, P. Simon, and P.L. Taberna, Science 2006, 313, 1760.

  12. Plasma structures inside boundary layers of magnetic clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Fengsi; FENG Xueshang; YANG Fang; ZHONG Dingkun

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the plasma structures for 50 magnetic cloud boundary layers (BLs) which were observed by the spacecraft WIND from February, 1995 to June 2003. Main discoveries are: (ⅰ) The BL is a non-pressure balanced structure, its total pressure, PT,L, (the thermal pressure, Pth,L, plus the magnetic pressure, PM,L) is generally less than the total pressure PT,S and PT,C of the front solar wind (SW) and the following magnetic clouds (MC), respectively. The rising of the Pth,L inside the BLs is often not enough to compensate the declining of PM,L; (ⅱ) The ratio of electron and proton temperatures, (Te/Tp)L, inside the BLs is offen less than (Te/Tp)s and (Te/Tp)c in the SW and the MC, respectively, because the heating of proton is more obvious than that of electron; and (ⅲ) The reversal jet is observed in 80% BLs investigated, in which the reversal jets from all of three directions (±Vx, ±Vy, ±Vz), were observed in ≈25% BLs. These basic characteristics could be associated with a possible magnetic reconnection process inside the BLs. The results above suggest that the cloud BL owns the plasma structures different from those in the SW and MC. It is a manifestation for the existing significant dynamic interaction between the magnetic cloud and the solar wind.

  13. High-pressure layered structure of carbon disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi, S. Shahab; Crespo, Yanier; MartoÅák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-06-01

    Solid CS2 is superficially similar to CO2, with the same C m c a molecular crystal structure at low pressures, which has suggested similar phases also at high pressures. We carried out an extensive first-principles evolutionary search in order to identify the zero-temperature lowest-enthalpy structures of CS2 for increasing pressure up to 200 GPa. Surprisingly, the molecular C m c a phase does not evolve into β -cristobalite as in CO2 but transforms instead into phases HP2 and HP1, both recently described in high-pressure SiS2. HP1 in particular, with a wide stability range, is a layered P 21/c structure characterized by pairs of edge-sharing tetrahedra and is theoretically more robust than all other CS2 phases discussed so far. Its predicted Raman spectrum and pair correlation function agree with experiment better than those of β -cristobalite, and further differences are predicted between their respective IR spectra. The band gap of HP1-CS2 is calculated to close under pressure, yielding an insulator-metal transition near 50 GPa, in agreement with experimental observations. However, the metallic density of states remains modest above this pressure, suggesting a different origin for the reported superconductivity.

  14. Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for HANARO hot-water layer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1997-02-01

    The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of HANARO hot-water layer system. The piping stress analysis was performed by using ADLPIPE program for the pipings subjected to dead weight, pressure, thermal expansion and seismic loadings. The pipings to evaluate the structural integrity are the pump suction line and the pump discharge line near safety related structures in reactor pool. Based on the reaction forces from the piping stress analysis, the design of support structure was carried out. The results of structural evaluation for the piping and the support structure showed that the structural acceptance criteria were satisfied, in compliance with ASME B and PV code, section III, subsection ND for the pipings and Subsection NF for the support structures. Therefore based on results of the analysis and the design, the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of HANARO hot-water layer system proved. (author). 9 tabs., 14 figs. 9 refs.

  15. Corrosion detection in multi-layered rotocraft structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH,DENNIS P.; WALKINGTON,PHILLIP D.; HOHMAN,ED; MARSHALL,GREG

    2000-04-25

    Rotorcraft structures do not readily lend themselves to quantifiable inspection methods due to airframe construction techniques. Periodic visual inspections are a common practice for detecting corrosion. Unfortunately, when the telltale signs of corrosion appear visually, extensive repair or refurbishment is required. There is a need to nondestructively evaluate airframe structures in order to recognize and quantify corrosion before visual indications are present. Nondestructive evaluations of rotorcraft airframes face inherent problems different from those of the fixed wing industry. Most rotorcraft lap joints are very narrow, contain raised fastener heads, may possess distortion, and consist of thinner gage materials ({approximately}0.012--0.125 inches). In addition the structures involve stack-ups of two and three layers of thin gage skins that are separated by sealant of varying thickness. Industry lacks the necessary data techniques, and experience to adequately perform routine corrosion inspection of rotorcraft. In order to address these problems, a program is currently underway to validate the use of eddy current inspection on specific rotorcraft lap joints. Probability of detection (POD) specimens have been produced that simulate two lap joint configurations on a model TH-57/206 helicopter. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia Labs and Bell Helicopter have applied single and dual frequency eddy current (EC) techniques to these test specimens. The test results showed enough promise to justify beta site testing of the eddy current methods evolved in this study. The technique allows users to distinguish between corrosion signals and those caused by varying gaps between the assembly of skins. Specific structural joints were defined as prime corrosion areas and a series of corrosion specimens were produced with 5--20% corrosion distributed among the layers of each joint. Complete helicopter test beds were used to validate the laboratory

  16. Structural properties of dopping metallic impurities on CdS thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghasemzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (Cu,Zn-dopped CdS thin layers were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the doping on the structural properties of CdS thin layers were studied by SEM and EDAX analysis. Hetero junction layers were produced with different nano structures and different fraction of voids and metallic ions.

  17. Structural properties of dopping metallic impurities on CdS thin layers

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ghasemzadeh; H. kangarlou

    2016-01-01

    (Cu,Zn)-dopped CdS thin layers were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the doping on the structural properties of CdS thin layers were studied by SEM and EDAX analysis. Hetero junction layers were produced with different nano structures and different fraction of voids and metallic ions.

  18. Intercalation of cellulase enzyme into a hydrotalcite layer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, N.; Plank, J.

    2015-01-01

    A new inorganic-organic hybrid material whereby cellulase enzyme is incorporated into a hydrotalcite type layered double hydroxide (LDH) structure is reported. The Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH was synthesized via co-precipitation from Mg/Al nitrate at pH=9.6. Characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). From XRD and SAXS measurements, a d-value of ~5.0 nm was identified for the basal spacing of the Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH. Consequently, the cellulase enzyme (hydrodynamic diameter ~6.6 nm) attains a slightly compressed conformation when intercalated. Formation of the LDH hybrid was also confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mg2Al-cellulase-LDH phases appear as ~20 nm thin foils which are intergrown to flower-like aggregates. Activity of the enzyme was retained after deintercalation from the Mg2Al-LDH framework using anion exchange. Accordingly, cellulase is not denatured during the intercalation process, and LDH presents a suitable host structure for time-controlled release of the biomolecule.

  19. Effect of magnetic structural processing on structure and texture of La2Zr2O7 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibirova, F. Kh.; Kotina, G. V.; Bovina, E. A.; Tarasova, D. V.; Polisan, A. A.; Parkhomenko, Yu. N.

    2016-11-01

    Epitaxial CeO2 seed layer and La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers were deposited on biaxially-textured Ni-5 at.% W (NiW) tape substrate by liquid-phase polymer assisted nanoparticles deposition (PAND) method. LZO layers deposited by PAND have consistently shown tilting of the c-axis toward the direction of the sample’s surface normal. A new approach increasing the sharpening of the buffer texture by magnetic structural processing (MSP) of buffer layers was tested. The LZO layers, deposited on the seed and buffer layers after MSP, have dense and smooth surface structure, and more importantly, significantly improved out-of-plane texture, compared with the LZO layers that were deposited on a layer without MSP. Transmission electron microscopy study confirmed the c-axis tilting of CeO2 and LZO layers and revealed the absence of interfaces between LZO layers which have been grown on the layers after MSP. There are very small (2-4 nm) gated pores in the single-crystal structure of LZO layers that are not typical for structure of LZO layers obtained by liquid-phase methods. Thus the LZO buffer layers can serve as an effective metal-ion diffusion barrier.

  20. Effect of annealing on composition, structure and electrical properties of Au layers grown on different thickness Cr layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Huang; Hong Qiu; Liqing Pan; Yue Tian; Fengping Wang; Ping Wu

    2004-01-01

    110 nm-thick Au layers were sputter-deposited on unheated glasses coated about a 10 nm-thick and a 50 nm-thick Cr layer respectively. The Au/Cr bilayer films were annealed in a vacuum of 1 mPa at 300℃ for 2, 5 and 30 min, respectively. Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the composition and structure of the Au layers. The resistivity of the bilayer films was measured by using four-point probe technique. The adhesion of the bilayer films to the substrate was tested using tape tests. The amount of Cr atoms diffusing into the Au layer increases with increasing the annealing time, resulting in a decrease in lattice constant and an increase in resistivity of the Au layer. The content of Cr inside the Au layer grown on the thinner Cr layer is less than that grown on the thicker Cr layer. For the Au/Cr bilayer films, the lower resistivity and the good adhesion to the glass substrate can be obtained at a shorter annealing time for a thinner Cr layer.

  1. Organic modification of layered silicates. Structural and thermal characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, L.A.S. de A.; Schulte, K. [Polymer Composites, Denickstrasse 15, TU Hamburg-Harburg, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Karthikeyan, C.S.; Nunes, S.P. [Institute of Chemistry, GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Strasse 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); De Torriani, Iris L. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-01

    Organic modification of natural and synthetic layered silicates namely montmorillonite and laponite is reported in this work. The modified silicates are being subsequently used in the preparation of nano-composite membranes based on ionomers for fuel cells application. Laponite, an entirely synthetic silicate, was modified using organosiloxanes containing imidazole groups. Two different strategies were adopted for modification: (a) swelling of the silicate in 2-butanone followed by functionalization using the siloxane at room temperature, (b) direct reaction between laponite and the organosiloxane in xylene at 120{sup o}C. Montmorillonite, a natural silicate, was supplied in the alkyl-ammonium form containing -OH groups. The modification of this silicate was conducted following the procedure (b). The structures of both plain and modified silicates were investigated by XRD showing that the interlayer distance (around 17A) was not affected during the functionalization of laponite. However, a noticeable increase in the interlayer distance from 18.0A to 24.5A was observed for the modified montmorillonite. This clearly shows the presence of polysiloxane chains in between the silicate layers. Further characterization showed that the modification of these silicates was in the range between 16% and 23% (molar percentage). TGA was done between 25 and 300{sup o}C in order to study the thermal degradation pattern of the silicates. The amount of adsorbed water could be determined from the results. The functionalization reduced the adsorption of water from 13.5% to 6.8% for laponite and from 8.5% to 4% for montmorillonite.

  2. Reversible and irreversible structural transformations of nanocomponents of molecular layers by resonance photoexcitation or heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliteevskaya, Elena N.; Krutyakova, Valentina P.; Razumova, Tatyana K.; Starovoytov, Anton A.

    2010-09-01

    The reversible and irreversible structural transformations of monomolecular and associated nanocomponents of a polymethine dye layer by photoexcitation or heating are studied experimentally. The photo- and thermodestruction yields of the layers are investigated.

  3. Wide-gap layered oxychalcogenide semiconductors: materials, electronic structures and optoelectronic properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kazushige; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Applying the concept of materials design for transparent conductive oxides to layered oxychalcogenides, several p-type and n-type layered oxychalcogenides were proposed as wide-gap semiconductors and examined their basic optical and electrical properties. The layered oxychalcogenides are composed of ionic oxide layers and covalent chalcogenide layers, which bring wide-gap and conductive properties to these materials, respectively. The electronic structures of the materials were...

  4. Structure and Properties of Vacuum Arc Single-Layer and Multiperiod Two-Layer Nitride Coatings Based on Ti(Al:Si Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Beresnev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of impact of deposition conditions on structural and phase state and thermal stability of vacuum arc coatings based on Ti(Al:Si layers. We studied single-phase single-layer coatings, and multiperiod bilayer coatings with second phase nitride interlayers of one of the following three metals: Mo, Cr or Zr. It was established that hexagonal and cubic lattices may form in the coatings when transition to the cubic lattice occurs with Al content of about 25 at. %. Presence of second nanoscale (7-8 nm layers in bilayer multiperiod compositions, which consist of one nitride from CrNx, MoNx or ZrNx group, does not change the type of lattice in [Ti(Al:Si]Nx layers. Also, an fcc lattice with a strong or weak texture [111] forms in CrNx and ZrNx layers, while crystallites with hexagonal lattice form in MoNx layers. High-temperature annealing at 700 °С during 40 minutes leads to a significant (by 23 % or up to Н  47.56 GPa increase in microhardness of coating of the [Ti(Al]Nx/ZrNy system due to formation of a nano-size structure with an average size of crystallites of 3.6 nm in [Ti(Al]Nx layers, and 6.3 nm in ZrNx layers.

  5. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  6. Layered Organization in the Coastal Ocean: 4-D Assessment of Thin Layer Structure, Dynamics and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Donaghay, in press. Spatial characteristics of thin scattering layers observed by airborn LIDAR. ICES Journal of Marine Systems [in press, refereed...scattering layers observed by airborne LIDAR. ICES Journal of Marine Systems [in press, refereed]. Holliday, D.V., P.L. Donaghay, C.F. Greenlaw, J.M. Napp

  7. Structure and antibacterial activity of new layered perovskite compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Shao-zao; ZHANG Li-ling; XIA Liao-yuan; LIU Ying-liang; LI Du-xin

    2007-01-01

    New layered perovskite compounds, AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 (x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by an ion-exchange reaction of Na2La2Ti3O10 with AgNO3 solution and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The ion-exchange processes were optimized, and the antibacterial activity, light permanency and water-resistance were evaluated. Surprisedly, no significant changes in crystal structure of Na2La2Ti3O10 are found by the exchange of silver ions. The Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10 particles conglomerate obviously with irregular shape and size. Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10, possessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of 180 mg/L and 240 mg/L, has high antibacterial activity, good light permanency and water-resistance. The ionic state silver in AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 is the antibacterial active component.

  8. Crustal Structure of Salton Trough using Deformable Layer Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salton Trough is an important geologic structure to understand the active rift between Imperial Fault and San Andreas Fault. To determine the underground geometry of Salton Trough and its nearby faults, we analyzed seismic phase data recorded by Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC). Both 2-D and 3-D models have been made to refine the velocity model so as to determine the basin and moho geometry beneath Salton Trough region. Here three inline and five cross-line velocity profiles were built by using 2D Deformable Layer Tomography (DLT) method. From these 2D profiles, we can see that the velocity gradient is very small in the low velocity zone. The low velocity anomaly can be detected beneath the axis of the Salton Trough around the depth of 19-21 km, and the relatively high velocity can be seen beneath the San Andreas faults. Within 100*150*40 km3 model volume, 90,180 P-wave and S-wave first arrival picks from 27,663 local events (from 2001 to 2012), which were obtained from 44 stations, were used to build 3D seismic velocity model of the crust. During the iterations of velocity updating, full 3-D ray tracing is implemented. From these 3-D velocity models with different sizes of grids, low velocity anomalies are present under the southwest of Salton Sea, while high velocity zone is present across Southern San Andreas Fault throughout all the depths. Profiles from 2-D velocity models compared to 3-D velocity models show similar geometry. 3-D crustal structure, which is determined from 3-D DLT, helps to better understand the divergent boundary between the North American and the Pacific tectonic plates

  9. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2015-04-01

    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent α . Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of α , the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure.

  10. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smolyar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”. These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting “layer thickness vs. layer number” and “layer area vs. layer number”, which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  11. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  12. Structural properties of subnanometer thick Y layers in extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, J.; Zoethout, E.; Eerden, A.M.J.; Verhoeven, J.; Kruijs, van de R.W.E.; Yakshin, A.; Bijkerk, F.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the structure and optical properties of B4C∕Mo∕Y∕Si multilayer systems. Using extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Y and Mo K-edge, the structure of the subnanometer thick Y layer and the underlying Mo layer were analyzed. It was found that even a 0.2 nm thick Y la

  13. Detecting Multi-Scale Coherent Eddy Structures and Intermittency in Turbulent Boundary Layer by Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nan; ZHANG Jin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Multi-scale decomposition by wavelet transform has been performed to velocity time sequences obtained by fine measurements of turbulent boundary layer flow. A conditional sampling technique for detecting multi-scale coherent eddy structures in turbulent field is proposed by using multi-scale instantaneous intensity factor and flatness factor of wavelet coefficients. Although the number of coherent eddy structures in the turbulent boundary layer is very small, their energy percentage with respect to the turbulence kinetic energy is high. Especially in buffer layer, the energy percentages of coherent structures are significantly higher than those in the logarithmic layer, indicating that the buffer layer is the most active region in the turbulent boundary layer. These multi-scale coherent eddy structures share some common dynamical characteristics and are responsible for the anomalous scaling law in the turbulent boundary layer.

  14. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Quantum size effect on the layer by layer assembly of PbTe–InSe multilayer nanocomposite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathi, M. Manonmani; Arivazhagan, V. [Department of Physics, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India); Rajesh, S., E-mail: drsrajesh@karunya.edu [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114 (India)

    2015-10-15

    PbTe–InSe multilayer nanocomposite structures were prepared by thermal evaporation method using layer by layer assembly with different PbTe nanocrystal (NCs) layer thicknesses ranges from 5 to 20 nm. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy images divulge the formation of PbTe NCs embedded within InSe matrix as an ordered PbTe–InSe multilayer structure. X-ray and electron beam diffractions from the multilayer structure exhibit eminent peak at (2 0 0) plane analogous to face-centred cubic PbTe. The absorption onset significantly blue shifted as long as 3 nm PbTe NCs were embedded in InSe matrix. The observed band gap is correlated with theoretically predicted effective band gap of three dimensionally confined PbTe NCs which confirm size dependent quantum confinement effect. PL spectra show dominant single emission at 1.6 eV corresponding to the band edge emission of PbTe NCs. The prospects to use this structure in p-i-n junction quantum dot solar cells are discussed. - Graphical abstract: A graphical abstract to illustrate (a) schematic view of the PbTe–InSe multilayer structure. (b) and (c) are the cross sectional TEM and AFM image of the single layer PbTe NCs on InSe matrix, respectively. - Highlights: • PbTe Nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous InSe matrix by thermal evaporation. • Array of 3D confined PbTe NCs was obtained from layer by layer deposition. • Growth of isolated PbTe NCs were observed from TEM and AFM. • Blue shift from absorption spectra and quantum confined PL emission were observed. • Use of this structure in next generation solar cells were discussed.

  16. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei;

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...

  17. Roughness of laser deposited metal / metal oxide layered structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Tobias; Meschede, Andreas; Roeder, Johanna; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The roughness of laser deposited Ti/MgO and Ag/ZrO{sub 2} layered thin films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), which are sensitive on the surface and interface roughness, respectively. When depositing the metals, nucleation and island growth occur which first roughen the surfaces with increasing layer thickness. Then, coalescence and island zipping processes reduce the roughness again. Minimal roughness is reached, when the metal layers are just closed. In both systems, the deposition of the metal oxide leads to layer smoothing. The underlying growth processes for single and double layers as well as the reduction of roughness in multilayers are discussed.

  18. CeO2 as insulation layer in HTc superconducting multilayer and cross over structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijck, van M.A.A.M.; Verhoeven, M.A.J.; Reuvekamp, E.M.C.M.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rogalla, H.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the electrical properties of insulating CeO2 layers in combination with superconducting (Y/Dy) Ba2Cu3O7-delta (RBCO) films over ramps and in crossover structures. CeO2 is frequently used as a buffer layer, or template layer for biepitaxial grain boundary junctions, but can als

  19. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the prismatic layer in the Bivalvia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iwao KOBAYASHI

    2008-01-01

    The shell structure of the Bivalvia has been observed with the use of optical and electron microscopes since the early 1900's. The prismatic structure is one of the more attractive shell structures in bivalved mollusks. This structure is composed of the aggregation of polygonal prisms arranged densely. Each prism is made of small calcite crystallites arranged perpendicular to a growth shell surface. Organic materials, named organic sheaths, accumulate around prisms and stain well with heamatox-ylin-eosin.The Bivalvia, which make prismatic structures, are divided into two groups. One group has the inner shell layer made up of a nacreous structure, and the other has the inner shell layer made up of a foliated structure. The aragonite prismatic layer and the prismatic layer are clo-sely related to each other, as is the aragonite prismatic layer to the composite prismatic one.

  20. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Doan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (˜ 6.4 eV, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700 °K. The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of μ ∝ (T/T0−α with α = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ħω = 192 meV (or 1546 cm-1, which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of Nonionic Surfactant Aggregates in Layered Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan, Régis; Veron, Emmanuel; Le Forestier, Lydie; Ogawa, Makoto; Cadars, Sylvian

    2017-09-26

    The aggregation of surfactants on solid surfaces as they are adsorbed from solution is the basis of numerous technological applications such as colloidal stabilization, ore flotation, and floor cleaning. The understanding of both the structure and the dynamics of surfactant aggregates applies to the development of alternative ways of preparing hybrid layered materials. For this purpose, we study the adsorption of the triethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C10E3) nonionic surfactant onto a synthetic montmorillonite (Mt), an aluminosilicate clay mineral for organoclay preparation with important applications in materials sciences, catalysis, wastewater treatment, or as drug delivery. The aggregation mechanisms follow those observed in an analogous natural Mt, with the condensation of C10E3 in a bilayer arrangement once the surfactant self-assembles in a lamellar phase beyond the critical micelle concentration, underlining the importance of the surfactant state in solution. Solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) and high magnetic field combined with(1)H-(13)C correlation experiments and different types of (13)C NMR experiments selectively probes mobile or rigid moieties of C10E3 in three different aggregate organizations: (i) a lateral monolayer, (ii) a lateral bilayer, and (iii) a normal bilayer. High-resolution (1)H{(27)Al} CP-(1)H-(1)H spin diffusion experiments shed light on the proximities and dynamics of the different fragments and fractions of the intercalated surfactant molecules with respect to the Mt surface. (23)Na and (1)H NMR measurements combined with complementary NMR data, at both molecular and nanometer scales, precisely pointed out the location of the C10E3 ethylene oxide hydrophilic group in close contact with the Mt surface interacting through ion-dipole or van der Waals interactions.

  2. Investigation of the Surface Properties of Titanium Biomaterial with Oxide Layer of Rutile Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Nan; Chen Yuanru; Xiao Jing; Xue Zhennan; Liu Xianghuai

    1994-01-01

    Structural characteristics of titanium oxide layer on titanium matrix were investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy(AES) and X-ray diffraction, It has been identified that the titanium oxide layers have rutile structure. The mechanical properties of its surface were ineasured by microhardness test, pin-on-disc wear experiment and scratch adhesion test. The blood-compatibility of the titanium oxide layers of different thickness was studied by blood clotting time measurement. It is shown that as the thickness of the titanium oxide layers increases, the surface mechanical properties and bloodcompatibility of these layers are obviously improved.

  3. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara S.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

  4. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbing, Mark A; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P

    2012-07-17

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two "homologous" tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The β-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  5. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P. (UCLA)

    2012-09-05

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two 'homologous' tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-layer. The molecular features of our hexameric S-layer model recapitulate those visualized by medium resolution electron microscopy studies of microbial S-layers and greatly expand our molecular view of S-layer dimensions, porosity, and symmetry. The S-layer model reveals a negatively charged molecular sieve that presents both a charge and size barrier to restrict access to the cell periplasmic-like space. The {beta}-sandwich folds of the S-layer protein are structurally homologous to eukaryotic virus envelope proteins, suggesting that Archaea and viruses have arrived at a common solution for protective envelope structures. These results provide insight into the evolutionary origins of primitive cell envelope structures, of which the S-layer is considered to be among the most primitive: it also provides a platform for the development of self-assembling nanomaterials with diverse functional and structural properties.

  6. Porous Materials with Tunable Structure and Mechanical Properties via Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminska, Monika; Dunne, Nicholas; Hamilton, Andrew R

    2016-08-31

    The deposition of stiff and strong coatings onto porous templates offers a novel strategy for fabricating macroscale materials with controlled architectures at the micro- and nanoscale. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is utilized to fabricate nanocomposite-coated foams with highly customizable properties by depositing polymer-nanoclay coatings onto open-cell foam templates. The compressive mechanical behavior of these materials evolves in a predictable manner that is qualitatively captured by scaling laws for the mechanical properties of cellular materials. The observed and predicted properties span a remarkable range of density-stiffness space, extending from regions of very soft elastomer foams to very stiff, lightweight honeycomb and lattice materials.

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  8. Layer Winner-Take-All neural networks based on existing competitive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C M; Yang, J F

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose generalized layer winner-take-all (WTA) neural networks based on the suggested full WTA networks, which can be extended from any existing WTA structure with a simple weighted-and-sum neuron. With modular regularity and local connection, the layer WTA network in either hierarchical or recursive structure is suitable for a large number of competitors. The complexity and convergence performances of layer and direct WTA neural networks are analyzed. Simulation results and theoretical analyzes verify that the layer WTA neural networks with extendibility outperform their original direct WTA structures in aspects of low complexity and fast convergence.

  9. Structure of the surface layer of the methanogenic archaean Methanosarcina acetivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Arbing, Mark A.; Chan, Sum; Shin, Annie; Phan, Tung; Ahn, Christine J.; Rohlin, Lars; Gunsalus, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Archaea have a self-assembling proteinaceous surface (S-) layer as the primary and outermost boundary of their cell envelopes. The S-layer maintains structural rigidity, protects the organism from adverse environmental elements, and yet provides access to all essential nutrients. We have determined the crystal structure of one of the two “homologous” tandem polypeptide repeats that comprise the Methanosarcina acetivorans S-layer protein and propose a high-resolution model for a microbial S-la...

  10. Characterization of pore network structure in catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    El Hannach, Mohamed; Soboleva, Tatyana; Malek, Kourosh; Franco, Alejandro A.; Prat, Marc; Pauchet, Joël; Holdcroft, Steven

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We model and validate the effect of ionomer content and Pt nanoparticles on nanoporous structure of catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. By employing Pore network modeling technique and analytical solutions, we analyze and reproduce experimental N2-adsorption isotherms of carbon, Pt/ carbon and catalyst layers with various ionomer contents. The porous catalyst layer structures comprise of Ketjen Black carbon, Pt and Nafion ionomer. The experimental pore s...

  11. Structural Changes of Surface Layers of Steel Plates in the Process of Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, I. A.; Bataev, A. A.; Mali, V. I.; Bataev, V. A.; Balaganskii, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural changes developing in surface layers of plates from steel 20 in the process of explosive welding are studied with the help of light metallography and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mathematical simulation is used to compute the depth of the action of severe plastic deformation due to explosive welding of steel plates on the structure of their surface layers.

  12. AB-INITIO SOLUTION OF MISFIT LAYER STRUCTURES BY AUTOMATIC PATTERSON AND DIRECT-METHODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEURSKENS, PT; BEURSKENS, G; LAM, EJW; VANSMAALEN, S; FAN, HF

    1994-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the automatic solution of composite (misfit) layer compounds, for the case when the composite crystal structure consists of two types of layer, each of which can be approximately described as a three-dimensional periodic structure with, however, mutually incommensurate l

  13. Using thin metal layers on composite structures for shielding the electromagnetic pulse caused by nearby lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, F.J.K.; Damstra, G.C.; Leferink, F.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic systems in composite structures could be vulnerable to the (dominant magnetic) field caused by a lightning strike, because only thin layers of metal can be used on composite structures. Thin layers result in a very low shielding effectiveness against magnetic fields. Many experiments usin

  14. A volumetric ablation model of EPDM considering complex physicochemical process in porous structure of char layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Xiao-Jing, Yu; Jian-Ming, Ma; Yi-Wen, Guan; Jiang, Li; Qiang, Li; Sa, Yang

    2017-06-01

    A volumetric ablation model for EPDM (ethylene- propylene-diene monomer) is established in this paper. This model considers the complex physicochemical process in the porous structure of a char layer. An ablation physics model based on a porous structure of a char layer and another model of heterogeneous volumetric ablation char layer physics are then built. In the model, porosity is used to describe the porous structure of a char layer. Gas diffusion and chemical reactions are introduced to the entire porous structure. Through detailed formation analysis, the causes of the compact or loose structure in the char layer and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction between pyrolysis gas and char layer skeleton are introduced. The Arrhenius formula is adopted to determine the methods for calculating carbon deposition rate C which is the consumption rate caused by thermochemical reactions in the char layer, and porosity evolution. The critical porosity value is used as a criterion for char layer porous structure failure under gas flow and particle erosion. This critical porosity value is obtained by fitting experimental parameters and surface porosity of the char layer. Linear ablation and mass ablation rates are confirmed with the critical porosity value. Results of linear ablation and mass ablation rate calculations generally coincide with experimental results, suggesting that the ablation analysis proposed in this paper can accurately reflect practical situations and that the physics and mathematics models built are accurate and reasonable.

  15. USAGE OF MICRO-MODULAR HEAT-INSULATION LAYER IN STRUCTURES OF WALL PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of requirements to existing heat-insulation layers in enclosure structures of wall panels has been carried out, a general principles on development of thermal insulation systems, substantiation on the necessity to develop a new wall panel design with improved thermal characteristics. The proposed design of the wall panel differs from the existing one in the fact that its external layer is made of protective sheets being perforated in their top and bottom parts with perforated aluminum foil layer placed on them. Air layer performs function of one of thermal insulation layers, and the second layer is made up in the form of several micro-modular sub-layers which are divided by perforated aluminum foil and a grid. An inner concrete layer is also separated from micro-modular layers by aluminum foil. Protective sheets and the grid can be made of aluminum or polyethylene.The arrangement of hollow micro-modular cells in the zone of negative temperatures prevents condensate accumulation. The arrangement of the perforated aluminum foil layers between micro- modular layers leads to increase in thermal resistance of the panel due to decrease of a radiant component in presence of several screens and does not interfere with a vapor permeability of thermal insulation layers from micro-modules. At the same time placement of a non-perforated foil layer on an inside panel layer interferes with penetration of water vapor from rooms in micro-modular thermal insulation layers.Technological principles lie in the arrangement of perforation slots in the top and bottom zones of protective sheets that allows to delete excess moisture from thermal insulation layers and air layer and also leads to improvement of thermo-technical characteristics, durability and reliability in construction operation as a whole. The executed calculations of heat and humidity fields in external enclosure structures confirm advantages of the presented technical

  16. Electronic structure and superconductivity of multi-layered organic charge transfer salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, Harald O.; Altmeyer, Michaela; Guterding, Daniel; Valenti, Roser [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We examine the electronic properties of polymorphs of (BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE) (1,1,2-trichloroethane) within density functional theory (DFT). While a phase with low superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}=2.6 K exhibits a κ packing motif, two high T{sub c} phases are layered structures consisting of α{sup '} and κ packed layers. We determine the electronic structures and discuss the influence of the insulating α{sup '} layer on the conducting κ layer. In the κ-α{sub 1}{sup '} dual-layered compound, we find that the stripes of high and low charge in the α{sup '} layer correspond to a stripe pattern of hopping parameters in the κ layer. Based on the different underlying Hamiltonians, we study the superconducting properties and try to explain the differences in T{sub c}.

  17. Magnetic and Structural Properties in Co/Cu/Co Sandwiches with Ni and Cr Buffer Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches with Ni and Cr buffer layers were investigated. It was found that the coercivity in Ni layer buffered samples decreases with increasing Ni layer thickness, while that in Cr layer buffered ones increases with increasing Cr layer thickness, leading to a large difference in field sensitivity of their giant magnetoresistance (GMR) properties. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope images exhibited that there is a strong fcc (111) texture in the samples with Ni buffer layer. But there are only randomly oriented polycrystalline grains in Cr buffered sandwiches. According to atomic force microscope topography, the surface roughness of Cr buffered sandwiches is smaller than that of Ni buffered ones. It is demonstrated that buffer layer influences both magnetic and structural properties in Co/Cu/Co sandwiches as well as their GMR characteristics.

  18. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.;

    2010-01-01

    in an oscillating water tunnel. Two kinds of measurements were made: bed shear stress measurements and velocity measurements. The experiments show that the solitary-motion boundary layer experiences three kinds of flow regimes as the Reynolds number is increased: (i) laminar regime; (ii) laminar regime where...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...

  19. Macroscopic Crosslinked Neat Carbon Nanotube Materials and CNT/Carbon Fiber Hybrid Composites: Supermolecular Structure and New Failure Mode Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    close surface contact between CNTs to substantially improve the load transfer and mechanical properties. We also revealed that extremely low...surface contact between CNTs to substantially improve the load transfer and mechanical properties. We also revealed that extremely low permeability (×10...n K (MPa) 4340 Steel Alloy (tempered at 315 ̊C) 0.12 2650 AZ-31B Magnesium Alloy (annealed) 0.16 450 2024 Aluminum Alloy (heat treated - T3) 0.17

  20. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A; Jones, Joshua A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Galvez, Enrique J

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  1. Polarimetry of Pinctada fucata nacre indicates myostracal layer interrupts nacre structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Jones, Joshua A.; D'Addario, Anthony J.; Galvez, Enrique J.

    2017-02-01

    The inner layer of many bivalve and gastropod molluscs consists of iridescent nacre, a material that is structured like a brick wall with bricks consisting of crystalline aragonite and mortar of organic molecules. Myostracal layers formed during shell growth at the point of muscle attachment to the shell can be found interspersed within the nacre structure. Little has been done to examine the effect the myostracal layer has on subsequent nacre structure. Here we present data on the structure of the myostracal and nacre layers from a bivalve mollusc, Pinctada fucata. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the myostracal layer consists of regular crystalline blocks. The nacre before the layer consists of tablets approximately 400 nm thick, while after the myostracal layer the tablets are approximately 500 nm thick. A new technique, imaging polarimetry, indicates that the aragonite crystals within the nacre following the myostracal layer have greater orientation uniformity than before the myostracal layer. The results presented here suggest a possible interaction between the myostracal layer and subsequent shell growth.

  2. Photodetectors Based on Two-Dimensional Layer-Structured Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiachen; Chu, Yingli; Huang, Jia

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid lead iodide perovskite semiconductors have attracted intense research interests recently because of their easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic applications. Layer-structured materials have interesting properties such as quantum confinement effect and tunable band gap due to the unique two-dimensional crystalline structures. ⟨100⟩-oriented layer-structured perovskite materials are inherited from three-dimensional ABX3 perovskite materials with a generalized formula of (RNH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1MnX3n+1, and adopt the Ruddlesden-Popper type crystalline structure. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of three layer-structured perovskite materials with different layer numbers: (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1, one-layered perovskite), (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 (n = 2, two-layered perovskite) and (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)2Pb3I10 (n = 3, three-layered perovskite). Their photoelectronic properties were investigated in related to their molecular structures. Photodetectors based on these two-dimensional (2D) layer-structured perovskite materials showed tunable photoresponse with short response time in milliseconds. The photodetectors based on three-layered perovskite showed better performances than those of the other two devices, in terms of output current, responsivity, Ilight/Idark ratio, and response time, because of its smaller optical band gap and more condensed microstructure comparing the other two materials. These results revealed the relationship between the molecular structures, film microstructures and the photoresponse properties of 2D layer-structured hybrid perovskites, and demonstrated their potentials as flexible, functional, and tunable semiconductors in optoelectronic applications, by taking advantage of their tunable quantum well molecular structure.

  3. Fabrication of hierarchical hybrid structures using bio-enabled layer-by-layer self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilova, Marketa; Karaca, Banu Taktak; Park, James; Jia, Carol; Wilson, Brandon R; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2012-05-01

    Development of versatile and flexible assembly systems for fabrication of functional hybrid nanomaterials with well-defined hierarchical and spatial organization is of a significant importance in practical nanobiotechnology applications. Here we demonstrate a bio-enabled self-assembly technique for fabrication of multi-layered protein and nanometallic assemblies utilizing a modular gold-binding (AuBP1) fusion tag. To accomplish the bottom-up assembly we first genetically fused the AuBP1 peptide sequence to the C'-terminus of maltose-binding protein (MBP) using two different linkers to produce MBP-AuBP1 hetero-functional constructs. Using various spectroscopic techniques, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we verified the exceptional binding and self-assembly characteristics of AuBP1 peptide. The AuBP1 peptide tag can direct the organization of recombinant MBP protein on various gold surfaces through an efficient control of the organic-inorganic interface at the molecular level. Furthermore using a combination of soft-lithography, self-assembly techniques and advanced AuBP1 peptide tag technology, we produced spatially and hierarchically controlled protein multi-layered assemblies on gold nanoparticle arrays with high molecular packing density and pattering efficiency in simple, reproducible steps. This model system offers layer-by-layer assembly capability based on specific AuBP1 peptide tag and constitutes novel biological routes for biofabrication of various protein arrays, plasmon-active nanometallic assemblies and devices with controlled organization, packing density and architecture.

  4. The specificationof nano-structure superficial layers in some of the pathogen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilla Jalalpoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The superficial layer is a part of the cellular envelop that is seen in bacteria and archaea. This superficial layer is a single layer structure composed of subordinate proteins or glycoproteins. The superficial layer is the outer most cellular structure that is in the exchange and reaction around environment with bacteria. This structure has very diversity in bacteria different types.Materials and Method: The related articles to superficial layer were extracted of these articles: Pubmed, Elsevier Science, and Yahoo, from 1995 to 2010 years. For this purpose keywords were searched including superficial layer, pathogenesis, pathogen bacteria,Results: There is consensus in the case of the superficial layer and about the existence of this superficial structure lead to increased pathogenesis in bacteria, in all of the research articles.Conclusion: S-layers in pathogen bacteria with bacteria protection against bacteriophages and phagocytosis, resistance against low pH, adhesion, stabilisation of the membrane and providing adhesion sites for exoproteins caused pathogenesis, infection resistant and antibiotic resistant in host.The result of this study shows the prevalence of considerable S-layer in pathogen bacteria and this matter identified the bacteria generator importance of this structure in the laboratory

  5. Laser-Gyro Mirrors Of Differing Layer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    1989-02-01

    High reflectance low-scatter mirrors have been developed for laser-gyro applications. Different types of multilayer systems: Ti02/Si02, Ag/Ti02/Si02, and Ta205/Si02 combinations were investigated. In the first system TiO2 was rf-sputtered while Si02 was electron-gun evaporated. The best results were achieved for these materials with 21 alternating λ /4 layers. In the second system a thin silver film was rf-sputtered as a first layer on the substrate. Ten additional dielectric layers on the silver base were deposited to reach the same reflectivity as with pure dielectric mirrors. In the third system both Ta205 and Si02 were electron-gun evaporated. The best quality was achieved with 29 alternating layers. The mirrors of Ti02/Si02 and Ag/Ti02/Si02 exhibited no shift of the center wave length after exposition to air, while the mirrors of Ta205 /Si02 showed a shift of 30 nm. The mirrors were investigated in terms of reflectivity and scattering using an ultraprecise measurement equipment. Scattering was measured in an Ulbricht integrating sphere; resolution: 0.2-10-6 . Reflectivity measurements were carried out in a special developed reflectometer; resolution: 10.10-6.

  6. Layered structure of Ni-Al multi-layered metal-intermetallic composites fabricated by in-situ reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佼; 孙宝德; 夏振海

    2004-01-01

    Systematical experiments were done at five temperature levels: 500 ℃, 630 ℃, 900 ℃, 1 000 ℃ and 1 100 ℃ to illuminate the layer structure of the multi-layered metal-intermetallic composites of Ni-Al system that were fabricated by a previously reported simple and cost-effective method. The analysis of back scattering photos and XRD examination of specimens reveal that the look like single compound layer is composed of several different components. The primary phase produced during reaction is Ni2 Al3 and there exists a like two-phase field between NiAl3 and Ni2 Al3. The high temperature phases like NiAl and Ni3 Al are also found at low temperature. The results indicate that the key driving force of in-situ reaction is not temperature, but the atom concentration.

  7. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平捷; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al. ' s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  8. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping-jie(黄平捷); WU Zhao-tong(吴昭同)

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al.'s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  9. Influence of an Fe cap layer on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe49Pt51/Fe bi-layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Chao-Yang; Ma Bin; Wei Fu-Lin; Zhang zong-Zhi; Jin Qing-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The influences of an Fe cap layer on the structural and magnetic properties of FePt/Fe bi-layers are investigated.Compared with single FePt alloy films, a thin Fe layer can affect the crystalline orientation and improve the chemical ordering of L10 FePt films. Moreover, the coercivity increases when a thin Fe layer covers the FePt layer. Beyond a critical thickness, however, the Fe cover layer quickens the magnetization reversal of Fe49Pt51/Fe bi-layers by their exchange coupling.

  10. An optimized multilayer structure of CdS layer for CdTe solar cells application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Junfeng, E-mail: pkuhjf@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Road Yiheyuan 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Liao Cheng, E-mail: Cliao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Road Yiheyuan 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Jiang Tao [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Road Yiheyuan 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Spanheimer, C.; Haindl, G.; Fu, Ganhua; Krishnakumar, V. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Zhao Kui [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Road Yiheyuan 5, Beijing 100871 (China); Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-04-28

    Research highlights: > Two different methods to prepare CdS films for CdTe solar cells. > A new multilayer structure of window layer for the CdTe solar cell. > Thinner CdS window layer for the solar cell than the standard CdS layer. > Higher performance of solar cells based on the new multilayer structure. - Abstract: CdS layers grown by 'dry' (close space sublimation) and 'wet' (chemical bath deposition) methods are deposited and analyzed. CdS prepared with close space sublimation (CSS) has better crystal quality, electrical and optical properties than that prepared with chemical bath deposition (CBD). The performance of CdTe solar cell based on the CSS CdS layer has higher efficiency than that based on CBD CdS layer. However, the CSS CdS suffers from the pinholes. And consequently it is necessary to prepare a 150 nm thin film for CdTe/CdS solar cell. To improve the performance of CdS/CdTe solar cells, a thin multilayer structure of CdS layer ({approx}80 nm) is applied, which is composed of a bottom layer (CSS CdS) and a top layer (CBD CdS). That bi-layer film can allow more photons to pass through it and significantly improve the short circuit current of the CdS/CdTe solar cells.

  11. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity.

  12. Ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-layer fabricated using laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Yuri A; Vikhrova, Olga V; Kudrin, Alexey V; Zvonkov, Boris N

    2012-06-01

    The new technique combining metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy with laser ablation of solid targets was used for fabrication of ferromagnetic GaAs structures with single Mn delta-doped layer. The structures demonstrated anomalous Hall effect, planar Hall effect, negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance in temperature range of 10-35 K. In GaAs structures with only single Mn delta-layer (without additional 2D hole gas channel or quantum well) ferromagnetism was observed for the first time.

  13. Inverse scattering of 2d photonic structures by layer-stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Marte P Hatlo; Skaar, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Design and reconstruction of 2d and 3d photonic structures are usually carried out by forward simulations combined with optimization or intuition. Reconstruction by means of layer-stripping has been applied in seismic processing as well as in design and characterization of 1d photonic structures such as fiber Bragg gratings. Layer-stripping is based on causality, where the earliest scattered light is used to recover the structure layer-by-layer. Our set-up is a 2d layered nonmagnetic structure probed by plane polarized harmonic waves entering normal to the layers. It is assumed that the dielectric permittivity in each layer only varies orthogonal to the polarization. Based on obtained reflectance data covering a suitable frequency interval, time-localized pulse data are synthesized and applied to reconstruct the refractive index profile in the leftmost layer by identifying the local, time-domain Fresnel reflection at each point. Once the first layer is known, its impact on the reflectance data is stripped off...

  14. Dynamic behavior of Josephson-coupled layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleiner, R.; Müller, P.; Kohlstedt, H.;

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated Josephson effects in stacks of both artificial and natural Josephson junctions. The measurements have been performed on Nb/Al-AlO(x)/Nb multilayers and on small single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Both systems exhibit multiple branched I-V characteristics in zero magnetic field....... In finite magnetic fields coupling via currents flowing along the superconducting layers is essential, since the layers are thinner than the London penetration depth. All observations are in good agreement with numerical simulations of stacks of coupled Josephson junctions. These simulations predict...... that a large number of junctions can be phase locked in large magnetic fields via Fiske resonances excited in all junctions....

  15. Reference Models for Multi-Layer Tissue Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    simplification to develop cost-effective models of surface manipulation of multi-layer tissues. Deliverables. Specimen- (or subject) and region-specific... simplification to develop cost-effective models of surgical manipulation. Deliverables. Specimen-specific surrogate models of upper legs confirmed against data...data collection software and in experimentation procedures were identified through these mock-up sessions and were addressed. Testing of the subjects

  16. Optical Detection Using Four-Layer Semiconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    analog considers the thyristor, specifically in this case a Shockley diode, as two Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), one npn and one pnp, con- 15...appropriate BJT layer: emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C). The subscript pnp or npn is used to distinguish between the two transistors . It must be...both transistors in the active mode. The holes gathering in the pnp collector (P2) and the electrons in npn collector (N1) have no external escape

  17. Local Structure Analysis of Materials for Solar Cell Absorber Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Leila Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines solar cell absorber materials that have the potential to replace silicon in solar cells, including several copper-based sulfides and perovskites. Earth-abundant absorbers such as these become even more cost-effective when used in a nanostructured solar cell. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) deposit highly conformal films and hence are important tools for developing extremely thin absorber solar cells with scalability. Thus, the prima...

  18. Developments in the Taxonomy of Structures in Rotating Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, B.; Clayson, C. A.; Jayne, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    The creation, migration, and destruction of coherent flow structures within rotating turbulent boundary layers has received far less attention than statistical descriptions of the dynamics, but identification of coherent structures can yield physical insights for improved modelling efforts. The broad range of dynamical scales with turbulent boundary layers makes instantaneous flow structure data difficult to collect either by observations or direct numerical simulations, and the lack of a standard definition of a vortex renders the definition of flow structures a qualitative endeavor. However, the formation and evolution of a menagerie of coherent structures, such as high/low momentum streaks and hairpin vorticies, has been documented and widely accepted for canonical non-rotating turbulent boundary layers. How do turbulent structures form and evolve as the Reynolds number increases in Ekman layers? Are turbulent Ekman layer structures similar to turbulent internal flow boundary layers, which are also constrained vertically? How does buoyancy or sloping topography alter, destroy, or generate flow structures? In this study flow structure descriptions from experiments, observations, and simulations are reviewed.

  19. Microwave Properties of One-dimensional Photonic Structures Based on Composite Layers Filled with Nanocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovchenko, Ludmila; Lozitsky, Oleg; Sagalianov, Igor; Matzui, Ludmila; Launets, Vilen

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the results of computer modeling and experimental measurements of microwave transmission properties for one-dimensional periodic multi-layered photonic structures (PCs), composed of epoxy layers and composite layers filled with nanocarbon particles—multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite nanoplatelets. The results show that the characteristics of observed photonic band gaps in transmission spectra of PC can be controlled by varying the parameters of layers, namely, the complex permittivity and the layer thickness. It was found that the insertion of the defects (for instance, magnetic layer) into photonic structure can change the EMR transmission spectrum. The comparative analysis of EMR transmission spectra for investigated photonic structures has showed good agreement between the experimental and simulated data. It was found that EMR absorption in composite layers of photonic structures shifts the transmission spectra to the smaller values of EMR transmission index and reduces the sharpness of photonic band gaps. Thus, by changing the parameters of composite layers in photonic structure, we can obtain the tunable photonic band gaps, necessary for technological applications in devices, capable of storing, guiding, and filtering microwaves.

  20. Local Structure Analysis and Interface Layer Effect of Phase-Change Recording Material Using Actual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tsukasa; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Satoh, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Sumio

    2008-07-01

    The influences of the interface layer on crystal structure, the local atomic arrangement, and the electronic and chemical structure of a GeBiTe (GBT) phase-change recording material have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) methods using actual rewritable high-speed HD DVD media without special sample processing. XRD results showed that the crystal structure of laser-crystallized GBT alloy in the actual HD DVD media is the same as that of GeSbTe (GST) alloy, which has a NaCl-type structure. No differences between samples with and without interface layers were found. The lattice constant of GBT is larger than that of GST. Bi increases the lattice constant of GST with respect to the Bi substitution ratio of Sb. According to HX-PES, the DOS of in the recording film amorphous state with an interface layer is closer to that of the crystalline state than the recording film without an interface layer. From XAFS results, clear differences between amorphous (Amo.) and crystalline states (Cry.) were observed. The interatomic distance of amorphous recording material is independent of the existence of an interface layer. On the other hand, the coordination number varied slightly due to the presence of the interface layer. Therefore, the electronic state of the recording layer changes because of the interface layer, although the local structure changes only slightly except for the coordination number. Combining these results, we conclude that the interface layer changes the electronic state of the recording layer and promotes crystallization, but only affects the local structure of the atomic arrangement slightly.

  1. Wave Shaping and Lateral Spreading of Impact Loads Using Layered Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J. L.; Robbins, J.; Gupta, Y. M.; Wong, M. K.

    1999-06-01

    The overall objective of our work is to explore a new concept for developing resilient armor using high wave speed layers to rapidly spread the loads arising from projectile impacts. Because layered structures involve many additional geometrical and material variables, and because layers affect stress distribution and energy absorption capability of the target, a fundamental issue in determining layering effects is the quantification of load spreading in a consistent manner. We have found that the distribution of dissipative energy density normalized by the averaged total energy density imparted to the substrate appears to be an effective measure for evaluating load spreading and penetration resistance of layered targets. Using this measure in numerical simulations, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the load spreading concept. In addition, we have also investigated numerically the effects of layering geometry, and mechanical properties of the layer and substrate on load spreading. Experimental work is currently underway to evaluate the computational results.

  2. Low-frequency features of the ultrasound echo from an adhesively bonded layer-substrate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaomin; LI Mingxuan; MAO Jie; LIAN Guoxuan

    2005-01-01

    The low-frequency features of the ultrasound reflection spectra from the structure of a single layer on a substrate bonded by a thin adhesive layer are theoretically studied; the low-frequency here means the frequency of the interrogating ultrasonic wave is less than the quart-wavelength resonance frequency of the adhesive layer. The possibility of the inversion of the thickness and the evaluation of the cohesion strength of the adhesive layer from the resonance frequency shifts of the layered system is indicated. An analytic solution to the nonlinear equation satisfied by the resonance frequency is presented by Taylor expansion method showing satisfactory agreement with the numerical results by Newton iterative method. The results indicate larger range for application than the traditional spring model for the thin adhesive layer. In a much lower frequency range the thin adhesive layer may be regarded to be a spring.

  3. Dynamic response of concrete pavement structure with asphalt isolating layer under moving loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM is built using ABAQUS to analyze the dynamic response of a concrete pavement structure with an asphalt isolating layer under moving loads. The 3D model is prepared and validated in the state of no asphalt isolating layer. Stress and deflection at the critical load position are calculated by changing thickness, modulus of isolating layer and the combination between the isolating layer and concrete slab. Analysis result shows that the stress and deflection of the concrete slab increase with the increase of thickness. The stress and deflection of the concrete slab decrease with the increase of combination between the isolating layer and concrete slab. The influence of changing the isolating layer modulus to the stress and deflection of the concrete slab is not significant. From the results, asphalt isolating layer design is suggested in concrete pavement.

  4. Differences of Hydrocarbon Enrichment between the Upper and the Lower Structural Layers in the Tazhong Paleouplift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhenxue; YANG Haijun; LI Zhuo; PANG Xiongqi; HAN Jianfa; LI Dongxu; HUANG Yuyan

    2010-01-01

    The Tazhong paleouplift is divided into the upper and the lower structural layers,bounded by the unconformity surface at the top of the Ordovician carbonate rock.The reservoirs in the two layers from different parts vary in number,type and reserves,but the mechanism was rarely researched before.Therefore,an explanation of the mechanism will promote petroleum exploration in Tazhong paleouplift.After studying the evolution and reservoir distribution of the Tazhong paleouplift,it is concluded that the evolution in late Caledonian,late Hercynian and Himalayan periods resulted in the upper and the lower structural layers.It is also defined that in the upper structural layer,structural and stratigraphic overlap reservoirs are developed at the top and the upper part of the paleouplift,which are dominated by oil reservoirs,while for the lower structural layer,lithological reservoirs are developed in the lower part of the paieouplift,which are dominated by gas reservoirs,and more reserves are discovered in the lower structural layer than the upper.Through a comparative analysis of accumulation conditions of the upper and the lower structural layers,the mechanism of enrichment differences is clearly explained.The reservoir and seal conditions of the lower structural layer are better than those of the upper layer,which is the reason why more reservoirs have been found in the former.The differences in the carrier system types,trap types and charging periods between the upper and the lower structural layers lead to differences in the reservoir types and distribution.An accumulation model is established for the Tazhong paleouplift.For the upper structural layer,the structural reservoirs and the stratigraphic overlap reservoirs are formed at the upper part of the paleouplift,while for the lower structural layer,the weathering crust reservoirs are formed at the top,the reef-flat reservoirs are formed on the lateral margin,the karst and inside reservoirs are formed in the lower

  5. Perfectly matched layers for the stationary Schrodinger equation in a periodic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvin, Victor

    2008-01-01

    We construct a perfectly matched absorbing layer for stationary Schrodinger equation with analytic slowly decaying potential in a periodic structure. We prove the unique solvability of the problem with perfectly matched layer of finite length and show that solution to this problem approximates a solution to the original problem with an error that exponentially tends to zero as the length of perfectly matched layer tends to infinity.

  6. Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material layered structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiaoshan; JIN Feng; WANG ZiKun; LU TianJian

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in a layered structure consisting of a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer and a trans-versely isotropic piezoelectric substrate. The influence of the graded variation of FGPM coefficients on the dispersion relations of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in the layered structure is investigated. It is dem-onstrated that, for a certain frequency range of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves, the mechanical perturbations of the particles are restricted in the FPGM layer and the phase velocity is independent of the electrical boundary conditions at the free surface. Results presented in this study can not only provide further Insight on the electromechanical coupling behavior of surface waves in FGPM layered structures, but also lend a theoretical basis for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  7. Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material layered structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in a layered structure consisting of a functionally graded piezoelectric material(FGPM) layer and a transversely isotropic piezoelectric substrate. The influence of the graded variation of FGPM coefficients on the dispersion relations of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves in the layered structure is investigated. It is demonstrated that,for a certain frequency range of Bleustein-Gulyaev waves,the mechanical perturbations of the particles are restricted in the FPGM layer and the phase velocity is independent of the electrical boundary conditions at the free surface. Results presented in this study can not only provide further insight on the electromechanical coupling behavior of surface waves in FGPM layered structures,but also lend a theoretical basis for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices.

  8. ON THE EVOLUTION OF LARGE SCALE STRUCTURES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL MIXING LAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗纪生; H.E, Fiedler

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, several mathematical models for the large scale structures in some special kinds of mixing layers, which might be practically useful for enhancing the mixing, are proposed. First, the linear growth rate of the large scale structures in the mixing layers was calculated. Then, using the much improved weakly non-linear theory, combined with the energy method, the non-linear evolution of large scale structures in two special mixing layer configurations is calculated. One of the mixing layers has equal magnitudes of the upstream velocity vectors, while the angles between the velocity vectors and the trailing edge were π/2 - and π/2 + ,respectively. The other mixing layer was generated by a splitter-plate with a 45-degree-sweep trailing edge.

  9. Positively and negatively large Goos-Hänchen lateral displacements from a single negative layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, Robabeh; Namdar, Abdolrahman

    2012-09-20

    We study the electromagnetic beam reflection from layered structures that include the so-called ε-negative and the μ-negative materials, also called single negative materials. We predict that such structures can demonstrate a giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shift of the resonant excitation of surface waves at the interface between the conventional and single negative materials, as well as due to the excitation of leaky modes in the layered structures. Then we replace the conventional layer with a left-handed layer (a material with both ε<0 and μ<0). We show that the Goos-Hänchen shift can be positive and negative depending on the type of this layer (conventional or LH material), which can support TE or TM surface waves.

  10. Tunable magnetic resonance in double layered metallic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Zhu, Y Y

    2011-12-01

    Double layered metallic gratings have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The authors have reported that tunable magnetic resonance (MR) can be achieved by modulating the vertical chirped width dh which could be controlled conveniently in the common electron and/or ion beam microfabrications. The linear relationship between MR wavelength and dh has been reported. By introducing the difference of electric and magnetic penetration depth, an analytic formula deduced from a modified LC model has shown good agreement with the simulation results, and an effective width for trapezoidal sandwiched microstructures has been presented. Our results may provide an alternative choice for tunable MR and broad bandwidth of magnetic metamaterials.

  11. Quasi-periodic layer structure of die-upset NdFeB magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Bin; LI Yanfeng; WANG Huijie; LI Anhua; ZHU Minggang; LI Wei

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic magnets were prepared from melt-spun powders at different hot pressing temperatures from 550 to 700 ℃,then upset into fully dense anisotropic magnets at the same die-upsetting temperature of 850 ℃.Die-upset magnets had the characteristics of inhomogeneous microstructure,including well-aligned grains structure and nonaligned grains layers transverse to press direction,which was quasi-periodic layer structure with a total length of 5-15 μm.Nonaligned grains layers were mainly made of large grains and had higher Nd content.To clearly understand the formation of layer structure,the microstructure of isotropic precursors with different hot pressing temperatures and their subsequent die-upset magnets was investigated.A new interpretation for the formation of layer structure was proposed in this paper:the layer structure was correlated to the original ribbon interface which was divided into three types based on the contact forms.Because of the incomplete contact of neighboring ribbons,concentration of stress occurred in the contacted points and the Nd-rich phase was squeezed into interspaces at high temperature under stress.Due to the release of interfacial energy and the fluidity of enough Nd-rich liquid phases,the nonaligned layers with large grains formed both in hot compaction and subsequent hot deformation process.The layer structure affected the magnetic properties of die-upset magnets.With increase of the hot pressing temperature,the nonaligned grains layers became thicker,and the magnetic performance of die-upset magnets decreased.It was necessary to reduce the thickness of large grains layers for the preparation of high-performance die-upset magnets.

  12. Retrieving quasi-phase-matching structure with discrete layer-peeling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q. W.; Zeng, Xianglong; Wang, M.;

    2012-01-01

    An approach to reconstruct a quasi-phase-matching grating by using a discrete layer-peeling algorithm is presented. Experimentally measured output spectra of Solc-type filters, based on uniform and chirped QPM structures, are used in the discrete layer-peeling algorithm. The reconstructed QPM...

  13. Electronic structure of the layered nitride LiMoN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. J.

    1992-10-01

    Electronic-structure calculations are reported for the layered ternary nitride LiMoN2. It is found that the material is best described as a three-dimensional metal consisting of strongly covalent MoN2 sheets and Li ions between them. Highly unusual strong direct bonding between N atoms in opposing layers is found.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of three-dimensional coherent structure in plane mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional temporally evolving plane mixing layer is sinulated by directly solying the Navier-Stokes equations using pseudo-spectral method. The process of loss of stability, and the formation paring, and development of vortex are presented. The simulated result shows that the evolving characteristics of coherent structure are important mechanism of growing and entrainment of mixing layer.

  15. Structure and Properties of Some Layered U2O5 Phases: A Density Functional Theory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, Marco; Brincat, Nicholas A.; Allen, Geoffrey C.; Parker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    U2O5 is the boundary composition between the fluorite and the layered structures of the UO2→3 system and the least studied oxide in the group. δ-U2O5 is the only layered structure proposed so far experimentally, although evidence of fluorite-based phases has also been reported. Our DFT work explores possible structures of U2O5 stoichiometry by starting from existing M2O5 structures (where M is an actinide or transition metal) and replacing the M ions with uranium ions. For all structures, we ...

  16. Catalyst layers for PEMFC manufactured by flexography printing process: performances and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.; Blayo, A.; Chaussy, D. [Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Science and Graphic Arts (LGP2) (UMR 5518 CNRS-CTP-INPG), Grenoble Institute of Technology (INP Grenoble - PAGORA), St Martin d' Heres (France); Vincent, R.; Mercier, A.G.; Nayoze, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)/DRT/LITEN, Laboratoire des Composants Piles a Combustible, Electrolyse et Modelisation (LCPEM), Grenoble (France)

    2012-04-15

    This article focuses on the potential of a classic printing process, flexography, for manufacturing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are produced by deposition of a water-based catalyst ink on a gas diffusion layer (GDL). The affinity between the ink and the GDL is quantified. Thus, the strong hydrophobic character of the GDL and the poor printability of the ink are demonstrated. However, the permeability of the GDL allows developing a multilayer protocol. The deposition by superimposition of ink layers allows control of the platinum amount and to obtain catalyst layers with a similar density of platinum nanoparticles to coated samples. At similar platinum loading, flexography and coating made catalyst layers offer similar performances, which confirm the relevance of flexography in catalyst layer manufacturing. Structural characterization shows that manufacturing protocol and process has an influence on catalyst layer microstructure. However, catalyst layer cracking and aggregation are increased with the catalyst layer thickness, diminishing the charge and gas diffusion into the catalyst layer resulting in performance degradation. Consequently, a catalyst layer with 0.46 mgPt cm{sup -2} reaches similar performances to catalyst layers with 1.77 and 2.01 times less platinum loading. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Influence of binder solvent on carbon-layer structure in electrical-double-layer capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; P Suresh Kumar; A K Shukla

    2013-09-01

    Porous activated-carbons with a large surface-area have been the most common materials for electrical-double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). These carbons having a wide pore distribution ranges from micropores to macropores in conjunction with a random pore connection that facilitates the high specific-capacitance values. Pore distribution plays a central role in controlling the capacitance value of EDLCs, since electrolyte distribution inside the active material mainly depends on the pore distribution. This has a direct influence on the distribution of resistance and capacitance values within the electrode. As a result, preparation of electrodes remains a vital issue in realising high-performance EDLCs. Generally, carbon materials along with some binders are dispersed into a solvent and coated onto the current collectors. This study examines the role of binder solvents used for the carbon-ink preparation on the microstructure of the electrodes and the consequent performance of the EDLCs. It is observed that the physical properties of the binder solvent namely its dielectric constant, viscosity and boiling point have important role in determining the pore-size distribution as well as the microstructure of electrodes which influence their specific capacitance values.

  18. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhizhong, E-mail: zzyan@bit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57078 Siegen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  19. Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2012-03-01

    The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.

  20. Single-borehole measuring method for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; LONG Teng-teng; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    According to the structural characteristics of gently inclined thin layer rock mass in which lots of weak interlayer existed, the concept of gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. If single-borehole measuring method of the acoustic along the conventional arrangement mode was used in measuring the broken rock zone in this structure, the change of the relationship curves (Vp-L) between acoustic p-wave velocity (Vp) and borehole depth (L) would present the irregular feature due to the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass and harmful effects of weak interlayers, and the scope of broken rock zone couldn't be defined quickly. Based on the analysis of the mechanical characteristics of layered rock mass, the propagation rule of acoustic and distributions characteristics of plastic zone and slip zone in layered rock mass, new arrangement mode of acoustic measuring boreholes for broken rock zone in gently inclined thin layer weakness structure was proposed. Namely, the measuring boreholes in two sides were parallel to the strata, the measuring boreholes in the roof and floor perpendicular to the strata. Besides the controlling depth of the measuring boreholes in the scope of the large plastic zones or the large slip zones should be increased. Engineering exampleshowed that new acoustic measuring boreholes arrangement mode had the better applicability and could determine the scope of the broken rock zone in the gently inclined thin layer weakness structure quickly.

  1. Metallic layered composite materials produced by explosion welding: Structure, properties, and structure of the transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tseva, L. A.; Tyushlyaeva, D. S.; Mal'tseva, T. V.; Pastukhov, M. V.; Lozhkin, N. N.; Inyakin, D. V.; Marshuk, L. A.

    2014-10-01

    The structure, morphology, and microhardness of the transition zone in multilayer metallic composite joints are studied, and the cohesion strength of the plates to be joined, the mechanical properties of the formed composite materials, and fracture surfaces are analyzed. The materials to be joined are plates (0.1-1 mm thick) made of D16 aluminum alloy, high-strength maraging ZI90-VI (03Kh12N9K4M2YuT) steel, BrB2 beryllium bronze, and OT4-1 titanium alloy. Composite materials made of different materials are shown to be produced by explosion welding. The dependence of the interface shape (smooth or wavelike) on the physicomechanical properties of the materials to be joined is found. The formation of a wavelike interface is shown to result in the formation of intense-mixing regions in transition zones. Possible mechanisms of layer adhesion are discussed.

  2. Vertical structure of the boundary layer. a comparison between land and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.

    computations. The 'Mixing heights' which are useful in studying the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of aerosol and water vapour across the coastal zone, are also studied. The study indicates significant differences in the structure of the boundary layer...

  3. Estimation of apparent soil resistivity for two-layer soil structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassereddine, M.; Rizk, J.; Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A. [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    High voltage (HV) earthing design is one of the key elements when it comes to safety compliance of a system. High voltage infrastructure exposes workers and people to unsafe conditions. The soil structure plays a vital role in determining the allowable and actual step/touch voltage. This paper presents vital information when working with two-layer soil structure. It shows the process as to when it is acceptable to use a single layer instead of a two-layer structure. It also discusses the simplification of the soil structure approach depending on the reflection coefficient. It introduces the reflection coefficient K interval which determines if single layer approach is acceptable. Multiple case studies are presented to address the new approach and its accuracy.

  4. Photovoltaic structures having a light scattering interface layer and methods of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangxin; Compaan, Alvin D.; Paudel, Naba Raj

    2015-10-13

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell structures having an integral light scattering interface layer configured to diffuse or scatter light prior to entering a semiconductor material and methods of making the same are described.

  5. Modeling of individual coherent structures in wall region of a turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恒; 陆昌根; 罗纪生

    1999-01-01

    Models for individual coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer are proposed. Method of numerical simulations is used to follow the evolution of the structures. It is found that the proposed model does bear many features of coherent structures found in experiments.

  6. Anisotropy Characteristics of Magnetostatic Surface Wave Propagating in YIG/Dielectric/Metal Layered Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hui Yang; Huai-Wu Zhang; Ying-Li Liu

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropy of magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) propagating in finite width YIG/dielectric/metal layered structure is analyzed. This problem is solved by finding the rigorous solution of each layer from Maxwell equation and the appropriate transmission Green's function matrix (G). From the relationship of Green's function matrixes of dielectric layer and ferrite layer, the dispersion equation is obtained.The MSSW filter is designed to verify the dispersion characteristics. The experiment results are in good agreement with the calculating data from the model.

  7. Structure and Magnetoresistive Properties of Thee-layer Film Systems Based on Permalloy and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.O. Shkurdoda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural and phase composition and magnetoresistive properties of three-layer film systems based on permalloy and copper were investigated. The samples were obtained by layer by layer condensation method with followed heat treatment to the 300-700 K temperature range. Shown that the spin-dependent scattering of electrons realizing in the range of layer thicknesses (dCu = 6-15 nm and dPy = 25-40 nm of the condensed and annealed at 400 K samples. The Maximum GMR observed after annealing the samples at 400 K and annealing to 550 K leads to anisotropic magnetoresistance occurrence.

  8. Structural, morphology and electrical properties of layered copper selenide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Chyi Liew, J.; Talib, Zainal; Mahmood, W.; Yunus, M.; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Halim, Shaari; Moksin, Mohd; Yusoff, Wan; Pah Lim, K.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of copper selenide (CuSe) were physically deposited layer-by-layer up to 5 layers using thermal evaporation technique onto a glass substrate. Various film properties, including the thickness, structure, morphology, surface roughness, average grain size and electrical conductivity are studied and discussed. These properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometer and 4 point probe at room temperature. The dependence of electrical conductivity, surface roughness, and average grain size on number of layers deposited is discussed.

  9. Sintering of bi-layered porous structures: Stress development and shape evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Ramousse, Severine;

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La, Sr)MnO3 (LSM) are electro-ceramics materials with high potential for several electrochemical applications such as solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), gas separation membranes, and flue gas purification application. In the latter case, these materials are shaped as thick...... porous layers and sintered by co-firing process. In this work, porous CGO and LSM/CGO single layers were prepared by tape casting, and CGO-LSM/CGO bi-layer structures were obtained by lamination. The shrinkage characteristics of individual layers were measured by optical dilatometry and the uniaxial...

  10. Shrinking device realized by using layered structures of homogeneous isotropic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ya-Nan; Liu Shao-Bin; Zhao Xin; Wang Shen-Yun; Chen Chen

    2012-01-01

    We propose the practical realization of a shrinking device by using layered structures of homogeneous isotropic materials.By mimicking the shrinking device with concentric alternating thin layers of isotropic dielectrics,the permittivity and the permeability in each isotropic layer can be properly determined from the effective medium theory in order to achieve the shrinking effect.The device realized by multilayer coating with dielectrics is validated by TE wave simulation,and good shrinking performance is demonstrated with only a few layers of homogeneous isotropic materials.

  11. Thermal balance and photon-number quantization in layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Partanen, Mikko; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    The quantization of the electromagnetic field in lossy and dispersive dielectric media has been widely studied during the last few decades. However, several aspects of energy transfer and its relation to consistently defining position-dependent ladder operators for the electromagnetic field in nonequilibrium conditions have partly escaped the attention. In this work we define the position-dependent ladder operators and an effective local photon-number operator that are consistent with the canonical commutation relations and use these concepts to describe the energy transfer and thermal balance in layered geometries. This approach results in a position-dependent photon-number concept that is simple and consistent with classical energy conservation arguments. The operators are formed by first calculating the vector potential operator using Green's function formalism and Langevin noise source operators related to the medium and its temperature, and then defining the corresponding position-dependent annihilation ...

  12. Odontoblast layer structure alteration as a response to carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial disease affecting the hard tissue of the teeth as well as the pulp. The human dental pulp consists of odontoblast which are organized as a densely packed cell layer. Odontoblasts is located at the periphery of the pulp; therefore, they are the first cells encountered by cariogenic bacteria and their products that are represented in the carious lesion. Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cariogenic bacteria to odontoblasts of human teeth. Methods: Five intact third molars and 15 third molars with occlusal caries at various stages of decay were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. The tooth specimens were fixed, decalcified with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were cut and stained with haematoxylin eosin and Gram’s, in addition to nestin immunohistochemistry. The specimens were then examined under light microscopy. Results: In normal teeth, odontoblast layer were aligned along the pulp chamber showing normal morphology of the cells. Slight disorganization of odontoblast layer was seen in the cases of carious lesions confined to enamel. In the cases of carious lesions confined to dentin, odontoblast layer was not observed in the areas subjacent to the lesions, only single cells showing flattened cell morphology were found. Odontoblasts beneath the lesion suffered severe damage and diminished nestin immunoreaction were observed in all cases of carious lesions with pulp exposure. Conclusion: Cariogenic bacteria invasion may damage the odontoblasts by affecting the morphology and vitality of the cells. The severity of the damage of the odontoblasts may increase as the bacterial invasion progresses toward the pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, yang dapat memengaruhi jaringan keras gigi maupun pulpa. Pada pulpa gigi manusia terdapat sel odontoblas yang tersusun atas lapisan sel

  13. Bias-dependent molecular-level structure of electrical double layer in ionic liquid on graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer M; Walters, Deron; Labuda, Aleksander; Feng, Guang; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T; Kalinin, Sergei V; Proksch, Roger; Balke, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the bias-evolution of the electrical double layer structure of an ionic liquid on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite measured by atomic force microscopy. We observe reconfiguration under applied bias and the orientational transitions in the Stern layer. The synergy between molecular dynamics simulation and experiment provides a comprehensive picture of structural phenomena and long and short-range interactions, which improves our understanding of the mechanism of charge storage on a molecular level.

  14. Controlling Structure from the Bottom-Up: Structural and Optical Properties of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Palladium Coordination-Based Multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman,M.; Shukla, A.; Zubkov, T.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; van der Boom, M.

    2006-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembly of two palladium coordination-based multilayers on silicon and glass substrates is presented. The new assemblies consist of rigid-rod chromophores connected by terminal pyridine moieties to palladium centers. Both colloidal palladium and PdCl{sub 2}(PhCN){sub 2} were used in order to determine the effect of the metal complex precursor on multilayer structure and optical properties. The multilayers were formed by an iterative wet-chemical deposition process at room temperature in air on a siloxane-based template layer. Twelve consecutive deposition steps have been demonstrated resulting in structurally regular assemblies with an equal amount of chromophore and palladium added in each molecular bilayer. The optical intensity characteristics of the metal-organic films are clearly a function of the palladium precursor employed. The colloid-based system has a UV-vis absorption maximum an order of magnitude stronger than that of the PdCl{sub 2}-based multilayer. The absorption maximum of the PdCl{sub 2}-based film exhibits a significant red shift of 23 nm with the addition of 12 layers. Remarkably, the structure and physiochemical properties of the submicron scale PdCl{sub 2}-based structures are determined by the configuration of the {approx}15 Angstrom thick template layer. The refractive index of the PdCl2-based film was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Well-defined three-dimensional structures, with a dimension of 5 m, were obtained using photopatterned template monolayers. The properties and microstructure of the films were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and aqueous contact angle measurements (CA).

  15. Comparison of different structures of niobium oxide blocking layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jong Sung

    2014-08-01

    In this study, four different types of Nb2O5 thin layers were prepared using sol-gel process to improve energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Nb2O5 layer was prepared on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer, TiO2 electrode layer, and inside of TiO2 layer, respectively. The Nb2O5 layer was used to reduce the recombination of photo induced electrons and holes. The DSSCs were assembled with platinum (Pt) coated counter electrode, ruthenium dye, and iodine based electrolyte. The photocurrent-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DSSCs with different types of Nb2O5 were studied. The efficiency depends not only on the structure of DSSCs but also on the initial compositions for the preparation of Nb2O5.

  16. Enhanced detectability of community structure in multilayer networks through layer aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Dane; Stanley, Natalie; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Community detection is a central pursuit for understanding the structure and function of biological, social and technological networks, and it is important to understand the fundamental limitations on detectability. Many systems are naturally represented by a multilayer network in which edges exist in multiple layers that encode different--but potentially related--types of interactions. Using random matrix theory for stochastic block models, we analyze detectability limitations for multilayer networks and find that by aggregating together similar layers, it is possible to identify structure that is undetectable in a single layer. We explore this phenomenon for several aggregation methods including summation of the layers' adjacency matrices, for which detectability limit vanishes with increasing number of layers, L, decaying as O(L^{-1/2}). Interestingly, we find a similar scaling behavior when the summation is thresholded at an optimal value, supporting the common--but not well understood--practice of thresh...

  17. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1982-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  18. Synthesis and structure refinement of layered double hydroxides of Co, Mg and Ni with Ga

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Manohara; P Vishnu Kamath

    2010-06-01

    Homogeneous precipitation by urea hydrolysis results in the formation of highly ordered layered double hydroxides of divalent metal ions (Co, Mg, Ni) and Ga. Structure refinement shows that these carbonate containing layered hydroxides crystallize with rhombohedral symmetry (space group -3) in the structure of the 31 polytype. An analysis of the structure shows that, coulombic attraction between the layer and interlayer remains invariant in different layered hydroxides, whereas the strength of hydrogen bonding varies. The Ni–Ga LDH has the weakest hydrogen bonding and Co–Ga, the strongest, as reflected by the layer–interlayer oxygen–oxygen distances. The poor polarity of the OH bond in the Ni–Ga hydroxide points to the greater covalency of the (2+}/′3+)-oxygen bond in this compound as opposed to the Co–Ga hydroxide. These observations are supported by IR spectra.

  19. Asymmetric transmission of acoustic waves in a layer thickness distribution gradient structure using metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-San; Chang, I.-Ling; Huang, Wan-Ting; Chen, Lien-Wen; Huang, Guan-Hua

    2016-09-01

    This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.

  20. Structural Analysis of Layered Polymer Crystals and Application to Photofunctional Materials Using Organic Intercalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinya Oshita; Akikazu Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction We reported that layered polymer crystals are obtained by the topochemical polymerization of 1,3-diene monomers and provided as host material for organic intercalation[1]. For intercalation using various long-alkyl amines as the guest species, its reaction behavior, mechanism, characteristics, and potential to application have been clarified[2]. We also succeeded in the synthesis of several host layered polymer crystals with different tacticities and layer structures[3]. We describe here intercalation using various stereoregular poly(muconic acid)s (PMA) and n-alkylamines as the host and guest compounds, respectively. The reaction behavior and the layered structure of the obtained ammonium polymers are discussed from the viewpoint of stereochemical structure of the host polymers.

  1. Spatial properties of entangled photon pairs generated in nonlinear layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Perina, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A spatial quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in nonlinear layered structures is developed expanding the interacting vectorial fields into monochromatic plane waves. A two-photon spectral amplitude depending on the signal- and idler-field frequencies and propagation directions is used to derive transverse profiles of the emitted fields as well as their spatial correlations. Intensity spatial profiles and their spatial correlations are mainly determined by the positions of transmission peaks formed in these structures with photonic bands. A method for geometry optimization of the structures with respect to efficiency of the nonlinear process is suggested. Several structures composed of GaN/AlN layers are analyzed as typical examples. They allow the generation of photon pairs correlated in several emission directions. Photon-pair generation rates increasing better than the second power of the number of layers can be reached. Also structures efficiently generated photon pairs showing anti-bun...

  2. Electronic structure, lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of silicon nanosphere-nanoribbon layered structure from first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Peng-Xian, E-mail: pengxian_lu@haut.edu.cn; Xia, Yi

    2017-05-01

    How to further optimize the thermoelectric figure of merit of silicon (Si) nanostructure? Constructing the layered structure composed of two different Si nano morphologies should be viewed an effective approach. The figure of merit of the layered structure could be further optimized by tuning the different contribution from the composed nano morphologies on the electron and phonon transport. In order to reveal the thermoelectric transport mechanism, the electronic structure, the lattice dynamics and the thermoelectric properties of Si nanosphere, Si nanoribbon and the layered structure composed of the two nano morphologies were investigated through first-principles calculation, lattice dynamics simulation and Boltzmann transport theory. The results suggest that the figure of merit of the layered structure is improved significantly in whole although its specific thermoelectric parameters are unsatisfactory as compared to the single nano morphologies. Therefore we provide a complete understanding on the thermoelectric transport of the layered structure and an effective route to further optimize the figure of merit of Si nanostructure.

  3. Transient Structures. Layers of Social Meaning in Conceptual Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BROSCATEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the conceptual framework of WLC 2016 we have chosen to explore a transdisciplinary approach of postmodern clothing. Fashion has always been a domain in which sociological, philosophical, political, cultural approaches have spoken about its contents and contexts. Recent sociological studies of fashion have revealed the deep meanings of conceptual clothing and the interwoven network of thoughts that is the starting point for such intellectual approaches. Fashion scholars such as Bradley Quinn, Caroline Evans, Valerie Steele or Malcolm Barnard have underlined the role of conceptual clothing in casting a light upon various social issues and symptoms. Through this paper we want to argument how layers of social meaning transform certain fashion projects in reflexions of the Zeitgeist. In the current socio-political context such investigations do not necessarily offer pertinent answers, but certainly raise more questions and awareness. By focusing on the works of Lucy and Jorge Orta, and Hussein Chalayan, our aim is to explore the different ways in which social changes, urban reconfigurations, and geographical dislocation question our notions of space, form, mobility, and identity. Our research will be a transdisciplinary one, analysing a consistent part of their work from different perspectives in order to reveal their influence on the way in which the design of clothing has taken the responsibility of becoming a shelter, a refuge, a mean of protection against the transient nature of contemporary societies. We will be analyzing Chalayan’s three projects, Afterwords (2000, Temporal Meditations (2003, and Absent Presence (2005, and Orta’s Refugee Wear (1992, Modular Architecture (1996, and Nexus Architecture (1993–2002. In investigating their works we shall focus on the character of artistic process, employed by both Chalayan and Orta, by using the objects (garments and the mechanisms of fashion (runway collection for Chalayan, and the

  4. Structural and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Choi, Hyoji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo-Hyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Bum [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-08

    Structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated to study the extrinsic doping mechanism of a transparent conducting oxide. ALD-AZO films exhibit a unique layer-by-layer structure consisting of a ZnO matrix and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant layers, as determined by transmission electron microscopy analysis. In these layered AZO films, a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant layer deposited during one ALD cycle could provide {approx}4.5 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} free electrons to the ZnO. The effective field model for doping is suggested to explain the decrease in the carrier concentration of ALD-AZO films when the interval between the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers is reduced to less than {approx}2.6 nm (>3.4 at% Al). By correlating the electrical and structural properties, an extrinsic doping mechanism of ALD-AZO films is proposed in which the incorporated Al atoms take oxygen from the ZnO matrix and form doubly charged donors, such as oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Structural Investigation of Sodium Layered Oxides Via in Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Young Hwa; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Johnsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Sodium layered oxides with mixed transition metals have received significant attention as positive electrode candidates for sodium-ion batteries due to high reversible capacity. Sodium layered oxides would be more promising candidates than lithium-compounds in terms of high stability of MO2 slabs...... further relaxation step. We carefully scrutinized reversible structural phase transformations during electrochemical reaction of P2 and O3-layered compounds based on in situ analysis, and detailed results will be discussed.......Sodium layered oxides with mixed transition metals have received significant attention as positive electrode candidates for sodium-ion batteries due to high reversible capacity. Sodium layered oxides would be more promising candidates than lithium-compounds in terms of high stability of MO2 slabs...... electrochemical reaction is generally considered to be a pivotal feature for understanding the relationship between layered structures and electrochemical properties. Here the structure, phase stability, and electrochemical properties of two kinds of layered oxides, P2 and O3, are investigated through in...

  6. Impacts of sea spray on the boundary layer structure of Typhoon Imbudo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jie; LI Weibiao; CHEN Shumin; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    High winds in a typhoon over the ocean can produce substantial amounts of spray in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer, which can modify the transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. However, the consequent effects on the boundary layer structure and the evolution of the typhoon are largely unknown. The focus of this paper is on the role of sea spray on the storm intensity and the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. The case study is Typhoon Imbudo in July 2003. The results show that sea spray tends to intensify storms by increasing the sea surface heat fluxes. Moreover, the effects of sea spray are mainly felt in boundary layer. Spray evaporation causes the atmospheric boundary layer to experience cooling and moistening. Sea spray can cause significant effects on the structure of boundary layer. The boundary-layer height over the eyewall area east to the center of Typhoon Imbudo was increased with a maximum up to about 550 m due to sea spray, which is closely related with the enhancements of the heat fluxes, upward motions, and horizontal winds in this region due to sea spray.

  7. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  8. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  9. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, Iraj, E-mail: i_jabbari@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 8174673441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Central Iran Research Complex, NSTRI, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-21

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  10. Band Gap Opening Induced by the Structural Periodicity in Epitaxial Graphene Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Nair, Maya; Palacio, Irene; Celis, Arlensiú; Zobelli, Alberto; Gloter, Alexandre; Kubsky, Stefan; Turmaud, Jean-Philippe; Conrad, Matthew; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walter; Conrad, Edward H; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-04-12

    The epitaxial graphene buffer layer on the Si face of hexagonal SiC shows a promising band gap, of which the precise origin remains to be understood. In this work, we correlate the electronic to the atomic structure of the buffer layer by combining angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). We show that the band structure in the buffer has an electronic periodicity related to the structural periodicity observed in STM images and published X-ray diffraction. Our HR-STEM measurements show the bonding of the buffer layer to the SiC at specific locations separated by 1.5 nm. This is consistent with the quasi 6 × 6 periodic corrugation observed in the STM images. The distance between buffer C and SiC is 1.9 Å in the bonded regions and up to 2.8 Å in the decoupled regions, corresponding to a 0.9 Å corrugation of the buffer layer. The decoupled regions are sp(2) hybridized. Density functional tight binding (DFTB) calculations demonstrate the presence of a gap at the Dirac point everywhere in the buffer layer, even in the decoupled regions where the buffer layer has an atomic structure close to that of graphene. The surface periodicity also promotes band in the superperiodic Brillouin zone edges as seen by photoemission and confirmed by our calculations.

  11. Structure and contents of layered classification system of digital geomorphology for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Weiming; ZHOU Chenghu; LI Bingyuan; SHEN Yuancun; ZHANG Baiping

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the structure and contents of a standardized layered classification system of digital geomorphology for China.This digital classification method combines landforms characteristics of morphology with genesis.A total of 15 categories of exogenic and endogenic forces are divided into two broad categories:morpho-genetic and morpho-structural landforms.Polygon patches are used to manage the morpho-genetic types,and solitary points,lines and polygons are used to manage the morpho-structural types.The classification method of digital morpho-genetic types can be divided into seven layers,i.e.basic morphology and altitude,genesis,sub-genesis,morphology,micro-morphology,slope and aspect,material and lithology.The method proposes combinations of matrix forms based on layered indicators.The attributes of every landform types are obtained from all or some of the seven layers.For the 15 forces categories,some classification indicators and calculation methods are presented for the basic morphology,the morphologic and sub-morphologic landforms of the morpho-genetic types.The solitary polygon,linear and point types of morpho-structural landforms are presented respectively.The layered classification method can meet the demands of scale-span geomorphologic mapping for the national primary scales from 1:500,000 to 1:1,000,000.The layers serve as classification indicators,and therefore can be added and reduced according to mapping demands,providing flexible expandability.

  12. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kristin Perras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncultivated Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks (hami on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal phylum at their N-terminal region (47-44% identity. Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins.

  13. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Alexandra K; Daum, Bertram; Ziegler, Christine; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Ahmed, Musahid; Wanner, Gerhard; Klingl, Andreas; Leitinger, Gerd; Kolb-Lenz, Dagmar; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Auerbach, Anna; Mora, Maximilian; Probst, Alexander J; Bellack, Annett; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The uncultivated "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum" (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon) carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks ("hami") on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal domain at their N-terminal region (44-47% identity). Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins.

  14. Enhanced Magnetoelectric Coupling in Layered Structure of Piezoelectric Bimorph and Metallic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. M.; Bichurin, M. I.; Lavrentyeva, K. V.; Leontiev, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in a layered structure of piezoelectric bimorph and magnetostrictive metallic alloy. The observed ME coefficient in the piezoelectric bimorph-based structure was found to be two times higher than in the traditional piezoelectric/magnetostrictive bilayer. The observed enhancement in ME coupling strength is related to equal signs of induced voltage in both lead zirconate titanate layers with opposite poling directions due to the flexural deformations. The piezoelectric bimorph-based structure has promising potential for sensor and technological applications.

  15. Defect Detection in Multi-Layered Structures Using High Frequency Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masserey, B.; Kostson, E.; Fromme, P.

    2011-06-01

    Aircraft structures contain multi-layered components connected by fasteners, where fatigue cracks and disbonds can develop due to cyclic loading conditions and stress concentration. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the efficient non-destructive testing of components, such as aircraft wings. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small defects has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminium plate-strips. High frequency ultrasonic wave propagation along the structure and the sensitivity to disbonds and small defects in the metallic layers was investigated and verified experimentally. Preliminary fatigue experiments were carried out and the sensitivity of the guided waves to monitor fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was investigated. The measurement setup has the potential for fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance.

  16. Structure and physical properties for a new layered pnictide-oxide: BaTi₂As₂O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Yan, Y J; Ying, J J; Li, Q J; Zhang, M; Xu, N; Chen, X H

    2010-02-24

    We have successfully synthesized a new layered pnictide-oxide: BaTi(2)As(2)O. It shares similar characteristics with Na(2)Ti(2)Sb(2)O. The crystal has a layered structure with a tetragonal P4/nmm group (a = 4.047(3) Å, c = 7.275(4) Å). The resistivity shows an anomaly at 200 K, which should be ascribed to an SDW or structural transition. The SDW or structural transition is confirmed by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. These behaviors are very similar to those observed in parent compounds of high-T(c) iron-based pnictide superconductors, in which the superconductivity shows up when the anomaly due to the SDW or structural transition is suppressed. Therefore, the new layered pnictide-oxide, BaTi(2)As(2)O, could be a potential parent compound for superconductivity. It is found that Li( + ) doping significantly suppresses the anomaly, but no superconductivity emerges so far.

  17. Dynamical origins of the community structure of multi-layer societies

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter; Eguiluz, Victor; Miguel, Maxi San; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Social structures emerge as a result of individuals managing a variety of different of social relationships. Societies can be represented as highly structured dynamic multiplex networks. Here we study the dynamical origins of the specific community structures of a large-scale social multiplex network of a human society that interacts in a virtual world of a massive multiplayer online game. There we find substantial differences in the community structures of different social actions, represented by the various network layers in the multiplex. Community size distributions are either similar to a power-law or appear to be centered around a size of 50 individuals. To understand these observations we propose a voter model that is built around the principle of triadic closure. It explicitly models the co-evolution of node- and link-dynamics across different layers of the multiplex. Depending on link- and node fluctuation rates, the model exhibits an anomalous shattered fragmentation transition, where one layer frag...

  18. Enhanced Detectability of Community Structure in Multilayer Networks through Layer Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dane; Shai, Saray; Stanley, Natalie; Mucha, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Many systems are naturally represented by a multilayer network in which edges exist in multiple layers that encode different, but potentially related, types of interactions, and it is important to understand limitations on the detectability of community structure in these networks. Using random matrix theory, we analyze detectability limitations for multilayer (specifically, multiplex) stochastic block models (SBMs) in which L layers are derived from a common SBM. We study the effect of layer aggregation on detectability for several aggregation methods, including summation of the layers' adjacency matrices for which we show the detectability limit vanishes as O (L-1 /2) with increasing number of layers, L . Importantly, we find a similar scaling behavior when the summation is thresholded at an optimal value, providing insight into the common—but not well understood—practice of thresholding pairwise-interaction data to obtain sparse network representations.

  19. Structure prediction of an S-layer protein by the mean force method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejs, C.; Pum, D.; Sleytr, U. B.; Tscheliessnig, R.

    2008-02-01

    S-layer proteins have a wide range of application potential due to their characteristic features concerning self-assembling, assembling on various surfaces, and forming of isoporous structures with functional groups located on the surface in an identical position and orientation. Although considerable knowledge has been experimentally accumulated on the structure, biochemistry, assemble characteristics, and genetics of S-layer proteins, no structural model at atomic resolution has been available so far. Therefore, neither the overall folding of the S-layer proteins—their tertiary structure—nor the exact amino acid or domain allocations in the lattices are known. In this paper, we describe the tertiary structure prediction for the S-layer protein SbsB from Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2. This calculation was based on its amino acid sequence using the mean force method (MF method) achieved by performing molecular dynamic simulations. This method includes mainly the thermodynamic aspects of protein folding as well as steric constraints of the amino acids and is therefore independent of experimental structure analysis problems resulting from biochemical properties of the S-layer proteins. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed in vacuum using the simulation software NAMD. The obtained tertiary structure of SbsB was systematically analyzed by using the mean force method, whereas the verification of the structure is based on calculating the global free energy minimum of the whole system. This corresponds to the potential of mean force, which is the thermodynamically most favorable conformation of the protein. Finally, an S-layer lattice was modeled graphically using CINEMA4D and compared with scanning force microscopy data down to a resolution of 1nm. The results show that this approach leads to a thermodynamically favorable atomic model of the tertiary structure of the protein, which could be verified by both the MF Method and the lattice model.

  20. Structure and composition of the septal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke

    2006-01-01

    The nacreous layer of Mollusca is the best-known aragonitic structure and is the usual model for biomineralization. However, data are based on less than 10 species. In situ observations of the septal nacreous layer of the cephalopod Nautilus shell has revealed that the tablets are composed of acicular laths. These laths are composed of round nanograins surrounded by an organic sheet. No hole has been observed in the decalcified interlamellar membranes. A set of combined analytical data shows that the organic matrices extracted from the nacreous layer are glycoproteins. In both soluble and insoluble matrices, S amino acids are rare and the soluble organic matrices have a higher sulfated sugar content than the insoluble matrices. It is possible that the observed differences in the structure and composition of the nacreous layers of the outer wall and septa of the Nautilus shell have a dual origin: evolution and functional adaptation. However, we have no appropriate data as yet to answer this question.

  1. Influence of relaxation processes on the structure of a thermal boundary layer in partially ionized argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dongen, M.E.H.; van Eck, R.B.P.; Hagebeuk, H.J.L.; Hirschberg, A.; Hutten-Mansfeld, A.C.B.; Jager, H.J.; Willems, J.F.H. (Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven (Netherlands))

    1981-08-01

    A model for the unsteady thermal boundary-layer development at the end wall of a shock tube, in partially ionized atmospheric argon, is proposed. Consideration is given to ionization and thermal relaxation processes. In order to obtain some insight into the influence of the relaxation processes on the structure of the boundary layer, a study of the frozen and equilibrium limits has been carried out. The transition from a near-equilibrium situation in the outer part of the boundary layer towards a frozen situation near the wall is determined numerically. Experimental data on the electron and atom density profiles obtained from laser schlieren and absorption measurements are presented. A quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found for a moderate degree of ionization (3%). At a higher degree of ionization the structure of the boundary layer is dominated by the influence of radiation cooling, which has been neglected in the model.

  2. New strategy of modeling inversion layer characteristics in MOS structure for ULSI applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉涛; 李志坚; 刘理天

    2001-01-01

    With the development of ULSI silicon technology, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) devices are scaling down to nanometer regime. Energy of carriers in inversion layer in MOS structure is quantized and consequently, the physics and then the transport characteristics of inversion layer carriers are different from those in semi-classical theory. One essential matter is that the widely used concept of conduction band (valence band as well) effective density-of-states is no longer valid in quantized inversion layer. In this paper, an alternative concept, called surface layer effective density-of-states, is used to model the characteristics of MOS structure including threshold voltage, carrier sheet density, surface potential as well as capacitance.

  3. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  4. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-11-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.

  5. Creating new layered structures at high pressures: SiS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plašienka, Dušan; Martoňák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio

    2016-11-01

    Old and novel layered structures are attracting increasing attention for their physical, electronic, and frictional properties. SiS2, isoelectronic to SiO2, CO2 and CS2, is a material whose phases known experimentally up to 6 GPa exhibit 1D chain-like, 2D layered and 3D tetrahedral structures. We present highly predictive ab initio calculations combined with evolutionary structure search and molecular dynamics simulations of the structural and electronic evolution of SiS2 up to 100 GPa. A highly stable CdI2-type layered structure, which is octahedrally coordinated with space group surprisingly appears between 4 and up to at least 100 GPa. The tetrahedral-octahedral switch is naturally expected upon compression, unlike the layered character realized here by edge-sharing SiS6 octahedral units connecting within but not among sheets. The predicted phase is semiconducting with an indirect band gap of about 2 eV at 10 GPa, decreasing under pressure until metallization around 40 GPa. The robustness of the layered phase suggests possible recovery at ambient pressure, where calculated phonon spectra indicate dynamical stability. Even a single monolayer is found to be dynamically stable in isolation, suggesting that it could possibly be sheared or exfoliated from bulk -SiS2.

  6. Angular and positional dependence of Purcell effect for layered metal-dielectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaydullin, A. R.; Mazlin, V. A.; Ivanov, K. A.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Balocco, C.

    2016-04-01

    We study the angular dependence of the spontaneous emission enhancement of a dipole source inserted into a layered metal-dielectric metamaterial. We analyse the dependence of Purcell effect from the position of the dipole in the layered hyperbolic media. We analyse the impact of the complex structure of eigenmodes of the system operating in hyperbolic regime. We have shown that the spontaneous emission rate of the dipole emitter depends on its position, which mainly affect the interaction with Langmuir modes.

  7. Structure of Protein Layers in Polyelectrolyte Matrices Studied by Neutron Reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Eugenia [University of Alabama, Birmingham

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by localized incorporation of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) within electrostatically assembled matrices of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH) via spin-assisted layer-by-layer growth were discovered to be highly structured, with closely packed monomolecular layers of the protein within the bio-hybrid films. The structure of the films was evaluated in both vertical and lateral directions with neutron reflectometry, using deuterated GFP as a marker for neutron scattering contrast. Importantly, the GFP preserves its structural stability upon assembly as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Atomic force microscopy was complimented with X-ray reflectometry to characterize the external roughness of the biohybrid films. Remarkably, films assembled with a single GFP layer confined at various distances from the substrate exhibit a strong localization of the GFP layer without intermixing into the LbL matrix. However, partial intermixing of the GFP layers with polymeric material is evidenced in multiple-GFP layer films with alternating protein-rich and protein-deficient regions. We hypothesize that the polymer-protein exchange observed in the multiple-GFP layer films suggests the existence of a critical protein concentration which can be accommodated by the multilayer matrix. Our results yield new insights into the mechanism of GFP interaction with a polyelectrolyte matrix and open opportunities for fabrication of bio-hybrid films with well-organized structure and controllable function, a crucial requirement for advanced sensing applications.

  8. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-11

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  9. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-01

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  10. Advanced germanium layer transfer for ultra thin body on insulator structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Irisawa, Toshifumi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Poborchii, Vladimir; Kurashima, Yuuichi; Takagi, Hideki; Uchida, Noriyuki

    2016-12-01

    We present the HEtero-Layer Lift-Off (HELLO) technique to obtain ultra thin body (UTB) Ge on insulator (GeOI) substrates. The transferred ultra thin Ge layers are characterized by the Raman spectroscopy measurements down to the thickness of ˜1 nm, observing a strong Raman intensity enhancement for high quality GeOI structure in ultra thin regime due to quantum size effect. This advanced Ge layer transfer technique enabled us to demonstrate UTB-GeOI nMOSFETs with the body thickness of only 4 nm.

  11. PROPAGATION OF LOVE WAVES IN PRESTRESSED PIEZOELECTRIC LAYERED STRUCTURES LOADED WITH VISCOUS LIQUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianke Du; Kai Xian; Ji Wang; Yook-Kong Yong

    2008-01-01

    We investigate analytically the effect of initial stress in piezoelectric layered structures loaded with viscous liquid on the dispersive and attenuated characteristics of Love waves,which involves a thin piezoelectric layer bonded perfectly to an unbounded elastic substrate. The effects of initial stress in the piezoelectric layer and the viscous coefficient of the liquid on the phase velocity of Love waves are analyzed. Numerical results are presented and discussed. The analytical method and the results can be useful for the design of chemical and bioseusing liquid sensors.

  12. Sound transmission through finite lightweight multilayered structures with thin air layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijckmans, A; Vermeir, G; Lauriks, W

    2010-12-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of finite lightweight multilayered structures with thin air layers is studied in this paper. Two types of models are used to describe the vibro-acoustic behavior of these structures. Standard transfer matrix method assumes infinite layers and represents the plane wave propagation in the layers. A wave based model describes the direct sound transmission through a rectangular structure placed between two reverberant rooms. Full vibro-acoustic coupling between rooms, plates, and air cavities is taken into account. Comparison with double glazing measurements shows that this effect of vibro-acoustic coupling is important in lightweight double walls. For infinite structures, structural damping has no significant influence on STL below the coincidence frequency. In this frequency region, the non-resonant transmission or so-called mass-law behavior dominates sound transmission. Modal simulations suggest a large influence of structural damping on STL. This is confirmed by experiments with double fiberboard partitions and sandwich structures. The results show that for thin air layers, the damping induced by friction and viscous effects at the air gap surfaces can largely influence and improve the sound transmission characteristics.

  13. Strain compensation in a semiconducting device structure using an intentionally mismatched uniform buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of strain relaxation in semiconducting device heterostructures has important implications in the design of high electron mobility transistors, light-emitting diodes, and laser diodes, in which the residual strain affects the device characteristics. In this work, we develop the theoretical framework for understanding strain compensation in a semiconductor device layer using a uniform buffer layer which can be intentionally mismatched to the material above. Specifically, we determined the critical condition for complete strain compensation in the device layer by intentionally introducing a compositional mismatch at the device-buffer interface. We present minimum energy calculations and show that for a given device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, the buffer layer may be designed with the appropriate combination of thickness and mismatch such that the device layer will have zero residual strain in equilibrium. Such a structure can be referred to as a completely strain-compensated design. In the more general case, there may be partial strain compensation, and we give a simple physics-based Gaussian-type function describing the residual strain in the device layer. We have applied this general framework to In x Ga1-x As/GaAs (001) heterostructures for the purpose of illustration, but the work is applicable to any diamond or zinc blende (001) heteroepitaxial material system.

  14. First-principles study of the structure of water layers on flat and stepped Pb electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaohang; Evers, Ferdinand; Groß, Axel

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of perodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have addressed the geometric structures and electronic properties of water layers on flat and stepped Pb surfaces. In contrast to late d-band metals, on Pb(111) the energy minimum structure does not correspond to an ice-like hexagonal arrangement at a coverage of 2/3, but rather to a distorted structure at a coverage of 1 due to the larger lattice constant of Pb. At stepped Pb surfaces, the water layers are pinned at the step edge and form a complex network consisting of rectangles, pentagons and hexagons. The thermal stability of the water layers has been studied by using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) at a temperature of 140 K. Whereas the water layer on Pb(111) is already unstable at this temperature, the water layers on Pb(100), Pb(311), Pb(511) and Pb(711) exhibit a higher stability because of stronger water-water interactions. The vibrational spectra of the water layers at the stepped surfaces show a characteristic splitting into three modes in the O-H stretch region.

  15. Semiconductor structures having electrically insulating and conducting portions formed from an AlSb-alloy layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    A semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure comprises a plurality of semiconductor layers formed on a substrate including at least one layer of a III-V compound semiconductor alloy comprising aluminum (Al) and antimony (Sb), with at least a part of the AlSb-alloy layer being chemically converted by an oxidation process to form superposed electrically insulating and electrically conducting portions. The electrically insulating portion formed from the AlSb-alloy layer comprises an oxide of aluminum (e.g. Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), while the electrically conducting portion comprises Sb. A lateral oxidation process allows formation of the superposed insulating and conducting portions below monocrystalline semiconductor layers for forming many different types of semiconductor structures having particular utility for optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, edge-emitting lasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodetectors and optical modulators (waveguide and surface normal), and for electronic devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors and quantum-effect devices. The invention is expected to be particularly useful for forming light-emitting devices for use in the 1.3-1.6 .mu.m wavelength range, with the AlSb-alloy layer acting to define an active region of the device and to effectively channel an electrical current therein for efficient light generation.

  16. Crystalline Structure of the Pb/Si(111)7x7 Stable Wetting Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, M.; Hayden, S. T.; Chen, Yiyao; Kim, C.; Tringides, M. C.; Miceli, P. F.

    2012-02-01

    The wetting layer formation in the Pb/Si(111)7x7 system has attracted extensive interest because of anomalously fast kinetics, which enables the formation of quantum size effect (QSE) nanoislands [Jeffrey et al. PRL 96, 106105 (2006)]. However, previous studies of the wetting layer by x-ray diffraction and scanning-probes have led to inconsistent structural models; thus, the structure of this wetting layer has been unsolved. Furthermore, a recent investigation has revealed that the wetting layer is out-of-equilibrium over a surprisingly broad temperature range [Gramlich et al., PRB 84, 075433 (2011)]. Using in situ x-ray scattering methods, we have solved the stable, low temperature annealed structure of the wetting layer. It exhibits a strained atomic layer where Pb atoms are in transition, from Si-7x7 sites towards 8x8-sites, with some Pb-atoms vertically closer to the Si-7x7. Interestingly, the Si adatoms shift to the edges of the unit cell. Funding is acknowledged from NSF DMR-0706278 (PFM, MWG, STH, YC, and the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea 2009-F014-01 (CK). The experiments were performed on the 6IDC beam line, supported by the US-DOE (through Ames Lab, W-7405-Eng-82), at the Advanced Photon Source (US-DOE, W-31-109-Eng-38) located at Argonne National Laboratory.

  17. INFLUENCE OF LARGE-SCALE VORTICAL STRUCTURES ON THE PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PLANE MIXING LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present study considers the developing mixing layer that is formed by merging of two free streams initially separated by a splitter plate. To investigate the influence of the vortical structures on the particle dispersion, numerical simulation was conducted when the velocity ratio, defined as R=(U∞-U-∞)/(U∞+U-∞), is 0.5. Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) was employed to understand the effect of large-scale vortical structures originated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability on the partical dispersion. The flyash with the particle sizes 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200μm respectively were loaded at the origin of the two-dimensional mixing layer. It is confirmed that the particle dispersion depends strongly on the motion of large-scale vortical structures. The particle dispersion is visualized numerically by following the particle trajectories in the mixing layer undergoing pairing interaction.

  18. Chlorine adlayer-templated growth of a hybrid inorganic-organic layered structure on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeźnicka, I. I.; Horino, H.; Yagyu, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kajimoto, S.; Fukumura, H.

    2016-10-01

    Growth of a hybrid inorganic-organic layered structure on the Au(111) surface using a one-step solution growth is reported. The hybrid structure is consist of 4,4‧-bipyridine [4,4‧-BiPyH2]2 + cations, Cl anions and Au adatoms, provided from substrate by means of the adsorbate-induced surface phase transition of a surface reconstruction. Its surface and bulk structures were characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Raman spectroscopy. STM results reveal growth of the first [4,4‧-BiPyH2]2 + layer on top of the p(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})" separators=", R 30 ° chlorine overlayer formed on the Au(111) surface. These two layers are found to provide a platform for a following three-dimensional growth facilitated by hydrogen bonding, aurophilic and π-π stacking interactions.

  19. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  20. A novel intermediate layer for Au/CdZnTe/FTO photoconductive structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuelu; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Run; Huang, Jian; Tao, Jun; Meng, Hua; Zhang, Jijun; Min, Jiahua

    2016-12-01

    In this work, graphene is tried to use to improve the performance of polycrystalline CdZnTe high-energy radiation and photon detectors. A graphene intermediate layer is prepared by spin-coating process on the surface of polycrystalline CdZnTe film, which forms a photoconductive Au/graphene/CdZnTe/FTO structure. XRD, Raman, photoelectric response and other characterisation methods are adopted to investigate the effect of graphene layer on the electrical characteristics and UV photo-response performance of CdZnTe photoconductive structure. It is demonstrated that graphene layer can significantly improve the contact property of Au/CdZnTe structure, and obviously enhance its UV photo-response and the UV sensitivity increased with one order of magnitude.

  1. Focus: Structure and dynamics of the interfacial layer in polymer nanocomposites with attractive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Carroll, Bobby; Bocharova, Vera; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years it has become clear that the interfacial layer formed around nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is critical for controlling their macroscopic properties. The interfacial layer occupies a significant volume fraction of the polymer matrix in PNCs and creates strong intrinsic heterogeneity in their structure and dynamics. Here, we focus on analysis of the structure and dynamics of the interfacial region in model PNCs with well-dispersed, spherical nanoparticles with attractive interactions. First, we discuss several experimental techniques that provide structural and dynamic information on the interfacial region in PNCs. Then, we discuss the role of various microscopic parameters in controlling structure and dynamics of the interfacial layer. The analysis presented emphasizes the importance of the polymer-nanoparticle interactions for the slowing down dynamics in the interfacial region, while the thickness of the interfacial layer appears to be dependent on chain rigidity, and has been shown to increase with cooling upon approaching the glass transition. Aside from chain rigidity and polymer-nanoparticle interactions, the interfacial layer properties are also affected by the molecular weight of the polymer and the size of the nanoparticles. In the final part of this focus article, we emphasize the important challenges in the field of polymer nanocomposites and a potential analogy with the behavior observed in thin films.

  2. Morphology and atomic-scale structure of single-layer WS2 nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtbauer, Henrik G; Tuxen, Anders K; Moses, Poul G; Topsøe, Henrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jeppe V

    2013-10-14

    Two-dimensional sheets of transition metal (Mo and W) sulfides are attracting strong attention due to the unique electronic and optical properties associated with the material in its single-layer form. The single-layer MoS2 and WS2 are already in widespread commercial use in catalytic applications as both hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts. Consequently, characterization of the morphology and atomic structure of such particles is of utmost importance for the understanding of the catalytic active phase. However, in comparison with the related MoS2 system only little is known about the fundamental properties of single-layer WS2 (tungstenite). Here, we use an interplay of atom-resolved Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies of Au(111)-supported WS2 nanoparticles and calculated edge structures using Density Functional Theory (DFT) to reveal the equilibrium morphology and prevalent edge structures of single-layer WS2. The STM results reveal that the single layer S-W-S sheets adopt a triangular equilibrium shape under the sulfiding conditions of the synthesis, with fully sulfided edges. The predominant edge structures are determined to be the (101[combining macron]0) W-edge, but for the smallest nanoclusters also the (1[combining macron]010) S-edges become important. DFT calculations are used to construct phase diagrams of the WS2 edges, and describe their sulfur and hydrogen coordination under different conditions, and in this way shed light on the catalytic role of WS2 edges.

  3. Coherent structures in a zero-pressure-gradient and a strongly decelerated boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simens, Mark P.; Gungor, Ayse G.; Maciel, Yvan

    2016-04-01

    Coherent structures in a strongly decelerated large-velocity-defect turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and a zero pressure gradient (ZPG) boundary layer are analysed by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The characteristics of the one-point velocity stastistics are also considered. The adverse pressure gradient (APG) TBL simulation is a new one carried out by the present authors. The APG TBL begins as a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, decelerates under a strong adverse pressure gradient, and separates near the end of the domain in the form of a very thin separation bubble. The one-point velocity statistics in the outer region of this large-defect boundary layer are compared to those of two other large-velocity-defect APG TBLs (one in dynamic equilibrium, the other in disequilibrium) and a mixing layer. In the upper half of the large-defect boundary layers, the velocity statistics are similar to those of the mixing layer. The dominant peaks of turbulence production and Reynolds stresses are located in the middle of the boundary layers. Three-dimensional spatial correlations of (u, u) and (u, v) show that coherence is lost in the streamwise and spanwise directions as the velocity defect increases. Near-wall streaks tend to disappear in the large-defect zone of the flow to be replaced by more disorganized u motions. Near-wall sweeps and ejections are also less numerous. In the outer region, the u structures tend to be shorter, less streaky, and more inclined with respect to the wall than in the ZPG TBL. The sweeps and ejections are generally bigger with respect to the boundary layer thickness in the large-defect boundary layer, even if the biggest structures are found in the ZPG TBL. Large sweeps and ejections that reach the wall region (wall-attached) are less streamwise elongated and they occupy less space than in the ZPG boundary layer. The distinction between wall-attached and wall-detached structures is not as pronounced in the large-defect TBL.

  4. Structural layers of ex vivo rat hippocampus at 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Manuella Kamsu

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI applied to the hippocampus is challenging in studies of the neurophysiology of memory and the physiopathology of numerous diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, and depression. The hippocampus is a well-delineated cerebral structure with a multi-layered organization. Imaging of hippocampus layers is limited to a few studies and requires high magnetic field and gradient strength. We performed one conventional MRI sequence on a 7T MRI in order to visualize and to delineate the multi-layered hippocampal structure ex vivo in rat brains. We optimized a volumic three-dimensional T2 Rapid Acquisition Relaxation Enhancement (RARE sequence and quantified the volume of the hippocampus and one of its thinnest layers, the stratum granulare of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we tested passive staining by gadolinium with the aim of decreasing the acquisition time and increasing image contrast. Using appropriated settings, six discrete layers were differentiated within the hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus proper or Ammon's Horn (AH: the stratum oriens, the stratum pyramidale of, the stratum radiatum, and the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 were differentiated. In the dentate gyrus: the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulare layer were seen distinctly. Passive staining of one brain with gadolinium decreased the acquisition time by four and improved the differentiation between the layers. A conventional sequence optimized on a 7T MRI with a standard receiver surface coil will allow us to study structural layers (signal and volume of hippocampus in various rat models of neuropathology (anxiety, epilepsia, neurodegeneration.

  5. Engineering meniscus structure and function via multi-layered mesenchymal stem cell-seeded nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew B; Henning, Elizabeth A; Söegaard, Nicole; Bostrom, Marc; Esterhai, John L; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Despite advances in tissue engineering for the knee meniscus, it remains a challenge to match the complex macroscopic and microscopic structural features of native tissue, including the circumferentially and radially aligned collagen bundles essential for mechanical function. To mimic this structural hierarchy, this study developed multi-lamellar mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded nanofibrous constructs. Bovine MSCs were seeded onto nanofibrous scaffolds comprised of poly(ε-caprolactone) with fibers aligned in a single direction (0° or 90° to the scaffold long axis) or circumferentially aligned (C). Multi-layer groups (0°/0°/0°, 90°/90°/90°, 0°/90°/0°, 90°/0°/90°, and C/C/C) were created and cultured for a total of 6 weeks under conditions favoring fibrocartilaginous tissue formation. Tensile testing showed that 0° and C single layer constructs had stiffness values several fold higher than 90° constructs. For multi-layer groups, the stiffness of 0°/0°/0° constructs was higher than all other groups, while 90°/90°/90° constructs had the lowest values. Data for collagen content showed a general positive interactive effect for multi-layers relative to single layer constructs, while a positive interaction for stiffness was found only for the C/C/C group. Collagen content and cell infiltration occurred independent of scaffold alignment, and newly formed collagenous matrix followed the scaffold fiber direction. Structural hierarchies within multi-lamellar constructs dictated biomechanical properties, and only the C/C/C constructs with non-orthogonal alignment within layers featured positive mechanical reinforcement as a consequence of the layered construction. These multi-layer constructs may serve as functional substitutes for the meniscus as well as test beds to understand the complex mechanical principles that enable meniscus function.

  6. Formation of the seed layers for layer-transfer process silicon solar cells by zone-heating recrystallization of porous silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianov, A.; Murakami, K.; Takazawa, C.; Ihara, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon is promising for photovoltaic application to reduce the cost of photovoltaic energy. Porous silicon structures have been intensively studied as a seed layer for epitaxial growth of thin Si film and layer-transfer process (LTP). In this article, another approach for LTP has been proposed. The seed layers for epitaxial silicon growth have been formed by zone-heating recrystallization of double-layer por-Si structures. The influence of annealing parameters on porous silicon structures was studied. The transformation of por-Si layer to crystalline Si was observed with the formation of smooth continuous surface with the roughness 0.3 nm, peak-to-valley distance around 3.5 nm, and reduced density of pores. The mechanism of the transformation of por-Si surface due to the action of hydrogen in the passivated pores with preventing surface oxidation was proposed.

  7. SbsB structure and lattice reconstruction unveil Ca2+ triggered S-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Ekaterina; Fronzes, Rémi; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Van Gerven, Nani; Papapostolou, David; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Howorka, Stefan; Remaut, Han

    2012-07-05

    S-layers are regular two-dimensional semipermeable protein layers that constitute a major cell-wall component in archaea and many bacteria. The nanoscale repeat structure of the S-layer lattices and their self-assembly from S-layer proteins (SLPs) have sparked interest in their use as patterning and display scaffolds for a range of nano-biotechnological applications. Despite their biological abundance and the technological interest in them, structural information about SLPs is limited to truncated and assembly-negative proteins. Here we report the X-ray structure of the SbsB SLP of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 by the use of nanobody-aided crystallization. SbsB consists of a seven-domain protein, formed by an amino-terminal cell-wall attachment domain and six consecutive immunoglobulin-like domains, that organize into a φ-shaped disk-like monomeric crystallization unit stabilized by interdomain Ca(2+) ion coordination. A Ca(2+)-dependent switch to the condensed SbsB quaternary structure pre-positions intermolecular contact zones and renders the protein competent for S-layer assembly. On the basis of crystal packing, chemical crosslinking data and cryo-electron microscopy projections, we present a model for the molecular organization of this SLP into a porous protein sheet inside the S-layer. The SbsB lattice represents a previously undescribed structural model for protein assemblies and may advance our understanding of SLP physiology and self-assembly, as well as the rational design of engineered higher-order structures for biotechnology.

  8. Improved Modeling Approaches for Constrained Sintering of Bi-Layered Porous Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Esposito, Vincenzo;

    2012-01-01

    Shape instabilities during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been analyzed. An analytical and a numerical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been implemented to describe the evolution of bow and densificat......Shape instabilities during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been analyzed. An analytical and a numerical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been implemented to describe the evolution of bow...

  9. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  10. Thermal properties of composite two-layer systems with a fractal inclusion structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Bonilla-Capilla, B.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the thermal transport properties of platelike composite two-layer samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, their effective thermal diffusivity and conductivity were experimentally measured. The composite layers were prepared under the action of a static magnetic field, resulting in anisotropic (fractal) inclusion structures with the formation of chain-like magnetite aggregates parallel to the faces of the layers. In one kind of the bilayers, a composite layer was formed on top of a resin layer while their relative thickness was varied. These samples can be described by known models. In contrast, bilayers with the same concentration of inclusions and the same thickness on both sides, where only the angle between their inclusion structures was systematically varied, show a nontrivial behaviour of their thermal conductivity as a function of this angle. Through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis, we explain the observed thermal response in terms of the complexity of the interface between the layers.

  11. Printed PEDOT layers as transparent emitter electrodes for application in flexible inorganic photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek, Katarzyna; Sibiński, Maciej; Przymecki, Krzysztof; Wróblewski, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the work is to find an appropriate flexible material to replace commonly used transparent conductive oxides (TCO) in photovoltaic (PV) emitter electrode applications. Authors show the alternative, potential possibility of using PEDOT conductive polymer as transparent emitter contacts for thin-film, flexible photovoltaic structures. The vast majority of contacts made of TCO layers, dominantly indium tin oxide ITO, are electrically unstable under the influence of mechanical stresses [1,2,3]. This drawback inhibits their usage in flexible devices, such as solar cells. The need of the development in the field of flexible PV structures induces searching for new materials. Investigated transparent conductive layers (TCL) were made of organic compositions based on PEDOT polymer and their parameters were compared with equally measured parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT) layers, commercial ITO and AgHT ultra-thin silver layers. Transparent conductive layers based on PEDOT:PSS compound were deposited on flexible substrates by screen printing technique. The analysis of achieved results shows the broad spectrum of application possibilities for PEDOT layers.

  12. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Pan, Siru; Luo, Dongping

    2013-02-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process. The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants, such as charge, size, fractal dimension and compressibility, have an effect on the cake layer structure. At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation, at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential, the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension, which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility. Thus the membrane filterability is better. At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS, a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility. Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse. The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are, the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation. This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  13. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Siru Pan; Dongping Luo

    2013-01-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process.The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants,such as charge,size,fractal dimension and compressibility,have an effect on the cake layer structure.At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation,at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential,the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension,which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility.Thus the membrane filterability is better.At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS,a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility.Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse.The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are,the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation.This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  14. Columnar structured FePt films epitaxially grown on large lattice mismatched intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, K. F.; Deng, J. Y.; Peng, Y. G.; Ju, G.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of the FePt films grown on large mismatched ZrN (15.7%) intermediate layer were investigated. With using ZrN intermediate layer, FePt 10 nm films exhibited (001) texture except for some weaker FePt (110) texture. Good epitaxial relationships of FePt (001) //ZrN (001) //TiN (001) among FePt and ZrN/TiN were revealed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. As compared with TiN intermediate layer, although FePt-SiO2-C films grown on ZrN/TiN intermediate layer showed isotropic magnetic properties, the large interfacial energy and lattice mismatch between FePt and ZrN would lead to form columnar structural FePt films with smaller grain size and improved isolation. By doping ZrN into the TiN layer, solid solution of ZrTiN was formed and the lattice constant is increased comparing with TiN and decreased comparing with ZrN. Moreover, FePt-SiO2-C films grown on TiN 2 nm-20 vol.% ZrN/TiN 3 nm intermediate layer showed an improved perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Simultaneously, columnar structure with smaller grain size retained.

  15. Analyses of structure of planetary boundary layer in ice camp over Arctic ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The vertical structure of Planetary boundary layer over Arctic floating ice is presented by using about 50 atmospheric profiles and relevant data sounded at an ice station over Arctic Ocean from 22 August to 3 September, 2003. It shows that the height of the convective boundary layer in day is greater than that of the stability boundary layer in night. The boundary layer can be described as vertical structures of stability, instability and multipling The interaction between relative warm and wet down draft air from up level and cool air of surface layer is significant, which causes stronger wind shear, temperature and humidity inversion with typical wind shear of 10 m/s/100 m, intensity of temperature inversion of 8 ℃/100 m. While the larger pack ice is broken by such process, new ice free area in the high latitudes of arctic ocean. The interactions between air/ice/water are enhanced. The fact helps to understanding characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer and its effect in Arctic floating ice region.

  16. Structural analysis of nitride layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma surface nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kezhao, E-mail: liukz@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Bin Ren [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Xiao Hong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Long Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hong Zhanglian, E-mail: hong_zhanglian@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu Sheng [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitride layer was formed on uranium by glow plasma surface nitriding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four zones were observed in the nitride layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemical states of uranium, nitrogen, and oxygen were identified by AES. - Abstract: The nitride layer was formed on uranium metal by a glow plasma surface nitriding method. The structure and composition of the layer were investigated by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. The nitride layer mainly consisted of {alpha}-phase U{sub 2}N{sub 3} nanocrystals with an average grain size about 10-20 nm. Four zones were identified in the layer, which were the oxide surface zone, the nitride mainstay zone, the oxide-existence interface zone, and the nitrogen-diffusion matrix zone. The gradual decrease of binding energies of uranium revealed the transition from oxide to nitride to metal states with the layer depth, while the chemical states of nitrogen and oxygen showed small variation.

  17. Damping characteristics of active-passive hybrid constrained-layer treated beam structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanning; Wang, Kon-Well

    2000-04-01

    A new configuration of surface damping treatments, Active- Passive Hybrid Constrained Layer (HCL) damping, is analyzed and experimentally investigated. The purpose is to improve the performance of the current active constrained layer (ACL) and passive constrained layer (PCL) treatments by mixing passive and active materials in the constraining layer. In HCL, the viscoelastic material is constrained by an active-passive hybrid constraining layer -- the active part is made of PZT ceramics, and the passive part can be selected by the designer to meet different requirements, such as higher damping performance or lighter weight. The active and passive constraining parts are mechanically connected such that the displacement and force are continuous at the connecting surface, but are isolated electrically so the passive constraining part will not affect the function of its active counterpart. Following a generic study of the HCL concept by the authors earlier, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate and validate the HCL performance through both numerical and experimental investigations on a beam structure. The governing equations and boundary conditions of an HCL treated beam are derived and a finite element model is formulated. Tabletop tests with cantilever beam specimens are used for the experimental study. The new hybrid constrained layer is found to have the advantages of both ACL and PCL. By selecting a stiffer passive constraining material and an optimal active-to-passive length ratio, the HCL can achieve better closed-loop and open-loop performances than the treatment with a pure active constraining layer.

  18. Characteristics of Spontaneous Emission of Polarized Atoms in Metal-Dielectric Multiple Layer Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-Ming; GU Ben-Yuan; ZHOU Yun-Song

    2007-01-01

    The spontaneous emission (SE) progress of polarized atoms in a stratified structure ofair-dielectric(D0)-metal(M)-dielectric(D1)-air can be controlled effectively by changing the thickness of the D1 layer and rotating the polarized direction of atoms. It is found that the normalized SE rate of atoms located inside the D0 layer crucially depends on the atomic position and the thickness of the D1 layer. When the atom is located near the D0-M interface, the normalized atomic SE rate as a function of the atomic position is abruptly onset for the thin D1 layer. However, with the increasing thickness of the D1 layer, the corresponding curve profile exhibits plateau and stays nearly unchanged. The substantial change of the SE rate stems from the excitation of the surface plasmon polaritons in metal-dielectric interface, and the feature crucially depends on the thickness of D1 layer. If atoms are positioned near the D0-air interface, the substantial variation of the normalized SE rate appears when rotating the polarized direction of atoms. These findings manifest that the atomic SE processes can be flexibly controlled by altering the thickness of the dielectric layer D1 or rotating the orientation of the polarization of atoms.

  19. Monitoring of hidden damage in multi-layered aerospace structures using high-frequency guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semoroz, A.; Masserey, B.; Fromme, P.

    2011-04-01

    Aerospace structures contain multi-layered components connected by fasteners, where fatigue cracks and disbonds or localized lack of sealant can develop due to cyclic loading conditions and stress concentration. High frequency guided waves propagating along such a structure allow for the efficient non-destructive testing of large components, such as aircraft wings. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated in this contribution consists of two aluminium plates adhesively bonded with an epoxy based sealant layer. Using commercially available transducer equipment, specific high frequency guided ultrasonic wave modes that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure were excited. The wave propagation along the structure was measured experimentally using a laser interferometer. Two types of hidden damage were considered: a localized lack of sealant and small surface defects in the metallic layer facing the sealant. The detection sensitivity using standard pulse-echo measurement equipment has been quantified and the detection of small hidden defects from significant stand-off distances has been shown. Fatigue experiments were carried out and the potential of high frequency guided waves for the monitoring of fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was discussed.

  20. Creating new layered structures at high pressures: SiS$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Plašienka, Dušan; Tosatti, Erio

    2016-01-01

    Old and novel layered structures are attracting increasing attention for their physical, electronic, and frictional properties. SiS$_2$, isoelectronic to SiO$_2$, CO$_2$ and CS$_2$, is a material whose phases known experimentally up to 6 GPa exhibit 1D chain-like, 2D layered and 3D tetrahedral structures. We present highly predictive $ab$ $initio$ calculations combined with evolutionary structure search and molecular dynamics simulations of the structural and electronic evolution of SiS$_2$ up to 100 GPa. A highly stable CdI$_2$-type layered structure, which is octahedrally coordinated with space group $P\\bar{3}m1$ surprisingly appears between 4 and up to at least 100 GPa. The tetrahedral-octahedral switch is naturally expected upon compression, unlike the layered character realized here by edge-sharing SiS$_6$ octahedral units connecting within but not among sheets. The predicted phase is semiconducting with an indirect band gap of about 2 eV at 10 GPa, decreasing under pressure until metallization around 40...

  1. Nanometric Cutting of Silicon with an Amorphous-Crystalline Layered Structure: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinshi; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Materials with specific nanometric layers are of great value in both theoretical and applied research. The nanometric layer could have a significant influence on the response to the mechanical loading. In this paper, the nanometric cutting on the layered systems of silicon has been studied by molecular dynamics. This kind of composite structure with amorphous layer and crystalline substrate is important for nanomachining. Material deformation, stress status, and chip formation, which are the key issues in nano-cutting, are analyzed. A new chip formation mechanism, i.e., the mixture of extrusion and shear, has been observed. In addition, from the perspective of engineering, some specific composite models show the desired properties due to the low subsurface damage or large material removal rate. The results enrich the cutting theory and provide guidance on nanometric machining.

  2. Relating instantaneous structures and mean flow characteristics of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Charitha; Philip, Jimmy; Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Recent works have highlighted the presence of thin interfacial layers of high shear that demarcate regions of relatively uniform streamwise momentum in turbulent boundary layers. Here, we aim to further our understanding of how such a zonal-like structural arrangement manifests in the averaged flow statistics. To this end, we start by identifying high shear interfaces in turbulent boundary layers employing particle image velocimetry databases that span more than an order of magnitude of friction Reynolds number (Reτ =103 -104). Inspection of these recurrent features reveal that their geometry is highly contorted and exhibits self-similarity across a wide range of scales. The Reynolds number dependence of these features is also investigated, together with their associated scaling. Based on these findings and the persistent presence of sharp changes in momentum in turbulent boundary layers, a simple model is presented towards reconstructing the mean velocity profile.

  3. Can we neglect the multi-layer structure of functional networks?

    CERN Document Server

    Zanin, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Functional networks, i.e. networks representing dynamic relationships between the components of a complex system, have been instrumental for our understanding of, among others, the human brain. Due to limited data availability, the multi-layer nature of numerous functional networks has hitherto been neglected, and nodes are endowed with a single type of links even when multiple relationships coexist at different physical levels. A relevant problem is the assessment of the benefits yielded by studying a multi-layer functional network, against the simplicity guaranteed by the reconstruction and use of the corresponding single layer projection. Here, I tackle this issue by using as a test case, the functional network representing the dynamics of delay propagation through European airports. Neglecting the multi-layer structure of a functional network has dramatic consequences on our understanding of the underlying system, a fact to be taken into account when a projection is the only available information.

  4. Non-Crystallographic Layer Lattice Restrictions in Order-Disorder (OD Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Stöger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Symmetry operations of layers periodic in two dimensions restrict the geometry the lattice according to the five two-dimensional Bravais types of lattices. In order-disorder (OD structures, the operations relating equivalent layers generally leave invariant only a sublattice of the layers. The thus resulting restrictions can be expressed in terms of linear relations of the a2, b2 and a · b scalar products of the lattice basis vectors with rational coefficients. To characterize OD families and to check their validity, these lattice restrictions are expressed in the bases of different layers and combined. For a more familiar notation, they can be expressed in terms of the lattice parameters a, b and . Alternatively, the description of the lattice restrictions may be simplified by using centered lattices. The representation of the lattice restrictions in terms of scalar products is dependent on the chosen basis. A basis-independent classification of the lattice restrictions is outlined.

  5. Capillary layer structure effect upon heat transfer in flat heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinceana, Silviu; Mihai, Ioan; Beniuga, Marius; Suciu, Cornel

    2015-02-01

    The research presented in this paper aimed to determine the maximum heat transfer a heat pipe can achieve. To that purpose the structure of the capillary layer which can be deposited on the walls of the heat pipe was investigated. For the analysis of different materials that can produce capillarity, the present study takes into account the optimal thickness needed for this layer so that the accumulated fluid volume determines a maximum heat transfer. Two materials that could be used to create a capillary layer for the heat pipes, were investigated, one formed by sintered copper granules (the same material by which the heat pipe is formed) and a synthetic material (cellulose sponge) which has high absorbing proprieties. In order to experimentally measure and visualize the surface characteristics for the considered capillary layers, laser profilometry was employed.

  6. Specific features of waveguide recombination in laser structures with asymmetric barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polubavkina, Yu; Zubov, F. I.; Moiseev, E.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emission caused by recombination appearing at a high injection level (up to 30 kA/cm2) in the waveguide layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure with GaInP and AlGaInAs asymmetric barrier layers is studied by means of near-field scanning optical...... microscopy. It is found that the waveguide luminescence in such a laser, which is on the whole less intense as compared to that observed in a similar laser without asymmetric barriers, is non-uniformly distributed in the waveguide, so that the distribution maximum is shifted closer to the p-type cladding...... layer. This can be attributed to the ability of the GaInP barrier adjoining the quantum well on the side of the n-type cladding layer to suppress the hole transport....

  7. Model and numerical analysis of 3D corrosion layer of reinforced concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永和; 葛修润

    2003-01-01

    Under the assumption that the corrosion at the end of steel bolt or steel bar is shaped like the contour line of ellipsoid, a mathematic model and formulas of calculating the thickness of corrosion layer at arbitrary point are presented in this paper. Then regarding the arbitrary points of 3D corrosion layer as patch element model of fictitious displacement discontinuity, we propose the basic solution of 3D problem of the patch element acting on discontinuous displacement. With three basic assumptions of the corrosion layer, we set up the 3D numerical discreted model, and derive the stress boundary equation for fictitious corrosion layer of 3D numerical analysis. We also make the numerical stimulating calculation of the shotcrete structure at some lane using 3D finite element method. The results show that this method is effective and reasonable.

  8. Interfacial Water Structure in Langmuir Monolayer and Gibbs Layer Probed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贞; 郭源

    2012-01-01

    Langmuir monolayer and Gibbs layer exhibit surface-active properties and it can be used as simple model systems to investigate the physicochemical properties of biological membranes. In this report, we presented the OH stretching vibration of H2O in the 4"-n-pentyl-4-cyano-p-terphenyl (5CT), nonadecanenitrile (C18CN) Langmuir monolayer and compared them with CH3CN Gibbs layer at the air/water interface with polarization SFG-VS. This study demonstrated that the hydrogen bond network is different in the Langmuir monolayer of 5CT, C18CN from CH3CN Gibbs layer at the air/water interface which showed two different water structures on the different surface layer. The results provided a deeper insight into understanding the hydrogen bond on the interfaces.

  9. Dead Layer in a Ta/Ni81Fe19/Ta Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 任婷婷; 李明华; 朱逢吾; 姜宏伟; 赖武彦

    2002-01-01

    The effect of Ta seed layers and Ta cap layers on the effective magnetic thickness of ultrathin permalloy (Ni81 Fe19)was experimentally investigated for magnetic random access memory applications. The films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. For a Ta/Ni81Fe19/Ta fundamental structure, the Ta seed and Ta cap layers resulted in a loss of moment equivalent to a magnetically dead layer of thickness 1.6 ± 0.2 nm. In order to find the mechanism, the composition and chemical states at the interface regions of Ta/Ni81 Fe19 and Ni81 Fe19/Ta were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the peak decomposition technique. The results show that there are thermodynamically favourable reactions at the Ta/Ni81 Fe19 and Ni81Fe19/Ta interfaces: 2Ta + Ni = NiTa2.

  10. A randomly nano-structured scattering layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Shin, Jin-Wook; Cho, Doo-Hee; Moon, Jaehyun; Joo, Chul Woong; Park, Seung Koo; Hwang, Joohyun; Cho, Nam Sung; Lee, Jonghee; Han, Jun-Han; Chu, Hye Yong; Lee, Jeong-Ik

    2014-09-21

    A random scattering layer (RSL) consisting of a random nano-structure (RNS) and a high refractive index planarization layer (HRI PL) is suggested and demonstrated as an efficient internal light-extracting layer for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). By introducing the RSL, a remarkable enhancement of 40% and 46% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) and luminous efficacy (LE) was achieved without causing deterioration in the transmittance. Additionally, with the use of the RSL, the viewing angle dependency of EL spectra was reduced to a marginal degree. The results were interpreted as the stronger influence of the scattering effect over the microcavity. The RSL can be applied widely in TOLEDs as an effective light-extracting layer for extracting the waveguide mode of confined light at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/OLED stack without introducing spectral changes in TOLEDs.

  11. Shrinkage anisotropy characteristics from soil structure and initial sample/layer size

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is a physical prediction of such soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics as variation with drying of (i) different sample/layer sizes and (ii) the shrinkage geometry factor. With that, a new presentation of the shrinkage anisotropy concept is suggested through the sample/layer size ratios. The work objective is reached in two steps. First, the relations are derived between the indicated soil shrinkage anisotropy characteristics and three different shrinkage curves of a soil relating to: small samples (without cracking at shrinkage), sufficiently large samples (with internal cracking), and layers of similar thickness. Then, the results of a recent work with respect to the physical prediction of the three shrinkage curves are used. These results connect the shrinkage curves with the initial sample size/layer thickness as well as characteristics of soil texture and structure (both inter- and intra-aggregate) as physical parameters. The parameters determining the reference shrinkage c...

  12. Investigation on the influences of layer structure and nanoporosity of light scattering TiO2 layer in DSSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, T.; Arsyad, W. S.; Wulandari, P.; Hidayat, R.

    2016-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of promising photovoltaic materials due to its simplicity in fabrication process and rich variety of possible sensitizer molecules. DSSC cell is commonly constructed of TiO2 layer as photoelectrode, dye as photosensitizer, electrolyte as redox mediator, and platinum layer as counter electrode. TiO2 layer is often constructed from different types of layers, such as blocking layer, transparent layer, microchannel or light scattering layer, which is made usually by successive layer-by-layer process. In this work, different TiO2 layers with different thickness and heat treatment were prepared and then used to build a complete sandwich-type DSSC. The characterization results show that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is slightly reduced when using TiO2 layer with multiple scattering layers. This reduction is caused by an increase in the resistance from charge transport and charge transfer inside the mesoporous TiO2 layer, as revealed from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement results. Additional heat treatment introduced at the final step in the TiO2 layer preparation process, however, slightly improve the cell performance. Although this heat treatment does not produce significant change in porosity or pore size distribution of the TiO2 layer, it might be able to improve the contact between the TiO2 nanoparticles. The best PCE achieved in this work is about 5.3%, which was observed in the cell using TiO2 layer with one scattering layer and additional heat treatment.

  13. Non-lamellar lipid assembly at interfaces: controlling layer structure by responsive nanogel particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P; Valldeperas, Maria; Hirst, Christopher; Montis, Costanza; Pálsson, Gunnar K; Wang, Meina; Nöjd, Sofi; Gentile, Luigi; Barauskas, Justas; Steinke, Nina-Juliane; Schroeder-Turk, Gerd E; George, Sebastian; Skoda, Maximilian W A; Nylander, Tommy

    2017-08-06

    Biological membranes do not only occur as planar bilayer structures, but depending on the lipid composition, can also curve into intriguing three-dimensional structures. In order to fully understand the biological implications as well as to reveal the full potential for applications, e.g. for drug delivery and other biomedical devices, of such structures, well-defined model systems are required. Here, we discuss the formation of lipid non-lamellar liquid crystalline (LC) surface layers spin-coated from the constituting lipids followed by hydration of the lipid layer. We demonstrate that hybrid lipid polymer films can be formed with different properties compared with the neat lipid LC layers. The nanostructure and morphologies of the lipid films formed reflect those in the bulk. Most notably, mixed lipid layers, which are composed of glycerol monooleate and diglycerol monooleate with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels, can form films of reverse cubic phases that are capable of responding to temperature stimulus. Owing to the presence of the nanogel particles, changing the temperature not only regulates the hydration of the cubic phase lipid films, but also the lateral organization of the lipid domains within the lipid self-assembled film. This opens up the possibility for new nanostructured materials based on lipid-polymer responsive layers.

  14. Improvement of luminescence properties of GaN buffer layer for fast nitride scintillator structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubáček, T.; Hospodková, A.; Oswald, J.; Kuldová, K.; Pangrác, J.

    2017-04-01

    We have optimized technology of GaN buffer layer growth with respect to the application in fast scintillation structures. The deep defect luminescence so called yellow band (YB) with decay time up to tens of microseconds is undesired for these applications and should be suppressed or at least the ratio of intensities of excitonic to YB maximum has to be considerably increased. The required photoluminescence properties were achieved by optimization of growth parameters of nucleation and coalescence layer on sapphire substrate. We have shown that decrease of NH3 flow, decrease of coalescence temperature, increase of nucleation time and nucleation pressure lead to improvement of the structure and luminescence properties of the buffer layer. Results indicate a significant increased ratio of excitonic/YB luminescence intensity.

  15. The second-harmonic generation in a dissipative and dispersion layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmohammadi, Jamshid; Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Arghand-Hesar, Afshin; Lotfi, Erik S.; Masalehdan, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    Conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a multicrystal structure arrangement, under linearly absorption of interacting waves was analytically investigated. Different linear absorption and nonlinear interaction coefficients were considered for both of the fundamental and the second harmonic waves in cascade layers. The intensity-constant approximation on fundamental wave radiation was applied in calculations. Behavior of conversion efficiency with interaction coherence length of fundamental wave, phase miss-matching and ratio of linear absorption coefficients were graphically illustrated. The results are shown that in multicrystal structure scheme, the conversion efficiency can be tuned by the interaction coherent length and it is possible to compensate the phase differences induced in the previous layers. The phase compensation between the layers is the physical reason of efficiency improvement. Contribution to the topical issue "Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium (AES 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  16. Plasmonic Light Trapping in an Ultrathin Photovoltaic Layer with Film-Coupled Metamaterial Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom metallic film could not only effectively trap light with the help of wave interference and magnetic resonance effects excited above the bandgap, but also practically serve as electrical contacts for photon-generated charge collection. The energy absorbed by the active layer is greatly enhanced in the film-coupled metamaterial structure, resulting in significant enhancement on the short-circuit current density by three times over a free-standing GaAs layer at the same thickness. The results would facilitate the development of next-generation ultrathin solar cells with lower cost and higher efficiency.

  17. Mean flow structure of non-equilibrium boundary layers with adverse pressure gradient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Mandal; H P Mazumdar; S S Dutta

    2014-10-01

    In this paper Spalding’s formulation for the law of the wall with constants modified by Persen is used to describe the inner region (viscous sub-layer and certain portion of logarithmic layer) and a wake law due to Persen is used to describe the wake region (outer region). These two laws are examined in the light of measured data by Marušić and Perry for non-equilibrium adverse pressure gradient layers. It is observed that structure of turbulence for this flow is well-described by these two laws. From the known structure of turbulence eddy viscosity for the flow under consideration is calculated. Self similarity in eddy viscosity is observed in the wall region.

  18. Internal structure and spatial dimensions of whistler wave regions in the magnetopause boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stenberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We use whistler waves observed close to the magnetopause as an instrument to investigate the internal structure of the magnetopause-magnetosheath boundary layer. We find that this region is characterized by tube-like structures with dimensions less than or comparable with an ion inertial length in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The tubes are revealed as they constitute regions where whistler waves are generated and propagate. We believe that the region containing tube-like structures extend several Earth radii along the magnetopause in the boundary layer. Within the presumed wave generating regions we find current structures moving at the whistler wave group velocity in the same direction as the waves.

  19. Inferring the mesoscale structure of layered, edge-valued and time-varying networks

    CERN Document Server

    Peixoto, Tiago P

    2015-01-01

    Many network systems are composed of interdependent but distinct types of interactions, which cannot be fully understood in isolation. These different types of interactions are often represented as layers, attributes on the edges or as a time-dependence of the network structure. Although they are crucial for a more comprehensive scientific understanding, these representations offer substantial challenges. Namely, it is an open problem how to precisely characterize the large or mesoscale structure of network systems in relation to these additional aspects. Furthermore, the direct incorporation of these features invariably increases the effective dimension of the network description, and hence aggravates the problem of overfitting, i.e. the use of overly-complex characterizations that mistake purely random fluctuations for actual structure. In this work, we propose a robust and principled method to tackle these problems, by constructing generative models of modular network structure, incorporating layered, attr...

  20. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Haung, Chiung-Fang [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Shyu, Shih-Shiun [Department of Dentistry, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan (China); Chou, Yen-Ru [Research Center for Biomedical Devices and Prototyping Production, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaoshiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaoshiung 807, Taiwan (China); Peng, Pei-Wen, E-mail: apon@tmu.edu.tw [School of Dental Technology, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  1. The Acoustic Performance of Plane Laggings and Similar Multi-Layer Acoustic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Chak Kuen

    Acoustic laggings are used to inhibit the transmission of the sound radiated from the vibrating surfaces of machines, ducts, pipes, etc. They are formed of layers of porous materials such as fibreglass or mineral wool, layers of impervious materials such as metal cladding sheets and sometimes airspaces. A novel procedure for estimating the diffuse field 1/3 octave band insertion loss which a plane acoustic lagging produces when applied to a plane structure is developed. This novel procedure, which constitutes the major contribution of the work described in the thesis to new knowledge, is based on sets of formulae which describe how obliquely incident plane sound waves interact with the different basic layers, such as the porous layers and the impervious layers which form the lagging. The validity of the procedure is demonstrated by comparing the results it produces with measured results. The procedure is then used to undertake a parametric study to assess the effect of the properties of the various types of layers. Often the cladding sheet of a lagging is fastened to the base structure which is being lagged and an approximate analysis to consider the effect of such fastening is presented. The influence of corrugated cladding sheets is also considered. The principles used to predict the performance of plane acoustic laggings can be adapted to predict other acoustic properties such as the acoustic absorption of plane acoustic structures and this is done in the final part of the thesis. A comparison is made between the predicted and the measured performances of various types of acoustic structures.

  2. Electrochemical Property Bundles with of Manganese Oxide Nanobelt Layered Structure%Electrochemical Property Bundles with of Manganese Oxide Nanobelt Layered Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang, Liping; Jiang, Yishu; Tang, Xiuhua; Yang, Mingyang; Liu, Zonghuai

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional manganese oxide nanobelt bundles with birnessite-type structure have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process in a NaOH solution employing K-type layered manganese oxide as a precursor. The obtained manganese oxide nanobelt bundles exhibit excellent discharge properties and cycle stability. The initial capacity is 376 mAh-g-1 and the reversible capacity of 243 mAhog-1 is maintained after the 50th cycle at a current density of 20 mA·g-t. Meanwhile, the manganese oxide nanobelt bundles show an excellent cycle performance even if at relative high current density.

  3. Reduced thermal conductivity by nanoscale intergrowths in perovskite like layered structure La2Ti2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaliq, J.; Li, C.; Chen, K.; Shi, B.; Ye, H.; Grande, A.M.; Yan, H.; Reece, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substitution and oxidation-reduction on the thermal conductivity of perovskite-like layered structure (PLS) ceramics was investigated in relation to mass contrast and non-stoichiometry. Sr (acceptor) was substituted on the A site, while Ta (donor) was substituted on the B site of La2Ti

  4. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Xing, Feng; Pan, Dong

    2014-05-30

    This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively) were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  5. FTIR spectroscopy structural analysis of the interaction between Lactobacillus kefir S-layers and metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, E.; Mobili, P.; Tymczyszyn, E.; Fausto, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.

    2011-02-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to structurally characterize the interaction of S-layer proteins extracted from two strains of Lactobacillus kefir (the aggregating CIDCA 8348 and the non-aggregating JCM 5818) with metal ions (Cd +2, Zn +2, Pb +2 and Ni +2). The infrared spectra indicate that the metal/protein interaction occurs mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of Asp and Glut residues, with some contribution of the NH groups belonging to the peptide backbone. The frequency separation between the νCOO - anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the spectra of the S-layers in presence of the metal ions was found to be ca. 190 cm -1 for S-layer CIDCA 8348 and ca. 170 cm -1 for JCM 5818, denoting an unidentate coordination in both cases. Changes in the secondary structures of the S-layers induced by the interaction with the metal ions were also noticed: a general trend to increase the amount of β-sheet structures and to reduce the amount of α-helices was observed. These changes allow the proteins to adjust their structure to the presence of the metal ions at minimum energy expense, and accordingly, these adjustments were found to be more important for the bigger ions.

  6. Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1991-01-01

    in the vorticity-stream function representation for bounded geometries. Fundamental processes connected to vorticity detachment from the boundary layers caused by the proximity of vortical structures are described. These processes include enstrophy enhancement of the main flow during bursting events, and pinning...

  7. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  8. Stability of Sb-Te layered structures: First-principles study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, K.; Sluiter, M.H.F.; Partoens, B.; Lamoen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Using an effective one-dimensional cluster expansion in combination with first-principles electronic structure calculations we have studied the energetics and electronic properties of Sb-Te layered systems. For a Te concentration between 0 and 60 at. % an almost continuous series of metastable

  9. The structure and properties of single-layer and gradient-layered coatings of the Ti–Al–Si–Cr–Mo–S–N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, Stanislav, E-mail: ovm@spti.tsu.ru; Pinzhin, Yurii, E-mail: pinzhin@phys.tsu.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Using the method of microprobe analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the influence of obtaining conditions upon particular elemental composition and growth structure coatings of Ti–Al–Si–Mo–S–N system was studied. The possibility of formation and characteristics of the structural and elastic-stress state single-layer coatings with nanoscale columnar or equiaxed grains and gradient-layered, combining two types of selected structure, was defined. On the basis of hardness, tribological properties and coating hardness, a conclusion was made about the relative prospects of its use as wear-resistant coatings with a nanocrystalline structure.

  10. a Monte Carlo Study of Carbon Monoxide Layers Adsorbed on Ionic Substrates:. Structures and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Thanh; Jack, David B.

    We have studied the order-disorder phase transitions of carbon monoxide layers adsorbed on sodium chloride and lithium flouride substrates using the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. The simulations have been performed in the temperature range from 5 K to 60 K. At low temperature and monolayer coverage, both of these systems form ordered phases which disorder as the temperature is increased. The transition temperature (Tc) is between 30 K and 35 K for CO/NaCl, and from 40 K to 45 K for CO/LiF. Below Tc, both systems have an ordered p(2 × 1) type structure due to correlated azimuthal orientations. Above Tc, both systems undergo a phase transition to an azimuthally disordered p(1 × 1) structure, i.e. one with no preferred orientation in the surface plane. The heat capacity shows a characteristic divergence at the transition temperature. Coverages of less than a monolayer of the CO/NaCl system have also been studied. The CO molecules are found to aggregate and form islands with an ordered structure in the middle of the islands. These islands also undergo an order-disorder transition but at lower temperatures. Multilayer systems were found to destabilize the p(2 × 1) structure of the bottommost layer in favor of a p(1 × 1) structure with the upper layers adopting the bulk structure.

  11. Evolution of the atmospheric boundary-layer structure of an arid Andes Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar, S.; Kalthoff, N.; Fiebig-Wittmaack, M.; Kohler, M.

    2008-04-01

    The boundary-layer structure of the Elqui Valley is investigated, which is situated in the arid north of Chile and extends from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Andes in the east. The climate is dominated by the south-eastern Pacific subtropical anticyclone and the cold Humboldt Current. This combination leads to considerable temperature and moisture gradients between the coast and the valley and results in the evolution of sea and valley wind systems. The contribution of these mesoscale wind systems to the heat and moisture budget of the valley atmosphere is estimated, based on radiosoundings performed near the coast and in the valley. Near the coast, a well-mixed cloud-topped boundary layer exists. Both, the temperature and the specific humidity do not change considerably during the day. In the stratus layer the potential temperature increases, while the specific humidity decreases slightly with height. The top of the thin stratus layer, about 300 m in depth, is marked by an inversion. Moderate sea breeze winds of 3-4 m s-1 prevail in the sub-cloud and cloud layer during daytime, but no land breeze develops during the night. The nocturnal valley atmosphere is characterized by a strong and 900 m deep stably stratified boundary layer. During the day, no pronounced well-mixed layer with a capping inversion develops in the valley. Above a super-adiabatic surface layer of about 150 m depth, a stably stratified layer prevails throughout the day. However, heating can be observed within a layer above the surface 800 m deep. Heat and moisture budget estimations show that sensible heat flux convergence exceeds cold air advection in the morning, while both processes compensate each other around noon, such that the temperature evolution stagnates. In the afternoon, cold air advection predominates and leads to net cooling of the boundary layer. Furthermore, the advection of moist air results in the accumulation of moisture during the noon and afternoon period, while

  12. Self-Restoration by Smectic Layer Structures of Monostable Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal in Flexible Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Isaka, Fumito; Murashige, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss a self-restoration phenomenon affecting smectic layer deformation and molecular alignment in monostable ferroelectric liquid crystals used for flexible displays. First, the mechanical stability of tilted ‘bookshelf’ structures of smectic layers anchored on substrates using alignment layers was examined by precisely shearing two substrates. The microscopic texture of a monostable ferroelectric liquid crystal showed tolerance to shearing and the self-restoration was thought to be due to a smectic layer reconnection phenomenon, whereas a conventional bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal film generated alignment defects due to the tilting of the stable molecular direction. We then fabricated a flexible monostable device containing fine polymer fiber networks, where anchoring of molecularly aligned polymer fibers led to the observation of monostable liquid crystal switching. A uniform liquid crystal alignment was maintained in a 100 mm× 100 mm device even after bending more than 10000 times at a minimum radius of curvature of 20 mm, due to the enhanced shearing tolerance of the smectic layer structure.

  13. Swelling, Functionalization, and Structural Changes of the Nanoporous Layered Silicates AMH-3 and MCM-22

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2011-06-21

    Nanoporous layered silicate materials contain 2D-planar sheets of nanoscopic thickness and ordered porous structure. In comparison to porous 3D-framework materials such as zeolites, they have advantages such as significantly increased surface area and decreased diffusion limitations because the layers can potentially be exfoliated or intercalated into polymers to form nanocomposite materials. These properties are particularly interesting for applications as materials for enhancing molecular selectivity and throughput in composite membranes. In this report, the swelling and surface modification chemistry of two attractive nanoporous layered silicate materials, AMH-3 and MCM-22, were studied. We first describe a method, using long-chain diamines instead of monoamines, for swelling of AMH-3 while preserving its pore structure to a greater extent during the swelling process. Then, we describe a stepwise functionalization method for functionalizing the layer surfaces of AMH-3 and MCM-22 via silane condensation reactions. The covalently attached hydrocarbon chain molecules increased the hydrophobicity of AMH-3 and MCM-22 layer surfaces and therefore allow the possibility of effectively dispersing these materials in polymer matrices for thin film/membrane applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Characteristics of the Boundary Layer Structure of Sea Fog on the Coast of Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huijun; LIU Hongnian; JIANG Weimei; HUANG Jian; MAO Weikang

    2011-01-01

    Using boundary layer data with regard to sea fog observed at the Science Experiment Base for Marine Meteorology at Bohe,Guangdong Province,the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and the characteristics of the tops of the fog and the clouds were analyzed.In addition,the effects of advection,radiation,and turbulence during sea fog were also investigated.According to the stability definition of saturated,wet air,the gradient of the potential pseudo-equivalent temperature equal to zero was defined as the thermal turbulence interface.There is evidence to suggest that two layers of turbulence exist in sea fog.Thermal turbulence produced by long-wave radiation is prevalent above the thermal turbulence interface,whereas mechanical turbulence aroused by wind shear is predominant below the interface.The height of the thermal turbulence interface was observed between 180 m and 380 m.Three important factors are closely related to the development of the top of the sea fog:(1) the horizontal advection of the water vapor,(2) the long-wave radiation of the fog top,and (3) the movement of the vertical turbulence.Formation,development,and dissipation are the three possible phases of the evolution of the boundary-layer structure during the sea fog season.In addition,the thermal turbulence interface is the most significant turbulence interface during the formation and development periods; it is maintained after sea fog rises into the stratus layer.

  15. Growth of well-aligned carbon nanotube structures in successive layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Christian P; Vecchio, Kenneth S

    2005-06-30

    Layered structures of well-aligned carbon nanotubes were grown using three variations of vapor-phase chemical vapor deposition growth processes. The reactants (typically ferrocene and benzene) were introduced either directly to a heated furnace or carried into the furnace by evaporation or spray pyrolysis in an argon flow. Thick mats of densely packed, well-aligned nanotubes were produced when the reactants were continuously introduced to the reaction; however, when the reactant flow was interrupted, the pauses allowed growth to stop and then restart as a new layer. These pauses were achieved by either completely stopping the reactant flow for a given time or by modifying the dispensing system to introduce the reactants in discrete drops. Time intervals between drops were varied between 20 s and 120 s, with distinct layers observed for pauses of 30 s or greater. The best results were achieved when drops of a catalyst-rich solution were alternated with drops of pure benzene. Layers were grown with thicknesses ranging from several microns to several hundred microns, and structures were grown with well over 100 layers.

  16. Formation of Lamellar Structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Layers in Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Yang, Jae-Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoon-Soo [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) zirconium was proposed to increase the strength of the Zr-based alloy up to high temperatures. According to our previous investigations, the tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 was increased by up to 20% with the formation of a thin dispersed oxide layer with a thickness less than 10% of that of the Zircaloy-4 substrate. However, the tensile elongation of the samples decreased drastically. The brittle fracture was a major concern in development of the ODS Zircaloy-4. In this study, a lamellar structure of ODS layer was formed to increase ductility of the ODS Zircaloy-4. The mechanical properties were varied depending on the structure of ODS layer. For example, the partial formation of ODS layer with the thickness of 10% to the substrate thickness induced the increase in tensile strength up to about 20% than fresh Zircaloy-4.

  17. The roll-up and merging of coherent structures in shallow mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M. Y.; Ghidaoui, M. S.; Kolyshkin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The current study seeks a fundamental explanation to the development of two-dimensional coherent structures (2DCSs) in shallow mixing layers. A nonlinear numerical model based on the depth-averaged shallow water equations is used to investigate the temporal evolution of shallow mixing layers, where the mapping from temporal to spatial results is made using the velocity at the center of the mixing layers. The flow is periodic in the streamwise direction. Transmissive boundary conditions are used in the cross-stream boundaries to prevent reflections. Numerical results are compared to linear stability analysis, mean-field theory, and secondary stability analysis. Results suggest that the onset and development of 2DCS in shallow mixing layers are the result of a sequence of instabilities governed by linear theory, mean-field theory, and secondary stability theory. The linear instability of the shearing velocity gradient gives the onset of 2DCS. When the perturbations reach a certain amplitude, the flow field of the perturbations changes from a wavy shape to a vortical (2DCS) structure because of nonlinearity. The development of the vertical 2DCS does not appear to follow weakly nonlinear theory; instead, it follows mean-field theory. After the formation of 2DCS, separate 2DCSs merge to form larger 2DCS. In this way, 2DCSs grow and shallow mixing layers develop and grow in scale. The merging of 2DCS in shallow mixing layers is shown to be caused by the secondary instability of the 2DCS. Eventually 2DCSs are dissipated by bed friction. The sequence of instabilities can cause the upscaling of the turbulent kinetic energy in shallow mixing layers.

  18. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Xiangqing [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Bao, Shiyi [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Luo, Lijia [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  19. X-RAY CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF THE TRICLINIC MISFIT LAYER COMPOUND (SNS)1.20TIS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEGERS, GA; MEETSMA, A; DEBOER, JL; VANSMAALEN, S; HAANGE, RJ

    1991-01-01

    (SnS)1.20TiS2 is a misfit layer compound built of alternately double layers of SnS with distorted rocksalt-type structure and sandwiches of TiS2 slightly distorted compared with those of 1T-TiS2. For comparison with other misfit layer compounds the triclinic subsystems are described in centred unit

  20. Layer speciation and electronic structure investigation of freestanding hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    WangEqual Contribution To This Work., Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Cho, Hyunjin; Kim, Myung Jong; Sham, T. K.; Sun, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging, thickness mapping, layer speciation and polarization dependence have been performed on single and multilayered (up to three layers and trilayered nanosheets overlapping to form 6 and 9 layers) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanosheets by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Spatially-resolved XANES directly from freestanding regions of different layers has been extracted and compared with sample normal and 30° tilted configurations. Notably a double feature σ* excitonic state and a stable high energy σ* state were observed at the boron site in addition to the intense π* excitonic state. The boron projected σ* DOS, especially the first σ* exciton, is sensitive to surface modification, particularly in the single layered hBN nanosheet which shows more significant detectable contaminants and defects such as tri-coordinated boron/nitrogen oxide. The nitrogen site has shown very weak or no excitonic character. The distinct excitonic effect on boron and nitrogen was interpreted to the partly ionic state of hBN. Bulk XANES of hBN nanosheets was also measured to confirm the spectro-microscopic STXM result. Finally, the unoccupied electronic structures of hBN and graphene were compared.Chemical imaging, thickness mapping, layer speciation and polarization dependence have been performed on single and multilayered (up to three layers and trilayered nanosheets overlapping to form 6 and 9 layers) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanosheets by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Spatially-resolved XANES directly from freestanding regions of different layers has been extracted and compared with sample normal and 30° tilted configurations. Notably a double feature σ* excitonic state and a stable high energy σ* state were observed at the boron site in addition to the intense π* excitonic state. The boron projected σ* DOS, especially the first σ* exciton, is sensitive to surface modification, particularly in the single layered hBN nanosheet which

  1. Splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends on the length of the multi-layer structure of flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Su, Yewang; Li, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Multi-layer structures with soft (compliant) interlayers have been widely used in flexible electronics and photonics as an effective design for reducing interactions among the hard (stiff) layers and thus avoiding the premature failure of an entire device. The analytic model for bending of such a structure has not been well established due to its complex mechanical behaviour. Here, we present a rational analytic model, without any parameter fitting, to study the bending of a multi-layer structure on a cylinder, which is often regarded as an important approach to mechanical reliability testing of flexible electronics and photonics. For the first time, our model quantitatively reveals that, as the key for accurate strain control, the splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends not only on the relative thickness of the middle layer, but also on the length-to-thickness ratio of the multi-layer structure. The model accurately captures the key quantities, including the axial strains in the top and bottom layers, the shear strain in the middle layer and the locations of the neutral mechanical planes of the top and bottom layers. The effects of the length of the multi-layer and the thickness of the middle layer are elaborated. This work is very useful for the design of multi-layer structure-based flexible electronics and photonics.

  2. Splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends on the length of the multi-layer structure of flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Su, Yewang; Li, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Multi-layer structures with soft (compliant) interlayers have been widely used in flexible electronics and photonics as an effective design for reducing interactions among the hard (stiff) layers and thus avoiding the premature failure of an entire device. The analytic model for bending of such a structure has not been well established due to its complex mechanical behaviour. Here, we present a rational analytic model, without any parameter fitting, to study the bending of a multi-layer structure on a cylinder, which is often regarded as an important approach to mechanical reliability testing of flexible electronics and photonics. For the first time, our model quantitatively reveals that, as the key for accurate strain control, the splitting of the neutral mechanical plane depends not only on the relative thickness of the middle layer, but also on the length-to-thickness ratio of the multi-layer structure. The model accurately captures the key quantities, including the axial strains in the top and bottom layers, the shear strain in the middle layer and the locations of the neutral mechanical planes of the top and bottom layers. The effects of the length of the multi-layer and the thickness of the middle layer are elaborated. This work is very useful for the design of multi-layer structure-based flexible electronics and photonics.

  3. An Observational Study of the Structure of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, Larry; Heald, R. C.; Lenschow, D. H.;

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to describe the basic vertical structure of the nocturnal boundary layer, observations from four experiments are analyzed. During the night, the depth of significant cooling appears to increase with time while the depth of the turbulence and height of the low level wind maximum tend...... to remain constant or decrease with time. Since the inversion layer extends above the low level wind maximum and shear is small in the region of the low level jet, the Richardson number reaches a maximum at the jet level and then decreases again with height. As a result, turbulence is observed...

  4. Electrochemical Examination of the Structure of Thin Hydrogel Layers Anchored to Regular and Microelectrode Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, Klaudia; Karbarz, Marcin; Ziach, Krzysztof; Siennicka, Alicja; Stojek, Zbigniew; Hyk, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    For the examination of hydrogel structure, thin layers of thermoresponsive gels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPA) and copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate) (p(NIPA-co-AS)) were successfully anchored to microelectrode and regular electrode surfaces using the electrochemically induced free radical polymerization. The obtained layers were stable and covered the entire surface of the electrodes. Electroactive probes 1,1'-ferrocenedimethanol (Fc(CH2OH)2) and synthesized derivatives of ferrocene modified with polyethylene glycol units (Fc-PEGn) of various length (n = 4, 9, 75, and 135) were employed for studying the volume phase transition of the thin hydrogel layers and for the determination of their structural parameters. The quantitative information on the structural parameters of the hydrogel layers was derived from the obstruction model for diffusion using the voltammetrically determined diffusion coefficients for the model redox probe Fc(CH2OH)2. An approach to the determination of the effective radii of the gel openings (channels) for pNIPA and p(NIPA-co-AS) microlayers was developed. The obtained results were matched with the experimental results and allowed derivation of quantitative conclusions. The voltammograms obtained with modified electrodes in solutions containing Fc-PEG4, Fc-PEG9, and Fc-PEG75 were well defined and of appropriate height. However, the voltammograms recorded for Fc-PEG135, the hydrodynamic radius of which exceeded the size of the gel channels, were at the baseline level.

  5. Structural studies of silicon oxynitride layers formed by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Alka R. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Yadav, A.D. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India)], E-mail: adyadav@physics.mu.ac.in; Dubey, S.K. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Gundu Rao, T.K. [SAIF, IIT Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2008-04-15

    Silicon oxynitride (Si{sub x}O{sub y}N{sub z}) layers were synthesized by implanting {sup 16}O{sub 2}{sup +} and {sup 14}N{sub 2}{sup +} 30 keV ions in 1:1 ratio with fluences ranging from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 1 x 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup -2} into single crystal silicon at room temperature. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the samples was carried out at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient for 5 min. The FTIR studies show that the structures of ion-beam synthesized oxynitride layers are strongly dependent on total ion-fluence and annealing temperature. It is found that the structures formed at lower ion fluences ({approx}1 x 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}) are homogenous oxygen-rich silicon oxynitride. However, at higher fluence levels ({approx}1 x 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup -2}) formation of homogenous nitrogen rich silicon oxynitride is observed due to ion-beam induced surface sputtering effects. The Micro-Raman studies on 1173 K annealed samples show formation of partially amorphous oxygen and nitrogen rich silicon oxynitride structures with crystalline silicon beneath it for lower and higher ion fluences, respectively. The Ellipsometry studies on 1173 K annealed samples show an increase in the thickness of silicon oxynitride layer with increasing ion fluence. The refractive index of the ion-beam synthesized layers is found to be in the range 1.54-1.96.

  6. Study on mechanics of driving drum with superelastic convexity surface covering-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, L.J.; Sui, X.H.; Miao, D.J. [Shandong University of Science & Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2008-09-15

    Belt conveyor is one of the main transport equipment in coal mine and the driving drum is its key part. With the method of bionic design, the mushroom morphological structure is applied to the design of covering-layer structure of driving drum surface of belt conveyor. Superelastic rubber with large deformation is adopted as the covering-layer material. Nonlinear constitutive model of rubber, which is of superelasticity and large deformation, is established. The stress states and deformation principles of driving drums including both bionic covering-layer and common covering-layer are obtained by static intensity analysis with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software ANSYS. The values of the stress and strain on the driving drum surface are gotten and the dangerous area is determined. FEA results show that the superelastic convexity surface structure can enlarge the contact area between the driving drum and viscoelastic belt. The results also show that in comparison with common driving drum, the bionic surface driving drum can not only increase the friction coefficient between drum and belt but also prolong its service life.

  7. Unequal density effect on static structure factor of coupled electron layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, L. K., E-mail: lks@ashd.svnit.ac.in; Nayak, Mukesh G., E-mail: lks@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat - 395007, Gujarat (India)

    2014-04-24

    In order to understand the ordered phase, if any, in a real coupled electron layers (CEL), there is a need to take into account the effect of unequal layer density. Such phase is confirmed by a strong peak in a static structure factor. With the aid of quantum/dynamical version of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (so-called qSTLS) approximation, we have calculated the intra- and interlayer static structure factors, S{sub ll}(q) and S{sub 12}(q), over a wide range of density parameter r{sub sl} and interlayer spacing d. In our present study, the sharp peak in S{sub 22}(q) has been found at critical density with sufficiently lower interlayer spacing. Further, to find the resultant effect of unequal density on intra- and interlayer static structure factors, we have compared our results with that of the recent CEL system with equal layer density and isolated single electron layer.

  8. Electronic structure of boron based single and multi-layer two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Itsuki; Takahashi, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Two dimensional nanosheets based on boron and Group VA elements are designed and characterized using first principles calculations. B-N, B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi are found to possess honeycomb structures where formation energies indicate exothermic reactions. Contrary to B-N, the cases of B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi nanosheets are calculated to possess narrow band gaps. In addition, calculations reveal that the electronegativity difference between B and Group VA elements in the designed materials is a good indicator to predict the charge transfer and band gap of the two dimensional materials. Hydrogen adsorption over defect-free B-Sb and B-Bi results in exothermic reactions, while defect-free B-N, B-P, and B-As result in endothermic reactions. The layerability of the designed two dimensional materials is also investigated where the electronic structure of two-layered two dimensional materials is strongly coupled with how the two dimensional materials are layered. Thus, one can consider that the properties of two dimensional materials can be controlled by the composition of two dimensional materials and the structure of layers.

  9. Effects of stacking order, layer number and external electric field on electronic structures of few-layer C2N-h2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-09-07

    Recently, a new type of two-dimensional layered material, i.e. a nitrogenated holey two-dimensional structure C2N-h2D, has been synthesized using a simple wet-chemical reaction and used to fabricate a field-effect transistor device (Nat. Commun., 2015, 6, 6486). Here we have performed a first-principles study of the electronic properties of few-layer C2N-h2D with different stacking orders and layer numbers. Because of the interlayer coupling mainly in terms of the orbital interaction, band structure of this system, especially splitting of the bands and band gap, depends on its stacking order between the layers, and the band gap exhibits monotonically decreasing behavior as the layer number increases. All the few-layer C2N-h2D materials have characteristics of direct band gap, irrespective of the stacking order and layer number examined in our calculations. And bulk C2N-h2D has an indirect or direct band gap, depending on the stacking order. Besides, when we apply an out-of-plane electric field on few-layer C2N-h2D, its band gap will decrease as the electric field increases due to a giant Stark effect except for the monolayer case, and even a semiconductor-to-metal transition may occur for few-layer C2N-h2D with more layers under an appropriate electric field. Owing to their tunable band gaps in a wide range, the layered C2N-h2D materials will have tremendous opportunities to be applied in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Inferring the mesoscale structure of layered, edge-valued, and time-varying networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2015-10-01

    Many network systems are composed of interdependent but distinct types of interactions, which cannot be fully understood in isolation. These different types of interactions are often represented as layers, attributes on the edges, or as a time dependence of the network structure. Although they are crucial for a more comprehensive scientific understanding, these representations offer substantial challenges. Namely, it is an open problem how to precisely characterize the large or mesoscale structure of network systems in relation to these additional aspects. Furthermore, the direct incorporation of these features invariably increases the effective dimension of the network description, and hence aggravates the problem of overfitting, i.e., the use of overly complex characterizations that mistake purely random fluctuations for actual structure. In this work, we propose a robust and principled method to tackle these problems, by constructing generative models of modular network structure, incorporating layered, attributed and time-varying properties, as well as a nonparametric Bayesian methodology to infer the parameters from data and select the most appropriate model according to statistical evidence. We show that the method is capable of revealing hidden structure in layered, edge-valued, and time-varying networks, and that the most appropriate level of granularity with respect to the additional dimensions can be reliably identified. We illustrate our approach on a variety of empirical systems, including a social network of physicians, the voting correlations of deputies in the Brazilian national congress, the global airport network, and a proximity network of high-school students.

  11. High frequency guided waves for hidden fatigue crack growth monitoring in multi-layer aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Henry; Fromme, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Varying loading conditions of aircraft structures result in stress concentration at fastener holes, where multi-layered components are connected, possibly leading to the development of fatigue cracks. High frequency guided waves propagating along the structure allow for the non-destructive testing of such components, e.g., aircraft wings. However, the sensitivity for the detection of small, potentially hidden, fatigue cracks has to be ascertained. The type of multi-layered model structure investigated consists of two adhesively bonded aluminium plate-strips. Fatigue experiments were carried out. The sensitivity of the high frequency guided wave modes to monitor fatigue crack growth at a fastener hole during cyclic loading was investigated, using both standard pulse-echo equipment and laser interferometry. The sensitivity and repeatability of the measurements were ascertained, having the potential for fatigue crack growth monitoring at critical and difficult to access fastener locations from a stand-off distance.

  12. Anisotropic thermoelectric properties in layered complex nitrides with α-NaFeO2-type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Ohkubo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic structures and thermoelectric transport properties of α-NaFeO2-type d0-electron layered complex nitrides AMN2 (A = Sr or Na; M = Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta were evaluated using density-functional theory and Boltzmann theory calculations. Despite the layered crystal structure, all materials had three-dimensional electronic structures. Sr(Zr, HfN2 exhibited isotropic electronic transport properties because of the contribution of the Sr 4d orbitals to the conduction band minimums (CBMs in addition to that of the Zr 4d (Hf 5d orbitals. Na(Nb,TaN2 showed weak anisotropic electronic transport properties due to the main contribution of the Nb 4d (Ta 5d and N 2p orbitals to the CBMs and no contribution of the Na orbitals.

  13. Defect modes of one-dimensional photonic-crystal structure with a resonance nanocomposite layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, S. G.; Ostatochnikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the defect modes of a structure of Fabry - Perot interferometer type, in which the layer separating Bragg mirrors is made of a heterogeneous composite material with metallic nanoscale inclusions. Effective optical characteristics of the nanocomposite material have resonance singularities in the visible region of the spectrum, which are conditioned by the surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles. It is shown that the spectral profile of the energy bandgap of the photonic structure can be modified by varying the volume fraction and size of nanoparticles. The interrelation of splitting and shift of defect modes with structural parameters of a nanocomposite layer is studied by means of a numerical - graphical method with allowance for the frequency dependences of phases and amplitudes of reflectances in Bragg mirrors.

  14. Anisotropic thermoelectric properties in layered complex nitrides with α-NaFeO2-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Isao; Mori, Takao

    2016-10-01

    Electronic structures and thermoelectric transport properties of α-NaFeO2-type d0-electron layered complex nitrides AMN2 (A = Sr or Na; M = Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta) were evaluated using density-functional theory and Boltzmann theory calculations. Despite the layered crystal structure, all materials had three-dimensional electronic structures. Sr(Zr, Hf)N2 exhibited isotropic electronic transport properties because of the contribution of the Sr 4d orbitals to the conduction band minimums (CBMs) in addition to that of the Zr 4d (Hf 5d) orbitals. Na(Nb,Ta)N2 showed weak anisotropic electronic transport properties due to the main contribution of the Nb 4d (Ta 5d) and N 2p orbitals to the CBMs and no contribution of the Na orbitals.

  15. A highly sensitive pressure sensor using a double-layered graphene structure for tactile sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sungwoo; Kim, Youngjun; Oh, Hyeong-Sik; Bae, Giyeol; Park, Wanjun

    2015-07-21

    In this paper, we propose a graphene sensor using two separated single-layered graphenes on a flexible substrate for use as a pressure sensor, such as for soft electronics. The working pressure corresponds to the range in which human perception recognizes surface morphologies. A specific design of the sensor structure drives the piezoresistive character due to the contact resistance between two graphene layers and the electromechanical properties of graphene itself. Accordingly, sensitivity in resistance change is given by two modes for low pressure (-0.24 kPa(-1)) and high pressure (0.039 kPa(-1)) with a crossover pressure (700 Pa). This sensor can detect infinitesimal pressure as low as 0.3 Pa with uniformly applied vertical force. With the attachment of the artificial fingerprint structure (AFPS) on the sensor, the detection ability for both the locally generated shear force and actual human touch confirms recognition of the surface morphology constructed by periodic structures.

  16. A Scalable Data Access Layer to Manage Structured Heterogeneous Biomedical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delussu, Giovanni; Lianas, Luca; Frexia, Francesca; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a scalable data access layer, called PyEHR, designed to support the implementation of data management systems for secondary use of structured heterogeneous biomedical and clinical data. PyEHR adopts the openEHR's formalisms to guarantee the decoupling of data descriptions from implementation details and exploits structure indexing to accelerate searches. Data persistence is guaranteed by a driver layer with a common driver interface. Interfaces for two NoSQL Database Management Systems are already implemented: MongoDB and Elasticsearch. We evaluated the scalability of PyEHR experimentally through two types of tests, called "Constant Load" and "Constant Number of Records", with queries of increasing complexity on synthetic datasets of ten million records each, containing very complex openEHR archetype structures, distributed on up to ten computing nodes.

  17. Wind-induced vibration of single-layer reticulated shell structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-sheng; WU Yue; SHEN Shi-zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the dynamic response of reticulated shell structures under wind load, systematic parameter analyses on wind-induced responses of Kiewitt6-6 type single-layer spherical reticulated shell structures and three-way grid single-layer cylindrical reticulated shell structures were performed with the random simulation method in time domain, including geometric parameters, structural parameters and aerodynamic parameters. Moreover, a wind-induced vibration coefficient was obtained, which can be a reference to the wind-resistance design of reticulated shell structures. The results indicate that the geometric parameters are the most important factor influencing wind-induced responses of the reticulated shell structures; the wind-induced vibration coeffi-cient is 3.0 - 3.2 for the spherical reticulated shell structures and that is 2.8 - 3.0 for the cylindrical reticula-ted shell structures, which shows that the wind-induced vibration coefficients of these two kinds of space frames are well-proportioned.

  18. Self-organization, layered structure, and aggregation enhance persistence of a synthetic biofilm consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Brenner

    Full Text Available Microbial consortia constitute a majority of the earth's biomass, but little is known about how these cooperating communities persist despite competition among community members. Theory suggests that non-random spatial structures contribute to the persistence of mixed communities; when particular structures form, they may provide associated community members with a growth advantage over unassociated members. If true, this has implications for the rise and persistence of multi-cellular organisms. However, this theory is difficult to study because we rarely observe initial instances of non-random physical structure in natural populations. Using two engineered strains of Escherichia coli that constitute a synthetic symbiotic microbial consortium, we fortuitously observed such spatial self-organization. This consortium forms a biofilm and, after several days, adopts a defined layered structure that is associated with two unexpected, measurable growth advantages. First, the consortium cannot successfully colonize a new, downstream environment until it self-organizes in the initial environment; in other words, the structure enhances the ability of the consortium to survive environmental disruptions. Second, when the layered structure forms in downstream environments the consortium accumulates significantly more biomass than it did in the initial environment; in other words, the structure enhances the global productivity of the consortium. We also observed that the layered structure only assembles in downstream environments that are colonized by aggregates from a previous, structured community. These results demonstrate roles for self-organization and aggregation in persistence of multi-cellular communities, and also illustrate a role for the techniques of synthetic biology in elucidating fundamental biological principles.

  19. Transparent layered YAG ceramics with structured Yb doping produced via tape casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostaša, Jan; Piancastelli, Andreana; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo; Biasini, Valentina

    2017-03-01

    The flexibility of the ceramic production process, in particular in terms of shaping and spatial control of distribution of active ions, is one of the strong points in favor of transparent ceramics. In high power lasers in particular, where thermal management is a critical issue, the finely controlled design of spatial distribution of the doping ions within the laser gain media can reduce undesired thermally induced effects and large temperature gradients, and thus enhance the efficiency and laser beam quality especially under increased thermal load. In the present work transparent structured YAG ceramics with Yb doping were produced by tape casting followed by thermal compression of assembled tapes and sintered under high vacuum. The thermal compression of variously doped tape cast layers is a very promising method because it allows a high precision and good control over dopant distribution in the sintered material. After sintering, the distribution of Yb across the layers was characterized by SEM-EDX and the thickness of Yb diffusion zones between the layers with different Yb content was measured. Optical homogeneity was assessed by means of optical transmittance mapping of the samples and by 2D scanning of laser output. The effect of structured dopant distribution on laser performance was measured in quasi-CW and CW regime with different duty factors. Slope efficiency values higher than 50% were measured both in quasi-CW and in CW lasing conditions. The results are in good agreement with previously calculated predictions, confirming the beneficial effect of structured doping on laser performances and enlightening the impact of the residual scattering losses. Compared to other processing methods, such as the pressing of granulated powders, tape casting followed by thermal compression leads to straight and narrow interfaces between layers with different composition and allows to build structures composed of extremely thin layers with defined dopant content.

  20. A novel two-layer compact electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure and its applications in microwave circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ning(杨宁); CHEN; Zhining; (陈志宁); WANG; Yunyi; (王蕴仪); Chia; M.; Y.; W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel two-layer electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure. The studies on the characteristics of the cell are carried out numerically and experimentally. A lumped-LC equivalent circuit extracted from the numerical simulation is used to model the bandgap characteristics of the proposed EBG structure. The influences of geometric parameters on the operation frequency and equivalent LC parameters are discussed. A meander line high performance bandstop filter and a notch type duplexer are designed and measured. These EBG structures are shown to have potential applications in microwave and RF systems.

  1. Fine structures in Fe3Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhang Yonglan; X Holly

    2002-12-01

    The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and -Fe (Al) solid solution. There was no brittle phase containing higher aluminum content, such as FeAl3 (59.18% Al) and Fe2Al7 (62.93% Al). The tiny cracks and embrittlement, formerly caused by these brittle phases in the conventional aluminum-coated steel, were effectively eliminated. There was no microscopic defect (such as tiny cracks, pores or loose layer) in the coating. This is favourable to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion of the aluminized steel.

  2. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Baiutti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2−xSrxNiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control.

  3. Towards precise defect control in layered oxide structures by using oxide molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiutti, Federico; Christiani, Georg; Logvenov, Gennady

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the atomic-layer-by-layer oxide molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-oxide MBE) which has been recently installed in the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research and we report on its present status, providing some examples that demonstrate its successful application in the synthesis of different layered oxides, with particular reference to superconducting La2CuO4 and insulator-to-metal La2- x Sr x NiO4. We briefly review the ALL-oxide MBE technique and its unique capabilities in the deposition of atomically smooth single-crystal thin films of various complex oxides, artificial compounds and heterostructures, introducing our goal of pursuing a deep investigation of such systems with particular emphasis on structural defects, with the aim of tailoring their functional properties by precise defects control.

  4. Structural and hydraulic properties of a small fault zone in a layered reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a small fault zone (too small to be detected by geophysical imaging affecting a carbonate reservoir composed of porous and low-porous layers. In a gallery located at 250-m depth in the Underground Low Noise Laboratory, hydraulic properties of a 20-m thick section of the reservoir affected by the studied fault are characterized by structural measurements and by a hydraulic injection in boreholes. Main result is that the damage zone displays contrasted permeability values (up to two orders of magnitude inherited from the differential alteration of the intact rock layers. To characterize the impact of these hydraulic properties variations on the flow of fluids, numerical simulations of supercritical CO2 injections were performed with the TOUGH2 code. It appears, the permeability variations inside the fault zone favor the appearance of high fluid overpressure located in the layers having the highest permeability and storativity.

  5. Mesoscopic Structures Reveal the Network Between the Layers of Multiplex Datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex networks describe a large variety of complex systems, whose elements (nodes) can be connected by different types of interactions forming different layers (networks) of the multiplex. Multiplex networks include social networks, transportation networks or biological networks in the cell or in the brain. Extracting relevant information from these networks is of crucial importance for solving challenging inference problems and for characterizing the multiplex networks microscopic and mesoscopic structure. Here we propose an information theory method to extract the network between the layers of multiplex datasets, forming a "network of networks". We build an indicator function, based on the entropy of network ensembles, to characterize the mesoscopic similarities between the layers of a multiplex network and we use clustering techniques to characterize the communities present in this network of networks. We apply the proposed method to study the Multiplex Collaboration Network formed by scientists collab...

  6. Love Waves in Layered Graded Composite Structures with Imperfectly Bonded Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations of Love wave propagation in layered graded composites with imperfectly bonded interface are described in this paper. On the basis of WKB method, the approximate analytic solutions for Love waves are obtained. By the interface shear spring model, the dispersion relations for Love waves in layered graded composite structures with rigid, slip, and imperfectly bonded interfaces are given, and the effects of the interface conditions on the phase velocities of Love waves in SiC/Al layered graded composites are discussed. Numerical analysis shows that the phase velocity decreases when the defined flexibility parameter is greater. For the general imperfectly bonded interface, the phase velocity changes in the range of the velocities for the rigid and slip interface conditions.

  7. Random Boundary Simulation of Pumping Groundwater on Two-layer Soft Soil Structure with Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on random theory,fluid dynamics,porous media and soil mechanics,the porosity and random characteristic of the two-layer soft soil in Wuhan region were studied in this paper.The random seepage coefficient on the two-layer soft soil was analyzed,and the seepage model and its random distribution function were given.The groundwater flow differential equations related to the two layer soft soil structure were also established.The evaluation procedure of effect boundary on the pumping water in deep foundation pit was put forward.Moreover,with an engineering example,the probability distribution on random boundary prediction for pumping water of foundation pit was computed.

  8. Structural Study and Modification of Support Layer for Forward Osmosis Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity is a serious global issue, due to the increasing population and developing economy, and membrane technology is an essential way to address this problem. Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane process, due to its low energy consumption (not considering the draw solute regeneration). A bottleneck to advance this technology is the design of the support layer for FO membranes to minimize the internal concentration polarization. In this dissertation, we focus on the structural study and modification of the support layer for FO membranes. Firstly, we digitally reconstruct different membrane morphologies in 3D and propose a method for predicting performance in ultrafiltration operations. Membranes with analogous morphologies are later used as substrate for FO membranes. Secondly, we experimentally apply substrates with different potentially suitable morphologies as an FO support layer. We investigate their FO performance after generating a selective polyamide layer on the top, by interfacial polymerization. Among the different substrates we include standard asymmetric porous membranes prepared from homopolymers, such as polysulfone. Additionally block copolymer membrane and Anodisc alumina membrane are chosen based on their exceptional structures, with cylindrical pores at least in part. 3D digitally reconstructed porous substrates, analogous to those investigated for ultrafiltration, are then used to model the performance in FO operation. Finally, we analyze the effect of intermediate layers between the porous substrate and the interfacial polymerized layer. We investigate two materials including chitosan and hydrogel. The main results are the following. Pore-scale modeling for digital membrane generation effectively predicts the velocity profile in different layers of the membrane and the performance in UF experiments. Flow simulations confirm the advantage of finger-like substrates over sponge-like ones, when high water permeance is sought

  9. Photon tunneling and transmittance resonance through a multi-layer structure with a left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ying; Zhang Xia; Yang Yan-Fang; Li Chun-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the photon tunneling and transmittance resonance through a multi-layer structure including a left-handed material(LHM). An analytical expression for the transmittance in a five-layer structure is given by the analytical transfer matrix method. The transmittance is studied as a function of the refractive index and the width of the LHM layer. The perfect photon tunneling results from the multi-layer structure, especially from the relation between the magnitude of the refractive index and the width of the LHM layer and those of the adjoining layers.Photons may tunnel through a much greater distance in this structure. Transmittance resonance happens, the peaks and valleys appear periodically at the resonance thickness. For an LHM with inherent losses, the perfect transmittance is suppressed.

  10. Self-Assembled, Iridescent, Crustacean-Mimetic Nanocomposites with Tailored Periodicity and Layered Cuticular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2015-11-24

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced molecular interactions. Herein, we develop a facile, waterborne self-assembly pathway to mimic the multiscale cuticle structure of the crustacean armor by combining hard reinforcing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We show iridescent CNC nanocomposites with cholesteric liquid-crystal structure, in which different helical pitches and photonic band gaps can be realized by varying the CNC/PVA ratio. We further show that multilayered crustacean-mimetic materials with tailored periodicity and layered cuticular structure can be obtained by sequential preparation pathways. The transition from a cholesteric to a disordered structure occurs for a critical polymer concentration. Correspondingly, we find a transition from stiff and strong mechanical behavior to materials with increasing ductility. Crack propagation studies using scanning electron microscopy visualize the different crack growth and toughening mechanisms inside cholesteric nanocomposites as a function of the interstitial polymer content for the first time. Different extents of crack deflection, layered delamination, ligament bridging, and constrained microcracking can be observed. Drawing of highly plasticized films sheds light on the mechanistic details of the transition from a cholesteric/chiral nematic to a nematic structure. The study demonstrates how self-assembly of biobased CNCs in combination with suitable polymers can be used to replicate a hierarchical biological structure and how future design of these ordered multifunctional nanocomposites can be optimized by understanding mechanistic details of deformation and fracture.

  11. 3D multi-layered fibrous cellulose structure using an electrohydrodynamic process for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-11-01

    Micro/nanofibrous structures have been applied widely in various tissue-engineering applications because the topological structures are similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which encourages a high degree of cell adhesion and growth. However, it has been difficult to produce a three-dimensional (3D) fibrous structure using controllable macro-pores. Recently, cellulose has been considered a high-potential natural-origin biomaterial, but its use in 3D biomedical structures has been limited due to its narrow processing window. Here, we suggest a new 3D cellulose scaffold consisting of multi-layered struts made of submicron-sized entangled fibers that were fabricated using an electrohydrodynamic direct jet (EHDJ) process that is spin-printing. By optimizing processing conditions (electric field strength, cellulose feeding rate, and distance between nozzle and target), we can achieve a multi-layered cellulose structure consisting of the cylindrically entangled cellulose fibers. To compare the properties of the fabricated 3D cellulose structure, we used a PCL fibrous scaffold, which has a similar fibrous morphology and pore geometry, as a control. The physical and in vitro biocompatibilities of both fibrous scaffolds were assessed using human dermal fibroblasts, and the cellulose structure showed higher cell adhesion and metabolic activities compared with the control. These results suggest the EHDJ process to be an effective fabricating tool for tissue engineering and the cellulose scaffold has high potential as a tissue regenerative material.

  12. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. Copyright © 2014

  13. Using copper substrate to enhance electron field emission properties of carbon nanotube/diamond double-layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lezhi; Sujith Kumar, C. S.; Li, Yuan-shi; Niakan, Hamid; Zhang, Chunzi; Hirose, Akira; Aravind, Suresh; Yang, Qiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT)/diamond double-layered structure was synthesized on copper (Cu) substrate by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. The structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the diamond layer has good adhesion to the Cu substrate and the CNTs have direct contact with the diamond layer. Field electron emission measurement shows that the double-layered structure on copper has very good emission stability and a much lower turn-on field than that on silicon (Si).

  14. Excitation of magnetic inhomogeneities in three-layer ferromagnetic structure with different parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekomasov, E.G., E-mail: EkomasovEG@gmail.com [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Murtazin, R.R. [Bashkir State University, 32, Validy Str., Ufa, 450076 (Russian Federation); Nazarov, V.N. [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics Ufa Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, Ufa, 450075 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The generation and evolution of magnetic inhomogeneities, emerging in a thin flat layer with the parameters of the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction, with the parameters different from other two thick layers of the three-layer ferromagnetic structure, were investigated. The parameters ranges that determine the possibility of their existence were found. The possibility of the external magnetic field influence on the structure and dynamic properties of localized magnetic inhomogeneities was shown. - Highlights: • The generation of magnetic inhomogeneities in the three-layer ferromagnetic. • The influence of an external field on the parameters of magnetic inhomogeneities. • Numerical study of the structure and dynamics of magnetic inhomogeneities.

  15. Dynamical origins of the community structure of an online multi-layer society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter; Diakonova, Marina; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Social structures emerge as a result of individuals managing a variety of different social relationships. Societies can be represented as highly structured dynamic multiplex networks. Here we study the dynamical origins of the specific community structures of a large-scale social multiplex network of a human society that interacts in a virtual world of a massive multiplayer online game. There we find substantial differences in the community structures of different social actions, represented by the various layers in the multiplex network. Community sizes distributions are either fat-tailed or appear to be centered around a size of 50 individuals. To understand these observations we propose a voter model that is built around the principle of triadic closure. It explicitly models the co-evolution of node- and link-dynamics across different layers of the multiplex network. Depending on link and node fluctuation probabilities, the model exhibits an anomalous shattered fragmentation transition, where one layer fragments from one large component into many small components. The observed community size distributions are in good agreement with the predicted fragmentation in the model. This suggests that several detailed features of the fragmentation in societies can be traced back to the triadic closure processes.

  16. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Structural, electrical and gas-sensing properties of In2O3 : Ag composite nanoparticle layers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Mehta; V N Singh

    2005-11-01

    The central objective of this study is to investigate (i) size-dependent properties of In2O3 nanoparticles and (ii) the role of metal additives in enhancing the gas sensing response. For this purpose, In2O3 : Ag composite nanoparticle layers having well-defined individual nanoparticle size and composition have been grown by a two step synthesis method. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been used to study the effect of post-synthesis heat treatment on the size and structure of the nanoparticles. A first-time unambiguous observation of size-dependent lowering of transformation temperature has been explained in terms of lower cohesive energy of surface atoms and increase in surface-to-volume ratio with decrease in nanoparticle size. The gas sensing studies of In2O3 as well as the In2O3 : Ag composite nanoparticle layers have been studied as a function of size and composition. In2O3 : Ag composite nanoparticle layers with 15% silver show a sensitivity of 436 and response time of 6 s for 1000 ppm of ethanol in air. Ag additives form a p-type Ag2O, which interact with n-type In2O3 to produce an electron-deficient space-charge layer. In the presence of ethanol, interfacial Ag2O reduces to Ag, creating an accumulation layer in In2O3 resulting in increased sensitivity.

  18. Measurements and theory for transport layer structure in intense bed-load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccarollo, L.; Capart, H.

    2012-04-01

    We focus on sediment laden flows driven by turbulent open-channel flows where the bed surface is fully mobilized and nonetheless the thickness of the bedload layer is conveniently smaller than the flow depth. This regime presents dynamic and kinematic features which persist in the range of applied Shields stress between about 0.3 and 3. Below the lower limit the moving grains do not develop significant stresses compared to the applied ones; above the upper limit, debris-flow type frictional contacts develop in a non negligible portion of the bedload layer. We report laboratory experiments in which, using high-speed cameras and a laser light sheet, detailed profiles of granular velocity and concentration have been measured. We checked that the transversal bed profile is flat and that the sidewall measurements are representative of the interior domain. The profiles provide new information on transport layer structure and its relation to the applied Shields stress. Contrary to expectations, we find that intense bed-load layers respond to changes in flow conditions by adjusting their granular concentration at the base. Two mechanisms account for the resulting behavior: stresses generated by immersed granular collisions, and equilibration by density stratification. Without parameter adjustment, the deduced constitutive relations capture the responses of velocity, concentration, and layer thickness in the above reported ten-fold increase Shields-stress range. Away from this intermediate range, in both directions, we show how the flow features rapidly change and the theoretical inferences decay.

  19. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  20. Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Sina; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Wu; Zou, Xiaolong; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Yakobson, Boris I; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Single-layered molybdenum disulphide with a direct bandgap is a promising two-dimensional material that goes beyond graphene for the next generation of nanoelectronics. Here, we report the controlled vapour phase synthesis of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for the nucleation, growth, and grain boundary formation in its crystalline monolayers. Furthermore, a nucleation-controlled strategy is established to systematically promote the formation of large-area, single- and few-layered films. Using high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, the atomic structure and morphology of the grains and their boundaries in the polycrystalline molybdenum disulphide atomic layers are examined, and the primary mechanisms for grain boundary formation are evaluated. Grain boundaries consisting of 5- and 7- member rings are directly observed with atomic resolution, and their energy landscape is investigated via first-principles calculations. The uniformity in thickness, large grain sizes, and excellent electrical performance signify the high quality and scalable synthesis of the molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

  1. Structure of the dayside reconnection layer in resistive MHD and hybrid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Lee, L. C.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the structure of the reconnection layer at the dayside magnetopause. Two typical cases are examined in detail; both are asymmetric in magnetic field and plasma density. In case 1, the guide fields in the magnetosheath and in the magnetosphere are set at zero and thus the tangential magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel. In case 2, the angle between the tangential magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet is 145 deg. The results obtained from a resistive MHD model and from a hybrid model are found to be different. In the MHD simulation of case 1, a 2-4 intermediate shock is found to bound the reconnection layer on the magnetosheath side, while an Alfven wave pulse bounds the reconnection layer on the magnetospheric side. In case 2, it is found that a time-dependent intermediate shock (TDIS) bounds the reconnection layer on the magnetosheath side, with a slow expansion wave propagating behind. With the MHD simulations, in the general case in which the tangential magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet are not exactly antiparallel, a rotational discontinuity across which the tangential magnetic field rotates, a large angle is found to bound the reconnection layer on the magnetosheath side.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of aero-optical distortion and turbulent structure in a heated boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley; Smith, Adam; Gordeyev, Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between turbulent structures and the aero-optical distortion of a laser beam passing through a turbulent boundary layer. Previous studies by Smith et al. (AIAA, 2014--2491) have found a bulk convection velocity of 0 . 8U∞ for aero-optical distortion in turbulent boundary layers, motivating a comparison of the distortion with the outer boundary layer. In this study, a turbulent boundary layer is developed over a flat plate with a moderately-heated section of length 25 δ . Density variation in the thermal boundary layer leads to aero-optical distortion, which is measured with a Malley probe (Smith et al., AIAA, 2013--3133). Simultaneously, 2D PIV measurements are recorded in a wall-normal, streamwise plane centered on the Malley probe location. Experiments are run at Reθ = 2100 and at a Mach number of 0.03, with the heated wall 10 to 20°C above the free stream temperature. Correlations and conditional averages are carried out between Malley probe distortion angles and flow features in the PIV vector fields. Aero-optical distortion in this study will be compared to distortion in higher Mach number flows studied by Gordeyev et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2014), with the aim of extending conclusions into compressible flows. This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060.

  3. A stable lithium-rich surface structure for lithium-rich layered cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangryun; Cho, Woosuk; Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-11-01

    Lithium ion batteries are encountering ever-growing demand for further increases in energy density. Li-rich layered oxides are considered a feasible solution to meet this demand because their specific capacities often surpass 200 mAh g-1 due to the additional lithium occupation in the transition metal layers. However, this lithium arrangement, in turn, triggers cation mixing with the transition metals, causing phase transitions during cycling and loss of reversible capacity. Here we report a Li-rich layered surface bearing a consistent framework with the host, in which nickel is regularly arranged between the transition metal layers. This surface structure mitigates unwanted phase transitions, improving the cycling stability. This surface modification enables a reversible capacity of 218.3 mAh g-1 at 1C (250 mA g-1) with improved cycle retention (94.1% after 100 cycles). The present surface design can be applied to various battery electrodes that suffer from structural degradations propagating from the surface.

  4. Systematic study on pulse parameters in fabricating porous silicon-layered structures by pulse electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, J.; Yin, W. J.; Ma, L. L.; Obbard, E.; Ding, X. M.; Hou, X. Y.

    2007-08-01

    Pulse electrochemical etching was used to improve the quality of porous silicon (PS) layers. Although alternative PS layers of different porosities have been realized by this etching technique, there is no systematic study on the influence of different etching pulse parameters on PS during the etching process. We test various combinations of pulse parameters, including duty cycle and duration, in fabricating PS-layered structures. The optical thickness and actual thickness of the PS structures fabricated are investigated by means of reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that reducing the duty cycle and pulse duration of the pulse can promote the formation of PS layers with a large optical thickness and high refractive index. Meanwhile, the uniformity of PS is also improved. The duty cycle of 1:10-1:20 and pulse duration of 0.1-0.2 ms can result in the best uniformity and smoothness for the highly doped p-Si wafers. We believe that our work could set the foundation for further improvement of pulse electrochemical etching.

  5. Spatial length scales of large-scale structures in atmospheric surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, HongYou; Wang, GuoHua; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2017-06-01

    Synchronous multipoint measurements were performed in the atmospheric surface layer at the Qingtu Lake Observation Array site to obtain high-Reynolds-number [Reτ˜O (106) ] data. Based on the selected high-quality data in the near-neutral surface layer, the spatial length scales of the large-scale dominant structures in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer are investigated. The characteristic length scales are extracted from the two-point streamwise velocity correlations. Results show that the spatial length scales are invariant over a three order of magnitude change in Reynolds number [Reτ˜O (103) -O (106) ] . However, they increase significantly with the wall-normal distance, showing reasonable collapses on outer-scaled axes. The variation of the spanwise width scale in the logarithmic region follows a linear increase, with the rate of increase much larger than that in the wake region. Moreover, the variation of the wall-normal length scale is also revealed, which displays a qualitative behavior similar to that of the spanwise width scale. The universal laws revealed in the present work contribute to a better understanding of the dominant structures in the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers.

  6. Interfacial structure of tungsten layers formed by selective low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacy, W.T.; Broadbent, E.K.; Norcott, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    We have analyzed the interfacial structure of selectively deposited LPCVD tungsten on monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and polycrystalline aluminum substrates. Cross-sectional specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy to determine the amount of substrate consumed by the selective deposition process and to assess the degree of lateral encroachment under masking SiO/sub 2/ layers for different conditions of deposition and surface preparation. The tungsten-silicon interfacial structure was found to depend strongly on the initia surface preparation. Immersion in a dilute HF solution resulted in a smooth interface, while a glow-discharge treatment (CF/sub 4/ + O/sub 2/) led to highly irregular interfaces, which, in extreme cases, contained tunnels extending 1 ..mu..m or more into the silicon substrate. Layers formed in WF/sub 6/ plus H/sub 2/ were found to consist of two layers, of which the lower layer i formed by the substrate reduction of WF/sub 6/.

  7. Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Norton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the meteorology and planetary boundary layer structure observed during the NAMBLEX field campaign to aid interpretation of the chemical and aerosol measurements. The campaign has been separated into five periods corresponding to the prevailing synoptic condition. Comparisons between meteorological measurements (UHF wind profiler, Doppler sodar, sonic aneometers mounted on a tower at varying heights and a standard anemometer and the ECMWF analysis at 10m and 1100 m identified days when the internal boundary layer was decoupled from the synoptic flow aloft. Generally the agreement was remarkably good apart from during period one and on a few days during period four when the diurnal swing in wind direction implies a sea/land breeze circulation near the surface. During these periods the origin of air sampled at Mace Head would not be accurately represented by back trajectories following the winds resolved in ECMWF analyses. The wind profiler observations give a detailed record of boundary layer structure including an indication of its depth, average wind speed and direction. Turbulence statistics have been used to assess the height to which the developing internal boundary layer, caused by the increased surface drag at the coast, reaches the sampling location under a wide range of marine conditions. Sampling conducted below 10 m will be impacted by emission sources at the shoreline in all wind directions and tidal conditions, whereas sampling above 15 m is unlikely to be affected in any of the wind directions and tidal heights sampled during the experiment.

  8. A Resistive MHD Simulation of the Shear Flow Effects on the Structure of Reconnection Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Chunhua; LIN Yu; WANG Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    By using a one-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, the Rie-mann problem is solved numerically for the structure of the reconnection layer under a sheared flow along the anti-parallel magnetic field components. The simulation is carried out for general cases with symmetric or asymmetric plasma densities and magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet, and cases with or without a guide magnetic field, as in various space and fusion plasmas. The generation of MHD discontinuities in the reconnection layer is discussed, including time-dependent intermediate shocks, intermediate shocks, slow shocks, slow expansion waves, and the contact discontinuity. It is shown that the structure of the reconnection layer is significantly affected by the presence of the shear flow. For an initial symmetric current sheet, the symmetry condition is altered due to the shear flow. For cases with an asymmetric initial current sheet, as at the Earth's magnetopause, the strengths of MHD discontinuities change significantly with the shear flow speed. Moreover, the general results for the reconnection layers in the outflow regions on either side of the X line are discussed systematically for the first time.

  9. Structure and dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flow over healthy and algae-covered corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocking, Jonathan B.; Rippe, John P.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2016-09-01

    Fine-scale velocity measurements over healthy and algae-covered corals were collected in situ to characterize combined wave-current boundary layer flow and the effects of algal canopies on turbulence hydrodynamics. Data were collected using acoustic Doppler velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. Flow over healthy corals is well described by traditional wall-bounded shear layers, distinguished by a logarithmic velocity profile, a local balance of turbulence production and dissipation, and high levels of bed shear stress. Healthy corals exhibit significant spatial heterogeneity in boundary layer flow structure resulting from variations in large-scale coral topography. By contrast, the turbulence structure of algae-covered corals is best represented by a plane mixing layer, with a sharp inflection point in mean velocity at the canopy top, a large imbalance of turbulence production and dissipation, and strongly damped flow and shear stresses within the canopy. The presence of an algal canopy increases turbulent kinetic energy within the roughness sublayer by ~2.5 times compared to healthy corals while simultaneously reducing bed shear stress by nearly an order of magnitude. Reduced bed shear at the coral surface and within-canopy turbulent stresses imply reduced mass transfer of necessary metabolites (e.g., oxygen, nutrients), leading to negative impacts on coral health.

  10. Organic and inorganic–organic thin film structures by molecular layer deposition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Sundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to deposit purely organic and hybrid inorganic–organic materials in a way parallel to the state-of-the-art gas-phase deposition method of inorganic thin films, i.e., atomic layer deposition (ALD, is currently experiencing a strongly growing interest. Like ALD in case of the inorganics, the emerging molecular layer deposition (MLD technique for organic constituents can be employed to fabricate high-quality thin films and coatings with thickness and composition control on the molecular scale, even on complex three-dimensional structures. Moreover, by combining the two techniques, ALD and MLD, fundamentally new types of inorganic–organic hybrid materials can be produced. In this review article, we first describe the basic concepts regarding the MLD and ALD/MLD processes, followed by a comprehensive review of the various precursors and precursor pairs so far employed in these processes. Finally, we discuss the first proof-of-concept experiments in which the newly developed MLD and ALD/MLD processes are exploited to fabricate novel multilayer and nanostructure architectures by combining different inorganic, organic and hybrid material layers into on-demand designed mixtures, superlattices and nanolaminates, and employing new innovative nanotemplates or post-deposition treatments to, e.g., selectively decompose parts of the structure. Such layer-engineered and/or nanostructured hybrid materials with exciting combinations of functional properties hold great promise for high-end technological applications.

  11. Study on the layered dusty plasma structures in the summer polar mesopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional hydrodynamic equations are adopted to build a one-dimensional theoretical model to study the effect of gravity wave on layered dusty plasma structures formation and evolution near the polar summer mesospause region associated with polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. The proposed mechanism gives consideration to the charged ice particle motion by the gravity wave modulation, making a significant contribution to the vertical transport of heavy ice particles and convergence into thin layers. And numerical results show that the pattern of the multi-layer structure depends on the ration of the initial ice particles density distribution to the vertical wavelength of the gravity waves, the ice particle size and the wind velocity caused by gravity wave. Also, the variation of ion density distribution under the influence of gravity wave has also been examined. Finally, the electron density depletions (bite-outs layers has been simulated according to the charge conservation laws, and the results are compared to the ECT02 rocket sounding data, which agree well with the measuring.

  12. Turbulence Fine Structure, Intermittency, and Large-Scale Interactions in the Stable Boundary Layer and Residual Layer: Correlative High-Resolution Measurements and Direct Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The research employed stable boundary layer measurements using the DataHawk UAV and high-resolution direct numerical...simulations ( DNS ) to examine the interactions and instabilities occurring in multi-scale flows that drive intermittent turbulence events in the stable...atmosphere. Both measurements and the DNS revealed the occurrence and persistence of sheet-and-layer structures in the temperature and velocity fields that

  13. SEM analysis of the changes of carbon layer structure of mesocarbon microbeads heat-treated at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tongqi; WANG Chengyang; LIU Xiujun; ZHENG Jiaming; WANG Hui

    2004-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) with narrow size distribution, excellent sphericity and no obvious conglutination have been prepared with a coal tar pitch containing quinoline insolubles (QI) as the raw material. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the structure of the MCMB. It has been found that SEM technique shows the structural information of MCMB clearly in the form of micrographs even when the structure of MCMB is complex, while the optical technique is useful for analysis of the regular structure of the mesophase spheres but cannot be effectively used to analyze either the complex structure of the green MCMB or the structures of the further heat-treated ones at different temperatures. According to the characteristics of the carbon layers, the structures of the as-prepared MCMB in the present experiment could be classified as (1) Parallel Layer type structure and (2) Bent Layer type structure with the carbon layers gathering at one or two points in the MCMB. In the experiments, SEM is also utilized to investigate the structures of MCMB that are heat-treated at different temperatures. It has been found that the MCMB without any further heat-treatment show no layered-carbons, while the ones heat-treated at temperature higher than 1000℃ exhibit obvious layered carbons across their sections. When increasing the heat-treatment temperature, the carbon layers become thinner and flatter.

  14. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  15. Investigating the performance of catalyst layer micro-structures with different platinum loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakaz-Baboli, Moben; Harvey, David; Pharoah, Jon

    2012-07-01

    In this study a four-phase micro-structure of a PEFC catalyst layer was reconstructed by randomly placing overlapping spheres for each solid catalyst phase. The micro-structure was mirrored to make a micro-structure. A body-fit computational mesh was produced for the reconstructed micro-structure in OpenFOAM. Associated conservation equations were solved within all the phases with electrochemical reaction as the boundary condition at the interface between ionomer and platinum phases. The study is focused on the platinum loading of CL. The polarization curves of the micro-structure performance have been compared for different platinum loadings. This paper gives increased insight into the relatively greater losses at decreased platinum loadings.

  16. Validity of the Janssen Model for Layered Structures in a Silo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qadir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are found every where despite they are poorly understood at microscopic level. The main hindrance is how to connect the microscopic properties with the macroscopic behavior and propose a rigorous unified theory. One method is to test the existing theoretical models in various configurations. In this connection we have performed experiments in different configurations of granules in a silo to determine the validity of the Janssen model under such arrangements. Two and four layered structures of different bead diameters are prepared. The effective mass at the bottom of the container in such cases have been measured. Moreover, the investigation of layered structures reveals that such configurations also follow well the Janssen model. An interesting percolation phenomenon was observed when smaller beads were stacked on larger ones, despite the model remained valid. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that Janssen law holds for larger bead diameters.

  17. Swept shock/boundary-layer interactions: Scaling laws, flowfield structure, and experimental methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary S.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of several decades of research on the scaling laws and flowfield structures of swept shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions. Attention is further restricted to the experimental study and physical understanding of the steady-state aspects of these flows. The interaction produced by a sharp, upright fin mounted on a flat plate is taken as an archetype. An overall framework of quasiconical symmetry describing such interactions is first developed. Boundary-layer separation, the interaction footprint, Mach number scaling, and Reynolds number scaling are then considered, followed by a discussion of the quasiconical similarity of interactions produced by geometrically-dissimilar shock generators. The detailed structure of these interaction flowfields is next reviewed, and is illustrated by both qualitative visualizations and quantitative flow images in the quasiconical framework. Finally, the experimental techniques used to investigate such flows are reviewed, with emphasis on modern non-intrusive optical flow diagnostics.

  18. Role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature GaN layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ZhiYuan; HAO Yue; LI PeiXian; ZHANG JinCheng

    2009-01-01

    The role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature (HT) GaN epitaxial layer has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Variations of the lateral growth rate of HT GaN in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)can be obtained by changing the Ⅴ/Ⅲ ratio. It is found that under higher lateral growth rate, dislocation is easier to bend into subgrains away from c axis, and the position where bend occurs is closer to the buffer layer, however, dislocation density does not show to monotonically vary with increasing lateral growth rate. A model concerning the GaN growth dynamics and dislocation bending mechanics has been proposed to explain the correlation between lateral growth and the structural properties of GaN.

  19. RESEARCH ON COHERENT STRUCTURES IN A MIXING LAYER OF THE FENE-P POLYMER SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雪明; 林建忠; 余钊圣

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the coherent structures in a two-dimensional time-developing mixing layer of the FENE-P fluids is examined numerically. By the means of an appropriate filtering for the polymer stress, some characteristics of the coherent structures at high b were obtained, which Azaiez and Homsy did not address. The results indicate that adding polymer to the Newtonian fluids will cause stronger vorticity diffusion, accompanied with weaker fundamental and subharmonical perturbations and slower rotational motion of neighboring vortices during pairing. This effect decreases with the Weissenberg number, but increases with b. In addition, the time when the consecutive rollers are completely coalesced into one delays in the viscoelastic mixing layer compared with the Newtonian one of the same total viscosity.

  20. Role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature GaN layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The role of lateral growth on the structural properties of high temperature(HT) GaN epitaxial layer has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD).Variations of the lateral growth rate of HT GaN in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) can be obtained by changing the V/Ⅲ ratio.It is found that under higher lateral growth rate,dislocation is easier to bend into subgrains away from c axis,and the position where bend occurs is closer to the buffer layer,however,dislocation density does not show to monotonically vary with increasing lateral growth rate.A model concerning the GaN growth dynamics and dislocation bending mechanics has been proposed to explain the correlation between lateral growth and the structural properties of GaN.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of Layered Fiber Composite Structures Accounting for the Material's Microstructure and Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    The present paper focuses on composite structures which consist of several layers of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). For such layered composite structures, delamination constitutes one of the major failure modes. Predicting its initiation is essential for the design of these composites. Evaluating stress-strength relation based onset criteria requires an accurate representation of the through-the-thickness stress distribution, which can be particularly delicate in the case of shell-like structures. Thus, in this paper, a solid-shell finite element formulation is utilized which allows to incorporate a fully three-dimensional material model while still being suitable for applications involving thin structures. Moreover, locking phenomena are cured by using both the EAS and the ANS concept, and numerical efficiency is ensured through reduced integration. The proposed anisotropic material model accounts for the material's micro-structure by using the concept of structural tensors. It is validated by comparison to experimental data as well as by application to numerical examples.

  2. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  3. Novel electric double-layer capacitor with a coaxial fiber structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Qiu, Longbin; Ren, Jing; Guan, Guozhen; Lin, Huijuan; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Peining; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-26

    A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which functions as two electrodes with a polymer gel sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles.

  4. Propagation of SH waves in an infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic periodically layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance.

  5. On Theory of Dispersive Transport in a Two-Layer Polymer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibatov, R. T.; Morozova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    Dispersive transport of charge carriers in a two-layer polymer structure is modeled on the basis of the integrodifferential equation of hereditary diffusion. The model of multiple trapping in a bilayer is generalized to the case of an arbitrary density of localized states. With the help of an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm, curves of the transient current are calculated and their features are explained within the framework of a stochastic interpretation of the process.

  6. A hybrid vanadium fluoride with structurally isolated S = 1 kagome layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Downie, Lewis J; Morris, Russell E; A de Vries, Mark; Lightfoot, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A new organically-templated vanadium(III) fluoride, (NH4)2(C2H8N)[V3F12], has been prepared using an ionothermal approach. This compound has a unique layered structure featuring distorted S = 1 kagome planes separated by the cationic species. The compound exhibits magnetic frustration, with a canted antiferromagnetic ground state. On further cooling in the ground state a pronounced change in magnetisation kinetics is observed.

  7. Comparison of Epitaxial Growth Techniques for III-V Layer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    FOR Ill-V LAYER STRUCTURES DTIC byS ELECTE G. B. STRINGFELLOW MAY 2 819S2 A Prepared for Publication in the Proceedings of croissance de cristaux et de...overall process. This very area, that has retarded the development of OMVPE, now provides a significant advantage relative to other, competing...having miscibility gaps, as discussed in the last paper.[22] Another major factor retarding the development of OMVPE has been the inability to escape

  8. Assessment of thermal structure of boundary layer atmosphere of Western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmetshina, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of frequency of temperature inversions makes it possible to investigate the probability of coincidence of unfavorable conditions of atmospheric stratification and the results of the intensive business activity. This paper is devoted to the study of thermal structure of the atmosphere boundary layer of Western Siberian territory in the period from 1990 to 2010 by using reanalysis of NCEP/NCAR data. The data of reanalysis is the only available information for similar research. Ba...

  9. Spinel versus layered structures for lithium cobalt oxide synthesized at 400-degrees-c

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gummow, RJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Rietveld refinements of X-ray data of LiCoO2 prepared at 400-degrees-C and a chemically-delithiated product Li0.5CoO2 using space group symmetries R3mBAR and Fd3m are reported. Refinements in both R3mBAR (layered-type structure) and Fd3m (spinel...

  10. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I., E-mail: igalsz@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3100 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  11. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  12. Structural system identification of buildings by a wave method based on a layered Timoshenko beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mahdi; Todorovska, Maria I.

    2014-03-01

    A layered Timoshenko beam (TB) model of a high-rise building is presented and applied to system identification of a full-scale building from recorded seismic response. This model is a new development in a wave method for earthquake damage detection and structural health monitoring being developed by the authors' research group. The method is based on monitoring changes in the wave properties of the structure, such as the velocity of wave propagation vertically through the structure. This model is an improvement over the previously used layered shear beam (SB) model because it accounts for wave dispersion caused by flexural deformation present in addition to shear. It also accounts for the rotatory inertia and the variation of the building properties with height. The case study is a 54-story steel frame building located in downtown Los Angeles. Recorded accelerations during the Northridge earthquake of 1994 are used for system identification of the NS response. The model parameters are identified by matching, in the least squares sense, the model and observed impulse response functions at all levels where motion was recorded. The model is then used to compute the building vertical phase and group velocities. Impulse responses computed by deconvolution of the recorded motions with the roof response are used, which represent the building response to a virtual source at the roof. The better match of transfer-function amplitudes of the fitted TB model than of previously fitted SB model indicates that the layered TB model is a better physical model for this building.

  13. Superheating Suppresses Structural Disorder in Layered BiI3 Semiconductors Grown by the Bridgman Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, James E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In the work presented here, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate this structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals; thus the technique was here explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, x-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  14. Superheating suppresses structural disorder in layered BiI3 semiconductors grown by the Bridgman method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Paul M.; Sulekar, Soumitra; Yeo, Shinyoung; Baciak, J. E.; Bliss, Mary; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The susceptibility of layered structures to stacking faults is a problem in some of the more attractive semiconductor materials for ambient-temperature radiation detectors. In this work, Bridgman-grown BiI3 layered single crystals are investigated to understand and eliminate structural disorder, which reduces radiation detector performance. The use of superheating gradients has been shown by others to improve crystal quality in non-layered semiconductor crystals (Rudolph et al., 1996) [26]; thus the technique was explored to improve the growth of BiI3. When investigating the homogeneity of non-superheated crystals, highly geometric void defects were found to populate the bulk of the crystals. Applying a superheating gradient to the melt prior to crystal growth improved structural quality and decreased defect density from the order of 4600 voids per cm3 to 300 voids per cm3. Corresponding moderate improvements to electronic properties also resulted from the superheat gradient method of crystal growth. Comparative measurements through infrared microscopy, etch-pit density, X-ray rocking curves, and sheet resistivity readings show that superheat gradients in BiI3 growth led to higher quality crystals.

  15. Solid-state transformation of nanocrystalline phyllomanganate into tectomanganate: influence of initial layer and interlayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon, Sylvain; Lanson, Bruno; Lanson, Martine

    2014-10-01

    In surficial environments, the fate of many elements is influenced by their interactions with the phyllomanganate vernadite, a nano-sized and turbostratic variety of birnessite. To advance our understanding of the surface reactivity of vernadite as a function of pH, synthetic vernadite (δ-MnO2) was equilibrated at pH ranging from 3 to 10 and characterized structurally using chemical methods, thermogravimetry and modelling of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. With decreasing pH, the number of vacant layer sites increases in the octahedral layers of δ-MnO2 (from 0.14 per layer octahedron at pH 10 to 0.17 at pH 3), whereas the number of layer Mn(3+) is, within errors, equal to 0.12 per layer octahedron over the whole pH range. Vacant layer sites are capped by interlayer Mn(3+) sorbed as triple corner-sharing surface complexes (TC sites). The increasing number of interlayer Mn(3+) with decreasing pH (from 0.075 per layer octahedron at pH 10 to 0.175 at pH 3) results in the decrease of the average Mn oxidation degree (from 3.80 ± 0.01 at pH 10 to 3.70 ± 0.01 at pH 3) and in the lowering of the Na/Mn ratio (from 27.66 ± 0.20 at pH 10 to 6.99 ± 0.16 at pH 3). In addition, in-plane unit-cell parameters are negatively correlated to the number of interlayer Mn at TC sites and decrease with decreasing pH (from b = 2.842 Å at pH 10 to b = 2.834 Å at pH 3), layer symmetry being systematically hexagonal with a = b × 3(1/2). Finally, modelling of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicates that crystallite size in the ab plane and along the c* axis decreases with decreasing pH, ranging respectively from 7 nm to 6 nm, and from 1.2 nm to 1.0 nm (pH 10 and 3, respectively). Following their characterization, dry samples were sealed in polystyrene vials, kept in the dark, and re-analysed 4 and 8 years later. With ageing time and despite the dry state, layer Mn(3+) extensively migrates to the interlayer most likely to minimize steric strains

  16. On the interpretation of the layered structures detected by mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radars in dual frequency domain interferometry mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, H.; Crochet, M.; Hanuise, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Fukao, S.

    1999-09-01

    The frequency domain interferometry (FDI) technique has been developed for probing thin layered structures of the atmosphere. The position and thickness of a single layer embedded within the scattering volume can be deduced from the complex normalized cross correlation (coherence) of received signals at two closely spaced frequencies. Applied in the vertical pointing direction, this technique identified layered structures ("FDI layers") of 50-200 m in thickness in the lower atmosphere. These structures are 1 order of magnitude thicker than observed temperature sheets (about 10-m thick) which are very likely responsible for the main part of the VHF radar echoes in vertical direction. In this paper, although the ambiguity of the dual FDI technique is well known, we emphasize that the FDI layers do not necessarily correspond to a single atmospheric layer; they can also be interpreted as a more complex structure of very thin atmospheric layers. A simple model, introduced as an example, shows that the FDI layer thickness can also approximately be interpreted as the vertical separation of two very thin atmospheric layers. This result can explain by itself the differences between the estimated thicknesses by balloon and FDI radar techniques. Finally, we stress that comparisons with high-resolution in situ measurements are urgently needed for interpreting the FDI layers.

  17. Design of a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity based on a \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Takeyoshi; Takahashi, Shun; Tandaechanurat, Aniwat; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We design a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity based on a \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure. The designed structure, comprised of self-sustainable layers, is suitable for fabrication by layer stacking techniques. Quality factors (Q-factors) of nanocavities were calculated for the \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond and a commonly-used woodpile structures, both of which are generated from the same diamond lattice with a lattice constant adiamond. The Q-factor of the designed nanocavity can reach as high as 230,000 with 35 stacked layers and a square in-plane PC area of the length of one side of 5\\sqrt{2} a^{\\text{diamond}}. This is 1.5 times higher than that of a 3D PC nanocavity based on the woodpile structure with the same in-plane PC size and with the same number of stacked layers. The higher Q-factor in the \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure originates from its stronger in-plane light confinement over the woodpile structure. The \\langle 110\\rangle -layered diamond structure will be beneficial for improving experimentally attainable Q-factors of 3D PC nanocavities particularly fabricated by a micromanipulation method.

  18. An investigation of turbulence structure in a low Reynolds number incompressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strataridakis, Constantine John

    Hot-wire anemometry measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at zero pressure gradient were made using two X-probes simultaneously. The experiment was performed in the large Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Wind Tunnel at the University of California, Davis. The 7.32 meter long flat plate installed within the wind tunnel generated approximately 20 cm thick boundary layer, R (sub theta) approximately 4,000. Mean velocity and turbulence intensity data very close to the wall (y(+) is greater than or = to 1) were measured with a single hot wire to improve the measurement resolution. Space-time correlations of mu' and upsilon' velocities and of their instantaneous product were obtained with a pair of X-wires. The mean convection velocities, the extent in space, the mean inclination angles, and coherence characteristics of the mu', upsilon' and (mu')(upsilon') large-scale structures are presented. (The (mu')(upsilon') results are presented for the first time.) The mu' structure is inclined at a small angle (19 deg) to the wall, while the upsilon' and (mu')(upsilon') structures propagate almost at wall-normal directions. Each of the mu' and upsilon' structures appears elongated in the direction of the corresponding velocity fluctuation and is limited to delta-extent in the other two directions. The similarity between the upsilon' and (mu')(upsilon') suggests that the (mu')(upsilon') might mainly be a consequence of the motion of the upsilon' structure. Finally, a possible explanation for the differences between the (mu')(upsilon'), upsilon' and the mu' structures is the existence of different coherent scales, one dominating mu' and the other dominating upsilon' and (mu')(upsilon').

  19. Vertical structure of aeolian turbulence in a boundary layer with sand transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zoe S.; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently we have found that Reynolds shear stress shows a significant variability with measurement height (Lee and Baas, 2016), and so an alternative parameter for boundary layer turbulence may help to explain the relationship between wind forcing and sediment transport. We present data that were collected during a field study of boundary layer turbulence conducted on a North Atlantic beach. High-frequency (50 Hz) 3D wind velocity measurements were collected using ultrasonic anemometry at thirteen different measurement heights in a tight vertical array between 0.11 and 1.62 metres above the surface. Thanks to the high density installation of sensors a detailed analysis of the boundary layer flow can be conducted using methods more typically used in studies where data is only available from one or just a few measurement heights. We use quadrant analysis to explore the vertical structure of turbulence and track the changes in quadrant signatures with measurement elevation and over time. Results of quadrant analysis, at the 'raw' 50 Hz timescale, demonstrates the tendency for event clustering across all four quadrants, which implies that at-a-point quadrant events are part of larger-scale turbulent structures. Using an HSV colour model, applied to the quadrant analysis data and plotted in series, we create colour maps of turbulence, which can provide a clear visualisation of the clustering of event activity at each height and illustrate the shape of the larger coherent flow structures that are present within the boundary layer. By including a saturation component to the colour model, the most significant stress producing sections of the data are emphasised. This results in a 'banded' colour map, which relates to clustering of quadrant I (Outward Interaction) and quadrant IV (Sweep) activity, separate from clustering of quadrant II (Burst) and quadrant III (Inward Interaction). Both 'sweep-type' and 'burst-type' sequences are shown to have a diagonal structure

  20. Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer protein of Aquaspirilium serpens VHA determined by electron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, M.R.; Downing, K.H.; Wu, W.H.; Glaeser, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the protein which forms the S layer of Aquaspirilium serpens strain VHA has been determined by electron microscopy. Structures have been reconstructed to a resolution of about 1.6 nm for single-layered specimens and about 4 nm for two-layered specimens. The structure, which has hexagonal symmetry, consists of a core in the shape of a cup, with six projections arising from the rim of the cup to join adjacent subunits at the threefold symmetry axes. The model is consistent with edge views of the S layer which have been obtained in this and other work. It is now clear from this work and from three-dimensional reconstructions of other bacterial S layers that a wide diversity exists in the morphology of surface layers.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer protein of Aquaspirillum serpens VHA determined by electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, M R; Downing, K H; Wu, W H; Glaeser, R M

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the protein which forms the S layer of Aquaspirillum serpens strain VHA has been determined by electron microscopy. Structures have been reconstructed to a resolution of about 1.6 nm for single-layered specimens and about 4 nm for two-layered specimens. The structure, which has hexagonal symmetry, consists of a core in the shape of a cup, with six projections arising from the rim of the cup to join adjacent subunits at the threefold symmetry axes. The model is consistent with edge views of the S layer which have been obtained in this and other work. It is now clear from this work and from three-dimensional reconstructions of other bacterial S layers that a wide diversity exists in the morphology of surface layers. Images PMID:3745114

  2. The vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer over the central Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Lingen; MA Yongfeng; LU Changgui; LIN Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The tropopause height and the atmospheric boundary layer (PBL) height as well as the variation of inversion layer above the floating ice surface are presented using GPS (global position system ) radiosonde sounding data and relevant data obtained by China’s fourth arctic scientific expedition team over the central Arctic Ocean (86◦-88◦N, 144◦-170◦W ) during the summer of 2010. The tropopause height is from 9.8 to 10.5 km, with a temperature range between-52.2 and-54.1◦C in the central Arctic Ocean. Two zones of maximum wind (over 12 m/s) are found in the wind profile, namely, low-and upper-level jets, located in the middle troposphere and the tropopause, respectively. The wind direction has a marked variation point in the two jets from the southeast to the southwest. The average PBL height determined by two methods is 341 and 453 m respectively. These two methods can both be used when the inversion layer is very low, but the results vary significantly when the inversion layer is very high. A significant logarithmic relationship exists between the PBL height and the inversion intensity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.66, indicating that the more intense the temperature inversion is, the lower the boundary layer will be. The observation results obviously differ from those of the third arctic expedition zone (80◦-85◦N). The PBL height and the inversion layer thickness are much lower than those at 87◦-88◦N, but the inversion temperature is more intense, meaning a strong ice-atmosphere interaction in the sea near the North Pole. The PBL structure is related to the weather system and the sea ice concentration, which affects the observation station.

  3. The Synthesis, Structures, and Chemical Properties of Macrocyclic Ligands Covalently Bonded into Layered Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, Abraham [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this part of the proposal we have concentrated on the surface functionalization of α-zirconium phosphate of composition Zr(O3POH)2•H2O. It is a layered compound that can be prepared as particles as small as 30 nm to single crystals in the range of cm. This compound is an ion exchanger with a capacity of 6.64 meq per gram. It finds use as a catalyst, proton conductor, sensors, biosensors, in kidney dialysis and drug delivery. By functionalizing the surface additional uses are contemplated as will be described. The layers consist of the metal, with 4+ charge, that is positioned slightly above and below the mean layer plane and bridged by three of the four phosphate oxygens. The remaining POH groups point into the interlayer space creating double rows of POH groups but single arrays on the surface layers. The surface groups are reactive and we were able to bond silanes, isocyanates, epoxides, acrylates ` and phosphates to the surface POH groups. The layers are easily exfoliated or filled with ions by ion exchange or molecules by intercalation reactions. Highlights of our work include, in addition to direct functionalization of the surfaces, replacement of the protons on the surface with ions of different charge. This allows us to bond phosphates, biophosphates, phosphonic acids and alcohols to the surface. By variation of the ion charge of the ions that replace the surface protons, different surface structures are obtained. We have already shown that polymer fillers, catalysts and Janus particles may be prepared. The combination of surface functionalization with the ability to insert molecules and ions between the layers allow for a rich development of numerous useful other applications as well as nano-surface chemistry.

  4. Vertical thermo-haline structure of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Natalya

    2016-04-01

    Main characteristic features of vertical thermo-haline structure of the cold intermediate layer (CIL) of the Baltic Sea are identified on the base of data of vertical CTD soundings in the Baltic Proper in 2004-2013. Permanently existing components (i.e., the components which are observed during the entire period of the presence of the CIL in the vertical thermo-haline structure of the sea) are: (i) quasi-homosaline sublayer, with water salinity typical for that in the upper mixed layer in winter period, and water temperature irregularly changing with depth; (ii) the underlying sublayer with increasing salinity and low temperature (the gradient sublayer); and (iii) the core of CIL (the minimum temperature), which is located close to the interface between these sublayers. It is argued that the homosaline sublayer is formed by local mechanisms - vertical wind-wave and convective mixing and advection from nearby shelves and neighbouring regions. Advection is supported by (i) long-lasting winds and (ii) horizontal convection due to differential warming / cooling of shallower regions. The gradient sublayer is formed by waters with T,S - parameters typical for that of the upper mixed layer of south-western sea basins (Barnholm and Arcons basins) at the beginning of spring warming-up period (March). It is suggested that the up-estuary propagation of these waters (with salinity about 7.5-8.5 psu) above the pycnocline is driven by the estuarine salinity gradient. This branch of circulation of intermediate waters is overlooked in classical estuarine circulation model of the Baltic Sea, however it is important for sea-scale transport of upper-layer contaminants, microplastics, organic matter etc. towards intermediate and deep sea layers. The investigations are supported by Russian Science Foundation via grant number 15-17-10020.

  5. Structures of 3-layer planar waveguide where core field can become uniform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical analysis and numerical results for typical examples are presented for three-layer planar waveguides with nonlinear claddings to find the appropriate structures in which the core electric field can become uniform at appropriate optical power while the cladding fields decay exponentially. It is shown that there are five kinds of such structures. The electric field profiles are plotted for the five typical examples. We notify that the occurrence of uniform field in a waveguide core may perhaps have prospective applications in waveguide, opto-electronic and photonic devices.

  6. Structure and thermal decomposition of sulfated β-cyclodextrin intercalated in a layered double hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wei, Min; Rao, Guoying; Evans, David G.; Duan, Xue

    2004-01-01

    The sodium salt of hexasulfated β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized and intercalated into a magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide by ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal decomposition behavior of the intercalated material have been studied by variable temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), and thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and a model for the structure has been proposed. The thermal stability of the intercalated sulfated β-cyclodextrin is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation.

  7. Structural distortion of biogenic aragonite in strongly textured mollusc shell layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateigner, D., E-mail: daniel.chateigner@ensicaen.f [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Ouhenia, S. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Krauss, C. [CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Belkhir, M. [Lab. De Physique, Faculte des Sciences Exactes, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Morales, M. [CIMAP-ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd. M. Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2010-02-15

    The stabilisation of strong textures in mollusc shells has for long been a strong drawback towards precise structural determinations of these natural biocomposites. We demonstrate here on several crossed lamellar and nacre layers from two gastropods (Charonia lampas lampas and Haliotis tuberculata tuberculata) and one bivalve (Pinctada maxima), that on real specimens (without grinding or specific preparation), the textural information can be used efficiently for precise structural determination of the biogenic aragonite. This is done through the combination of orientation distribution function and cyclic Rietveld refinements on several hundreds to thousands of diffractions diagrams.

  8. Structural stability of infinite- layer CaCuO2 under high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In situ high-pressure energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements on polycrystalline powder CaCuO2 with an infinite layer structure (IL CaCuO2) have been performed by using diamond anvil cell (DAC) instrument with synchrotron radiation. The results suggest that the crystal structure of IL CaCuO2 is stable under pressure up to 30 GPa at room temperature. According to Birch-Murn- aghan equation of state, assuming pressure derivative the bulk modulus B0=181 ± 9 GPa is obtained.

  9. Fast algorithm for inverting structure parameters of the horizontal multi-layer soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A fast algorithm is presented to invert the structure parameter of the horizontal multi-layer soil. The procedure is divided into two independent stages. First, Fredholm equation of the first kind with respect to the apparent resistivity is solved by the technology of decay spectrum to reduce computation time greatly. Second, the structure parameter of soil is determined by the generalized Newton-Kantorovich method, which is more robust and less noise sensitive because of using the generalized inverse algorithm to solve the nonlinear equation group. The numerical results show the validities and main features of the proposed approach.

  10. Investigation of Nano Structural Changes by Annealing Temperature and Uniform Oxygen Flow on Ti Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Kangarlou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ti films of the same thickness, deposition angle (near normal and deposition rate were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature under UHV conditions. Approach: Different annealing temperatures 423 K, 523 K and 623 K with uniform 7 cm3 sec-1, oxygen flow, were used to produce titanium oxide layers. Results: Thin film structures were studied using AFM, XRD and spectrophotometer methods. Roughness of the films changed due to annealing process. Conclusion/Recommendations: The getting property of Ti and annealing temperature can play an important role on the structure of the films.

  11. Hydrogen-induced structural transition in single layer ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2017-09-01

    By performing density functional theory-based calculations, we investigate how structural, electronic and mechanical properties of single layer ReS2 can be tuned upon hydrogenation of its surfaces. It is found that a stable, fully hydrogenated structure can be obtained by formation of strong S-H bonds. The optimized atomic structure of ReS2H2 is considerably different than that of the monolayer ReS2 which has a distorted-1T phase. By performing phonon dispersion calculations, we also predict that the Re2-dimerized 1T structure (called 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} ) of the ReS2H2 is dynamically stable. Unlike the bare ReS2 the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} -ReS2H2 structure which is formed by breaking the Re4 clusters into separated Re2 dimers, is an indirect-gap semiconductor. Furthermore, mechanical properties of the 1T {{}\\text{R{{\\text{e}}2}}} phase in terms of elastic constants, in-plane stiffness (C) and Poisson ratio (ν) are investigated. It is found that full hydrogenation not only enhances the flexibility of the single layer ReS2 crystal but also increases anisotropy of the elastic constants.

  12. Sputtered Pt electrode structures with smoothly tapered edges by bi-layer resist lift-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiss, Elisabeth M., E-mail: elisabeth.preiss@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Robert-Bosch-Campus 1, 71272 Renningen (Germany); Saarland University, Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Krauss, Andreas [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Robert-Bosch-Campus 1, 71272 Renningen (Germany); Seidel, Helmut [Saarland University, Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    A lift-off process using a bi-layer resist consisting of an image reversal resist on top and a lift-off resist at the bottom was used to structure Ti–Pt thin films. DC magnetron sputtered metal films patterned by this process show ultra smooth edges, ideal for applications such as interdigitated electrodes in resistive gas sensors including thin-film based sensitive coatings with thicknesses below 100 nm. Profiles of processed structures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometer. The thickness profile and structure width were controlled by using different resist thicknesses and undercut lengths. Results were compared with iterative simulations by a geometric shadowing model, predicting undersputtering length and profile structure of the experimentally manufactured samples in good agreement. Target-to-substrate distance variation was found to have only a minor influence on the sputtering result. - Highlights: • Ti–Pt electrode structures were prepared using sputtering bi-layer-resist lift-off. • Prepared lift-off electrodes can be used for good overgrowth of thin films. • Ultra-smoothly tapered edges were controlled by the process parameters. • Simulations using a geometric shadowing model confirm our experimental results.

  13. Giant interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/capping layer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Zhao, Weisheng; Qiao, Junfeng; Su, Li; Zhou, Jiaqi; Yang, Hongxin; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Youguang; Grezes, Cecile; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic tunnel junction based on the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structures is of great interest due to its application in the spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Large interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is required to achieve high thermal stability. Here, we use the first-principles calculations to investigate the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of the MgO/CoFe/capping layer structures, where the capping materials include 5d metals Hf, Ta, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au and 6p metals Tl, Pb, and Bi. We demonstrate that it is feasible to enhance PMA by using proper capping materials. Relatively large PMA is found in the structures with the capping materials of Hf, Ta, Os, Ir, and Pb. More importantly, the MgO/CoFe/Bi structure gives rise to giant PMA (6.09 mJ/m2), which is about three times larger than that of the MgO/CoFe/Ta structure. The origin of the MAE is elucidated by examining the contributions to MAE from each atomic layer and orbital. These findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMA and point towards the possibility to achieve the advanced-node STT-MRAM with high thermal stability.

  14. Crystal structure and electrical transport properties of single layered perovskite LaSrCoO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Abdul; Shukla, D. K.; Rahman, F.; Majid, S.; Tarachand; Okram, G. S.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present here investigations on the influence of structure on electrical transport properties of polycrystalline LaSrCoO4 that is single layered perovskite with K2NiF4 type structure synthesized using solid state reaction route. Using Reitveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, it is found that the sample is in single phase with tetragonal structure (space group I4/mmm). Electrical resistivity performed in the temperature range 140-300K shows semiconducting character of the sample. Considerable contrasts in the Co-O bond length is associated with the intermediate spin (IS) state of Co ion that correlates the structural and transport properties. Detailed analysis indicates that the temperature dependent electrical resistivity follows the three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model in low temperature region below 225K. The high temperature (225-300K) resistivity data has been found to follow the thermally activated behaviour.

  15. Lithographically-generated 3D lamella layers and their structural color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang; Lu, Bingrui; Liu, Jianpeng; Shao, Jinhai; Xu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the structural color from the multilayer nanophotonic structures in Morpho butterfly wing scales, 3D lamellae layers in dielectric polymers (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) with n ~ 1.5 were designed and fabricated by standard top-down electron beam lithography with one-step exposure followed by an alternating development/dissolution process of PMMA/LOR (lift-off resist) multilayers. This work offers direct proof of the structural blue/green color via lithographically-replicated PMMA/air multilayers, analogous to those in real Morpho butterfly wings. The success of nanolithography in this work for the 3D lamellae structures in dielectric polymers not only enables us to gain deeper insight into the mysterious blue color of the Morpho butterfly wings, but also breaks through the bottleneck in technical development toward broad applications in gas/liquid sensors, 3D meta-materials, coloring media, and infrared imaging devices, etc.

  16. Effects of Core Softness and Bimodularity of Fibreglass Layers on Flexural Stiffness of Polymer Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuba Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the flexural stiffness of the sandwich structures based on fibreglass and polymeric foams. The influence of geometrical and material parameters on the resulting effective flexural stiffness of the sandwich structure is being studied experimentally, analytically and by using FEM models. The effective modulus of elasticity of the sandwich-structured element is being studied and its theoretical and model dependencies on the flexibility of the foam core and bimodularity of the fibreglass layers are being investigated. The achieved results are compared with the experimentally observed values. This study shows that it is necessary to pay special attention to the issue of flexural stiffness of the walls when designing sandwich shell products in order to prevent possible failures in the practical applications of these types of structures.

  17. Integrated structures/controls optimization of a smart composite plate with segmented active constrained layer damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Rajan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Nam, Changho

    2000-06-01

    A rigorous multi-objective optimization procedure, is developed to address the integrated structures/control design of composite plates with surface bonded segmented active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. The Kresselmeier- Steinhauser function approach is used to formulate this multidisciplinary problem. The goal is to control vibration without incorporating a weight penalty. Objective functions and constraints include damping ratios, structural weight and natural frequencies. Design variables include the ply stacking sequence, dimensions and placement of segmented ACL. The optimal designs show improved plate vibratory characteristics and reduced structural weight. The results of the multi- objective optimization problem are compared to those of a single objective optimization with vibration control as the objective. Results establish the necessity for developing the integrated structures/controls optimization procedure.

  18. Morphology and structure of polymer layers protecting dental enamel against erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2012-10-01

    Human dental erosion caused by acids is a major factor for tooth decay. Adding polymers to acidic soft drinks is one important approach to reduce human dental erosion caused by acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness and the structure of polymer layers adsorbed in vitro on human dental enamel from polymer modified citric acid solutions. The polymers propylene glycol alginate (PGA), highly esterified pectin (HP) and gum arabic (GA) were used to prepare polymer modified citric acids solutions (PMCAS, pH 3.3). With these PMCAS, enamel samples were treated for 30, 60 and 120s respectively to deposit polymer layers on the enamel surface. Profilometer scratches on the enamel surface were used to estimate the thickness of the polymer layers via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The composition of the deposited polymer layers was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition the polymer-enamel interaction was investigated with zeta-potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been shown that the profilometer scratch depth on the enamel with deposited polymers was in the range of 10nm (30s treatment time) up to 25nm (120s treatment time). Compared to this, the unmodified CAS-treated surface showed a greater scratch depth: from nearly 30nm (30s treatment time) up to 60nm (120s treatment time). Based on XPS measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta-potential measurements, a model was hypothesized which describes the layer deposited on the enamel surface as consisting of two opposing gradients of polymer molecules and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. In this study, the structure and composition of polymer layers deposited on in vitro dental enamel during treatment with polymer modified citric acid solutions were investigated. Observations are consistent with a layer consisting of two opposing gradients of hydroxyapatite particles and polymer molecules. This leads to reduced erosive effects of

  19. In Situ XRD Investigations on Structural Change of P2-Layered Materials during Electrochemical Sodiation/Desodiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Young Hwa; Johnsen, Rune E.; Christiansen, Ane Sælland;

    2014-01-01

    Sodium layered oxides (NaxMO2) are attractive as positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to high capacity, fast ionic diffusion and simple synthetic process. O3-layered lithium compounds have led successful commercialization of current lithium-ion batteries......, No.194), which is identical to P2-layered structure. The structural changes in hexagonal P2-layered oxides have been investigated during electrochemical sodiation/desodiation by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffractions of a capillary based micro battery cell. From the result of in-situ studies...

  20. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-06-27

    Over the last ten years, photonic band gap (PBG) theory and technology have become an important area of research because of the numerous possible applications ranging from high-efficiency laser diodes to optical circuitry. This research concentrates on reducing the length scale in the fabrication of layered photonic band gap structures and developing procedures to improve processing consistency. Various procedures and materials have been used in the fabrication of layered PBG structures. This research focused on an economical micro transfer molding approach to create the final PBG structure. A poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber mold was created from a silicon substrate. It was filled with epoxy and built layer-by-layer to create a 3-D epoxy structure. This structure was infiltrated with nanoparticle titania or a titania sol-gel, then fired to remove the polymer mold, leaving a monolithic ceramic inverse of the epoxy structure. The final result was a lattice of titania rolds that resembles a face-centered tetragonal structure. The original intent of this research was to miniaturize this process to a bar size small enough to create a photonic band gap for wavelengths of visible electro-magnetic radiation. The factor limiting progress was the absence of a silicon master mold of small enough dimensions. The Iowa State Microelectronics Research Center fabricated samples with periodicities of 2.5 and 1.0 microns with the existing technology, but a sample was needed on the order of 0.3 microns or less. A 0.4 micron sample was received from Sandia National Laboratory, which was made through an electron beam lithography process, but it contained several defects. The results of the work are primarily from the 2.5 and 1.0 micron samples. Most of the work focused on changing processing variables in order to optimize the infiltration procedure for the best results. Several critical parameters were identified, ranging from the ambient conditions to the specifics of the

  1. Influence of layered skin structure on the distribution of radiofrequency currents in dermis and subcutaneous fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Ilja L.

    2015-12-01

    The layered structure of skin with multiple interfaces separating the skin layers having very different electrical characteristics significantly modifies the spatial distribution of radiofrequency (RF) current in the skin compared to that in a homogeneous medium. In this study we present the analytical solutions of Laplace's equation describing the current densities for a two-layer skin model with homogeneous single layers for the monopolar and bipolar configurations of RF electrodes. Then we analyze analytically and numerically the optimal distances between the RF electrodes providing the maximal current concentration in a given depth or in a given depths' interval under the skin surface. It is demonstrated that two main parameters which significantly define the optimization condition are the thickness of the dermis and the reflection coefficient of the current at the dermis/subcutis interface. According to this model, under physiological conditions, the surface under RF electrode collecting 50% of the current entering subcutis is 184 times larger than in homogeneous medium. Such redistribution of RF current will significantly reduce the local density of the current entering the fat tissue reducing the effect of its selective heating.

  2. Efficiency Enhancement of Inverted Structure Perovskite Solar Cells via Oleamide Doping of PCBM Electron Transport Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Lu, Yalin; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-06-24

    An amphiphilic surfactant, oleamide, was applied to dope the PCBM electron transport layer (ETL) of inverted structure perovskite solar cells (ISPSCs), resulting in a dramatic efficiency enhancement. Under the optimized oleamide doping ratio of 5.0 wt %, the power conversion efficiency of the CH3NH3PbIxCl(3-x) perovskite-based ISPSC device is enhanced from 10.05% to 12.69%, and this is primarily due to the increases of both fill factor and short-circuit current. According to the surface morphology study of the perovskite/PCBM bilayer film, oleamide doping improves the coverage of PCBM ETL onto the perovskite layer, and this is beneficial for the interfacial contact between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode and consequently the electron transport from perovskite to the Ag cathode. Such an improved electron transport induced by oleamide doping is further evidenced by the impedance spectroscopic study, revealing the prohibited electron-hole recombination at the interface between the perovskite layer and the Ag cathode.

  3. Cluster observations of bounday layer structure and a flux transfer event near the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fear

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available On the 25th January 2002 between 10:00 and 12:00 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern high-latitude cusp, the dayside magnetosphere and into the magnetosheath in a linear formation. In the magnetosphere the PEACE electron spectrometers on the four spacecraft all observed a series of transient bursts of magnetosheath-like plasma, but without bipolar magnetic signatures in the magnetopause normal component as might be expected if the plasma had been injected by transient reconnection (flux transfer events – FTEs. Reordering the data using the magnetopause transition parameter reveals that these plasma observations, the related variations in the magnetic field and the balance of magnetic and thermal gas pressures are consistent with transient entries into a stable high-latitude boundary layer structure. However, once some of the spacecraft entered the magnetosheath, FTE signatures were observed outside the magnetopause at the same time as some of the boundary layer entries occurred at the other spacecraft inside. Thus, (a the lack of a bipolar BN signature is inconsistent with the traditional picture of a magnetospheric FTE, and (b the cause of the observed entry of the spacecraft into the boundary layer (pressure pulse or passing magnetosheath FTE can only be determined by spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and bondary layers; Solar wind- magnetosphere interactions; Magnetosheath

  4. Role of indenter material and size in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjit; Meléndez-Martínez, Juan José; Hermann, Ilja; Zhang, Yu; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    The roles of indenter material and size in the failure of brittle veneer layers in all-ceramic crown-like structures are studied. Glass veneer layers 1 mm thick bonded to alumina layers 0.5 mm thick on polycarbonate bases (representative of porcelain/ceramic-core/dentin) are subject to cyclic contact loading with spherical indenters in water (representative of occlusal biting environment). Two indenter materials-glass and tungsten carbide-and three indenter radii-1.6, 5.0, and 12.5 mm-are investigated in the tests. A video camera is used to follow the near-contact initiation and subsequent downward propagation of cone cracks through the veneer layer to the core interface, at which point the specimen is considered to have failed. Both indenter material and indenter radius have some effect on the critical loads to initiate cracks within the local Hertzian contact field, but the influence of modulus is weaker. The critical loads to take the veneer to failure are relatively insensitive to either of these indenter variables, since the bulk of the cone crack propagation takes place in the contact far field. Clinical implications of the results are considered, including the issue of single-cycle overload versus low-load cyclic fatigue and changes in fracture mode with loading conditions.

  5. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  6. Subsurface Structure in the Martian Polar Layered Deposits: The Deep Space 2 Impact Accelerometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moersch, J. E.; Lorenz, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    While primarily a technology demonstration mission, the New Millenium Mars Microprobes (also known as Deep Space 2, or simply DS2)will also provide the first in situ science measurements of the martian subsurface. The DS2 impact accelerometry experiment will provide both engineering data about the depth of probe emplacement and science data about the physical nature of the subsurface at the probes' landing sites. Little is known about the detailed physical properties or small-scale vertical structure of the subsurface at the DS2 landing site in the southern martian polar layered deposits. Imaging data from the Viking Orbiters and Mars Global Surveyor reveal alternating bands of light and dark material in this region with thicknesses at least as small as the limit of resolution, about 10 m. The overall composition of these layers is poorly constrained, but generally thought to be a mixture of dust and ice with the layers being caused by variations in the dust/ice ratio, or perhaps by dust deposits of different densities. Low thermal inertias in the region suggest that the top few centimeters of the surface are composed of a mantling of fine-grained dust. However, 3.5-cm radar returns indicate that the maximum depth of this dust is not greater than a few tens of centimeters. Thermal models generally agree that, while the layered deposits do provide a potential near-surface reservoir for ice, the uppermost few centimeters to meters in these regions are likely to be ice-free because of sublimation losses. Finally, while it is generally agreed that the layered deposits are the product of variations in the martian climate, no direct correlation has been made between band sequences and specific climate changes. Our intention is to shed light on some of these questions about the martian polar layered deposits by using the DS2 accelerometry experiment to determine the physical nature of the layered deposits, and to detect the presence of any subsurface layering of dust, ice

  7. A Study of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure During a Clear Day in the Arid Region of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; WANG Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The local climate and atmospheric circulation pattern exert a clear influence on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) formation and development in Northwest China. In this paper, we use field observational data to analyze the distribution and characteristics of the ABL in the extremely arid desert in Dunhuang, Northwest China. These data show that the daytime convective boundary layer and night time stable boundary layer in this area extend to higher altitudes than in other areas. In the night time, the stable boundary layer exceeds 900 m in altitude and can sometimes peak at 1750 m, above which the residual layer may reach up to about 4000 m. The daytime convective boundary layer develops rapidly after entering the residual layer, and exceeds 4000 m in thickness. The results show that the deep convective boundary layer in the daytime is a pre-requisite for maintaining the deep residual mixed layer in the night time. Meanwhile, the deep residual mixed layer in the night time provides favorable thermal conditions for the development of the convective boundary layer in the daytime. The prolonged periods of clear weather that often occurs in this area allow the cumulative effect of the atmospheric residual layer to develop fully, which creates thermal conditions beneficial for the growth of the daytime convective boundary layer. At the same time, the land surface process and atmospheric motion within the surface layer in this area also provide helpful support for forming the particular structure of the thermal ABL. High surface temperature is clearly the powerful external thermal forcing for the deep convective boundary layer. Strong sensible heat flux in the surface layer provides the required energy. Highly convective atmosphere and strong turbulence provide the necessary dynamic conditions, and the accumulative effect of the residual layer provides a favorable thermal environment.

  8. Structural, optical, and adsorption properties of ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) hybrid thin porous films prepared by ionic strength controlled layer-by-layer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Edit; Sebok, Dániel; Hornok, Viktória; Dékány, Imre

    2009-04-01

    ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) sandwich structures were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. The structure and optical behavior of the hybrid films were controlled by changing the surface charge and conformation of the poly(acrylic acid). The buildup of the films was followed by UV-vis absorption and reflection spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. It was found that the ionic strength of the polymer solution had a great influence on the film thickness which, in turn, affected the optical properties. The water vapor adsorption isotherms of the films determined by QCM showed an adsorption hysteresis characteristic of porous thin layer structures. The adsorption of water molecules inside the films changed the effective refractive index resulting in a change of the reflection properties. This phenomenon is shown to be exploited for the application of the films as optical sensors. The polarizability of water molecules in the adsorption layer was also determined. It was found that polarization of water molecules in the adsorption layer is much lower than in the liquid water when the surface coverage (Theta) is low.

  9. Spectral structure and linear mechanisms in a 'rapidly' distorted boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sourabh; Morrison, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A characteristic feature of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at high Reynolds numbers is the presence of coherent motions such as the 'large scale motions' and 'superstructures'. In this work we attempt to mimic such coherent motions and their spectral structure using a simplified experimental arrangement of a boundary layer flow over a flat plate subjected to grid-generated turbulence and/or localized patch of surface roughness. The velocity measurements done downstream of a grit roughness patch (in absence of grid turbulence) show that over a certain distance the energy spectrum of streamwise velocity fluctuations shows a bi-modal shape which resembles that found in a high-Re TBL. We also carry out experiments with both grid turbulence and grit roughness present and show that it is possible to 'synthesize' the structure of a TBL in the wall-normal direction, in the limited context of streamwise coherent motions, using the present experimental design. These results indicate that the predictions of the Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) can be applied to the present case in a region close to the plate leading edge, and we examine the linearized effects of 'blocking' and 'shear' on turbulent fluctuations near the edge of the boundary layer and close to the wall in the framework of the RDT. We acknowledge financial support from EPSRC (Grant No. EP/1037938).

  10. Effect of velocity ratio on coherent-structure dynamics in turbulent free shear layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam

    2014-11-01

    The relevance of the vortex-gas model to the large scale dynamics of temporally evolving turbulent free shear layers has been established by extensive simulations (Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)). The effects of velocity ratio (r =U2 /U1) on shear layer dynamics are revealed by spatially evolving vortex-gas shear-layer simulations using a computational model based on Basu et al. (Appl. Math. Modelling 19, (1995)), but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the initial conditions and downstream boundaries can significantly affect the flow over substantial part of the domain, but the equilibrium spread rate is a universal function of r, and is within the experimental scatter. The spread in the r = 0 limit is higher than Galilean-transformed temporal value. The present 2D simulations at r = 0 show continuous growth of structures, while merger-dominated evolution is observed for r = 0 . 23 (and higher). These two mechanisms were observed across the same two values of r in the experiments of D'Ovidio & Coats (J. Fluid Mech. 737, 2013), but the continuous growth was instead attributed to mixing-transition and 3D. The 2D mechanisms responsible for the observed continuous growth of structures are analyzed in detail. Supported in part by RN/Intel/4288 and RN/DRDO/4124.

  11. Crystal chemistry of layered structures formed by linear rigid silyl-capped molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lumpi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behavior of methylthio- or methylsulfonyl-containing spacer extended Z,Z-bis-ene–yne molecules capped with trimethylsilyl groups obtained by (tandem thiophene ring fragmentation and of two non-spacer extended analogs were investigated. The rigid and linear molecules generally crystallized in layers whereby the flexibility of the layer interfaces formed by the silyl groups leads to a remarkably rich crystal chemistry. The molecules with benzene and thiophene spacers both crystallized with C2/c symmetry and can be considered as merotypes. Increasing the steric bulk of the core by introduction of ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT gave a structure incommensurately modulated in the [010] direction. Further increase of steric demand in the case of a dimethoxythiophene restored periodicity along [010] but resulted in a doubling of the c vector. Two different polytypes were observed, which feature geometrically different layer interfaces (non-OD, order–disorder, polytypes, one with a high stacking fault probability. Oxidation of the methylthio groups of the benzene-based molecule to methylsulfonyl groups led to three polymorphs (two temperature-dependent, which were analyzed by Hirshfeld surface de/di fingerprint plots. The analogously oxidized EDOT-based molecule crystallized as systematic twins owing to its OD polytypism. Shortening of the backbone by removal of the aryl core resulted in an enantiomorphic structure and a further shortening by removal of a methylthio-ene fragment again in a systematically twinned OD polytype.

  12. Turbulent boundary layer control through spanwise wall oscillation using Kagome lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, James; Santer, Matthew; Morrison, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    It is well established that a reduction in skin-friction and turbulence intensity can be achieved by applying in-plane spanwise forcing to a surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer. It has also been shown in DNS (M. Quadrio, P. Ricco, & C. Viotti; J. Fluid Mech; 627, 161, 2009), that this phenomenon is significantly enhanced when the forcing takes the form of a streamwise travelling wave of spanwise perturbation. In the present work, this type of forcing is generated by an active surface comprising a compliant structure, based on a Kagome lattice geometry, supporting a membrane skin. The structural design ensures negligible wall normal displacement while facilitating large in-plane velocities. The surface is driven pneumatically, achieving displacements of 3 mm approximately, at frequencies in excess of 70 Hz for a turbulent boundary layer at Reτ ~ 1000 . As the influence of this forcing on boundary layer is highly dependent on the wavenumber and frequency of the travelling wave, a flat surface was designed and optimised to allow these forcing parameters to be varied, without reconfiguration of the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the fluid and surface motion are presented, and notable skin-friction drag reduction is demonstrated. Airbus support agreement IW202838 is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Optimization of hybrid antireflection structure integrating surface texturing and multi-layer interference coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shigeru; Kanomata, Kensaku; Suzuki, Takahiko; Hirose, Fumihiko

    2014-10-01

    The antireflection structure (ARS) for solar cells is categorized to mainly two different techniques, i.e., the surface texturing and the single or multi-layer antireflection interference coating. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid ARS, which integrates moth eye texturing and multi-layer coat, for application to organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Using optical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we conduct nearly global optimization of the geometric parameters characterizing the hybrid ARS. The proposed optimization algorithm consists of two steps: in the first step, we optimize the period and height of moth eye array, in the absence of multi-layer coating. In the second step, we optimize the whole structure of hybrid ARS by using the solution obtained by the first step as the starting search point. The methods of the simple grid search and the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search are used for global and local searches, respectively. In addition, we study the effects of deviations in the geometric parameters of hybrid ARS from their optimized values. The design concept of hybrid ARS is highly beneficial for broadband light trapping in OPVs.

  14. Structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon carbide: Comparison of single layers and multilayer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Charlotte, E-mail: charlotte.weiss@ise.fraunhofer.de; Schnabel, Manuel; Reichert, Andreas; Löper, Philipp; Janz, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Si nanocrystal size control in a SiC matrix achieved by Si content variation. • We proved sublayer intermixing in Si{sub x}C{sub 1−x}/SiC multilayer during annealing. • Excess Si in SiC hinders SiC crystallization. • We performed a comparison between Si{sub x}C{sub 1−x}/SiC multilayers and Si{sub x}C{sub 1−x} single layers. • Si nanocrystal size correlates with the E{sub 04} bandgap. - Abstract: The outstanding demonstration of quantum confinement in Si nanocrystals (Si NC) in a SiC matrix requires the fabrication of Si NC with a narrow size distribution. It is understood without controversy that this fabrication is a difficult exercise and that a multilayer (ML) structure is suitable for such fabrication only in a narrow parameter range. This parameter range is sought by varying both the stoichiometric SiC barrier thickness and the Si-rich SiC well thickness between 3 and 9 nm and comparing them to single layers (SL). The samples processed for this investigation were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and subsequently subjected to thermal annealing at 1000–1100 °C for crystal formation. Bulk information about the entire sample area and depth were obtained by structural and optical characterization methods: information about the mean Si NC size was determined from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to gain insight into the structure of the Si–C network, and spectrophotometry measurements were performed to investigate the absorption coefficient and to estimate the bandgap E{sub 04}. All measurements showed that the influence of the ML structure on the Si NC size, on the Si–C network and on the absorption properties is subordinate to the influence of the overall Si content in the samples, which we identified as the key parameter for the structural and optical properties. We attribute this behavior to interdiffusion of the

  15. Numerical Study of Winter Urban Boundary Layer Structure over Beijing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoli; BI Baogui; LI Zechun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the successful simulation of a typical winter urban boundarylayer (UBL) process over Beijing area during the Beijing City Air Pollution Experiment (BECAPEX) in 2001 by the use of MM5 coupled with urban canopy parameterization, a series of simulation experiments are performed to investigate the effects of urban influence, surrounding terrain, and different extent of urbanization on urban boundary layer structures over Beijing area. The results of factor separation experiments of urban influence indicate that the total effect of urban influence, which is the synthetic effect of urban infrastructure on thermal and dynamic structures of atmosphere, is responsible for the formation of main UBL features over Beijing area. Meanwhile, the relative importance of thermal and mechanical factors of urban infrastructure and interaction between thermal and mechanical factors for the formation and evolution of UBL over the Beijing area are also explored. The results show that, during nighttime, mechanical factors are responsible for main characteristics of nocturnal urban boundary layer such as elevated inversion layer over downtown area,smaller wind speed and stronger turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its behavior with peak at the top of canopy layer, whereas in the daytime, thermal factors play dominant role in the structure of UBL, such as the intensity of mixed layer and temperature in the lower atmosphere in urban area. The interaction between mechanical and thermal factors plays an important role in the formation and evolution of UBL, but its specific characteristics of mechanisms are complex. The results of surrounding terrain experiment show that terrain surrounding Beijing area not only determines the characteristic of prevailing airflow over Beijing area, but also has obvious effect on thermal structure of UBL, such as the distribution of elevated inversion and urban heat island, and makes them with special localization feature. The results of different extent

  16. Boundary layer chemical vapour synthesis of self-organised ferromagnetically filled radial-carbon-nanotube structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Filippo S; Wilson, Rory M; Mountjoy, Gavin; Ibrar, Muhammad; Baxendale, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Boundary layer chemical vapour synthesis is a new technique that exploits random fluctuations in the viscous boundary layer between a laminar flow of pyrolysed metallocene vapour and a rough substrate to yield ferromagnetically filled radial-carbon-nanotube structures departing from a core agglomeration of spherical nanocrystals individually encapsulated by graphitic shells. The fluctuations create the thermodynamic conditions for the formation of the central agglomeration in the vapour which subsequently defines the spherically symmetric diffusion gradient that initiates the radial growth. The radial growth is driven by the supply of vapour feedstock by local diffusion gradients created by endothermic graphitic-carbon formation at the vapour-facing tips of the individual nanotubes and is halted by contact with the isothermal substrate. The radial structures are the dominant product and the reaction conditions are self-sustaining. Ferrocene pyrolysis yields three common components in the nanowire encapsulated by multiwall carbon nanotubes, Fe3C, α-Fe, and γ-Fe. Magnetic tuning in this system can be achieved through the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropies of the encapsulated nanowire. Here we demonstrate proof that alloying of the encapsulated nanowire is an additional approach to tuning of the magnetic properties of these structures by synthesis of radial-carbon-nanotube structures with γ-FeNi encapsulated nanowires.

  17. Local atomic arrangements and lattice distortions in layered Ge-Sb-Te crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnyk, Andriy; Ross, Ulrich; Bernütz, Sabine; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    Insights into the local atomic arrangements of layered Ge-Sb-Te compounds are of particular importance from a fundamental point of view and for data storage applications. In this view, a detailed knowledge of the atomic structure in such alloys is central to understanding the functional properties both in the more commonly utilized amorphous-crystalline transition and in recently proposed interfacial phase change memory based on the transition between two crystalline structures. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of local arrangement in the crystalline lattice with atomic resolution. However, due to the non-trivial influence of thermal diffuse scattering on the high-angle scattering signal, a detailed examination of the image contrast requires comparison with theoretical image simulations. This work reveals the local atomic structure of trigonal Ge-Sb-Te thin films by using a combination of direct imaging of the atomic columns and theoretical image simulation approaches. The results show that the thin films are prone to the formation of stacking disorder with individual building blocks of the Ge2Sb2Te5, Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge3Sb2Te6 crystal structures intercalated within randomly oriented grains. The comparison with image simulations based on various theoretical models reveals intermixed cation layers with pronounced local lattice distortions, exceeding those reported in literature.

  18. Wavelike Structures in the Turbulent Layer During the Morning Development of Convection at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petenko, Igor; Argentini, Stefania; Casasanta, Giampietro; Kallistratova, Margarita; Sozzi, Roberto; Viola, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    In the period January-February 2014, observations were made at the Concordia station, Dome C, Antarctica to study atmospheric turbulence in the boundary layer using a high-resolution sodar. The turbulence structure was observed beginning from the lowest height of about 2 m, with a vertical resolution of less than 2 m. Typical patterns of the diurnal evolution of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulence detected by the sodar are analyzed. Here, we focus on the wavelike processes observed within the transition period from stable to unstable stratification occurring in the morning hours. Thanks to the high-resolution sodar measurements during the development of the convection near the surface, clear undulations were detected in the overlying turbulent layer for a significant part of the time. The wavelike pattern exhibits a regular braid structure, with undulations associated with internal gravity waves attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. The main spatial and temporal scales of the wavelike structures were determined, with predominant periodicity of the observed wavy patterns estimated to be 40-50 s. The horizontal scales roughly estimated using Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis are about 250-350 m.

  19. A Coupled-Field Expansion Method for Single-Layer and Multilayer Planar Periodic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yading Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, rigorous, field-based, seminumerical analysis method is presented to obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients of 2D planar periodic structures with arbitrarily shaped metallization patterns for both normal and oblique incidence conditions. It is useful for the analysis, design, and optimization of many single-layer and multilayer planar structures, such as frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs, artificial magnetic conductor (AMC surfaces, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG structures, some metamaterials and high-impedance surfaces. In this coupled-field expansion method (CFEM, the x- and y-components of the vector magnetic potential in each homogeneous region in a unit cell are expanded in terms of Bloch-Floquet modes and the solution to the coupled-field problem is formulated. The unique, analytical formulation presented here leads to a linear system with reasonably simple matrix elements. By cascading the matrices representing each interface, multilayer periodic structures are analyzed in a very flexible way. Being field based, CFEM does not require substrate Green's functions to analyze surfaces printed on dielectric substrates. The method was validated by analyzing one single-layer periodic surface (a printed AMC on a dielectric substrate and one multilayer periodic surface (a circular polarizer and comparing CFEM results with HFSS results.

  20. The Development of Layered Photonic Band Gap Structures Using a Micro-Transfer Molding Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Kevin Jerome [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) crystals are periodic dielectric structures that manipulate electromagnetic radiation in a manner similar to semiconductor devices manipulating electrons. Whereas a semiconductor material exhibits an electronic band gap in which electrons cannot exist, similarly, a photonic crystal containing a photonic band gap does not allow the propagation of specific frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon results from the destructive Bragg diffraction interference that a wave propagating at a specific frequency will experience because of the periodic change in dielectric permitivity. This gives rise to a variety of optical applications for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of opto-electronic devices. These applications are reviewed later. Several methods are currently used to fabricate photonic crystals, which are also discussed in detail. This research involves a layer-by-layer micro-transfer molding ({mu}TM) and stacking method to create three-dimensional FCC structures of epoxy or titania. The structures, once reduced significantly in size can be infiltrated with an organic gain media and stacked on a semiconductor to improve the efficiency of an electronically pumped light-emitting diode. Photonic band gap structures have been proven to effectively create a band gap for certain frequencies of electro-magnetic radiation in the microwave and near-infrared ranges. The objective of this research project was originally two-fold: to fabricate a three dimensional (3-D) structure of a size scaled to prohibit electromagnetic propagation within the visible wavelength range, and then to characterize that structure using laser dye emission spectra. As a master mold has not yet been developed for the micro transfer molding technique in the visible range, the research was limited to scaling down the length scale as much as possible with the current available technology and characterizing these structures with other methods.

  1. Structure and Property Changes in Self-Assembled Lubricin Layers Induced by Calcium Ion Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Thapa, Rajiv; Holt, Stephen A; Wang, Xiaoen; Garvey, Christopher J; Tabor, Rico F

    2017-03-14

    Lubricin (LUB) is a "mucin-like" glycoprotein found in synovial fluids and coating the cartilage surfaces of articular joints, which is now generally accepted as one of the body's primary boundary lubricants and antiadhesive agents. LUB's superior lubrication and antiadhesion are believed to derive from its unique interfacial properties by which LUB molecules adhere to surfaces (and biomolecules, such as hyaluronic acid and collagen) through discrete interactions localized to its two terminal end domains. These regionally specific interactions lead to self-assembly behavior and the formation of a well-ordered "telechelic" polymer brush structure on most substrates. Despite its importance to biological lubrication, detailed knowledge on the LUB's self-assembled brush structure is insufficient and derived mostly from indirect and circumstantial evidence. Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to directly probe the self-assembled LUB layers, confirming the polymer brush architecture and resolving the degree of hydration and level of surface coverage. While attempting to improve the LUB contrast in the NR measurements, the LUB layers were exposed to a 20 mM solution of CaCl2, which resulted in a significant change in the polymer brush structural parameters consisting of a partial denaturation of the surface-binding end-domain regions, partial dehydration of the internal mucin-domain "loop", and collapse of the outer mucin-domain surface region. A series of atomic force microscopy measurements investigating the LUB layer surface morphology, mechanical properties, and adhesion forces in phosphate-buffered saline and CaCl2 solutions reveal that the structural changes induced by calcium ion interactions also significantly alter key properties, which may have implications to LUB's efficacy as a boundary lubricant and wear protector in the presence of elevated calcium ion concentrations.

  2. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; (Stanford-MED); (CH-Boston)

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  3. When function mirrors structure: how slow waves are shaped by cortical layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Capone

    2015-04-01

    As the model predicted, we found that strips of early wave propagation reliably overlapped with the regions where maximum Up state duration and firing activity occurred, strengthening the duality between spontaneous activity and network structure. Finally, we matched the excitable strips with the slice cortical layers as identified by histology, finding a reliable overlap between such strips and L4 and L5 (see Figure 1E. Figure 1. A. Wavefronts for 2 modes of propagation. B. Average strips where wavefronts propagate earlier (black, and where Up states have maximum duration (green and magnitude (blue. C. Modulation of the connectivity parameter in the model. D. Nullclines under mean-field approximation varying levels of connectivity.  and C are average firing rate and fatigue level, respectively. Circles, fixed points. Dark to light gray, different excitability levels as in C, respectively. E. Example match between strip of early wave propagation and slice’s layers.

  4. Edge structures and properties of triangular antidots in single-layer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Li Yong

    2016-08-30

    Density functional theory and experiments are employed to shed light on the edge structures of antidots in O etched single-layer MoS2. The equilibrium morphology is found to be the zigzag Mo edge with each Mo atom bonded to two O atoms, in a wide range of O chemical potentials. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the orientation of the created triangular antidots is opposite to the triangular shape of the single-layer MoS2 samples, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, edges induced by O etching turn out to be p-doped, suggesting an effective strategy to realize p-type MoS2 devices. Published by AIP Publishing.

  5. Structure change, layer sliding, and metallization in high-pressure MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosatti, Erio; Hromadova, Liliana; Martonak, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Based on ab initio calculations and metadynamics simulations, we predict that 2H-MoS2, a layered insulator, will metallize under pressures in excess of 20-30 GPa. In the same pressure range, simulations and enthalpy optimization predict a structural transition. Reminiscent of this material's frictional properties, free mutual sliding of layers takes place at this transition, where the original 2Hc stacking changes to a 2Ha stacking typical of 2H-NbSe2, a transformation which explains for the first time previously mysterious X-ray diffraction data. Phonon and electron phonon calculations suggest that metallic pristine MoS2 will require ultrahigh pressures in order to develop superconductivity. Supported by EU-Japan Project LEMSUPER, by a SNF Sinergia Project, and by the Slovak Research and Development Agency

  6. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.

  7. Complexity of localised coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Khapko, Taras; Kreilos, Tobias; Schlatter, Philipp; Eckhardt, Bruno; Henningson, Dan S

    2013-01-01

    We study numerically transitional coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow with homogeneous suction at the wall (the so-called asymptotic suction boundary layer ASBL). The dynamics restricted to the laminar-turbulent separatrix is investigated in a spanwisely extended domain that allows for robust localisation of all edge states. We work at fixed Reynolds number and study the edge states as a function of the streamwise period. We demonstrate the complex spatio-temporal dynamics of these localised states, which exhibits multistability and undergoes complex bifurcations leading from periodic to chaotic regimes. It is argued that in all regimes the dynamics restricted to the edge is essentially low-dimensional and non-extensive.

  8. Boundary layer structure over the ocean observed by LEANDRE 1 during a tramontane event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, C.; Pelon, J.; Flamant, P.; Durand, P.

    1992-01-01

    A new airborne backscatter lidar, has been developed by CNRS (Service d'Aeronomie, (SA) Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD) and the Institut des Sciences de 1'Univers) in the frame of the LEANDRE research program. It has been qualified on board the ARAT in autumn 1989 and spring 1990 and was involved in its first cooperative campaign during PYREX in October and November 1990. During this campaign, lidar observations of the perturbations induced on tropospheric flow and boundary layer structure were performed, and results are presented. A large number of experiments were performed, for synoptic situation description (meteorological radiosoundings, constant level balloons) and local flow analysis (aircrafts, radars, sodars). For the first time in such an experiment, a lidar has been flown on a research aircraft to perform altitude resolved observations of these perturbations, and we will present here results obtained for deflected flow structure. In the presence of a synoptic northerly flow, part of it is deflected to the east by the Pyrenees, and accelerated over the Mediterranean by the mountain surroundings. In this case, a low level wind is generated (the Tramontane) bringing cold and dry air over the Mediterranean Sea. As the sea is still at a warm temperature in November (around 17 degrees), an Internal Marine Boundary Layer rapidly grows over the first tens of kilometers and stabilizes at about 1 km depth, corresponding to an altitude just below the Lifting Condensation Level. The whole Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) is characterized by highly turbulent motions bringing large humid particles from the surface up to its top. The lidar signal due to scattering by these particles is then representative of the turbulent kinetic energy in this layer.

  9. Controlled gentamicin release from multi-layered electrospun nanofibrous structures of various thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirc J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jakub Sirc,1 Sarka Kubinova,2 Radka Hobzova,1 Denisa Stranska,3 Petr Kozlik,4 Zuzana Bosakova,4 Dana Marekova,2 Vladimir Holan,5 Eva Sykova,2 Jiri Michalek11Department of Polymer Gels, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Elmarco Ltd, Liberec, Czech Republic; 4Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Transplant Immunology, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers incorporating the wide spectrum antibiotic gentamicin were prepared by Nanospider™ needleless technology. A polyvinyl alcohol layer, serving as a drug reservoir, was covered from both sides by polyurethane layers of various thicknesses. The multilayered structure of the nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy, the porosity was characterized by mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were used to determine specific surface areas. The stability of the gentamicin released from the electrospun layers was proved by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and inhibition of bacterial growth. Drug release was investigated using in vitro experiments with HPLC/MS quantification, while the antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated on Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both experiments proved that the released gentamicin retained its activity and showed that the retention of the drug in the nanofibers was prolonged with the increasing thickness of the covering layers.Keywords: nanofibers, electrospinning, multilayered structure, morphology, gentamicin, drug release

  10. Method for estimation of structural composition of skin layers based on light propagation simulation for liposuction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sangha; Elguezua, Inko; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2014-01-01

    Skin surface irregularity is the most common side effect after liposuction. To reduce this, it is necessary to devise a systematic method to provide structural composition details of skin layers, such as fat thickness and fat boundary tilt angle, for the plastic surgeon. Several commercial portable devices are available to measure skin layer information, working on the principle of a near-infrared technique using the light penetration properties of tissue in optical windows. However, these can only measure general fat thickness and not the structural compositions of skin layers with irregularities. Therefore, our goal in this paper is to propose a method to estimate the structural compositions of skin layers by analyzing and validating the relationship between light distribution and structural composition from simulation data based on specific structural conditions.

  11. Crystal structure and macrotwin interface of five-layered martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland)]. E-mail: Yanling.Ge@tkk.fi; Jiang, H. [VTT Processes, Aerosol Technology Group, P.O. Box 1602, 02044 VTT (Finland); Sozinov, A. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland); Soederberg, O. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland); Lanska, N. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland); Keraenen, J. [Centre for Electron Microscopy, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Kauppinen, E.I. [VTT Processes, Aerosol Technology Group, P.O. Box 1602, 02044 VTT (Finland); New Materials Center, Helsinki University of Technology, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lindroos, V.K. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland); Hannula, S.-P. [Laboratory of Materials Science, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6200, FI 02015 (Finland)

    2006-11-25

    The crystal structure of the five-layered (5M) martensite and the martensite to martensite interface in the alloys Ni{sub 48.9}Mn{sub 30.8}Ga{sub 20.3} and Ni{sub 49.5}Mn{sub 28.6}Ga{sub 21.9} (numbers indicate at.%) were investigated by the X-ray diffraction as well as by the conventional and by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The martensite to martensite interface arises from meeting of growth fronts of two microtwin sequences with the twin planes (110) and (11-bar 0), respectively. The interface was found to consist of two different configurations, the crossing and the step type. The HRTEM images reveal that the martensitic structure is not a perfect five-layered structure, but there are also other periodic structures (seven-layered and ten-layered), together with aperiodic structure and the irregular plane faults.

  12. Analysis of the Band-Structure in (Ga, MnAs Epitaxial Layers by Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yastrubchak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ternary III-V semiconductor (Ga, MnAs has recently drawn a lot of attention as the model diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor, combining semiconducting properties with magnetism. (Ga, MnAs layers are usually gown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy (LT-MBE technique. Below a magnetic transition temperature, TC, substitutional Mn2+ ions are ferromagnetically ordered owing to interaction with spin-polarized holes. However, the character of electronic states near the Fermi energy and the electronic structure in ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs are still a matter of controversy. The photoreflectance (PR spectroscopy was applied to study the band-structure evolution in (Ga, MnAs layers with increasing Mn content. We have investigated thick (800-700 nm and 230-300 nm (Ga, MnAs layers with Mn content in the wide range from 0.001 % to 6 % and, as a reference, undoped GaAs layer, grown by LT-MBE on semi-insulating (001 GaAs substrates. Our findings were interpreted in terms of the model, which assumes that the mobile holes residing in the valence band of ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs and the Fermi level position determined by the concentration of valence-band holes. The ternary III-V semiconductor (Ga, MnAs has recently drawn a lot of attention as the model diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor, combining semiconducting properties with magnetism. (Ga, MnAs layers are usually gown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy (LT-MBE technique. Below a magnetic transition temperature, TC, substitutional Mn2+ ions are ferromagnetically ordered owing to interaction with spin-polarized holes. However, the character of electronic states near the Fermi energy and the electronic structure in ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs are still a matter of controversy. The photoreflectance (PR spectroscopy was applied to study the band-structure evolution in (Ga, MnAs layers with increasing Mn content. We have investigated thick (800-700 nm and 230-300 nm (Ga

  13. Resonant tunneling of a wave through a structure that contains a layer with a negative refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, S. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Yakimov, Ya. V.

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the transmission ability of a layered structure the central layer of which is made of a "left-handed" material (its refractive index is negative) and is separated by two air slabs from a "right-handed" dielectric medium that surrounds the structure. We consider tunneling of energy fluxes through the structure and determine conditions for the complete (reflectionless) transmission of the power of the incident wave through it. We show that this effect is resonant and is observed when the tangential component of the wave vector of the incident wave coincides with the longitudinal wave vector of one of waveguiding eigenmodes of the left-handed layer.

  14. Effects of Image and Layered Structure on Web Search Performance -Evaluation on the Basis of Movement Distance of Mouse Pointer-

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Atsuo; Hayami, Takehito; Moriwaka, Makoto; Takahashi, Rina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of image addition and layered structure on Web search performance on the basis of the search time and the movement trajectory of mouse pointer. The difference of search characteristics between young and older adults was also examined. Older adults tended to take more time to search for the linked item especially when the layered structure was deep. For the deep layered structure, both young and older adults allocate more time to think which ite...

  15. Shaking table testing of hard layered soil-pile-structure interaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peizhen; REN Hongmei; CHEN Yueqing; LU Xilin; SONG Heping

    2007-01-01

    Shaking table tests on a dynamic interaction system of hard layered soil,pile foundation and frame structure were carried out.The earthquake damage of the super-structure and foundation was reproduced.Based on these tests,several key issues about the seismic response of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) system were studied.The natural frequency of the system was less than that of the structure on rigid foundation if the SSI is not taken into account,while its damping ratio was larger than that of the structure.The mode shape of the system was different from that of the structure on the fixed base in that there were rocking and swinging at the foundation.Magnification or reduction of vibration transferred by soil was related to soil characteristic,excitation magnitude,and so on.Generally,sand magnifies vibration,while viscous powder soil dampens vibration.The components of the acceleration response at the top of the superstructure were based on the relative magnitude of the rocking stiffness,the swing stiffness of the foundation and the stiffness of the super-structure.The multi-direction excitations have little effect on the key issues of the horizontal SSI.

  16. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canli Eyüb

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres

  17. The effect of pressure gradient on the structure of an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting-Kwo

    1993-01-01

    Hot-wire anemometry was used to study the effect of adverse pressure gradient on the large-scale structures of equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. A previously existing zero-pressure gradient wind tunnel was modified into an adverse-pressure gradient wind tunnel, which had the capability of creating designated adverse-pressure gradient equilibrium turbulent boundary layer flows. The range of the equilibrium parameter beta was from 0.0 to 1.8 along a 1.50 m long test section of the wind tunnel. Computer programs were developed to predict the geometric shape of the test section for an equilibrium adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flow. The numerical prediction of the test section geometry was found to be satisfactory and a substantial effort was saved in the establishment of an equilibrium boundary layer. Three equilibrium boundary layer flows at values of beta = 0.0, 0.8, and 1.8, which respectively represents zero, mild, and strong adverse pressure gradient, were established and were found to be suitable for turbulence structure measurements. Space-time correlation measurements were carried out to determine the convection velocities and inclination angles of the large-scale structures for the three different pressure gradient cases. The convection velocity measurements were performed at various heights which ranged form y(sup +) = 225 to 525 for each beta value. It was found that, within the range of height of the measurements, the convection velocity was independent of height In the case of the strong adverse-pressure gradient flow, the convection velocity was observed to be much lower than the convection velocity observed in the case of zero-pressure gradient. In the case of the mild-pressure gradient flow, it was observed that the pressure gradient effect on the convection velocity was negligible as compared to the zero-pressure gradient case. The inclination angle in the case of strong-pressure gradient case was found to be much greater than

  18. Wake structures of two side by side spheres in a tripped boundary layer flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Eyüb; Özgören, Muammer; Dogan, Sercan; Hilmi Aksoy, Muharrem; Akilli, Huseyin

    2014-03-01

    Two independent spheres were placed in a side by side arrangement and flow structure in the wake region of the spheres was investigated with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system when the spheres were in a boundary layer over a flat plate as a special case. Reynolds number was 5000 based on the sphere diameter which was 42.5 mm. Boundary layer was tripped 8mm away from the leading edge of the flat plate with a 5 mm trip wire. The thickness of the hydrodynamically developed boundary layer was determined as 63mm which was larger than the sphere diameter of D=42.5mm. Wake region of the spheres was examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the ranges of 0≤G/D ≤1.5 and 0≤S/D ≤1.5 where G and S were the distance between the spheres and the distance between the bottom point of the spheres and the flat plate surface, respectively. Depending on the different sphere locations, instantaneous and time averaged vorticity data, scalar values of time-averaged velocity components and their root mean square (rms) values and time averaged vorticity data are presented in the study for the evaluation of wake region of the spheres. It is demonstrated that the gap between the two spheres and the interaction between the gap and the boundary layer greatly affects flow pattern, especially when spheres are located near to the flat plate surface, i.e. S/D=0.1 for 0≤G/D ≤1.5. Different distances between the spheres resulted in various flow patterns as the spheres were approached to the flat plate. The distance S/D=0.1 for all gap values has the strongest effect on the wake structures. Beyond G/D=1.0, the sphere wakes tend to be similar to single sphere case. The instantaneous vorticity fields of the side by side arrangements comprised wavy structures in higher level comparing to an individual sphere case. The gap flow intensifies the occurrence of small scale eddies in the wake region. The submersion rate of the spheres actually determines the

  19. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, O. V., E-mail: chuo@yandex.ru [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ∼ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker “spaghetti” model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near

  20. Nonisothermal turbulent boundary-layer adverse pressure gradient large scale thermal structure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Nader; White, Bruce R.; Lei, Ting-Kwo

    1994-01-01

    Hot-wire anemometry measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary-layer flow over a heated flat plate under equilibrium adverse-pressure-gradient conditions (beta = 1.8) were made for two different temperature difference cases (10 and 15 C) between the wall and the freestream. Space-time correlations of temperature fluctuations (T') were obtained with a pair of subminiature temperature fluctuation probes. The mean convection velocities, the mean inclination angles, and coherence characteristics of the T' large-scale structure were determined. The present temperature structures measurements for a nonisothermal boundary layer are compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case with identical temperature differences previously reported, in which the mean convection velocity of the T' structure was a function of position y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested. The three major findings of the present study, as compared to the zero-pressure-gradient case, are (1) the mean convection speed of the T' structure under beta = 1.8 pressure-gradient conditions was found to be substantially lower in the logarithmic core region than the zero-pressure-gradient case. Additionally, the mean convection speed is felt by the authors to be a function of pressure-gradient parameter beta; (2) the mean inclination angle of the T' structure to the wall under the adverse-pressure-gradient flow was 32 deg, which compares favorably to the 30-deg value of the zero-pressure-gradient case; and (3) the limited data suggests that the mean convection velocity of the T' structure is a function of y(sup +) and independent of the limited temperature-difference cases tested.

  1. INTERACTIVE STUDY BETWEEN IDENTICAL COHERENT STRUCTURES IN THE WALL REGION OF A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for identical coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer was proposed, using the idea of general resonant triad of the hydrodynamic stability. The evolution of the structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer was studied by combining the compact finite differences of high numerical accuracy and the Fourier spectral hybrid method for solving the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In this method, the third order mixed explicit-implicit scheme was applied for the time integration. The fifth-order upwind compact finite difference schemes for the nonlinear convection terms in the physical space, and the sixth-order center compact schemes for the derivatives in spectral space were introduced, respectively. The fourth-order compact schemes satisfied by the velocities and pressure in spectral space was derived. As an application, the method was implemented to the wall region of a turbulent boundary to study the evolution of identical coherent structures. It is found that the numerical results are satisfactory.

  2. Raman investigation of few-layer graphene on different substrate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Kwon; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, Urszula; Roth, Siegmar [WCU Flexible Nano-systems, School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Yamazaki, Shiro [Institute of Applied Physics and INCH, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9-11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We report Raman analysis of few-layer graphene (FLG) transferred on flat and patterned substrate structures. These different surface structures created by patterning an area of a Si-substrate produce differences in the interaction between FLG and the substrate surface. The topography measurement performed by scanning tunneling potentiometry shows that the FLG on the patterned substrate was deformed periodically with 3-4 nm depth variation. Raman spectroscopy reveals that two important features related to the G- and 2D-modes in graphitic structures show different sensitivity to the interaction with the substrate for single-layer graphene (SLG), FLG, and graphite. Whereas SLG and FLG placed on the patterned substrate demonstrate a strong shift of both 2D- and G-peaks to lower frequencies with respect to the flat part, the multilayer graphene in a graphite flake shows almost no difference between patterned and non-patterned substrates. We identified the origin of the observed changes in the Raman spectra of SLG and FLG as effects created by the underlying substrate. Especially, substrate induced periodic strain and surface interaction were taken into account to interpret the results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. RF Performance of Layer-Structured Broadband Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Sakakibara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low profile and simple configuration are advantageous for RF module in passive millimeter-wave imaging system. High sensitivity over broad operation bandwidth is also necessary to detect right information from weak signal. We propose a broadband layer-structured module with low profile, simple structure, and ease of manufacture. This module is composed of a lens antenna and a detector module that consists of a detector circuit and a broadband microstrip-to-waveguide transition. The module forms a layer structure as a printed substrate with detector circuit is fixed between two metal plates with horn antennas and back-short waveguides. We developed a broadband passive millimeter-wave imaging module composed of a lens antenna and a detector module in this work. The gain and the antenna efficiency were measured, and the broadband operation was observed for the lens antenna. For the detector module, peak sensitivity was 8100 V/W. Furthermore, the detector module recognized a difference in the absorber’s temperature. The designs of the lens antenna and the detector module are presented and the RF performances of these components are reported. Finally, passive millimeter-wave imaging of a car, a human, and a metal plate in clothes is demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to b

  5. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Neng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□ and high optical transmittance (88.1% at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  6. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Neng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□) and high optical transmittance (88.1%) at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films. PMID:28772586

  7. Influence of the processing conditions on the structural properties of ZnO layers obtained by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitova, S; Danev, G, E-mail: skitova@clf.bas.b [Institute of Optical Materials and Technology ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-11-01

    The plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a powerful and flexible instrument for depositing thin layers, nanocomposites or nanostructures. In this work ZnO layers have been grown by metal-organic PECVD (RF - 13.56 MHz) on Si wafers. Zn acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor and oxygen as oxidant. The influence of the oxygen content in gas mixture, the total pressure, substrate temperature and ZnO seed layer on the structural properties of the layers deposited on Si wafers has been studied. ZnO layer properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD data have shown that all layers are crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallites are preferentially oriented along c-axis direction perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. The results obtained indicate that by controlling the oxygen content in gas mixture, the total pressure and substrate temperature during the film growth one can control the formation of c-axis phase and the crystallite grain size. Nanorods with good alignment, vertically orientated to the substrate surface can be observed in the layers deposited at low content of O{sub 2} in plasma at substrate temperature of 400 {sup o}C. Due to their structural characteristics these layers are potential materials for preparing chemical- and biosensors where inherently large surface to volume ratio of structured materials are important prerequisite for enhanced sensitivity.

  8. Structural tensegrity module and two-layer structural mesh comprising said module

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Jáuregui, Valentín; Otero González, César Antonio; Arias Fernández, Rubén; Manchado del Val, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The invention relates to a structural tensegrity module contained in a prism defined by a lower base and an upper base having 2n sides, comprising 2n lower corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the lower base and 2n lower intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the lower base, and 2n upper corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the upper base and 2n upper intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the upper base. The module comprises a...

  9. Effects of air pollution on thermal structure and dispersion in an urban planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the transport processes in the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) are studied. The investigation makes use of an unsteady two-dimensional transport model which has been developed by Viskanta et al., (1976). The model predicts pollutant concentrations and temperature in the PBL. The potential effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban PBL are considered, taking into account the results of numerical simulations modeling the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.

  10. Effect of bathocuproine buffer layer in small molecule organic solar cells with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xia; Wang, Shenghao; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) based on boron subphthalocynine chloride (SubPc) and fullerene (C60) were fabricated and the device structure was optimized by inserting a bathocuproine (C26H20N2) buffer layer. The power conversion efficiency was greatly improved from 0.8 to 1.6%. The roles of bathocuproine in this inverted device were investigated by photoluminescence and transient photovoltage/photocurrent measurements. The results show that the bathocuproine in the device not only blocks the exciton quenching, but also prohibits the build-up of charge trapping and suppresses the trap-assisted recombination.

  11. Atomic-scale structure of single-layer MoS2 nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helveg, S.; Lauritsen, J. V.; Lægsgaard, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the atomic-scale realm of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoclusters, which are of interest as a model system in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. The STM gives the first real space images of the shape and edge structure of single-layer MoS2 n...... nanoparticles synthesized on Au(lll), and establishes a new picture of the active edge sires of the nanoclusters. The results demonstrate a way to get detailed atomic-scale information on catalysts in general....

  12. A Three-Layer Full Adder/Subtractor Structure in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barughi, Yashar Zirak; Heikalabad, Saeed Rasouli

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the paramount modern technologies for designing logical structures at the nano-scale. This technology is being used in molecular levels and it is based on QCA cells. High speed data transfer and low consumable power are the advantages of this technology. In this paper, we are designing and simulating a fulladder/subtractor with minimum number of cells and complexities in three layers. QCA designer software has been used to simulate the proposed design.

  13. Control of heat-resistant steel carburized layer structure. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    A physical model of carbide formation with vacuum carburizing is developed with the aim of controlling complexly-alloyed steel diffusion layer structure, taking account of excess phase formation of both the cementite type, and special carbides. A mathematical model is developed on the basis of the physical model adopted, adequate for experimental results. Analysis of calculated results is used as a basis for demonstrating the effect on carbide formation of alloying with chromium and strong carbide-forming elements, and also production factors.

  14. Magnetoelectric effect in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Leontiev, V. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Sokolov, O. V.

    2017-02-01

    A paper devotes to theoretical and experimental studying the magnetoelectric interaction in layered structures of amorphous ferromagnetic alloy and single- crystal gallium arsenide. The authors investigated the magnetoelectric effect in the (100) plane of gallium arsenide in the electromechanical resonance range of 200-240 kHz and obtained maximal ME voltage coefficient of 120 V/A at bias field equaled 3.6 kA/m for the direction parallel to the [011] axis. Also the magnetoelectric effect in the (110) and (111) planes is discussed. The results can be used for design of new electronic devices based on the magnetostrictive-semiconductor materials.

  15. Quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals by nuclear quadruple resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samila, Andriy; Khandozhko, Alexander; Lastivka, Galina; Politansky, Leonid; Khandozhko, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A method for quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals (InSe, GaSe, GaS) grown in evacuated ampoules by the Bridgman technique is proposed. For this purpose, nuclear quadruple resonance method with a consecutive scanning of the entire sample volume and evaluation of crystal perfection by the resulting spectra is used. Effective interaction between high-frequency field and crystal and, accordingly, restriction of scanning area of sample under study is provided with the use of a two-way saddle-shaped coil for a nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer.

  16. THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE SURFACE LAYER STRUCTURE ON INCONEL 600 OXIDIZED IN A CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Haouam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Inconel 600 were isothermally oxidized in a controlled atmosphere with a special mounting at high-temperature oxidation. Along with this experimental study, a simulation of thermodynamic behavior of the material in the same oxidation conditions was carried out using the Thermo-Calc code. The thermodynamic modeling is able to predict the phase nature and its distribution in the structure of the surface layer resulting from the corrosion of the material in thermodynamic equilibrium in the absence of mechanical stress. The results of this simulation are supplemented to results obtained from the analysis by glow discharge spectrometry (GDS which is performed on the samples tested.

  17. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of discontinuous granular multi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denardin, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: knobel@ifi.unicamp.br; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); Schelp, L.F. [Departamento de Fisica, CCNE, UFSM 97105-900, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    Results of structural, magnetic and transport properties of magnetic Co/SiO{sub 2} discontinuous multi-layers produced by sequential deposition are presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the samples that are close to metal-insulation transition are composed by a connected network of metallic paths, and display an enhanced Hall Effect. The granular samples are composed by an almost periodic array of Co nanoparticles, and after annealing these samples show a clear evolution in the nanostructure, with increasing average Co grain sizes and decreasing size dispersion. Relationships between the nanostructure and magnetotransport properties are discussed and compared with previous results obtained in cosputtered films.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet nanosecond laser irradiation on structural modification and optical transmission of single layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Kang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2017-03-01

    Structural modifications and optical transmission change of single layer graphene (SLG) on transparent SiO2 substrate induced by nanosecond 355 nm laser irradiation were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser-excited Raman, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis transmission spectra. In this study, to avoid damage to graphene, the selected irradiation fluence was set to be smaller than the laser damage threshold of SLG. Laser-driven formation of nano-dots, carbon clusters and spherical carbon morphologies were clearly presented using SEM magnification images, and the formation mechanism of such structures were discussed. Raman spectra revealed formation of D' peak and the continuously increasing of ID/IG intensity ratio with the concurrent increase of laser fluence, indicating the increase in amount of structural defects and disordering in SLG. XPS results disclosed that the oxygen content in SLG increases with laser fluence. The formation and relative content increase of Cdbnd O, Csbnd Osbnd C and Osbnd Cdbnd O bonds in SLG induced by laser irradiation were also revealed by XPS. Laser-driven micro-structure modifications of crystalline graphene to nano-crystalline graphene and photo-chemical reactions between graphene and O2 and H2O in air environment were suggested to be responsible for the Raman and XPS revealed modifications in SLG. It is worthy to point out that the above mentioned structural modifications only caused a slight decrease (graphene aiming at modifying its structure and thus taiorling its properties.

  19. High quantum efficiency Type-II superlattice N-structure photodetectors with thin intrinsic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Yuksel; Hostut, Mustafa; Tansel, Tunay; Muti, Abdullah; Kilic, Abidin; Turan, Rasit; Aydinli, Atilla

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of InAs/AlSb/GaSb based N-structure superlattice pin photodiode. In this new design, AlSb layer in between InAs and GaSb layers acts as an electron barrier that pushes electron and hole wave functions towards the GaSb/InAs interface to perform strong overlap under reverse bias. Experimental results show that, with only 20 periods of intrinsic layers, dark current density and dynamic resistance at -50 mV bias are measured as 6x10-3 A/cm2 and 148 Ωcm2 at 77K, respectively. Under zero bias, high spectral response of 1.2A/W is obtained at 5 μm with 50% cut-off wavelengths (λc) of 6 μm. With this new design, devices with only 146 nm thick i-regions exhibit a quantum efficiency of 42% at 3 μm with front-side illimunation and no anti-reflection coatings.

  20. Orbital-dependent Electron-Hole Interaction in Graphene and Associated Multi-Layer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tianqi; Su, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    We develop an orbital-dependent potential to describe electron-hole interaction in materials with structural 2D character, i.e. quasi-2D materials. The modulated orbital-dependent potentials are also constructed with non-local screening, multi-layer screening, and finite gap due to the coupling with substrates. We apply the excitonic Hamiltonian in coordinate-space with developed effective electron-hole interacting potentials to compute excitons’ binding strength at M (π band) and Γ (σ band) points in graphene and its associated multi-layer forms. The orbital-dependent potential provides a range-separated property for regulating both long- and short-range interactions. This accounts for the existence of the resonant π exciton in single- and bi-layer graphenes. The remarkable strong electron-hole interaction in σ orbitals plays a decisive role in the existence of σ exciton in graphene stack at room temperature. The interplay between gap-opening and screening from substrates shed a light on the weak dependence of σ exciton binding energy on the thickness of graphene stacks. Moreover, the analysis of non-hydrogenic exciton spectrum in quasi-2D systems clearly demonstrates the remarkable comparable contribution of orbital dependent potential with respect to non-local screening process. The understanding of orbital-dependent potential developed in this work is potentially applicable for a wide range of materials with low dimension.